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STRAT SHEET
This disad be omes !al"able when #o" read the agri "lt"re add-on$ That will gi!e #o" a ess to short time%rame war im&a ts$ Altho"gh the 1N' im&a t is a g"aranteed e(tin tion the time%rame is s"b&ar$ )o not read this %ile with the s&a e debris %ile$ *lease.

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1N'
A$ +ni,"eness - The -ontreal &roto ol is healing the o.one la#er now- we m"st maintain &rote tion$ /roo0s 123 (Michael, Published 03 June 2011 Lets step out of the lab as the climate changes a ound
us! htt&422www$newstatesman$ om2en!ironment220112052 limate-s ientists-o.one "#$ %o on out and celeb ate& the o'one hole is in eco(e ). *o the fi st time since the 1+,- Mont eal P otocol banned the use of o'one.dest o)ing chemicals . notabl) chlo ofluo oca bons (#*#s$ . scientists ha(e measu ed an ups/ing in the le(el of o'one o(e 0nta ctica. 1hile the pa t) gets going, ho/e(e , it is /o th ta2ing a moment to eflect that the disco(e ) of the hole in the o'one la)e /as the onl) thing that mobilised politicians to act. 1hen it comes to global action based on science, onl) despe ate times seem to call fo an) measu es at all. 3f scientists /ant to p otect the planet, 4ust publishing the data is not enough. "he fi st p actical esea ch e(idence of the dest ucti(e po/e of o'one /as published in June 1+-5. 3t /as at once clea , scientificall) spea2ing, that /e needed a ban on #*#s, but the science alone couldn6t ma2e it happen. "he 13 )ea s that follo/ed /e e a pe iod of obfuscation, lies and indust ). sponso ed P7 campaigns against those esea che s /ho /e e most (ocal in suppo ting a ban. 8nl) afte the) disco(e ed catast ophic en(i onmental damage o(e the 0nta ctic . a huge opening th ough /hich cance .causing sola adiation /as pou ing . did an)thing change.

/$ 6in0 - Sh"ttle la"n hes are "ni,"el# destr" ti!e to the o.one la#er- the# dire tl# in7e t harm%"l hemi als into the o.one la#er$ Ross et$ Al 08 (Ma tin 7oss9, :a in "oohe), Manf ed Peinemann ; Pat ic2 7oss, #ente *acult)
#hai at the <mb ).7iddle 0e onautical =ni(e sit) P ofesso of 0tmosphe ic and 8ceanic >ciences at the =ni(e sit) of #olo ado, P o4ect <nginee at "he 0e ospace #o po ation, , <mb ).7iddle 0e onautical =ni(e sit), g aduate ph)sics inst ucto cu entl) P og am Manage supe (ising the 7oc2et 3mpact.on. >t atosphe ic.8'one (73>8$ P og am fo "he 0e ospace #o po ation, Limits on the >pace Launch Ma 2et 7elated to >t atosphe ic 8'one :epletion! http&??///.tandfonline.com?doi?full?10.10,0?15---@20+02-@,,@- "#$ 3f oc2ets a e a minuscule cont ibuto to the p oblem of climate change, the) do ha(e a significant potential to become a significant cont ibuto to the p oblem of st atosphe ic o'one depletion. "his follo/s f om th ee uniAue cha acte istics of oc2et emissions& 7oc2et combustion p oducts a e the onl) human. p oduced sou ce of o'one.dest o)ing compounds in4ected di ectl) into the middle and uppe st atosphe e. "he st atosphe e is elati(el) isolated f om the t oposphe e so that emissions f om indi(idual launches accumulate in the st atosphe e. , 8'one loss caused b) oc2ets should be conside ed as the cumulati(e effect of se(e al )ea s of all launches, f om all space o gani'ations ac oss the planet. >t atosphe ic o'one le(els a e cont olled b) catal)tic chemical eactions d i(en b) onl) t ace amounts of eacti(e gases and pa ticles. + >t atosphe ic concent ations of these eacti(e compounds a e t)picall) about one.thousandth that of o'one. :eposition of elati(el) small absolute amounts of these eacti(e compounds can significantl) modif) o'one le(els. 7oc2et engines a e 2no/n to emit man) of the eacti(e gases and pa ticles that d i(e o'one dest o)ing catal)tic eactions. 10 "his is t ue fo all p opellant t)pes. <(en /ate (apo emissions, /idel) conside ed ine t, cont ibute to o'one depletion. 7oc2et engines cause mo e o less o'one loss acco ding to p opellant t)pe, but e(e ) t)pe of oc2et engine causes some lossB no oc2et engine is pe fectl) g een! in this sense.

'$ 9nternal 6in0 -- 6oss o% the :.one lea!es "s de%enseless %rom +; ra#s whi h destro# biodi!ersit# and s&"r b"ild"& o% greenho"se gas emmissions E*A 11 (Janua ) 1?13?2011, Cealth and <n(i onmental <ffects of 8'one La)e :epletion!,
http&??///.epa.go(?o'one?science?effects?indeD.html "#, <0$ "he #onnection Eet/een 8'one La)e :epletion and =FE 7adiation 7eductions in st atosphe ic o'one le(els /ill lead to highe le(els of =FE eaching the <a th6s su face. "he sun6s output of =FE does not changeB athe , less o'one means less p otection, and hence mo e =FE eaches the <a th. >tudies ha(e sho/n that in the 0nta ctic, the amount of =FE measu ed at the su face can double du ing the annual

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o'one hole. 0nothe stud) confi med the elationship bet/een educed o'one and inc eased =FE le(els in #anada du ing the past se(e al )ea s. <ffects on Cuman Cealth Labo ato ) and epidemiological studies demonst ate that =FE causes nonmelanoma s2in cance and pla)s a ma4o ole in malignant melanoma de(elopment. 3n addition, =FE has been lin2ed to cata acts .. a clouding of the e)es lens. 0ll sunlight contains some =FE, e(en /ith no mal st atosphe ic o'one le(els. 3t is al/a)s impo tant to p otect )ou s2in and e)es f om the sun. 8'one la)e depletion inc eases the amount of =FE and the is2 of health effects. <P0 uses the 0tmosphe ic and Cealth <ffects * ame/o 2 (0C<*$ model, de(eloped in the mid 1+,0s, to estimate the health benefits of st onge o'one la)e p otection policies unde the Mont eal P otocol. <P0 estimates a(oided s2in cance cases, s2in cance deaths, and cata act cases in the =nited >tates. P otecting the 8'one La)e P otects <)esight G 0 7epo t on #ata act 3ncidence in the =nited >tates =sing the 0tmosphe ic and Cealth <ffects * ame/o 2 Model (@, pp, 1.H2 ME, 0bout P:*$ "his 2010 pee . e(ie/ed <P0 epo t sho/s the 0C<* models capabilit) to estimate a(oided cata act incidence, due to imp o(ed spatial esolution and info mation on the biological effects of =F adiation. 0 one page fact sheet summa i'es the bac2g ound, 2e) findings, and futu e esea ch topics fo the 0C<* model on =F adiation and cata acts. Cuman Cealth Eenefits of >t atosphe ic 8'one P otection (P:*$ (,3 pp, 1.2 ME, 0bout P:*$ "his 200@ pee . e(ie/ed epo t desc ibes the anal)tical and empi ical methodologies used b) the 0C<* model. <ffects on Plants Ph)siological and de(elopmental p ocesses of plants a e affected b) =FE adiation, e(en b) the amount of =FE in p esent.da) sunlight. :espite mechanisms to educe o epai these effects and a limited abilit) to adapt to inc eased le(els of =FE, plant g o/th can be di ectl) affected b) =FE adiation. 3ndi ect changes caused b) =FE (such as changes in plant fo m, ho/ nut ients a e dist ibuted /ithin the plant, timing of de(elopmental phases and seconda ) metabolism$ ma) be eAuall), o sometimes mo e, impo tant than damaging effects of =FE. "hese changes can ha(e impo tant implications fo plant competiti(e balance, he bi(o ), plant diseases, and biogeochemical c)cles. <ffects on Ma ine <cos)stems Ph)toplan2ton fo m the foundation of aAuatic food /ebs. Ph)toplan2ton p oducti(it) is limited to the euphotic 'one, the uppe la)e of the /ate column in /hich the e is sufficient sunlight to suppo t net p oducti(it). "he position of the o ganisms in the euphotic 'one is influenced b) the action of /ind and /a(es. 3n addition, man) ph)toplan2ton a e capable of acti(e mo(ements that enhance thei p oducti(it) and, the efo e, thei su (i(al. <Dposu e to sola =FE adiation has been sho/n to affect both o ientation mechanisms and motilit) in ph)toplan2ton, esulting in educed su (i(al ates fo these o ganisms. >cientists ha(e demonst ated a di ect eduction in ph)toplan2ton p oduction due to o'one depletion. elated inc eases in =FE. 8ne stud) has indicated a @. 12I eduction in the ma ginal ice 'one. >ola =FE adiation has been found to cause damage to ea l) de(elopmental stages of fish, sh imp, c ab, amphibians and othe animals. "he most se(e e effects a e dec eased ep oducti(e capacit) and impai ed la (al de(elopment. <(en at cu ent le(els, sola =FE adiation is a limiting facto , and small inc eases in =FE eDposu e could esult in significant eduction in the si'e of the population of animals that eat these smalle c eatu es. <ffects on Eiogeochemical #)cles 3nc eases in sola =F adiation could affect te est ial and aAuatic biogeochemical c)cles, thus alte ing both sou ces and sin2s of g eenhouse and chemicall).impo tant t ace gases e.g., ca bon dioDide (#82$, ca bon monoDide (#8$, ca bon)l sulfide (#8>$ and possibl) othe gases, including o'one. "hese potential changes /ould cont ibute to biosphe e.atmosphe e feedbac2s that attenuate o einfo ce the atmosphe ic buildup of these gases. <ffects on Mate ials >)nthetic pol)me s, natu all) occu ing biopol)me s, as /ell as some othe mate ials of comme cial inte est a e ad(e sel) affected b) sola =F adiation. "oda)6s mate ials a e some/hat p otected f om =FE b) special additi(es. "he efo e, an) inc ease in sola =FE le(els /ill the efo e accele ate thei b ea2do/n, limiting the length of time fo /hich the) a e useful outdoo s.

)$ 9m&a t - 'olla&se o% o ean e os#stems ens"res e(tin tion o% all li%e )a!idson< =3 Founder of the Turtle House Foundation and award-winning Journalist (Fire in the Turtle House, p.47-51, EA
Eut su el) the 0thenians had it bac2/a dB its the land that ests in the lap of the sea. "halassa, not %aia, is the gua dian of life on the blue planet. 0 simple, albeit apocal)ptic, eDpe iment suggests "halassas po/e . :est o) all life on landB the ocean c eatu es /ill su (i(e 7"st %ine$ Gi!en time< the#>ll e!en re&o&"late the land$ /"t wi&e o"t the organisms that inhabit the o eans and all li%e on land is doomed. !:ust to dust,! sa)s the Eible, but /ate to /ate ! is mo e li2e it, fo all life comes f om and etu ns to the sea. 8u ocean o igins abide /ithin us, ou sec et ma ine histo ). "he chemical ma2eup of ou blood is st i2ingl) simila to sea/ate . <(e ) ca bon atom in ou bod) has c)cled th ough the ocean man) times. <(en the human emb )o e(eals ou /ate ) past. "in) gill slits fo m and then fade du ing ou de(elopment in the /omb. "he ocean is the c adle of life on ou planet, and it emains the aDis of

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eDistence, the locus of planeta ) biodi(e sit), and the engine of the chemical and h)d ological c)cles that c eate and maintain ou atmosphe e and climate. "he astonishing biodi(e sit) is most e(ident on co al eefs, often called the ain fo ests of the sea.! 8ccup)ing less than one.Aua te of 1 pe cent of the global ocean, co al eefs a e home to nea l) a thi d of all ma ine fish species and to as man) as nine million species in all. Eut life eDists in p ofusion in e(e ) co ne of the ocean, ight do/n to the h)d othe mal (ents on the seafloo (disco(e ed onl) in 1+--$, /he e mo e than a hund ed ne/l) desc ibed species th i(e a ound supe heated plumes of sulfu ous gasses. "he abundance of o ganisms in the ocean isnt su p ising gi(en that the sea /as, as al ead) mentioned, the c ucible of life on <a th. 3t is the o iginal ecos)stem, the en(i onment in /hich the p imo dial soup! of nucleic acids (/hich can self. eplicate, but a e not ali(e$ and othe molecules made the ineDplicable and mi aculous leap into life, p obabl) as simple bacte ia, close to 3.+ billion )ea s ago. 0 spectacula bu st of ne/ life fo ms called the #amb ian eDplosion too2 place in the oceans some H00 million )ea s ago, an e(olutiona ) eDpe iment that p oduced countless bod) fo ms, the p otot)pes of (i tuall) all o ganisms ali(e toda). 3t /asnt until 100 million )ea s late that the fi st p imiti(e plants too2 up esidence on te a fi ma. 0nothe 30 million )ea s passed befo e the fi st amphibians climbed out of the ocean. 0fte this head sta t, its not su p ising that e(olution on that ne/come .d ) land.has ne(e caught up /ith the di(e sit) of the sea. 8f the thi t).th ee highe .le(el g oupings of animals (called ph)la$, thi t).t/o a e found in the oceans and 4ust t/el(e on land.

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+N9@+ENESS AA66
:.one is healing slowl# now Ste&hen 1221 (:a(id, * eelance 4ou nalist,
htt&422www$gro"ndre&ort$ om2HealthBandBS ien e2:.one-6a#er-Re o!er#22838C08 "#$ 0/a) f om the theo ) that depleted pa ts of the 8'one La)e /ill be natu all) epai ed in the middle of the 21st centu ), a de(eloping esea ch /o 2 on 8'one Cole 7eco(e ) p esents an a tificial solution befo e the datema 2. "he o'one la)e is a space of gas found in a la)e of the <a th atmosphe e, the st atosphe e, 1+.5,2m abo(e sea le(el. Photochemical eactions in(ol(ing o'one gas at the o'one la)e helps to p otect planet <a th f om dange ous =lt a(iolet adiations. >ome gas molecules eleased in substances used b) humans once at the o'one la)e eact /ith o'one molecules fo ming compounds that cannot p otect against ha mful =lt a(iolet adiations, ma2ing the amounts of useful o'one molecules educed. "his lead to /hat /as obse (ed man) )ea s bac2 as depletion in pa t of the o'one la)e fondl) called the o'one hole. >ince this th eatened man and the en(i onment, nations ag eed to educe the use of substances ha(ing gas molecules that a e th eat to the o'one la)e B this made o'one la)e p otection impo tant till date. *o facto s and conditions of the o'one la)e , scientists ha(e posited natu al eco(e ) of lost o'one molecules and fade out of ha mful gases in use and at that le(el to about H0)ea s time. "his has tu ned the focus to p otection f om he e than eco(e ) f om the e. 8'one depletion ha(e effects as s2in cance and cata act in humans and li2ed /ith ce tain #limate #hange effects ma2ing o'one hole epai , eco(e ) o solution f om the st atosphe e impo tant soone than late . 8D)gen in one of the eactions in the o'one la)e is con(e ted to o'one, mo e (olume of oD)gen in liAuid state can be sto ed than as gas, and the e a e ai ship and ai c aft fl)ing at st atosphe ic altitude /ith app oDimate load capacit) fo ce tain (olume of sto ed oD)gen.

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A24 'F'S D966S :E:NE


'F'S is no longer a ma7or %a tor in o.one de&letion )oniger 0F (:a(id : Polic) :i ecto , #limate #ente Jatu al 7esou ces :efense #ouncil 0p il 2003ssues in st atosphe ic o'one p otection p og ess epo t! htt&422www$e&a$go!2o.one2downloads2s&dann"al-re&ortB%inal$&d% "#$ Cisto icall), the =nited >tates has been one of the la gest consume s of o'one.depleting substances in the /o ld. 8(e the past t/o decades, ho/e(e , <P0 and its pa tne s ha(e eliminated =.>. p oduction of the most damaging fi st.gene ation o'one.depleting substances, such as #*#s and halons, and de(eloped options that a e safe fo the o'one la)e than the chemicals the) eplace. >ome of the second.gene ation eplacement substances, such as C#*#s, a e themsel(es unde phaseout schedules. "hese compounds a e slated fo complete phaseout b) 2030. <P0 is esponsible fo cont olling chemicals that damage the o'one la)e b) implementing the eAui ements of "itle F3 of the #lean 0i 0ct, /hich is the legal f ame/o 2 fo =.>. compliance /ith the Mont eal P otocol and its amendments. "he =nited >tates has met its commitments and deadlines unde both the Mont eal P otocol and #lean 0i 0ct. 1e could not ha(e achie(ed these esults /ithout the collabo ation of ou pa tne s f om all secto s of ou econom). 1,1+ =.>. P oduction of >econd.%ene ation 8'one :epleting >ubstances Phaseout on >chedule >pu ing 0ction "he Jatu al 7esou ces :efense #ouncil (J7:#$ pla)ed a 2e) ole in spu ing inte national t eat) tal2s, domestic egulato ) action, and adoption of #lean 0i 0ct p o(isions ta geting o'one.depleting substances. 3n 1+,@, J7:# made the fi st p oposal to phase out #*#s and halons o(e a 10.)ea pe iod. "he en(i onmental communit), go(e nment, and indust ) collabo ated in de(eloping p actical, secto .b).secto schedules fo phasing out o'one.depleting chemicals and int oducing safe alte nati(es. 0s a esult, indust iali'ed count ies ended halon p oduction b) 1++5 and nea l) all #*# p oduction b) 1++@. "oda), de(eloping count ies a e also /ell on the /a) to eliminating these chemicals. 0chie(ing %oals "h ough *leDibilit) Eecause eliminating o eplacing some o'one.depleting substances has p esented technical and othe challenges, <P0 has used fleDibilit) and inno(ati(e st ategies to achie(e the phaseout ta gets set fo th in the Mont eal P otocol and the #lean 0i 0ct. *o eDample, <P0 has& K % anted eDemptions allo/ed unde la/ fo de(ices o applications fo /hich immediate full.scale eplacement is not feasible, such as c itical uses of meth)l b omide, used to cont ol pests in ag icultu e and food sto age, and essential uses of #*#s fo medical de(ices, such as mete ed dose inhale s. K >uppo ted ca eful management of eDisting in(ento ies of o'one.depleting substances and encou aged thei p ope dest uction. K <stablished t adable pe mits fo impo t and p oduction of o'one.depleting substances. "he s)stem p o(ides fleDibilit) /hile also ensu ing that the phaseout 20 Man) people thought that the phaseout of #*#s /ould be (e ) ha d. Let /hen count ies ag eed to the Mont eal P otocol, companies found ne/ solutions, disco(e ed business oppo tunities, and sa(ed mone). "he es a lesson he e fo global /a ming& 3t /ill not be as ha d as man) people thin2. M.,!

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SH+TT6E *R:GRA- /E9NG )9S':NT9N+E)


NASA dis ontin"es its sh"ttle &rogram in G"l# C )"nn 122C (Ma cia, 0P ae ospace / ite , J0>0 confi ms Jul) , fo last shuttle launch!
htt&422www$google$ om2hostednews2a&2arti le2A6e,-5h39(%3 Hg!E2h :5AC0d(017bdAwH do 9dIFbab1d8bC2a3?%e%b aa58?83aF?a%2d "#$ #0P< #0J0F<70L, *la. (0P$ M "he last space shuttle launch e(e is set fo Jul) ,. J0>0 manage s met at Nenned) >pace #ente on "uesda) and confi med * ida), Jul) ,, as the launch date fo 0tlantis. "he 12.da) mission /ill close out the 30.)ea shuttle p og am. J0>06s chief of space ope ations, Eill %e stenmaie , said the e /as no fanfa e at the gathe ing, 4ust a tho ough loo2 at the mission and all the p oblems esol(ed in ecent /ee2s b) the shuttle team. 0tlantis /ill fl) to the 3nte national >pace >tation /ith a )ea 6s /o th of supplies. "hat6s enough to 2eep the outpost going in case p i(ate =.>. companies fall behind in thei effo t to launch thei o/n ca go ships. "he fi st such flight is ta geted fo late this )ea . O"his flight is inc edibl) impo tant to space station,O %e stenmaie told epo te s. O"he ca go that is coming up on this flight is eall) mandato ).O *ou (ete an ast onauts /ill be aboa d 0tlantis fo this g and finale. J0>0 spent the past /ee2 testing a ne/ fuel (al(e installed in one of 0tlantis6 main engines to stop a lea2 found du ing a fueling test. 0 small pa ticle /as found in the emo(ed (al(e and li2el) cont ibuted to the lea2, %e stenmaie said. "echnicians also P. a)ed suppo t b ac2ets on the eDte nal fuel tan2. Jo c ac2ing /as disco(e ed. "he testing /as o de ed afte c ac2s popped up on the st uts on :isco(e )6s tan2 last Jo(embe . 7epai s too2 ca e of the p oblem on :isco(e ) and also 0tlantis. Launch time fo the last flight is 11&2@ a.m. 0s man) as H00,000 to -H0,000 people a e eDpected to descend on the a ea to /atch 0tlantis blast off, said launch di ecto Mi2e Leinbach. 0s fo the shuttle /o 2 fo ce, thousands mo e /ill lose thei 4obs once 0tlantis flies. O"he mood is getting mo e and mo e sombe as )ou /al2 do/n the hall,O Leinbach said. O"he end is 4ust /ee2s a/a) no/, /he e it used to be )ea s a/a).O J0>0 is unde di ection to aim be)ond <a th6s o bit, ultimatel) sending ast onauts to an aste oid o Ma s. "hat6s /h) the agenc) is eti ing its th ee emaining shuttles to museums. =p at the space station, mean/hile, the siD ast onauts had to b iefl) hide out in thei pa 2ed lifeboats "uesda) because of an unidentified piece of space 4un2 that passed /ithin 1,100 feet. "hat6s the closest that deb is has e(e come to the o biting outpost, %e stenmaie said. J0>0 does not 2no/ /hat o ho/ big the ob4ect /as.

Georgetown 2011-12 [File Name] NASA is ending its 30 #ear old sh"ttle &rogram Dolt. 122C ( 3 ene, 0e ospace 4ou nalist, "ue Jun 2,, 2011

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htt&422www$re"ters$ om2arti le2201120122C2"s-s&a e-sh"ttle-id+STREF5RFDS2011012C ! "#$ (7eute s$ . J0>0 manage s clea ed space shuttle 0tlantis on "uesda) fo a Jul) , launch, app o(ing it fo a ca go un to the 3nte national >pace >tation and the final flight in the 30.)ea .old shuttle p og am. Lift.off of the shuttle manned b) a minimal c e/ of fou ast onauts is set fo 11&2@ a.m. <:" f om the Nenned) >pace #ente in *lo ida. "he 12.da) flight /as added to the shuttle6s schedule last )ea to bu) time in case J0>06s ne/l) hi ed ca go deli(e ) companies ha(e p oblems getting thei spacec aft into o bit. 0tlantis /ill be deli(e ing a )ea 6s /o th of food, clothing, science eAuipment and supplies to the o bital outpost, a Q100 billion p o4ect of 1@ nations that ci cles 220 miles abo(e <a th. O"his flight is inc edibl) impo tant to the space station. "he ca go that is coming up on this flight is eall) mandato ),O said J0>06s spaceflight chief Eill %e stenmaie . <a lie on "uesda), the th eat of an o bital deb is impact inte upted the station6s p epa ations fo 0tlantis6 (isit. J0>0 lea ned that an unidentified piece of space deb is /as li2el) to pass close to the station and told the c e/ to see2 shelte in the station6s t/o 7ussian >o)u' escape capsules. ")picall), the station maneu(e s to a(oid potential deb is impacts, but the notice came 4ust 15 hou s befo e the closest app oach, too late to plan and conduct an a(oidance maneu(e . O1e thin2 it came /ithin about 33H mete s (1,100 feet$ of the space station. 3t /as p obabl) the closest ob4ect that6s actuall) come b) (the$ space station,O %e stenmaie said. J8 E0#N=P >C=""L< "he siD station c e/membe s di(ided into t/o g oups of th ee and sealed themsel(es into the >o)u' capsules about 20 minutes befo e the ob4ect came closest to the station, /hich occu ed at ,&0, a.m. <:". 3t /as onl) the second time in the station6s histo ) that c e/s had to see2 shelte in thei OlifeboatsO fo an o bital deb is th eat. "he station6s t/o =.>. c e/membe s a e p epa ing fo a space/al2 du ing shuttle6s 0tlantis6 eight.da) sta), a 4ob no mall) unde ta2en b) the (isiting ast onauts. J0>0, ho/e(e , has been t )ing to 2eep the 0tlantis c e/6s t aining as simple as possible, as the fou shuttle ast onauts al ead) a e tas2ed to do the /o 2 of the siD o se(en people no mall) assigned to shuttle flights. "he =.>. space agenc) pa ed do/n the c e/ si'e to accommodate the smalle 7ussian >o)u' spacec aft that /ould be used to fl) the 0tlantis ast onauts home in case the shuttle is too damaged to attempt landing. >ince the 2003 #olumbia accident, J0>0 has had a second shuttle on standb) fo a escue mission if needed. 0tlantis, ho/e(e , is the 13Hth and last shuttle to fl), /ith no bac2up shuttle in /aiting. "he =nited >tates is ending the shuttle p og am to sa(e its Q5 billion annual ope ating costs and use the mone) to de(elop spaceships that can t a(el be)ond the station, such as to the moon, aste oids and e(entuall) to Ma s.

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69ND AA66
6a"n hing ro 0ets in7e ts destr" ti!e &arti les dire tl# into the o-.one 'onnor 1+81 G /o 2ing at La/ ence Li(e mo e Jational Labo ato ), (1alton, Penne , 8conno , Pete
>., John J., Jo)ce <., #ha les, Local and %lobal <ffects on 8'one f om "itan 7oc2et <Dhaust and :eo biting >pacec aft :eb is, <0R >olid oc2et moto combustion p oduces gases and pa ticles that a e in4ected into the st atosphe e du ing the fe/ minutes that the oc2et t a(e ses the egion . Potential effects of solid oc2et moto eDhaust ha(e been
assessed befo e, /ith chief conce n focused on the emitted chlo ine.containing gases (Jac2man et al., 1++@, P athe et al., 1++0 and :enison et al., 1++5 and efe ences the ein$. "hese ea lie studies ha(e conside ed topics including the global and 'onall) a(e aged effects of accumulated chlo ine (#3$ emissions f om indefinitel) continued launch ope ations, the t ansient esponse to a single launch plume dispe sed o(e a 1000 2m spatial scale in a th ee.dimensional global model, and the ea l). time e(olution of the plume composition in the seconds and minutes afte eDhaust. 0n impo tant additional conce n that /e attempt to add ess in this epo t is the time pe iod bet/een establishment of the stabili'ed cold plume and its dispe sal and the spatial ange bet/een the initial scale of hund eds of mete s and the lo00 2mscale of g idded global 3.: models. #an a (e ticall) cohe ent egion pe sist in /hich photochemical p ocesses educe o'one significantl)S "he impo tance of chlo ine in the st atosphe e as a

potentiall) efficient catal)'e of o'one dest uction has been established o(e t/ent) )ea s of esea ch
(1M8, 1++H$. "he cu ent le(el of abundance of ino ganic chlo ine.containing t ace species, p edominantl) h)d ochlo ic acid (C#3$, in the st atosphe e is about 3H00 pa ts pe t illion b) (olume (ppt (?($. 7ecent obse (ations of these species, h)d ofluo ic acid (C*$, and chlo ofluo oca bons (#*#s$ sho/ that the su face.emitted #*#s account fo the obse (ed eDcess of chlo ine o(e the iatu all) occu ing le(el of a ound @00 ppt$ 6a"n hing o% Titan and similar solid ro 0et motors adds to the

stratos&heri inorgani hlorine b"rden thro"gh emissions o% H'9< atomi J'9K and mole "lar J'12K dire tl# into the stratos&here. Eefo e the eDhaust plume dispe ses, plume concent ations of these species a e o de s of magnitude abo(e the bac2g ound (alues (:enison et al, 1++5$. :ispe sed th ough the st atosphe e o(e
the globe ho/e(e , the additional #1 bu den is small compa ed to the bac2g ound fo cu entl) en(isioned launch f eAuencies. 3no ganic chlo ine is clea ed f om the atmosphe e b) /et deposition of C#3 in ain afte t anspo t p ocesses etu n ai f om the st atosphe e to the t oposphe e, /ith an o(e all lifetime of a fe/ )ea s. 0fte se(e al )ea s, a continuing fiDed in4ection ate /ill p oduce a chlo ine enhancement that eaches a stead) state, balanced /ith loss (ia ainout.

-ontreal treat# &reser!ing %ragile o.one now b"t s&a e la"n hes ti& o.one towards destr" tion +ni!ersit# o% 'olorado 08 ( Ma ch 31, 200+, 7oc2et launches ma) need egulation to p e(ent
o'one depletion sa)s stud)! htt&422www$&h#sorg$ om2news15FF31F3F$html "#$ *utu e o'one losses f om un egulated oc2et launches /ill e(entuall) eDceed o'one losses due to chlo ofluo oca bons, o #*#s, /hich stimulated the 1+,- Mont eal P otocol banning o'one.depleting chemicals, said Ma tin 7oss, chief stud) autho f om "he 0e ospace #o po ation in Los 0ngeles. "he stud), /hich includes the =ni(e sit) of #olo ado at Eoulde and <mb ).7iddle 0e onautical =ni(e sit), p o(ides a ma 2et anal)sis fo estimating futu e o'one la)e depletion based on the eDpected g o/th of the space indust ) and 2no/n impacts of oc2et launches. O0s the oc2et launch ma 2et g o/s, so /ill o'one.dest o)ing oc2et emissions,O said P ofesso :a in "oohe) of #=.Eoulde 6s atmosphe ic and oceanic sciences depa tment. O3f left un egulated, oc2et launches b) the )ea 20H0 could esult in mo e o'one dest uction than /as e(e eali'ed b) #*#s.O 0 pape on the sub4ect b) 7oss and Manf ed Peinemann of "he 0e ospace #o po ation, #=.Eoulde 6s "oohe) and <mb ).7iddle 0e onautical =ni(e sit)6s Pat ic2 7oss appea ed online in Ma ch in the 4ou nal 0st opolitics. >ince some p oposed space effo ts /ould eAui e f eAuent launches of la ge oc2ets o(e eDtended pe iods, the ne/ stud) /as designed to b ing attention to the issue in hopes of spa 2ing additional esea ch, said 7oss. O3n the polic) /o ld unce taint) often leads to unnecessa ) egulation,O he said. O1e a e suggesting this could be a(oided /ith a mo e obust unde standing of ho/ oc2ets affect the o'one la)e .O #u ent global oc2et launches deplete the o'one la)e b) no mo e than a fe/ hund edths of 1 pe cent annuall), said "oohe). Eut as the space indust ) g o/s and othe o'one.depleting chemicals decline in the <a th6s st atosphe e, the issue of o'one depletion f om oc2et launches is eDpected to mo(e to the fo ef ont. "oda), 4ust a handful of J0>0 space shuttle launches elease mo e o'one.depleting substances in the st atosphe e than the enti e annual use of #*#.based medical inhale s used to t eat asthma and othe diseases in the =nited >tates and /hich a e no/ banned, said "oohe). O"he Mont eal P otocol has left out the space indust ), /hich could ha(e been included.O Cighl) eacti(e t ace.gas molecules 2no/n as adicals dominate st atosphe ic o'one dest uction, and a single adical in the st atosphe e can dest o) up to 10,000 o'one molecules befo e being deacti(ated and emo(ed f om the st atosphe e. Mic oscopic

Georgetown 2011-12 [File Name]

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pa ticles, including soot and aluminum oDide pa ticles emitted b) oc2et engines, p o(ide chemicall) acti(e su face a eas that inc ease the ate such adicals Olea2O f om thei ese (oi s and cont ibute to o'one dest uction, said "oohe). 3n addition, e(e ) t)pe of oc2et engine causes some o'one loss, and oc2et combustion p oducts a e the onl) human sou ces of o'one.dest o)ing compounds in4ected di ectl) into the middle and uppe st atosphe e /he e the o'one la)e esides, he said. 0lthough =.>. science agencies spent millions of dolla s to assess the o'one loss potential f om a h)pothetical fleet of H00 supe sonic ai c aft .. a fleet that ne(e mate iali'ed .. much less esea ch has been done to unde stand the potential ange of effects the eDisting global fleet of oc2ets might ha(e on the o'one la)e , said 7oss. >ince 1+,- #*#s ha(e been banned f om use in ae osol cans, f ee'e ef ige ants and ai conditione s. Man) scientists eDpect the st atosphe ic o'one la)e .. /hich abso bs mo e than +0 pe cent of ha mful ult a(iolet adiation that can ha m humans and ecos)stems .. to etu n to le(els that eDisted p io to the use of o'one.depleting chemicals b) the )ea 2050. 7oc2ets a ound the /o ld use a (a iet) of p opellants, including solids, liAuids and h)b ids. 7oss said /hile little is cu entl) 2no/n about ho/ the) compa e to each othe /ith espect to the o'one loss the) cause, ne/ studies a e needed to p o(ide the pa amete s eAui ed to guide possible egulation of both comme cial and go(e nment oc2et launches in the futu e. O"/ent) )ea s ma) seem li2e a long /a) off, but space s)stem de(elopment often ta2es a decade o longe and in(ol(es la ge capital in(estments,O said 7oss. O1e /ant to educe the is2 that unp edictable and mo e st ict o'one egulations /ould be a hind ance to space access b) measu ing and modeling eDactl) ho/ diffe ent oc2et t)pes affect the o'one la)e .O "he esea ch team is optimistic that a solution to the p oblem eDists. O1e ha(e the esou ces, /e ha(e the eDpe tise, and /e no/ ha(e the egulato ) histo ) to add ess this issue in a (e ) po/e ful /a),O said "oohe). O3 am optimistic that /e a e going to sol(e this p oblem, but /e a e not going to sol(e it b) doing nothing.O

/$ 6in0 L 9n reased ro 0et la"n hes destro# the o-.one la#er S ien e )ail# 08 G science ne/s sou ce, citing a stud) b) the =ni(e sit) of #olo ado (Eoulde R
(7oc2et Launches Ma) Jeed 7egulation "o P e(ent 8'one :epletion, >a)s >tud), >cience :ail), htt&422www$s ien edail#$ om2releases22008203208033115301?$htm , <0R *utu e o'one losses f om un egulated oc2et launches /ill e(entuall) eDceed o'one losses due to chlo ofluo oca bons, o #*#s, /hich stimulated the 1+,- Mont eal P otocol banning o'one.depleting chemicals, said Ma tin 7oss, chief stud) autho f om "he 0e ospace #o po ation in Los 0ngeles. "he stud), /hich includes the =ni(e sit) of #olo ado at Eoulde and <mb ).7iddle 0e onautical =ni(e sit), p o(ides a ma 2et anal)sis fo estimating futu e o'one la)e depletion based on the eDpected g o/th of the space indust ) and 2no/n impacts of oc2et launches. O As the ro 0et la"n h mar0et grows< so will o.one-destro#ing ro 0et emissions,O said P ofesso :a in "oohe) of #=.Eoulde 6s atmosphe ic and oceanic sciences depa tment. O3f left un egulated, oc2et launches b) the )ea 20H0 could esult in mo e o'one dest uction than /as e(e eali'ed b) #*#s.O 0 pape on the sub4ect b) 7oss and Manf ed Peinemann of "he 0e ospace #o po ation, #=.Eoulde 6s "oohe) and <mb ).7iddle 0e onautical =ni(e sit)6s Pat ic2 7oss appea ed online in Ma ch in the 4ou nal 0st opolitics. >ince some p oposed space effo ts /ould eAui e f eAuent launches of la ge oc2ets o(e eDtended pe iods, the ne/ stud) /as designed to b ing attention to the issue in hopes of spa 2ing additional esea ch, said 7oss. O3n the polic) /o ld unce taint) often leads to unnecessa ) egulation,O he said. O1e a e suggesting this could be a(oided /ith a mo e obust unde standing of ho/ oc2ets affect the o'one la)e .O #u ent global oc2et launches deplete the o'one la)e b) no mo e than a fe/ hund edths of 1 pe cent annuall), said "oohe). Eut as the s&a e ind"str# grows and other o.one-de&leting hemi als de line in the EarthMs stratos&here< the iss"e o% o.one de&letion %rom ro 0et la"n hes is e(&e ted to mo!e to the %ore%ront. "oda), 4ust a handful of J0>0 space shuttle launches elease mo e o'one.depleting substances in the st atosphe e than the enti e annual use of #*#.based medical inhale s used to t eat asthma and othe diseases in the =nited >tates and /hich a e no/ banned, said "oohe). O"he Mont eal P otocol has left out the space indust ), /hich could ha(e been included.O Cighl) eacti(e t ace.gas molecules 2no/n as adicals dominate st atosphe ic o'one dest uction, and a single adical in the st atosphe e can dest o) up to 10,000 o'one molecules befo e being deacti(ated and emo(ed f om the st atosphe e. Mic oscopic pa ticles, including soot and aluminum oDide pa ticles emitted b) oc2et engines, p o(ide chemicall) acti(e su face a eas that inc ease the ate such adicals Olea2O f om thei ese (oi s and cont ibute to o'one dest uction, said "oohe). 3n addition, e(e ) t)pe of oc2et engine causes some o'one loss, and oc2et combustion p oducts a e the onl) human sou ces of o'one.

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dest o)ing compounds in4ected di ectl) into the middle and uppe st atosphe e /he e the o'one la)e esides, he said. 0lthough =.>. science agencies spent millions of dolla s to assess the o'one loss potential f om a h)pothetical fleet of H00 supe sonic ai c aft .. a fleet that ne(e mate iali'ed .. much less esea ch has been done to unde stand the potential ange of effects the eDisting global fleet of oc2ets might ha(e on the o'one la)e , said 7oss. >ince 1+,- #*#s ha(e been banned f om use in ae osol cans, f ee'e ef ige ants and ai conditione s. Man) scientists eDpect the st atosphe ic o'one la)e .. /hich abso bs mo e than +0 pe cent of ha mful ult a(iolet adiation that can ha m humans and ecos)stems .. to etu n to le(els that eDisted p io to the use of o'one.depleting chemicals b) the )ea 2050. 7oc2ets a ound the /o ld use a (a iet) of p opellants, including solids, liAuids and h)b ids. 7oss said /hile little is cu entl) 2no/n about ho/ the) compa e to each othe /ith espect to the o'one loss the) cause, ne/ studies a e needed to p o(ide the pa amete s eAui ed to guide possible egulation of both comme cial and go(e nment oc2et launches in the futu e.

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Georgetown 2011-12 [File Name]

[Name]

6a"n hes destro# the o.one- a%terb"rning and mesos ale &hasing &ro!es Ross et$ Al 08 (Ma tin 7oss9, :a in "oohe), Manf ed Peinemann ; Pat ic2 7oss, #ente *acult)
#hai at the <mb ).7iddle 0e onautical =ni(e sit) P ofesso of 0tmosphe ic and 8ceanic >ciences at the =ni(e sit) of #olo ado, P o4ect <nginee at "he 0e ospace #o po ation, , <mb ).7iddle 0e onautical =ni(e sit), g aduate ph)sics inst ucto cu entl) P og am Manage supe (ising the 7oc2et 3mpact.on. >t atosphe ic.8'one (73>8$ P og am fo "he 0e ospace #o po ation, Limits on the >pace Launch Ma 2et 7elated to >t atosphe ic 8'one :epletion! http&??///.tandfonline.com?doi?full?10.10,0?15---@20+02-@,,@- "#$ 0 full desc iption of the compleD p ocesses that miD, t anspo t, and chemicall) p ocess oc2et emissions into the global st atosphe e is be)ond the scope of this /o 2. Co/e(e , it is of inte est to b iefl) e(ie/ the a(ailable info mation on oc2et emissions and ho/ the o'one la)e is affected. 1ith this bac2g ound, /e p esent app oDimate desc iptions of the global o'one loss T83 fo oc2et emissions based on a(ailable data and models. "he a(ailable info mation is spa se and app oDimateB so ou anal)sis must be conside ed in the conteDt of la ge unce tainties. "his is pa ticula l) so fo liAuid p opellant engines. "he alte nati(e to ou /o 2 is to ma2e no p og ess at all. 0cco dingl), in addition to ou conclusions, /e highlight the man) a eas /he e fu the esea ch is eAui ed. "o fi st o de , oc2et engine eDhaust consists of chemicall) ine t compounds (J2 and #82$, adicals (J8, 8C, #l$, adical sou ces and ese (oi s (C#l, C28$, inte mediate unde oDidi'ed compounds (C2, #8$ and alumina o soot. "he elati(e combinations of these compounds in the eDhaust depend on p opellant t)peB fou main p opellant t)pes a e in /ide use, one solid, and th ee liAuid. 1e must distinguish bet/een oc2et eDhaust (hot gases and pa ticles at the no''le eDit$ and oc2et emissions (the cold plume /a2e that miDes into the st atosphe e$. 3n the lo/e st atosphe e, fuel ich oc2et eDhaust is modified in the hot plume b) intense seconda ) combustion eactions d i(en b) atmosphe ic oD)gen miDing into the plume. "his afte bu ning! go(e ns the con(e sion of C2 to C28, #8, and soot to #82, and net p oduction of o'one dest o)ing adicals. 2, 0fte bu ning is (igo ous in the lo/e st atosphe e, lessens /ith altitude, and stops in the uppe st atosphe e and so oc2et emissions a e highl) (a iable /ith altitude. 0fte bu ning is not /ell unde stoodMespeciall) /ith espect to the mino components that most affect o'one. "able 1 sho/s the fi st o de emission compositions fo the fou main p opellant t)pes. Pa entheses sho/ the common names fo the diffe ent p opellant t)pes. "able 1 ac2no/ledges afte bu ning b) epo ting C2 and #8 in the eDhaust as con(e ted to C28 and #82, especti(el), and net p oduction of adicals. 1e emphasi'e that plume models ha(e ne(e been (alidated /ith espect to the net emission of adicals, soot, o the details of the alumina pa ticles si'es. 8ne ecent measu ement suggests that the models in fact unde estimate the p oduction of J8 in the >pace >huttle >7Ms o L7<s. "he emissions p esented in "able 1 cause p ompt and deep o'one loss (app oaching 100I$ in the immediate plume /a2e, caused b) the adical emissions, o(e a eas of hund eds of sAua e miles lasting se(e al da)s afte launch. "hese st atosphe ic o'one mini. holes! ha(e been /ell obse (ed in situ b) high altitude ai c aft plume sampling campaigns. 3t is not 2no/n if the cumulati(e effect of the small o'one holes! is significant compa ed to the global stead).state chemical effects of the emissions. Ee)ond the p ompt plume /a2e o'one dest uction, second o de p ocessing of oc2et combustion p oducts occu s du ing the /ee2s and months afte launch. "he plumes a e t anspo ted and miDed into the global st atosphe e and lose thei identit) as distinct ai masses. "his inte mediate mesoscale phase /ould be cha acte i'ed b) compleD plume.atmosphe e inte actions among adicals, ese (oi s, and sin2s. >ignificant influences f om alumina o soot pa ticles a e eDpected, possibl) in(ol(ing the c eation of ne/ C28 elated pa ticles. "he details of this p ocessing /ill be highl) (a iable acco ding to altitude and e(en time of da) of launch and ce tainl) has a la ge influence on the stead). state global o'one loss. 0 fe/ chance obse (ations of aged plumes confi m the impo tance of the mesoscale p ocessing. Jo studies ha(e been done on this aspect of oc2et emissions.

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[Name]

6a"n hes destro# the o.one- atal#ti rea tions Ross et$ Al 08 (Ma tin 7oss9, :a in "oohe), Manf ed Peinemann ; Pat ic2 7oss, #ente *acult)
#hai at the <mb ).7iddle 0e onautical =ni(e sit) P ofesso of 0tmosphe ic and 8ceanic >ciences at the =ni(e sit) of #olo ado, P o4ect <nginee at "he 0e ospace #o po ation, , <mb ).7iddle 0e onautical =ni(e sit), g aduate ph)sics inst ucto cu entl) P og am Manage supe (ising the 7oc2et 3mpact.on. >t atosphe ic.8'one (73>8$ P og am fo "he 0e ospace #o po ation, Limits on the >pace Launch Ma 2et 7elated to >t atosphe ic 8'one :epletion! http&??///.tandfonline.com?doi?full?10.10,0?15---@20+02-@,,@- "#$ 0 detailed account of st atosphe ic chemist ) is be)ond the scope of this pape ho/e(e , a fe/ c itical concepts need to be eDplained in o de to 4ustif) ou pa amete i'ation of oc2et o'one loss. "he st atosphe ic o'one (83$ la)e gene all) esides bet/een 20G30 2m altitudes, abso bing ha mful sola ult a(iolet adiation befo e it eaches the <a th6s su face. #hemical and d)namical p ocesses that a e /ell unde stood dete mine the (e tical and ho i'ontal dist ibutions of st atosphe ic o'one. "he o'one la)e esults f om a long.te m balance bet/een the (e tical p ofile of o'one p oduction, the (e tical p ofile of o'one dest uction, and the global ci culation of st atosphe ic ai . "he o'one dest uction side of the balance is dominated b) eacti(e t ace gases 2no/n as adicals. "he highl) eacti(e adicalsMoDides of nit ogen, h)d ogen, b omine, and chlo ine efe ed to as J8D, C8D, E 8D, and #l8DMcont ol global o'one le(els b) tilting the long.te m balance bet/een o'one p oduction and dest uction in fa(o of the latte . Mo eo(e , because the adical eactions a e catal)tic, onl) t ace amounts, a fe/ pa ts pe billion, a e able to cont ol much g eate amounts of st atosphe ic o'one. 0 single adical molecule emitted into the st atosphe e, fo eDample, can dest o) up to 10H o'one molecules befo e being deacti(ated and t anspo ted out of the st atosphe e. 7adicals eact /ith o'one on (e ) sho t time scales, minutes to hou s, so that di ect in4ection into the st atosphe e o(e a limited a ea (a oc2et plume, fo eDample$ /ill cause a p ompt, locali'ed, o'one hole.! 1@ Pa ticles also pla) an impo tant ole in o'one dest uction. #hemical eactions pa ticle su faces acti(ate adicals f om thei ese (oi s, shifting the balance to/a d lo/e o'one le(els. "he st ong potential fo pa ticles to educe o'one is demonst ated in the sp ingtime south pola st atosphe e, /he e photochemical eactions on ice pa ticles efficientl) libe ate #l8D f om ese (oi s 1- and so pla) a ole in the fo mation of the infamous 8'one Cole.! >uch eactions a e 2no/n occu on the su face of alumina and, possibl), soot pa ticles. 1, Pa ticles /ith diamete less than about 1 mic on (Um$ emain suspended in the st atosphe e fo se(e al )ea s 1+ and become miDed globall) b) the st atosphe ic ci culation. "his means that epeated in4ections of submic on pa ticles into the st atosphe e, as f om global (/ee2l)$ oc2et launches fo eDample, esult in an accumulation of pa ticles. "he accumulated pa ticle su faces inc ease the ates that adicals lea2! f om thei ese (oi s and so educe o'one le(els globall). J8D, C8D, E 8D, and #l8D adicals a e p oduced f om sou ce gases and ese (oi gases. "he sou ces and ese (oi s can be thought of as a so t of chemical sto age fo the adicals, /hich lea2 photochemicall) f om sto age into the st atosphe e, inc easing the ate of o'one dest uction. "he concent ations of the sou ces and pa ticula l) ese (oi s a e dete mined b) a stead) state bet/een fluDes ac oss the t opopause, p oduction f om adical. adical eactions, loss f om photol)sis and adical. ese (oi eactions, and di ect in4ection f om oc2et engine emissions. C28, emitted b) all oc2et engines, is one of the most c itical sou ce gases. 20 C28 is the sou ce gas fo C8D adicals but also cont ibutes to the fo mation of the ice pa ticles that cause the pola o'one hole. >mall changes in middle atmosphe e /ate (apo and tempe atu e can cause la ge changes in st atosphe ic cloudiness. 8'one loss f om /ate (apo emissions is highl) nonlinea and difficult to p edict. 0s a foundation fo fu the discussion, /e p oceed /ith the unde standing that all t)pes of oc2et engines, solid oc2et moto s (>7Ms$ and liAuid oc2et engines (L7<s$, emit compounds that a e 2no/n to educe o'one to (a ious deg ees, depending on thei (a ious compositions. 7oc2ets engines in4ect all of the t)pes of compounds mentioned abo(e associated /ith o'one lossM adicals, thei sou ces and ese (oi s, and eacti(e pa ticlesMth oughout all le(els of the st atosphe e. "he) a e the onl) o'one dest o)ing, human.p oduced, compounds that a e emitted into the st atosphe e this /a).

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[Name]

69ND L SS*
S*S has negati!e e%%e ts on the o.one L a"ses distortion in the magnetos&heri &lasma &o&"lation
+RS9 F
(3nte national =nion of 7adio >cience, 7epo t of the =7>3 3nte .#ommission 1o 2ing % oup on >P>! u si. test.intec.ugent.be?files?3#1%7epo t0-0@11.pdf, 0.M.F.$

3n the p ocess of >P> const uction, la ge high.po/e elect ic p opulsion s)stems a e needed. "he elect ic p opulsion s)stems in4ect hea() ions accele ated b) elect odes po/e ed b) the photo(oltaic cells. *o t ansfo mation of o bits a ound the eAuato , the hea() ions a e in4ected pe pendicula to the <a th6s magnetic field . "he in4ection can st ongl) distu b the elect omagnetic en(i onment su ounding the ion engine in the plasma sphe e and the magnetosphe e th ough inte action bet/een the hea().ion beam and the magnetoshe ic plasmas. "he inte action
bet/een the hea().ion beam and the magnetic field has been studied theo eticall). 20.21 Eased on an M3.3: anal)sis, #hiu2V p edicted that 0 gon ion in4ection could eDcite 0lf(en /a(es p opagating along the magnetic field do/n to the ionosphe e and being eflected bac2. Ce also p edicted that in4ected 0 gon ions can accumulate in the magnetosphe e, significantl) changing the plasma en(i onment. #u tis and % ebo/s2)23 sho/ed that the bul2 of the in4ected ion beam is not stopped in the magnetosphe e. Co/e(e , the elati(el) small f action of the beam that is not stopped ma) gi(e ise to a la ge disto tion in the magnetosphe ic plasma population . "he) also e(aluated possible loss mechanisms f om the magnetosphe e fo this a tificial ion component. "he inte action of the hea() ions and the su ounding magneti'ed plasma field has been studied b) pa ticle simulations using h)b id code, /he e motions of ions a e sol(ed as pa ticles /hile elect ons a e t eated as a neut ali'ing fluid. 0s an initial esponse to the in4ection, a shoc2 st uctu e can be fo med in the ambient plasma

SS* re,"ires la"n h !ehi les NSS 2011 (Jational >pace >ociet), >pace >ola Po/e , http&??///.nss.o g?settlement?ssp?, <0R
"he technologies and inf ast uctu e eAui ed to ma2e space sola po/e feasible include& Lo/.cost, en(i onmentall).f iendl) launch (ehicles. #u ent launch (ehicles a e too eDpensi(e, and at high launch ates ma) pose atmosphe ic pollution p oblems of thei o/n. #heape , cleane launch (ehicles a e needed.

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[Name]

69ND - NE:S
All s&a e-based s"r!e# teles o&es need la"n hes Griggs 08 G #JJ staff / ite (12?15?0+, #JJ, J0>0 launches inf a ed telescope to scan enti e s2),
http&??a ticles.cnn.com?200+.12.15?tech?/ise.spacec aft.launchW1W/ide.field.inf a ed.su (e).eDplo e . galaDies.aste oidsSWsXPM&"<#C, <0R J0>0 launched a ne/ telescope into space on Monda) to scan the cosmos fo undisco(e ed ob4ects, including aste oids and comets that might th eaten <a th. "he 1ide.field 3nf a ed >u (e) <Dplo e , o 13><, spacec aft /ill emplo) an inf a ed came a to detect light. and heat.emitting ob4ects that othe o biting telescopes, such as the Cubble, might miss. 13>< launched Monda) at +&0+ a.m. <" aboa d a :elta 33 oc2et f om Fandenbe g 0i *o ce Ease in #alifo nia. "he launch /as postponed f om * ida) because of a p oblem /ith the motion of a booste stee ing engine.

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69ND - /-)
*lan im&lementation re,"ires an in rease in la"n hes +nion o% 'on erned S ientists 2011 (>pace.Eased Missile :efense *act >heetR
Mo eo(e , gi(en the technolog) eDpected fo the neDt decade, each >E3 /ould /eigh up to a ton o mo e. 0s a esult, deplo)ing such a s)stem /ould be eno mousl) eDpensi(e and actuall) /ould eDceed =.>. launch capabilities. 0dditionall), such a s)stem /ould aise significant issues fo c o/ding and t affic management in space.

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926 ENTENS9:NS
Rising tem&erat"res a"se &h#to&lan0ton e(tin tion Alois and 'heng 0F G staff / ite s fo the 0 lington 3nstitute (Paul, Ficto ia, Ne)stone >pecies
<Dtinction 8(e (ie/, "he 1o lds Eiggest P oblems, http&??///.a lingtoninstitute.o g?/bp?po tal?home, <0R Plan2ton is a blan2et te m fo man) species of mic oo ganisms that d ift in open /ate and ma2e up the base of the aAuatic food chain. "he e a e t/o t)pes of plan2ton, ph)toplan2ton and 'ooplan2ton. Ph)toplan2ton ma2e thei o/n food th ough the p ocess of photos)nthesis, /hile 'ooplan2ton feed on ph)toplan2ton. Yooplan2ton a e in tu n eaten b) la ge animals. 3n this /a) these tin) o ganisms sustain all life in the oceans. 0cco ding to the J0>0, ph)toplan2ton populations in the no the n oceans ha(e declined b) as much as 30I since 1+,0.Z5R 1hile the cause of this decline emains unce tain, the e a e se(e al theo ies. 8ne theo ) points to global /a ming as the main cause.ZHR Ph)toplan2ton eAui e nut ients obtained f om the bottom of the ocean to ep oduce. 0t the <a ths poles, ocean /ate is colde at the su face than do/n in the depths. "he efo e /ate f om the bottom of the ocean ises to the top, ca )ing /ith it essential nut ients f om the ocean floo . Co/e(e , as the /ate nea the su face becomes /a me due to climate change, less /ate ises f om the bottom, esulting in less nut ients fo the ph)toplan2ton. "his conseAuentl) hinde s thei ep oduction p ocesses. 0nothe theo ) suggests that ca bon dioDide emissions a e causing this decline in plan2ton population. "he ocean has al/a)s abso bed a significant amount of ca bon dioDide, but in ecent )ea s its capacit) fo this pollutant ma) not ha(e been able to 2eep up /ith the le(el of human output. 7ecent studies suggest that the ca bon dioDide the ocean abso bs is tu ned into ca bonic acid, /hich lo/e s the pC le(el of the ocean.Z@R "his acidification is highl) co osi(e to sea animals that fo m shells, including pte opods, /hich a e a t)pe of 'ooplan2ton. Pte opods a e a food sou ce fo countless la ge animals such as salmon and cod. 3f the) a e unable to su (i(e in an acidic ocean, then the enti e ocean s)stem /ill be th eatened. 0 less popula theo ) suggests that a lac2 of i on is damaging plan2ton populations. 0ll the nut ients necessa ) fo ph)toplan2ton ep oduction eDist all th oughout the ocean, eDcept fo i on, /hich is can onl) be found in ce tain locations. "he efo e, ph)toplan2ton a e limited to a eas /he e i on is found. >tudies ha(e sho/n that a ma4o sou ce of i on comes f om the dust that is s/ept off the /o lds dese ts into the ocean.Z-R 3nc eased human acti(ities ma) be alte ing the c)cle in /hich dese t i on eaches the ocean, the efo e cutting ph)toplan2ton off f om nut ients (ital to thei su (i(al.Z,R "he declining plan2ton population is a (e ) se ious issue. 3n 1++-, <l Ji[o caused a sha p inc ease in the oceans tempe atu es a ound the %alapagos 3slands.Z+R Plan2ton populations plummeted, and this in tu n decimated fish populations. "he islands famous seal population, /hich depended on the fish fo food, also dec eased. 0s <l Ji[o passed, the ecos)stem ebounded, but the e(ent /as a clea indicato of the se(e e effects that a plan2ton eDtinction /ould ha(e. 7esea che s in #alifo nia fea that a simila disaste ma) be occu ing th oughout the enti e no the n Pacific 8cean. 3f the decimation of plan2ton population is caused b) global /a ming, and esea che s /a n that its impact could be pe manent.Z10R

:.one de&letion allows +; light to inhibit &h#to&lan0ton 6eslie 1+81 G #anadian philosophe , p ofesso eme itus at =ni(e sit) of %uelph, E0 in <nglish
Lite atu e (John 0., "he <nd of the 1o ld, "he <thics of Cuman eDtinctionhttp&??boo2s.google.com?boo2sS idX#L(u8+Wl:m/#;pgXP0H1;dAX1ith\thei \(apou \t ails, \ai c aft\cause\about\a\tenth\of\the\o'one\depletion, \and\could\cause\much\mo e\afte \the\anticipated\g o/th\in\high altitude\flights.;hlXen;eiXs+/J" bdE5Pb0]%b3-7W;saXP;oiXboo2W esult;ctX esult; esnumX1;(edX 0##o]@0</00^(Xonepage;AX1ithI20thei I20(apou I20t ailsI2#I20ai c aftI20causeI20about I20aI20tenthI20ofI20theI20o'oneI20depletionI2#I20andI20couldI20causeI20much I20mo eI20afte I20theI20anticipatedI20g o/thI20inI20high.altitudeI20flights.;fXfalse, <0R #*#s and halons a e fa f om being the onl) th eats to st atosphe ic o'one. 1ith thei (apou t ails, ai c aft cause about a tenth of the o'one depletion, and could cause much mo e afte the anticipated g o/th in high.altitude flights. (ln 1++0 E itain and * ance /e e chee full) p oposing 4oint de(elopment of a ne/ fleet of supe sonic high.altitude ai c aft despite the ea lie outc ) of en(i onmentalists against simila plans in the =nited >tates.$ Jit ogen oDides p oduced b), *o instance, the use of nit ogenous

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[Name]

*e tili'e s dest o) ma)be anothe tenth of the o'one. Meth)l b omide, a c op fumigant, dest o)s pe haps as much again. 8the cont ibuto s include meth)l chlo ide& as mentioned ea lie , this is gene ated copiousl) /hen 7( ests, sc ubs and g asslands a e clea ed b) bu ning. 3t has been claimed that b) e4ecting h)d ochlo ic acid (olcanoes send mo e chlo ine to the st atosphe e than humans, but initiating eactions /hich speed up the a(ages of the chlo ine /hich human ha(e put the e. "he di ect conseAuences include an estimated additional 200,000 eDpected deaths f om s2in cance in the =nited >tates alone o _the <n(i onmental P otection agenc) has calculatedR o(e 3,000,000 b) the )ea 2100 if o'one depletion continues unabated. "he e /ill be man) mo e cases of blindness (300,000 mo e fo each 1 pe cent decline in st atosphe ic o'one, acco ding to a =nited Jations panelR, a /ea2ening of the human immune s)stem. 0nd p ematu e aging. >till, the /o st conseAuences could be indi ect ones. 6ight in the "ltra!iolet / wa!eband and harms li!ing organisms o% all main t#&es< on land and in water. 3t attac2s not onl) plants, including man) t ees, but also the nit o gen.fiDing bacte ia on /hich c ops el) unless hea(il) fe tili'ed. 0bo(e all, it ma) be a g a(e th eat to man) 'ooplan2ton and ph)toplan2ton species. Yooplan2ton and pli)toplan2ton a e at the base of the oceanic food chains. Ph)toplan2ton a e c ucial fo ta2ing ca bon dioDide f om the atmosphe e& the) emo(e mo e of this g eenhouse gas than all othe facto s combined. 1e can d a/ comfo t f om ho/ some of the ph)toplan2ton species a e speciall) esistant to ult a(iolet light, /hile othe s seem to be e(ol(ing esistance. >ome plants, too, a e mo e esistant than othe s& pa ticula (a ieties of so)a bean, lb instance. Eut scientists a e t oubled b) such facts as that ult a(iolet.#Mit can be fa mo e apidl) dest ucti(e than ult a(iolet.E, )et has so fa been almost enti el) abso bed in the st atosphe eM ma) soon b ea2 th ough in the 0nta ctic. 0gain, t apping of heat at lo/e le(els b) g eenhouse gases ma2es the st atosphe e coole , /hich inc eases o'one losses b) encou aging clouds to fo m the e. 0nd eDt a ult a(iolet light inc eases the Auantit) of eacti(e adicals in the lo/e atmosphe e, esulting in mo e p oduction of pollutants. "he pollutants include lo/e .atmosphe e o'one, a (e ) effecti(e c op dest o)e .

1C

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[Name]

A24 :+R R:'DETS ):N>T H+RT THE :E:NE 6AOER


All ro 0ets h"rt the o.one la#er to some e(tent Ross et$ Al 08 (Ma tin 7oss9, :a in "oohe), Manf ed Peinemann ; Pat ic2 7oss, #ente *acult)
#hai at the <mb ).7iddle 0e onautical =ni(e sit) P ofesso of 0tmosphe ic and 8ceanic >ciences at the =ni(e sit) of #olo ado, P o4ect <nginee at "he 0e ospace #o po ation, , <mb ).7iddle 0e onautical =ni(e sit), g aduate ph)sics inst ucto cu entl) P og am Manage supe (ising the 7oc2et 3mpact.on. >t atosphe ic.8'one (73>8$ P og am fo "he 0e ospace #o po ation, Limits on the >pace Launch Ma 2et 7elated to >t atosphe ic 8'one :epletion! http&??///.tandfonline.com?doi?full?10.10,0?15---@20+02-@,,@- "#$ 7oc2et engines cause mo e o less o'one loss acco ding to p opellant t)pe, but e(e ) t)pe of oc2et engine causes some lossB no oc2et engine is pe fectl) g een! in this sense.

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)9SEASE A))-:N
A$ 9n reased +; ra#s destro#s h"man imm"ne s#stems Grid- Arendal No )ate (=J<P =nited Jations <n(i onment P og amme5 #onseAuences and
<ffects 1& =F 7adiation and Cuman Cealth! http&??///.g ida.no?publications?(g?o'one?page?13,@.aspD "#$ "he most /idel) ecognised damage occu s to the s2in. "he di ect effects a e sun bu n, ch onic s2in damage (photoaging$ and an inc eased is2 of de(eloping (a ious t)pes of s2in cance . Models p edict that a 10 pe cent dec ease in the o'one in the st atosphe e could cause an additional 300,000 non. melanoma and 5,H00 (mo e dange ous$ melanoma s2in cance s /o ld/ide annuall). 0t an indi ect le(el =F.E adiation damages ce tain cells that act as a shield p otecting us f om int uding ca ie s of disease. 3n othe /o ds it /ea2ens ou immune s)stem. *o people /hose immune s)stem has al ead) been /ea2ened, in pa ticula b) C3F.0ids, the effect is agg a(ated, /ith mo e acute infections and a highe is2 of do mant (i uses (such as cold so es$ e upt:ing again. =F adiation penet ates fu thest into ou bodies th ough ou e)es, /hich a e pa ticula l) (ulne able. #onditions such as sno/ blindness and cata acts, /hich blu the lens and lead to blindness, ma) cause long.te m damage to ou e)esight. <(e ) )ea some 1@ million people in the /o ld suffe f om blindness due to a loss of t anspa enc) in the lens. "he 1o ld Cealth 8 ganisation (1C8$ estimates that up to 20 pe cent of cata acts ma) be caused b) o(e eDposu e to =F adiation and could the efo e be a(oided. "he is2 of =F adiation. elated damage to the e)e and immune s)stem is independent of s2in t)pe.

/$ Aitho"t the imm"ne s#stem h"mans wo"ld be de%enseless against disease )i tionar# o% /iologi al *s# holog# 01 (7outledge, :ictiona ) of Eiological Ps)cholog)
htt&422www$boo0rags$ om2tand%2imm"ne-s#stem-t%2 "#$ "he immune s)stem is an essential component of the bod)s defence against attac2. "he bodies of M0MM0L> ha(e a se ies of mechanisms to deal /ith attac2s upon them& (1$ the bod) is enclosed in >N3J, a p otecti(e (and sensate$ la)e , and is able to gene ate sec etions (mucous and s2in sec etions$ that p otect the bod) against en(i onmental elementsB (2$ phagoc)tes (p incipall) /hite blood cellsB mo e p ope l) 2no/n as L<=N8#L"<>$, antimic obial p oteins and inflammation, all of /hich act inte nall) and athe non.specificall) to p otect the bod)B (3$ the immune s)stem, a specific mechanism fo dealing /ith alien cells, based on l)mphosites and the p oduction of 0J"3E8:3<>. "he fi st of these, s2in, is discussed in an ent ) of its o/n& the othe t/o a e discussed fu the belo/. (Jote& this discussion is fa f om complete& the immune s)stem is a highl) compleD biological p ocess. 7eade s /ho /ish to unde stand mo e about this than can be p esented he e a e efe ed to #ampbell et al., 1+++$ Phagoc)tes (f om % ee2, phagein& to eat, 2)tos& a (essel$ a e cells that engage in a p ocess called phagoc)tosis& the) a e cells that eat othe cells. Leu2oc)tes a e the p incipal phagoc)tes of the bod) and a e p esent in a (a iet) of t)pes& J<="78PC3L>, M8J8#L"<> and <8>3J8PC3L>. (#ollecti(el) these a e 2no/n as %70J=L8#L"<>Mmatu e leu2oc)tes ha(e a g anula appea ance.$ Most leu2oc)tes (some @HI$ a e neut ophils, cells /hich ha(e a sho t life span and /hich eact to chemical messages emitted b) cells in(ading the bod). "he e a e fa fe/e monoc)tes, some HI of the total numbe of leu2oc)tes. Monoc)tes lea(e the blood st eam and eside in tissue, /he e the) act as M0#78PC0%<>. <osinophils ma2e up less that 2I of the numbe of leu2oc)tes and a e the main defence against pa asites, attaching themsel(es to the cell M<ME70J< of the pa asite and using <JYLM< action to dest o) them. "his p ocess, 2no/n as l)sing (see LL>3>$, is not st ictl) phagoc)tosis, but is ne(e theless a fo m of dest uction. 0 simila p ocess is adopted b) J0"=70L N3LL<7 #<LL>& these a e not leu2oc)tes, but fo m an impo tant defence against (i all) infected cells.

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[Name]

'$ )iseases a"se h"man e(tin tion 'astro and /ol0er 03(3?12?05, * ancisco and Een4amen, Post.:oc, 3nstitut fue Eiochemie und
Eiologie, P ofesso , Math ; stats and Eiolog), McMaste =ni(e sit) Mechanisms of disease.induced eDtinction. <colog) Lette s! htt&422onlinelibrar#$wile#$ om2doi210$111127$1?11-02?C$200?$00183$(2%"ll ! "#$ 3t is clea that gene alist pa asites can o(e come host densit) th esholds and d i(e a focal host species to eDtinction. "he detailed communit) d)namics of multiple pa asites sha ing multiple hosts can be Auite compleD (Colt ; Pic2e ing 1+,HB Eo/e s ; "u ne 1++-B %atto ; :e Leo 1++,B Eo/e s ; Codg2inson 2001B Colt et al. 2003$. Co/e(e , multi.host pa asites can clea l) lead to appa ent competition, /he e a host species d i(es a competito to eDtinction b) being mo e tole ant o encou aging ep oduction of a pa asite that ha ms its competito (>chmit' ; Judds 1++5B Colt et al. 2003$. *e/ theo etical eDplo ations of pa asite.mediated competition ha(e appea ed, p obabl) because the mechanism is so simple, but anal)sing the details of pa ticula empi ical cases can be complicated (e.g. >chmit' ; Judds 1++5$. 3n the same gene al catego ) as these biotic ese (oi s a e abiotic ese (oi s, /he e a pa asite can also su (i(e and amplif) itself in the en(i onment as a sap oph)te ("h all et al. 1++-$. 7os`et al. (2003$ sho/ that the p esence of an eDte nal ese (oi ma) easil) d i(e the host to eDtinction if the le(el of eDte nal infection is high.

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[Name]

AGR9'+6T+RE A))-:N
A$ +; ra#s 0ill &lants 6i a ?25 (Mihaela, 5?H?2011, *ounde of Pamil Fisions, public elations an media consultate, L<:
Lights and Plants! htt&422www$sa!e-mone#-with-alternati!e-energ#$ om26E)-lights-and-&lants$html "#$ Light influences all life on <a th di ectl) o indi ectl). Plants need light fo photos)nthesis, the efo e fo g o/ing and in eDchange the) fo /a d thei ene g) to the animals that consume them. 0t the same time animals need light fo a ha monious e(olution and e(en noctu nal ones eAui e some lo/ le(el illumination. Lac2 of natu al light causes (a ious diso de s b) people and the same happens b) plants and animals. =F light can ha m li(ing o ganisms in se(e al /a)s. *o eDample plants o(e eDposed to =F light educe si'e and a e mo e susceptible to specific diseases . "he light coming di ect f om the sun sends to ea th th ee t)pes of ult a(iolet& =F.0 (3,0.31H nm$, =F.E (31H.2,0 nm$ and =F.# (2,0.10 nm$. :ue to the abso ption in the atmosphe e6s o'one la)e , ++I of the ult a(iolet light that eaches the <a th6s su face is =F.0. 1hile =F.0 causes plants onl) a little ha m, =F.E, /hich is a sho te /a(elength, can damage plant tissue and in humans it can cause s2in cance . =F.# is the pa t f om the =F spect um /ith the sho test /a(elength and all bacte ia and (i us get deadl) sunbu n in an a tificial =F.# filte s)stem. #e tainl) =F light has its pa adoDes& e(en if it is ha mful in one /a), it is useful in anothe . Medicine is using this a tificial =F light to cu e difficult s2in conditions such as pso iasis ec'ema, l)mphoma, acne, a. topic de matitis, and so on. *act is that plants dont need too much =F light, on the cont a ) . "his is /h) c op p oduction /ith a tificial light means that /ill eliminate the dange ous =F emissions seems to be the neDt logical step.

/$ Agri "lt"re is 0e# to global e onomi s"stainabilit# EN* Newswire 10 (<JP Je/s/i e, Monda), *eb ua ) 1 2010, a :uPont #hai at :a(os& 0g icultu e
Ne) to %lobal <conom), >ustainabilit), >ecu it)! http&??///.allbusiness.com?go(e nment?inte national. o gani'ations.bodies?13,31@2-.1.html "#$ 0g icultu e is a game.change that can mitigate multiple global issues . hunge , po(e t), en(i onmental deg adation, poo nut ition and subseAuent effects such as ci(il un est, :uPont #hai and #<8 <llen Nullman told attendees of the 50th 1o ld <conomic *o um 0nnual Meeting in :a(os.Nloste s, >/it'e land, on * ida). 6:eli(e ing on the potential fo ag icultu e to add ess c itical, global issues ma) be the g eatest oppo tunit) of ou gene ation,6 <llen said. 63t is possible, but it /ill ta2e a adical ne/ app oach to collabo ation.6 0t the 1o ld <conomic *o um, <llen /as pa ticipating in the panel discussion on 67ethin2ing Co/ to *eed the 1o ld.6 0cco ding to the *ood and 0g icultu e 8 gani'ation of the =nited Jations, food p oduction /ill need to nea l) double b) the middle of this centu ) to feed the eDpected /o ld population. Panelists /e e as2ed to conside /hat it /ould ta2e to achie(e food secu it), en(i onmental sustainabilit) and economic g o/th th ough ag icultu e. 6%lobal food secu it) challenges a e becoming mo e compleD and inte connected,6 <llen said. 6#ollabo ations among o gani'ations /ill need to follo/ suit . becoming mo e inte connected to le(e age the st engths of o gani'ations ac oss the public and p i(ate secto s.6 <llen said the 1o ld <conomic *o um6s multi.sta2eholde .

9990**

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Georgetown 2011-12 [File Name]

[Name]

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Georgetown 2011-12 [File Name]

[Name]

N: 69ND
Sh"ttles don>t trigger their im&a ts- onl# $25P o% damage is done b# sh"ttles NASA 0C ( Jational 0e onautics and >pace 0dminist ation 2?25?200, * eAuentl) 0s2ed ]uestions!
http&??///.nasa.go(?cente s?2enned)?about?info mation?shuttleWfaA.html

]. 3s it t ue that launching the >pace >huttle c eates a local o'one hole, and that the >pace >huttle eleases mo e chlo ine than all indust ial uses /o ld/ideS 0. Jo, that is not t ue. J0>0 has studied the effects of eDhaust f om the >pace >huttle6s solid oc2et moto s on the o'one. 3n a 1++0 epo t to #ong ess, J0>0 found that the chlo ine eleased annuall) in the st atosphe e (assuming launches of nine >huttle missions and siD "itan 3Fs .. /hich also ha(e solid oc2et moto s .. pe )ea $ /ould be about 0.2H pe cent of the total amount of haloca bons eleased annuall) /o ld/ide (0.-2H 2ilotons b) the >huttle 300 2ilotons f om all sou ces$. "he epo t concludes that >pace >huttle launches at the cu ent ate pose no significant th eat to the o'one la)e and /ill ha(e no lasting effect on the atmosphe e. "he eDhaust plume f om the >huttle ep esents a t i(ial f action of the atmosphe e, and e(en if o'one dest uction occu ed /ithin the initial plume, its global impact /ould be inconseAuential. *u the , the co ido of eDhaust gases sp eads o(e a late al eDtent of g eate than @00 miles in a da), so no local Oo'one holeO could occu abo(e the launch site. 3mages ta2en b) J0>06s "otal 8'one Mapping >pect omete at (a ious points follo/ing >huttle launches sho/ no measu able o'one dec ease.

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Georgetown 2011-12 [File Name]

[Name]

N: 9NTERNA6
No internal lin0 - +; Ra#s don>t 0ill &lan0ton 'abrera et$ Al 8F ( >e gio #ab e a, Matilde Lbpe' and Ea ba a "a ta otti, 3nstitute of Eiomedical
>ciencesB *acult) of Medicine, =ni(e sit) of #hile #asilla 3nstitute of Yoolog) and Limnolog), =ni(e sit) of 3nnsb uc2 , 0ccepted Jul) 1@, 1++-, Ph)toplan2ton and 'ooplan2ton esponse to ult a(iolet adiation in a high.altitude 0ndean la2e& sho t. (e sus long.te m effects! htt&422&lan0t$o(%ord7o"rnals$org2 ontent21821121515$abstra t "#$

<Dclusion eDpe iments on global =F (0 and E$ adiation and global =FE /e e pe fo med in 5@0 3 mesocosms /ith plan2ton communities f om the oligot ophic 0ndean la2e Laguna Jeg a (33V3Hc>G-0V05c1B 2-00 m a.s.l.$. "he eDpe iments /e e un fo 30 da)s du ing the summe s of 1++1G1++2 and 1++2G1++3, and fo 5, da)s in 1++3G1++5. 1hen =FE adiation /as allo/ed to ente into the mesocosms (full sun$, the population of 0n2) a 4uda)i (#hlo oph)ta$ eached the highest densit), suggesting that this species can endu e high le(els of =F adiation. #oncu entl), an inc ease in chlo oph)ll a concent ation /as obse (ed in this t eatment. "he cladoce an #h)do us sphae icus and the otife Lepadella o(allts /e e st ongl) inhibited b) =FE. #on(e sel), =FE adiation had no effect on the su (i(al of the diffe ent life stages of the calanoid copepod Eoec2ela g actlipes, suggesting a species.specific diffe ence in the sensiti(it) to sola =FE adiation. Mo eo(e , no eduction in the numbe of copepod eggs pe female and the numbe of nauplii p oduced /as obse (ed. 0ppa entl), he bi(o ) does not st ongl) affect ph)toplan2ton abundance. Mo eo(e , the ph)toplan2ton species composition changed in the diffe ent t eatments o(e the time. * agila ia const uens and * agila ia c otonensis /e e dominant in those mesocosms /he e =FE /as eDcluded. Populations fluc tuated depending on thei life c)cles and the pe iod of time the) /e e eDposed to =FE adiation. 3t is impo tant to define the time scale of eDclusion eDpe iments, because diffe ent conclusions about the influence of =FE i adiance esult f om sho t., medium. o long.te m eDposu es.

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[Name]

A2 L AGR9'+6T+RE A))-:N
+; ra#s don>t h"rt &lants- en.#me &rote tion 6ee 8C (Jill, 0g icultu al 7esea ch >e (ice 3nfo mation >taff, <n')mes %i(e Plants =F P otection!
htt&422www$ars$"sda$go!2is2AR2ar hi!e2o t8C2en.#108C$htm "#$ >unlight /ould 2ill plants, /ithout en')me Oscisso sO that undo gene damage f om ult a(iolet (=F$ a)s. 3n fact, plants ha(e se(e al natu al gene mende s tailo ed to the 2ind of damage done, acco ding to findings of an 0g icultu al 7esea ch >e (ice scientist /o 2ing /ith a esea che at the =ni(e sit) of #alifo nia at :a(is. =lt a(iolet damage to c ops is a e. Eut 2no/ing the epai mechanisms ma) be impo tant if =F adiation inc eases in the futu e as a esult of thinning of <a th6s p otecti(e o'one la)e . "he scientists used 0 abidopsis, a common /hite.flo/e ed plant /ith a small numbe of genes, /hich allo/s fo eas) t ac2ing of genetic diffe ences. :J0 is a se ies of chemical bases..0.%.#." (fo adenine, guanine, c)stosine, and thiamine$..that fo m the alphabet of life. 3f the) get damaged, the code is illegibleB too much un eadable code and the plant dies. Plants ma) espond in se(e al /a)s to gene damage. O1hen )ou ca b ea2s do/n, sa)s 07> plant ph)siologist <d/in L. *iscus, O)ou can call someone /ho does gene al epai s. Eut othe times, a specialist ma) be able to pe fo m a pa ticula t)pe of epai much mo e apidl) and efficientl). O3t6s li2e that fo plant cell damage,O sa)s *iscus, /ho /o 2s in the 07> 0i ]ualit). Plant % o/th and :e(elopment 7esea ch =nit. O"o fiD damaged :J0, the e a e both gene al epai en')mes and at least t/o highl) speciali'ed 2inds.O *iscus and geneticist 0nne E itt at =#.:a(is confi med /hat othe s suspected& that t/o speciali'ed en')mes in plants a e essential fo =F epai . "he) a e both f om a class of en')mes called photol)ases. "he gene ali'ed epai en')me s)stem, sa)s E itt, is p obabl) designed fo a /ide (a iet) of elati(el) a e t)pes of damage. 3t /o 2s b) eDcising the damaged bases, o seAuences, and ebuilding them..a p ocess that tends to be slo/ and inefficient. Mo e common 2inds of damage, such as /hen =F light causes "s and #s to c osslin2 imp ope l) to each othe , a e also epai ed b) speciali'ed photol)ases, /hich eliminate this inapp op iate bond bet/een the bases. Photol)ase epai is specific, apid, efficient, and..li2e eDcision epai .. elati(el) e o .f ee. 0nothe inte esting thing about these en')mes, E itt sa)s, is that the) a e acti(ated b) light, so the (e ) cause of the =F damage is also /hat t igge s its epai . "he scientists p o(ed photol)ase en')mes a e essential fo plants6 su (i(al in natu al light b) using special mutant plants de(eloped b) E itt that can6t p oduce the en')mes. *iscus, /hose esea ch station is on the campus of Jo th #a olina >tate =ni(e sit), de(ised special g o/th chambe s that deli(e ed p ecise doses of (a ious atios of =F light and egula sunlight. "he mutant plants /e e highl) sensiti(e to =F light, compa ed to no mal plants.

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[Name]

A6T 'A+SES
Alt 'a"se- solar %lares 0ill the o.one la#er Oo"ng 0F (Nell), 0e ospace >taff/ ite , 1+&33 23 Ma ch 200- >ola 6supe fla e6 sh edded <a th6s
o'one! http&??///.ne/scientist.com?a ticle?dn115H@.sola .supe fla e.sh edded.ea ths.o'one.html "#$ "he la gest sola fla e in the last H00 )ea s ma) ha(e sh edded <a th6s o'one la)e to a g eate eDtent than human.made chemicals ha(e in ecent decades, ne/ esea ch suggests, but the effect /as onl) tempo a ). 3f such a fla e occu ed toda), it /ould li2el) be e(en mo e damaging to the o'one and could inc ease the ate of s2in cance a ound the /o ld. 8n 1 >eptembe 1,H+, the >un eDpelled huge Auantities of high.ene g) p otons in a 6supe fla e6. "he e(ent /as seen on <a th b) an obse (e /ho noticed a /hite spot on the >un suddenl) b ighten fo about fi(e minutes. 1hen the magnetic sto m st uc2 <a th, fi es sta ted in teleg aph stations due to elect ical a cing in the teleg aph /i es. "he no the n lights, o au o ae bo ealis, /e e epo tedl) seen as fa south as *lo ida in the =>. "his fla e eleased @.H times mo e ene g) than the la gest sola fla e of the satellite e a, /hich occu ed in 1+,+. "hat fla e /as st ong enough to cause a po/e blac2out in ]uebec, #anada. Jo/, scientists ha(e calculated the o'one depletion f om the 1,H+ sola fla e fo the fi st time b) stud)ing chemical deposits in % eenland ice co es. 0cid ain "he deposits /e e laid do/n afte the fla e set off a se ies of eactions in <a th6s atmosphe e. *o oughl) t/o da)s afte the fla e, high.ene g) p otons ente ed the atmosphe e th ough the pola egions, channelled the e b) the planet6s magnetic field lines. "he p otons ionised nit ogen and oD)gen molecules in the atmosphe e, /hich then fo med nit ogen oDides. "he nit ogen oDides in tu n eacted /ith o'one . a molecule made up of th ee oD)gen atoms, b ea2ing it into oD)gen molecules and atomic oD)gen. "his b ea2do/n caused global atmosphe ic o'one le(els to d op b) HI. 3n compa ison, chlo ofluo oca bons (#*#s$ and othe chemicals ha(e depleted the le(els b) about 3I in ecent )ea s, sa)s team membe 0d ian Melott, a ph)sicist at the =ni(e sit) of Nansas in La/ ence, =>. Co/e(e , unli2e #*#s and othe o'one.depleting chemicals, /hich can pe sist in the atmosphe e fo some time, the fla e.induced o'one thinning p obabl) lasted fo 4ust fou )ea s, the esea che s epo t. "hat is because the nit ogen oDides that cause the depletion e(entuall) ain do/n /ith /ate o ice. 3ndeed, it /as this acid ain that /as e(entuall) eco ded in the ice co es. >2in cance 3f such a supe fla e occu ed toda), it /ould li2el) ha(e an e(en g eate effect on the atmosphe e, since the o'one la)e is al ead) depleted due to #*#s and othe human.made chemicals.

2F

Georgetown 2011-12 [File Name] Alt 'a"se- ;ol anoes 0ill the o.one la#er

[Name]

Folcanoes pla) an inte esting ole in the dest uction of o'one. *o instance, h)d ogen chlo ide, a common (olcanic gas, efficientl) dest o)s o'oneB ho/e(e , it dissol(es eadil) in /ate . >o most (olcanic h)d ogen chlo ide is /ashed out b) ain befo e it has the oppo tunit) to each and eact /ith the p otecti(e st atosphe ic o'one la)e . 8n the othe hand, significant o'one loss /as obse (ed in the st atosphe e afte the de(astating 1++1 e uption of Mt. Pinatubo (Philippines$, /hich p oduced a plume that ose to 35 2m, /ell into the st atosphe e. 0lthough measu ements found no inc ease in st atosphe ic chlo ine, the e uption pla)ed an indi ect ole in educing o'one le(els. Pa ticles fo med f om the e uption p o(ided su faces upon /hich chemical eactions too2 place. "he pa ticles themsel(es do not cont ibute to o'one dest uction, but the) inte act /ith chlo ine. and b omine.bea ing compounds f om human.made chemicals, allo/ing inc eased o'one depletion. *o tunatel), (olcanic pa ticles ta2e onl) t/o o th ee )ea s to settle out of the st atosphe e, so thei effects on o'one depletion a e sho t.li(ed. 0 ecent disco(e ) suggests that (olcanoes ma) cont ibute to o'one depletion in an additional /a). "he eacti(e chemical b omine oDide (E 8$ has been measu ed in a numbe of (olcanic plumes a ound the globe. "he E 8 is li2el) fo med in the plume do/n/ind of a (olcano b) eactions that occu bet/een b omine species, /hich a e p esent in high.tempe atu e (olcanic gases, and o'one. 1hile b omine is nea l) 100 times less abundant than chlo ine, it is about 10 times mo e effecti(e in depleting o'one. Folcanoes a e potentiall) a (e ) impo tant sou ce of atmosphe ic b omine. 8the natu al sou ces include ce tain b ine /ells, the :ead >ea, and ocean /ate s. "he b omine emitted f om (olcanoes is li2el) la ge enough to cause local o'one depletion and affect st atosphe ic chemist ). <stimates suggest that (olcanoes account fo 1 to H pe cent of o'one damage, /ith 1H to 20 pe cent f om othe natu al sou ces, and a /hopping -H to ,H pe cent due to human acti(it). 0s the o'one la)e eco(e s due to est ictions on human.made o'one.depleting chemicals, futu e (olcanic e uptions /ill cause fluctuations in the eco(e ) p ocess th ough di ect and indi ect cont ibutions. 0lthough E 8 has )et to be detected in the Nilauea plume, it is li2el) that the (olcano in ou bac2)a d pla)s a ole in atmosphe ic o'one chemist ).

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Georgetown 2011-12 [File Name]

[Name]

Alt 'a"ses- 'limate hange 0ills &lan0ton *erlman 0C (:a(id, #h onicle >cience <dito , Jo(embe 21, 200,, :eath bloom of plan2ton a
/a ning on /a ming! htt&422arti les$s%gate$ om2200C-11-212news21F12C313B1Bsea-i e-high-ar ti &h#to&lan0ton "#$ Fanishing 0 ctic sea ice b ought on b) climate change is causing the c uciall) impo tant mic oscopic ma ine plants called ph)toplan2ton to bloom eDplosi(el) and die a/a) as ne(e befo e, a phenomenon that is li2el) to c eate ha(oc among mig ato ) c eatu es that el) on the ocean fo food, >tanfo d scientists ha(e found. 0 fe/ o ganisms ma) benefit f om this dis uption of the 0 ctic6s f agile ecolog), but a (a iet) of animals, f om g a) /hales to seabi ds, /ill suffe , said >tanfo d biological oceanog aphe Ne(in 7. 0 igo. O3t6s all a Auestion of timing.O 0 igo said. O3f mig ato ) animals each the 0 ctic and find the ph)toplan2ton6s gone, the)6ll ha(e missed the boat.O Ph)toplan2ton th oughout the /o ld6s oceans is the c ucial nut ient at the base of the food /eb on /hich all ma ine life dependsB /hen it6s plentiful, life th i(es and /hen it6s gone, ma ine life is impossible. >ponso ed Lin2s 0 igo and his colleagues gathe ed 10 )ea s of obse (ations f om siD J0>0 satellites to stud) changes in the e(idence of chlo oph)ll . a 2e) to measu ing the annual abundance and disappea ance of ph)toplan2ton blooms . at the su face of the oceans. "he satellite net/o 2 has also eco ded the )ea l) appea ance and disappea ance of (ast eDpanses of sea ice and the inc easing a eas of open ocean all a ound the 0 ctic, an indication of ho/ climate change is ta2ing hold in the no the n eaches of the globe. 0 epo t of thei findings is to appea in the cu ent issue of the 4ou nal %eoph)sical 7esea ch Lette s. =n/elcome changes "he annual deep f ee'e that has co(e ed much of the no the n seas /ith ice a ound the pola egions /as once a egula e(ent, but /hat has been no mal fo millennia in the Cigh 0 ctic is no longe the case. 0s global climate change has /a med the /o ld6s oceans, /a me /ate has mo(ed into the f igid 0 ctic, causing changes in the once. egula appea ance and disappea ance of sea ice o(e (ast a eas. "he esult is a shift in /hen eDplosi(e blooms of ph)toplan2ton appea and disappea , 0 igo6s team has found. O3t6s a compleD s)stem,O 0 igo said in an inte (ie/, Obut as the changes in ice co(e th o/ the timing of ph)toplan2ton abundance off, then the bi ds and animals /hose b ains ha(e long been p og ammed to mig ate no th at specific times of the )ea /ill ha(e missed the boat if the e6s no nou ishment fo them /hen the) get the e.O

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[Name]

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Georgetown 2011-12 [File Name]

[Name]

T"rn - +; ra#s essential %or &lants to li!e 9:ANN9)9S et al$ 02 ( :aphne, :epa tment of Jatu al P oducts and Eiotechnolog), Medite anean
0g onomic 3nstitute of #hania, LLJ:0 E8JJ<7, :epa tment of Eotan), "he =ni(e sit) of 7eading and #C73>"8PC<7 E. J8CJ>8J, :epa tment of Eotan), "he =ni(e sit) of 7eading, =F E is 7eAui ed fo Jo mal :e(elopment of 8il %lands in 8cimum basilicum L. (>/eet Easil$! htt&422aob$o(%ord7o"rnals$org2 ontent2802?2?53$abstra tHsidIb%0%2%3a-b88d-?1 d-b51?C5F2bF5a8a15 "#$ Plants of 8cimum basilicum L. g o/n unde glass /e e eDposed to sho t t eatments /ith supplementa ) =FE. "he effect of =FE on (olatile essential oil content /as anal)sed and compa ed /ith mo phological effects on the peltate and capitate glandula t ichomes. 3n the absence of =FE, both peltate and capitate glands /e e incompletel) de(eloped in both matu e and de(eloping lea(es, the oil sacs being / in2led and onl) pa tiall) filled. =FE /as found to ha(e t/o main effects on the glandula t ichomes. :u ing the fi st 5 d of t eatment, both peltate and capitate glands filled and thei mo pholog) eflected thei ano mal matu e de(elopment as epo ted in the lite atu e. :u ing the follo/ing da)s the e /as a la ge inc ease in the numbe of b o2en oil sacs among the peltate glands as the matu e glands b o2e open, eleasing (olatiles. Jeithe the numbe of glands no the Aualitati(e o Auantitati(e composition of the (olatiles /as affected b) =FE. "he e seems to be a eAui ement fo =FE fo the filling of the glandula t ichomes of basil.

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