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ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION (ADR) Arthur P.

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OVERVIEW History of ADR 1950 Civil Code 1953 Domestic Arbitration Law (DAR) This law is merely a law on domestic arbitration. (Autea) The remedies available to the parties will depend whether the arbitration is domestic or international. Also, the enforcement of he outcome of the arbitration is different. (Autea) 1958 New York Convention This convention is about the recognition and enforcement of foreign arbitration. For contracting parties, they are bound by foreign arbitral awards rendered in any of the foreign states. (Autea) 1976 UNCITRAL Arbitration Rule 1985 UNCITRAL Model Law (Model Law) The Philippines follow the 1985 version of the Model Law; not its updated version. (Autea)

2004 Alternative Dispute Resolution Act (ADRA) This law is covers both domestic and international arbitration. It provides that international commercial arbitration in the Philippines shall be governed by the rules on the law of international commercial arbitration. 2009 Special ADR Rules (SAR) This covered the gaps found in DAR and ADRA.

Concept of ADR "ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION System" means any process or procedure used to resolve a dispute or controversy, other than by adjudication of a presiding judge of a court or an officer of a government agency, as defined in this Act, in which a neutral third party participates to assist in the resolution of issues, which includes arbitration, mediation, conciliation, early neutral evaluation, mini-trial, or any combination thereof. (Sec. 3(a), ADRA) Examples of ADR "ARBITRATION" See Arbitration in General. Arbitration is always consensual. Parties cannot be forced into arbitration but once a contract is signed the parties are bound by it because
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ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION (ADR) Arthur P. Autea

obligations arising from contracts have the force of law between the contracting parties. However, although the law provides such, this must still be invoked. (Autea) Also, arbitration is confidential unless there is a waiver of parties. (Autea) It must be noted that the award of an arbitrator is binding on the parties. (Autea) "MEDIATION" means a voluntary process in which a mediator, selected by the disputing parties, facilitates communication and negotiation, and assist the parties in reaching a voluntary agreement regarding a dispute. (Sec. 3(q), ADRA) Unlike arbitration, the resolution of the mediator is not binding on the parites. However, there is such a thing called mediated settlement agreement which necessarily becomes binding on the parites. (Autea) The term "mediation' shall include conciliation. (Sec. 7, ADRA) "MEDIATION-ARBITRATION" or Med-Arb is a step dispute resolution process involving both mediation and arbitration. (Sec. 3(t), ADRA) "EARLY NEUTRAL EVALUATION" means an ADR process wherein parties and their lawyers are brought together early in a pre-trial phase to
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present summaries of their cases and receive a nonbinding assessment by an experienced, neutral person, with expertise in the subject in the substance of the dispute. (Sec. 3(n), ADRA) "MINI-TRIAL" means a structured dispute resolution method in which the merits of a case are argued before a panel comprising senior decision makers with or without the presence of a neutral third person after which the parties seek a negotiated settlement. (Sec. 3(u), ADRA) Party Autonomy Party autonomy is the freedom of the party to make their own arrangements to resolve their disputes. (Sec. 2, ADRA) It is the freedom of the parties to determine the rules/laws governing the mode of resolving their dispute. (Autea) This is what distinguishes conventional litigation. (Autea) Arbitration vs. Litigation ARBITRATION private & confidential parties may select arbitrator, unless the parties fail to agree What is important is that the parties were given the opportunity to agree
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arbitration

from

LITIGATION public parties cannot agree on the presiding officer because the judge is raffled

ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION (ADR) Arthur P. Autea

on the arbitrator. (Autea) parties can select the governing law that will determine their substantive rights procedure depends on the agreement formal offer of evidence is generally submitted at the beginning venue depends on the agreement

Philippine law governs unless there a choice of law stipulation in the contract Rule of Court applies

their official duties, unless there is a clear showing of bad faith, malice or gross negligence.] (Sec. 5, ADRA; Sec. 38(1), Administrative Code) An arbitrator has the same status as a RTC Judge. (Autea) Flowchart of Arbitration Arbitration Agreement Dispute Commencement of Arbitration

formal offer of evidence is only submitted at the end as a rule, Rules of Court determine the venue but it may also depend on the agreement submission to the submission to the process is consensual process is not consensual Claimant v. Respondent Plaintiff v. Defendant / Petitioner v. Respondent Arbitrator Judge Stenographer Court Reporter Award / Final Award / Judgment / Final Interim Award Judgment / Interlocutory Order Nature of Liability of ADR Providers and Practitioners The ADR providers and practitioners [shall not be civilly liable for acts done in the performance of

Selection of Arbitrators
Conduct of Arbitration Proceedigs Preliminary Conference Submission of Statements Presentation of Witnesses Submission of Memorandum Arbitral Award

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ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION (ADR) Arthur P. Autea

Ways to be Bound to Arbtration 1) sign a document with an arbitration clause 2) join an organization with its own rules saying that any dispute is to be resolved through arbitration 3) step into the shoes of a predecessor who was bound to arbitration 4) agree to be a surety Ad Hoc vs. Institutional Arbitration AD HOC INSTITUTIONAL Parties will stipulate the Parties will submit the rules governing the dispute to an institution arbitration proceedings. which has predetermined rules governing the arbitration proceedings. Arbitration is deemed Arbitration is deemed commenced upon commenced upon service of demand for notice of the institution arbitration. to the respondent of the claimants request for arbitration with the institution. For domestic In default of the arbitration, the DAL and agreement of the SAR will apply; for parties, institutions

international, Law will apply.

Model have their own rules that the parties can adopt.

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ARBITRATION AGREEMENT IS A CONTRACT Arbitration Agreement Agreement vs. Submission

resolve a dispute by rendering an award. (Sec. 3(d), ADRA) The elements of arbitration, as enumerated by Sec. 3(a) of the ADRA, are: 1) one or more arbitrators; 2) appointed in accordance with: a) the agreement of the parties; or b) rules promulgated pursuant to ADRA; and 3) resolution of dispute by rendering an award. (Autea) ARBITRATION AGREEMENT is an agreement by the parties to submit to arbitration all or certain disputes which have arisen or which may arise between them in respect of a defined legal relationship, whether contractual or not. An arbitration agreement may be in the form or an arbitration clause in a contract or in the form of a separate agreement. (Art. 7(1), Model Law) This definition combines the concept of arbitration agreement and submission agreement. (Autea) Obligations arising from contracts have the force of law between the contracting parties and should be complied with in good faith. (Art. 1159, CC) The principle in this provision is known as the principle of autonomy of will. It dictates that the parties can stipulate anything, provided that the terms of the contract are not contrary to law, public policy, or pubic order. (Autea)
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ARBITRATION AGREEMENT An agreement that determines the rights, obligations, procedure and rules. It may be in a separate agreement or may be a clause in a contract. A party may invoke this at any time before pretrial, after which, both parties must invoke it. This comes before the dispute.

SUBMISSION AGREEMENT An agreement to submit the dispute to arbitration.

The parties may enter into this at any time, even after pre-trial. The dispute comes before this agreement to arbitrate.

The distinction lies in the time when the dispute arises or when the agreement was made. (Autea) Arbitration in General "ARBITRATION" means a voluntary dispute resolution process in which one or more arbitrators, appointed in accordance with the agreement of the parties, or rules promulgated pursuant to this Act,

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ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION (ADR) Arthur P. Autea

Maria Luisa Park vs. Almendras (2009) The agreement to submit all disputes to arbitration is a contract. As such, the arbitration agreement binds the parties thereto, as well as their assigns and heirs. Mere exchange of correspondence will not suffice much less satisfy the requirement of arbitration. Arbitration being the mode of settlement between the parties expressly provided for in their by-laws, the same should be respected. Unless an arbitration agreement is such as absolutely to close the doors of the courts against the parties, the courts should look with favor upon such amicable arrangements. Commentary: In this case, neither of the parties invoked the arbitration clause. As mentioned earlier, the arbitration clause must be invoked before the parties are bound to go through the arbitration process. More importantly, the arbitration clause should not be invoked to dismiss the case; instead, it should be invoked to go into the arbitration process. The proper remedy in this case should have been a motion for suspension of the case. (Autea) It must be noted that the fact that a judgment has been rendered is not a bar to proceed to arbitration. (Autea) Exclusions from ADR
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The following matter cannot be the subject of commercial arbitration: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) labor disputes; civil status of persons; validity of marriage; any ground for legal separation; jurisdiction of courts; future legitime; criminal liability; and those which by law cannot be compromised. (Sec. 6, ADRA)

Rescission/Resolution The injured party may choose between the fulfillment and the rescission of the obligation, with the payment of damages in either case. He may also seek rescission, even after he has chosen fulfillment, if the latter should become impossible. (Art. 1191, CC) Korea Technologies Co., Ltd. v. Lerma (2008) Being bound to the contract of arbitration, a party may not unilaterally rescind or terminate the contract for whatever cause without first resorting to arbitration. Commentary: Pursuant to this case, if a contract contains an arbitration clause, a party can only rescind the contract through the arbitration process. On the other hand, if the contract does not contain
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an arbitration clause, a party can unilaterally rescind the contract under Article 1191. (Autea)

DISTINCTION BETWEEN DOMESTIC AND INTERNATIONAL/FOREIGN ARBITRATION DOMESTIC FOREIGN Arbitration where the Arbitration where the agreed place of arbitration agreed place of arbitration is WITHIN the Philippines. is OUTSIDE the Philippines. (Rule 1.11, SAR) Award may be vacated by a Award cannot be set aside court. by a court. DOMESTIC INTERNATIONAL Arbitration that is not An arbitration is international as defined in international if: Article (3) of the Model Law. (Sec. 32, ADRA) a) The parties to an arbitration agreement have, at the time of the conclusion of that agreement, their places of business in different States; or b) One of the following places is situated outside the State in which the parties have their places of business: 1) The place of arbitration if determined in, or

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pursuant to, the arbitration agreement; 2) Any place where a substantial part of the obligations of the commercial relationship is to be performed or the place with which the subject-matter of the dispute is most closely connected; or c) The parties have expressly agreed that the subject matter of the arbitration agreement relates to more than one country. (Art. 1(3), Model Law) To set aside a domestic international award, the period to set it aside in not later than three (3) months from the date the applicant received the award, otherwise the court shall recognize and enforce it.

parties involved and (3) obligation involved. The remedies available to the parties will depend on the kind of arbitration. (Autea) Illustration: PLDT (PH) and Globe (PH) had a dispute for arbitration, and the place of arbitration is also in the Philippines, it will be considered as a domestic arbitration. However, if the seat of arbitration is in a country other than the Philippines, it will be considered as a foreign arbitration pursuant to Rule 1.11 of the Special ADR Rules. If the same parties had a dispute involving an obligation that is to be performed outside of the Philippines, regardless of the seat of arbitration, it will be considered as an international arbitration, pursuant to Art. 1(3) of the UNCITRAL Model Law. In another scenario, if PLDT and AT&T (US) had a dispute and the seat of arbitration is in the Philippines, it will be considered as an international arbitration. Although this will be an international arbitration, it is not a foreign arbitration because the seat of arbitration remains in the Philippines. If the same parties had a dispute and the place of arbitration is outside of the Philippines, then it will be an international and foreign arbitration. If two international entities, SingTel (SG) and AT&T (US) had a dispute and the place of arbitration is set in another country other than the Philippines, it will be a purely foreign arbitration in the point of view of Philippine laws.

To set aside a domestic (non-intenational) award, the period to vacate the award is within thirty (30) days from the date of service upon the applicant, the award is subject to confirmation by the court.

To determine whether the arbitration is domestic, international or foreign, the (1) place of arbitration, (2)
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FORMAL REQUISITES A contract to arbitrate a controversy thereafter arising between the parties, as well as a submission to arbitrate an existing controversy shall be in writing and subscribed by the party sought to be charged, or by his lawful agent. (Sec. 4, DAR) The arbitration agreement shall be in writing. It is in writing if: a) it is contained in a document signed by the parties; b) its content is recorded in any form, whether or not the arbitration agreement or contract has been concluded orally, by conduct, or by other means; c) it is contained in an exchange of statements of claim and defense in which the existence of an agreement is alleged by one party and not denied by the other; or It is conceivable to have an arbitration agreement although there is no physical evidence, such as in this instance. (Autea) d) it is contained in a document containing an arbitration clause and that document is referred to in a contract, provided that the reference is made to make the clause part of the contract. (Art. 7, Model Law)

The requirement that an arbitration agreement be in writing is met by an electronic communication if the information contained therein is accessible so as to be useable for subsequent reference. (Art. 7(4), Model Law) BF Corporation v. Court of Appeals (1998) The formal requirements of an agreement to arbitrate are the following: (a) it must be in writing and (b) it must be subscribed by the parties or their representatives. To subscribe means to write underneath, as ones name; to sign at the end of a document. That word may sometimes be construed to mean to give consent to or to attest. The Court finds that these requisites were complied with in the contract in question. The Articles of Agreement, which incorporates all the other contracts and agreements between the parties, was signed by representatives of both parties and duly notarized. The failure of the private respondents representative to initial to Condition of Contract would therefor not affect the compliance with the formal requirements for arbitration agreements because that particular portion of the covenants between the parties was included by reference in the Articles of Agreement.

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ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION (ADR) Arthur P. Autea

PRINCIPLE OF SEPARABILITY The principle of separability of the arbitration clause, which means that said clause shall be treated as an agreement independent of the other terms of the contract of which it forms part. A decision that the contract is null and void shall not entail ipso jure the invalidity of the arbitration clause. (Rule 2.2(B), SAR; Art. 16, Model Law) Gonzales v. Climax Mining (2007) The doctrine of separability enunciates that an arbitration agreement is independent of the main contract. The arbitration agreement is to be treated as a separate agreement and the arbitration agreement does not automatically terminate when the contract of which it is part comes to an end. The separability of the arbitration agreement is especially agreement to the determination of whether the invalidity of the main contract also nullifies the arbitration clause. Indeed, the doctrine denotes that the invalidity of the main contract does not affect the validity of the arbitration agreement. Irrespective of the fact that the main contract is invalid, the arbitration clause/agreement still remains valid and enforceable. Commentary: Applying the Gonzales ruling, an arbitration agreement which forms part of the main contract shall not be regarded as invalid or non-existent just because the main contract is invalid or did not come into existence, since the arbitration agreement shall be treated as a separate agreement independent of the main contract. To reiterate a contrary ruling would suggest that a party's mere repudiation of the main contract is sufficient to avoid
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arbitration and that is exactly the situation that the separability doctrine sought to avoid. Thus, we find that even the party who has repudiated the main contract is not prevented from enforcing its arbitration clause. (Cargill vs. San Fernando, 2011)

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COMMENCEMENT OF ARBITRATION The beginning of arbitration is the agreement and service of the demand to the other party commences arbitration. (Autea) An arbitration shall be instituted by: (a) In the case of a contract to arbitrate future controversies by the service by either party upon the other of a demand for arbitration in accordance with the contract. Such demand shall be set forth the nature of the controversy, the amount involved, if any, and the relief sought, together with a true copy of the contract providing for arbitration. The demand shall be served upon any party either in person or by registered mail. In the event that the contract between the parties provides for the appointment of a single arbitrator, the demand shall be set forth a specific time within which the parties shall agree upon such arbitrator. If the contract between the parties provides for the appointment of three arbitrators, one to be selected by each party, the demand shall name the arbitrator appointed by the party making the demand; and shall require that the party upon whom the demand is made shall within fifteen days after receipt thereof advise in writing the party making such demand of the name of the person appointed by the second party; such notice shall require that the two arbitrators so appointed must agree upon the third arbitrator within ten days from the date of such notice. (b) In the event that one party defaults in answering the demand, the aggrieved party may file with the Clerk of the
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Court of First Instance having jurisdiction over the parties, a copy of the demand for arbitration under the contract to arbitrate, with a notice that the original demand was sent by registered mail or delivered in person to the party against whom the claim is asserted. Such demand shall set forth the nature of the controversy, the amount involved, if any, and the relief sought, and shall be accompanied by a true copy of the contract providing for arbitration. (c) In the case of the submission of an existing controversy by the filing with the Clerk of the [Regional Trial Court] having jurisdiction, of the submission agreement, setting forth the nature of the controversy, and the amount involved, if any. Such submission may be filed by any party and shall be duly executed by both parties. (d) In the event that one party neglects, fails or refuses to arbitrate under a submission agreement, the aggrieved party shall follow the procedure prescribed in subparagraphs (a) and (b) of this section. (Sec. 5, DAR) Under Sec. 5 of DAR, adhoc arbitration is commenced by a demand for arbitration which contains the following: 1) amount involved (if any); 2) relief sought; 3) nature of controversy; 4) appointment of arbitrator (nominee); and 5) attachments (i.e. true copy of the contract with arbitration agreement). (Autea) A party aggrieved by the failure, neglect or refusal of another to perform under an agreement in writing providing for arbitration may petition the court for an order directing
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that such arbitration proceed in the manner provided for in such agreement. Five days notice in writing of the hearing of such application shall be served either personally or by registered mail upon the party in default. The court shall hear the parties, and upon being satisfied that the making of the agreement or such failure to comply therewith is not in issue, shall make an order directing the parties to proceed to arbitration in accordance with the terms of the agreement. If the making of the agreement or default be in issue the court shall proceed to summarily hear such issue. If the finding be that no agreement in writing providing for arbitration was made, or that there is no default in the proceeding thereunder, the proceeding shall be dismissed. If the finding be that a written provision for arbitration was made and there is a default in proceeding thereunder, an order shall be made summarily directing the parties to proceed with the arbitration in accordance with the terms thereof. The court shall decide all motions, petitions or applications filed under the provisions of this Act, within ten days after such motions, petitions, or applications have been heard by it. (Sec. 6, DAR) Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, the arbitral proceedings in respect of a particular dispute commence on the date on which a request for that dispute to be referred to arbitration is received by the respondent. (Art. 21, Model Law)

JUDICIAL RELIEF BEFORE AND AFTER COMMENCEMENT OF ARBITRATION The judicial relief provided in Rule 3, whether resorted to before or after commencement of arbitration, shall apply only when the place of arbitration is in the Philippines. (Rule 3.1, SAR) See and use the Flowchart of Arbitration guide in determining the available judicial relief. BEFORE COMMENCEMENT Any party to an arbitration agreement may petition the appropriate court to determine any question concerning the existence, validity and enforceability of such arbitration agreement. (Rule 3.1, SAR) AFTER COMMENCEMENT Any party to arbitration may petition the appropriate court for judicial relief from the ruling of the arbitral tribunal on a preliminary question upholding or declining its jurisdiction. Should the ruling of the arbitral tribunal declining its jurisdiction be reversed by the court, the parties shall be free to replace the arbitrators or any one of them in accordance with the rules that were applicable for the appointment of arbitrator sought to be replaced. (Rule 3.12, SAR) The ruling of the trial court The principle of is only prima facie, meaning competence-competence
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arbitration can still commence. The petition for judicial determination of the existence, validity and/or enforceability of an arbitration agreement may be filed at any time prior to the commencement of arbitration. Despite the pendency of the petition provided herein, arbitral proceedings may nevertheless be commenced and continue to the rendition of an award, while the issue is pending before the court. (Rule 3.3, SAR)

applies. The petition may be filed within thirty (30) days after having received notice of that ruling by the arbitral tribunal. (Rule 3.13, SAR)

Such prima facie determination will not, however, prejudice the right of any party to raise the issue of the existence, validity and enforceability of the arbitration agreement before the arbitral tribunal or the court in an action to vacate or set aside the arbitral award. In the latter case, the courts review of the arbitral tribunals ruling upholding the existence, validity or enforceability of the arbitration agreement shall no longer be limited to a mere prima facie determination of such issue or issues as prescribed in this Rule, but shall be a full review of such issue or issues with due regard, however, to the standard for review for arbitral awards prescribed in these Special ADR Rules. (Rule 3.11, SAR) After Commencement of Arbitration The court shall not enjoin the arbitration proceedings during the pendency of the petition. Judicial recourse to the court shall not prevent the arbitral tribunal from continuing the proceedings and rendering its award. (Rule 3.18(B), SAR) The aggrieved party may file a motion for reconsideration of the order of the court. The decision of the court shall, however, not be subject to appeal. The ruling of the court affirming the arbitral tribunals jurisdiction shall not be subject to a petition for certiorari. The ruling of the court that the arbitral tribunal has no jurisdiction may be the subject of a petition for certiorari. (Rule 3.19, SAR)

Before Commencement of Arbitration In resolving the petition, the court must exercise judicial restraint in accordance with the policy set forth in Rule 2.4, deferring to the competence or jurisdiction of the arbitral tribunal to rule on its competence or jurisdiction. (Rule 3.8, SAR) A prima facie determination by the court upholding the existence, validity or enforceability of an arbitration agreement shall not be subject to a motion for reconsideration, appeal or certiorari.

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If the arbitral tribunal renders a final arbitral award and the Court has not rendered a decision on the petition from the arbitral tribunals preliminary ruling affirming its jurisdiction, that petition shall become ipso facto moot and academic and shall be dismissed by the Regional Trial Court. The dismissal shall be without prejudice to the right of the aggrieved party to raise the same issue in a timely petition to vacate or set aside the award. (Rule 3.21, SAR)

ARBITRATORS Appointment of Arbitrators The court shall act as Appointing Authority only in the following instances: a) Where any of the parties in an institutional arbitration failed or refused to appoint an arbitrator or when the parties have failed to reach an agreement on the sole arbitrator (in an arbitration before a sole arbitrator) or when the two designated arbitrators have failed to reach an agreement on the third or presiding arbitrator (in an arbitration before a panel of three arbitrators), and the institution under whose rules arbitration is to be conducted fails or is unable to perform its duty as appointing authority within a reasonable time from receipt of the request for appointment; b) In all instances where arbitration is ad hoc and the parties failed to provide a method for appointing or replacing an arbitrator, or substitute arbitrator, or the method agreed upon is ineffective, and the National President of the Integrated Bar of the Philippines (IBP) or his duly authorized representative fails or refuses to act within such period as may be allowed under the pertinent rules of the IBP or within such period as may be agreed upon by the parties, or in the absence thereof, within thirty (30) days from receipt of such request for appointment;

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c) Where the parties agreed that their dispute shall be resolved by three arbitrators but no method of appointing those arbitrators has been agreed upon, each party shall appoint one arbitrator and the two arbitrators thus appointed shall appoint a third arbitrator. If a party fails to appoint his arbitrator within thirty (30) days of receipt of a request to do so from the other party, or if the two arbitrators fail to agree on the third arbitrator within a reasonable time from their appointment, the appointment shall be made by the Appointing Authority. If the latter fails or refuses to act or appoint an arbitrator within a reasonable time from receipt of the request to do so, any party or the appointed arbitrator/s may request the court to appoint an arbitrator or the third arbitrator as the case may be. (Rule 6.1, SAR) In appointing an arbitration, the first step is to check the agreement for the number of arbitrators, qualifications of each and other terms. The next step is to determine whether the arbitration is ad hoc or institutional. If it is institutional, the appointing authority will only step in if the parties failed to agree on who to appoint as arbitrator(s). The appointing authority is whoever is designated in the contract. If it is institutional, the default appointing authority is the IBP President. (Autea) The third instance is distinguished from the first two because the only thing that is clear in the third instance is that there is an appointing authority but
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it is unclear if the arbitration is institutional or adhoc. This is under the assumption that the appointing authority agreed to be one. (Autea) Only when all three instances should fail will the court step in. (Autea) At any time after the petition is filed and before the court makes an appointment, it shall also dismiss the petition upon being informed that the Appointing Authority has already made the appointment. (Rule 6.7, SAR) If the court appoints an arbitrator, the order appointing an arbitrator shall be immediately executory and shall not be the subject of a motion for reconsideration, appeal or certiorari. An order of the court denying the petition for appointment of an arbitrator may, however, be the subject of a motion for reconsideration, appeal or certiorari. (Rule 6.9, SAR) If, in the contract for arbitration or in the submission described in section two, provision is made for a method of naming or appointing an arbitrator or arbitrators, such method shall be followed; but if no method be provided therein the [Regional Trial Court] shall designate an arbitrator or arbitrators. The [Regional Trial Court] shall appoint an arbitrator or arbitrators, as the case may be, in the following instances: (a) If the parties to the contract or submission are unable to agree upon a single arbitrator; or
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(b) If an arbitrator appointed by the parties is unwilling or unable to serve, and his successor has not been appointed in the manner in which he was appointed; or (c) If either party to the contract fails or refuses to name his arbitrator within fifteen days after receipt of the demand for arbitration; or (d) If the arbitrators appointed by each party to the contract, or appointed by one party to the contract and by the proper Court, shall fail to agree upon or to select the third arbitrator. (e) The court shall, in its discretion appoint one or three arbitrators, according to the importance of the controversy involved in any of the preceding cases in which the agreement is silent as to the number of arbitrators. (f) Arbitrators appointed under this section shall either accept or decline their appointments within seven days of the receipt of their appointments. In case of declination or the failure of an arbitrator or arbitrators to duly accept their appointments the parties or the court, as the case may be, shall proceed to appoint a substitute or substitutes for the arbitrator or arbitrators who decline or failed to accept his or their appointments. (Sec. 8, DAL) Where a submission or contract provides that two or more arbitrators therein designated or to be thereafter appointed by the parties, may select or appoint a person as an additional arbitrator, the selection or appointment must be in writing. Such additional arbitrator must sit with the original arbitrators upon the hearing. (Sec. 9, DAL)
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Any person appointed to serve as an arbitrator must be of legal age, in full-enjoyment of his civil rights and know how to read and write. No person appointed to served as an arbitrator shall be related by blood or marriage within the sixth degree to either party to the controversy. No person shall serve as an arbitrator in any proceeding if he has or has had financial, fiduciary or other interest in the controversy or cause to be decided or in the result of the proceeding, or has any personal bias, which might prejudice the right of any party to a fair and impartial award. No party shall select as an arbitrator any person to act as his champion or to advocate his cause. If, after appointment but before or during hearing, a person appointed to serve as an arbitrator shall discover any circumstances likely to create a presumption of bias, or which he believes might disqualify him as an impartial arbitrator, the arbitrator shall immediately disclose such information to the parties. Thereafter the parties may agree in writing: (a) to waive the presumptive disqualifying circumstances; or (b) to declare the office of such arbitrator vacant. Any such vacancy shall be filled in the same manner as the original appointment was made. (Sec. 10, DAL) The universal requirement is that an arbitrator must always be impartial and independent. (Autea)

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Qualifications and disqualifications are grounds to challenge an arbitrator. It msut be noted that an arbitrator will only be disqualified if he did not disclose his disqualification. (Autea) See Challenge of Arbitrator. No arbitrator shall act as a mediator in any proceeding in which he is acting as arbitrator; and all negotiations towards settlement of the dispute must take place without the presence of the arbitrators. The arbitrators shall have the power to decide only those matters which have been submitted to them. The terms of the award shall be confined to such disputes. The arbitrators shall have the power to assess in their award the expenses of any party against another party, when such assessment shall be deemed necessary. (Sec. 20, DAL) "Appointing Authority" as used in the Model Law shall mean the person or institution named in the arbitration agreement as the appointing authority; or the regular arbitration arbitration institution under whose rules the arbitration is agreed to be conducted. Where the parties have agreed to submit their dispute to institutional arbitration rules, and unless they have agreed to a different procedure, they shall be deemed to have agreed to procedure under such arbitration rules for the selection and appointment of arbitrators. In ad hoc
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arbitration, the default appointment of an arbitrator shall be made by the National President of the Integrated Bar of the Philippines (IBP) or his duly authorized representative. (Sec. 26, ADRA) The functions referred to in Articles 11(3), 11(4), 13(3) and 14(1) of the Model Law shall be performed by the Appointing Authority, unless the latter shall fail or refuse to act within thirty (30) days from receipt of the request in which case the applicant may renew the application with the Court. (Sec. 27, ADRA) Challenge of Arbitrators The counterpart concept of a challenge is a motion to inhibit/disqualification or motion for requsal because in a challenge the party is asking an arbitrator to step down. Compared to a formal motion filed in court, a challenge is just a simple letter. (Autea) Assuming the contract is silent, if you challenge an arbitrator and the challenged arbitrator contests the challenge, the tribunal (if not sole arbitrator) will have to rule on the challenge. If the tribunal rejects the challenge, the next step is to go to the appointing authority. If unfavorable, then you go to court. (Autea) When an arbitrator is challenged before the arbitral tribunal under the procedure agreed upon by the parties or under the procedure provided for in Article 13 (2) of the Model Law and the challenge is
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not successful, the aggrieved party may request the Appointing Authority to rule on the challenge, and it is only when such Appointing Authority fails or refuses to act on the challenge within such period as may be allowed under the applicable rule or in the absence thereof, within thirty (30) days from receipt of the request, that the aggrieved party may renew the challenge in court. (Rule 7.2, SAR) After hearing, the court shall remove the challenged arbitrator if it finds merit in the petition; otherwise, it shall dismiss the petition. The court shall allow the challenged arbitrator who subsequently agrees to accept the challenge to withdraw as arbitrator. The court shall accept the challenge and remove the arbitrator in the following cases: a. The party or parties who named and appointed the challenged arbitrator agree to the challenge and withdraw the appointment. b. The other arbitrators in the arbitral tribunal agree to the removal of the challenged arbitrator; and c. The challenged arbitrator fails or refuses to submit his comment on the petition or the brief of legal arguments as directed by the court, or in such comment or legal brief, he fails to object to his removal following the challenge. The court shall decide the challenge on the basis of evidence submitted by the parties.
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The court will decide the challenge on the basis of the evidence submitted by the parties in the following instances: a. The other arbitrators in the arbitral tribunal agree to the removal of the challenged arbitrator; and b. If the challenged arbitrator fails or refuses to submit his comment on the petition or the brief of legal arguments as directed by the court, or in such comment or brief of legal arguments, he fails to object to his removal following the challenge. (Rule 7.7, SAR) Any clause giving one of the parties power to choose more arbitrators than the other is void and of no effect. (Art. 2045, CC) See Sec. 10 of DAL. The arbitrators may be challenged only for the reasons mentioned in the preceding section which may have arisen after the arbitration agreement or were unknown at the time of arbitration. The challenge shall be made before them. If they do not yield to the challenge, the challenging party may renew the challenge before the Court of First Instance of the province or city in which the challenged arbitrator, or, any of them, if there be more than one, resides. While the challenging incident is discussed before the court, the hearing
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or arbitration shall be suspended, and it shall be continued immediately after the court has delivered an order on the challenging incident. When a person is approached in connection with his possible appointment as an arbitrator, he shall disclose any circumstances likely to give rise to justifiable doubts as to his impartiality or independence. An arbitrator, from the time of his appointment and throughout the arbitral proceedings, shall without delay disclose any such circumstances to the parties unless they have already been informed of them by him. (Sec. 11, DAL) An arbitrator may be challenged only if circumstances exist that give rise to justifiable doubts as to his impartiality or independence, or if he does not possess qualifications agreed to by the parties. A party may challenge an arbitrator appointed by him, or in whose appointment he has participated, only for reasons of which he becomes aware after the appointment has been made. (Art. 12, Model Law) The parties are free to agree on a procedure for challenging an arbitrator, subject to the provisions of paragraph (3) of this article. Failing such agreement, a party who intends to challenge an arbitrator shall, within fifteen days after becoming aware of the constitution of the arbitral tribunal or after becoming aware of any circumstance referred to in article 12(2), send a
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written statement of the reasons for the challenge to the arbitral tribunal. Unless the challenged arbitrator withdraws from his office or the other party agrees to the challenge, the arbitral tribunal shall decide on the challenge. If a challenge under any procedure agreed upon by the parties or under the procedure of paragraph (2) of this article is not successful, the challenging party may request, within thirty days after having received notice of the decision rejecting the challenge, the court or other authority specified in article 6 to decide on the challenge, which decision shall be subject to no appeal; while such a request is pending, the arbitral tribunal, including the challenged arbitrator, may continue the arbitral proceedings and make an award. (Art. 13, Model Law) Oil and Natural Gas Commission vs. Court of Appeals (1998) The private respondent bewails the presumed bias on the part of the arbitrator who was a former employee of the petitioner. This point deserves scant consideration in view of the following stipulation in the contract: It will be no objection to any such appointment than the arbitrator so appointed is a Commission employer (sic) than he had to deal with the matter to which the supply or contract relates and that in the course of his duties as Commissions employee he had expressed views on all or any of the matter in dispute or difference.
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that arbitrator. (Rule 8.2, SAR) Commentary: If Philippine laws were applied instead of Indian Law, the contract would be void pursuant to Article 2045 of the Civil Code. The challenged arbitrator will be replaced in the same manner on how he was initially appointed. (Autea) Termination of Mandate of Arbitrators As distinguished from a challenge, which is a remedy if the arbitrator is not qualified or is disqualified, termination of mandate is the remedy if the arbitrator can no longer perform his function. Nonetheless, termination of mandate has the same procedure in a challenge. (Autea) Any of the parties to an arbitration may request for the termination of the mandate of an arbitrator where an arbitrator becomes de jure or de facto unable to perform his function or for other reasons fails to act without undue delay and that arbitrator, upon request of any party, fails or refuses to withdraw from his office. (Rule 8.1, SAR) If an arbitrator refuses to withdraw from his office, and subsequently, the Appointing Authority fails or refuses to decide on the termination of the mandate of that arbitrator within such period as may be allowed under the applicable rule or, in the absence thereof, within thirty (30) days from the time the request is brought before him, any party may file with the court a petition to terminate the mandate of
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After hearing, if the court finds merit in the petition, it shall terminate the mandate of the arbitrator who refuses to withdraw from his office; otherwise, it shall dismiss the petition. (Rule 8.6, SAR) Where the mandate of an arbitrator is terminated, or he withdraws from office for any other reason, or because of his mandate is revoked by agreement of the parties or is terminated for any other reason, a substitute arbitrator shall be appointed according to the rules that were applicable to the appointment of the arbitrator being replaced. (Rule 8.8, SAR) If an arbitrator becomes de jure or de facto unable to perform his functions or for other reasons fails to act without undue delay, his mandate terminates if he withdraws from his office or if the parties agree on the termination. Otherwise, if a controversy remains concerning any of these grounds, any party may request the court or other authority specified in article 6 to decide on the termination of the mandate, which decision shall be subject to no appeal. If, under this article or article 13(2), an arbitrator withdraws from his office or a party agrees to the termination of the mandate of an arbitrator, this does not imply acceptance of the validity of any ground referred to in this article or article 12(2). (Art. 14, Model Law)

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ARBITRAL TRIBUNAL AND ARBITRATION PROCEEDINGS Competence-Competence Principle The counterpart of this principle in conventional litigation is when the court would dismiss the case based on the ground of lack of jurisdiction. The jurisdiction of the arbitral tribunal is defined in the arbitration agreement. Thus, it shall be the arbitral tribunal who can determine whether or not the arbitration agreement is existent or valid. (Autea) The arbitral tribunal may rule on its own jurisdiction, including any objections with respect to the existence or validity of the arbitration agreement. A plea that the arbitral tribunal does not have jurisdiction shall be raised not later than the submission of the statement of defense. A party is not precluded from raising such a plea by the fact that he has appointed, or participated in the appointment of, an arbitrator. A plea that the arbitral tribunal is exceeding the scope of its authority shall be raised as soon as the matter alleged to be beyond the scope of its authority is raised during the arbitral proceedings. The arbitral tribunal may, in either case, admit a later plea if it considers the delay justified. The arbitral tribunal may rule on a plea referred to in paragraph (2) of this article either as a preliminary question or in an award on the merits. If
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the arbitral tribunal rules as a preliminary question that it has jurisdiction, any party may request, within thirty days after having received notice of that ruling, the court specified in article 6 to decide the matter, which decision shall be subject to no appeal; while such a request is pending, the arbitral tribunal may continue the arbitral proceedings and make an award. (Art. 16, Model Law) Principle of competence-competence means that the arbitral tribunal may initially rule on its own jurisdiction, including any objections with respect to the existence or validity of the arbitration agreement or any condition precedent to the filing of a request for arbitration. (2.2(B), SAR) The arbitral tribunal shall be accorded the first opportunity or competence to rule on the issue of whether or not it has the competence or jurisdiction to decide a dispute submitted to it for decision, including any objection with respect to the existence or validity of the arbitration agreement. When a court is asked to rule upon issue/s affecting the competence or jurisdiction of an arbitral tribunal in a dispute brought before it, either before or after the arbitral tribunal is constituted, the court must exercise judicial restraint and defer to the competence or jurisdiction of the arbitral tribunal by allowing the arbitral tribunal the first opportunity to rule upon such issues. Where the court is asked to make a determination of whether the arbitration agreement is null and void, inoperative or incapable of being performed,
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under this policy of judicial restraint, the court must make no more than a prima facie determination of that issue. Unless the court, pursuant to such prima facie determination, concludes that the arbitration agreement is null and void, inoperative or incapable of being performed, the court must suspend the action before it and refer the parties to arbitration pursuant to the arbitration agreement. (Rule 2.4, SAR) The policy behind competence-competence is judicial restraint. Even if there has been no constituted arbitration yet, the court can prima facie rule on the jurisdiction of the arbitration tribunal. This ruling is prima facie because the arbitration tribunal can still reverse it. (Autea) Where the arbitral tribunal defers its ruling on preliminary question regarding its jurisdiction until its final award, the aggrieved party cannot seek judicial relief to question the deferral and must await the final arbitral award before seeking appropriate judicial recourse. A ruling by the arbitral tribunal deferring resolution on the issue of its jurisdiction until final award, shall not be subject to a motion for reconsideration, appeal or a petition for certiorari. (Rule 3.20, SAR) Arbitration Proceedings

In international arbitration conducted in the Philippines, a party may be presented by any person of his choice. Provided that such representative, unless admitted to the practice of law in the Philippines, shall not be authorized to appear as counsel in any Philippine court, or any other quasi-judicial body whether or not such appearance is in relation to the arbitration in which he appears. (Sec. 22, ADRA) Appointing Authority as used in the Model Law shall mean the person or institution named in the arbitration agreement as the appointing authority; or the regular arbitration institution under whose rules the arbitration is agreed to be conducted. Where the parties have agreed to a different procedure, they shall be deemed to have agreed to procedure under such arbitration rules for the selection and appointment of arbitrators. In ad hoc arbitration, the default appointment of an arbitrator shall be made by the National President of the IBP or his duly authorized representative.(Sec. 26, ADRA) The functions referred to in Articles 11(3), 11(4), 13(3) and 14(1) of the Model Law shall be performed by the appointing authority, unless the latter shall fail or refuse to act within thirty (30) days from receipt of the request in which case the applicant may renew the application with the Court. (Sec. 27, ADRA) The parties are free to agree on the place of arbitration. Failing such agreement, the place of
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arbitration shall be in Metro Manila, unless the arbitral tribunal, having regard to the circumstances of the case, including the convenience of the parties shall decide on a different place of arbitration. The arbitral tribunal may, unless otherwise agreed by the parties, meet at any place it considers appropriate for consultation among its members, for hearing witnesses, experts, or the parties, or for inspection of goods, other property or documents. (Sec. 30, ADRA) The parties are free to agree on the language or languages to be used in the arbitral proceedings. Failing such agreement, the language to be used shall be in English in international arbitration, and English or Filipino for domestic arbitration, unless the arbitral tribunal shall determine a different or another language or languages to be used in the proceedings. This agreement or determination, unless otherwise specified therein, shall apply to any written statement by a party, any hearing and any award, decision or other communication by the arbitral tribunal. The arbitral tribunal may order that any documentary evidence shall be accompanied by a translation into the language or languages agreed upon by the parties or determined in accordance with par. 1 of this section. (Sec. 31, ADRA)

The parties shall be treated with equality and each party shall be given a full opportunity of presenting his case. (Art. 18, Model Law) Subject to the provisions of this Law, the parties are free to agree on the procedure to be followed by the arbitral tribunal in conducting the proceedings. Failing such agreement, the arbitral tribunal may subject to the provisions of the Law, conduct the arbitration in such manner as it considers appropriate. The power conferred upon the arbitral tribunal includes the power to determine the admissibility, relevance, materiality and weight of any evidence. (Sec. 19, Model Law) The parties are free to agree on the place of arbitration. Failing such agreement, the place of arbitration shall be determined by the arbitral tribunal having regard to the circumstances of the case, including the convenience of the parties. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1) of this article, the arbitral tribunal may unless otherwise agreed by the parties, meet at any place it considers appropriate for consultation among its members, for hearing witnesses, experts or parties, or for inspection of goods, other property or documents. (Art. 20, Model Law) Within the period of time agreed by the parties or determined by the arbitral tribunal, the claimant shall state the facts supporting his claim the points at issue and the relief or remedy sought, and the
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respondent shall state his defense in respect of these particulars, unless the parties have otherwise agreed as to the required elements of such statements. The parties may submit with their statements all documents they consider to be relevant or may add a reference to the documents or other evidence they will submit. Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, either party may amend or supplement his claim or defense during the course of the arbitral proceedings, unless the arbitral tribunal considers it inappropriate to allow such amendment having regard to the delay in making it. (Art. 23, Model Law) Subject to any contrary agreement by the parties, the arbitral tribunal shall decide whether to hold oral hearings for the presentation of evidence or for oral argument, or whether the proceedings shall be conducted on the basis of documents and other materials. However, unless the parties have agreed that no hearings shall be held, the arbitral tribunal shall hold such hearings at an appropriate stage of the proceedings, if so requested by a party. The parties shall be given sufficient advance notice of any hearing and of any meeting of the arbitral tribunal for the purposes of inspection of goods, other property or documents. All statements, documents or other information supplied to the arbitral tribunal by one party shall be communicated to the other party. Also any expert report or evidentiary document on which the arbitral
Lex Societas (Alvaera & Esguerra)

tribunal may rely in making its decision shall be communicated to the parties. (Art. 24, Model Law) Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, if, without showing sufficient cause: a) the claimant fails to communicate his statement of claim in accordance with article 23(l), the arbitral tribunal shall terminate the proceedings; b) the respondent fails to communicate his statement of defense in accordance with article 23(l), the arbitral tribunal shall continue the proceedings without treating such failure in itself as an admission of the claimants allegations; c) any party fails to appear at a hearing or to produce documentary evidence, the arbitral tribunal may continue the proceedings and make the award on the evidence before it. (Art. 25, Model Law) Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, the arbitral tribunal: a) may appoint one or more experts to report to it on specific issues to be determined by the arbitral tribunal; b) may require a party to give the expert any relevant information to produce, or to provide access to, any relevant documents, goods or other property for his inspection.

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Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, if a party so requests or if the arbitral tribunal considers it necessary, the expert shall, after delivery of his written or oral report, participate in a hearing where the parties have the opportunity to put questions to him and to present expert witnesses in order to testify on the points at issue. (Art. 26, Model Law) Before hearing any testimony, arbitrators must be sworn, by any officer authorized by law to administer an oath, faithfully and fairly to hear and examine the matters in controversy and to make a just award according to the best of their ability and understanding. Arbitrators shall have the power to administer the oaths to all witnesses requiring them to tell the whole truth and nothing but the truth in any testimony which they may give in any arbitration hearing. This oath shall be required of every witness before any of his testimony is heard. (Sec. 13, DAL) Arbitrators may, at the commencement of the hearing, ask both parties for brief statements of the issues in controversy and/or an agreed statement of facts. Thereafter the parties may offer such evidence as they desire, and shall produce such additional evidence as the arbitrators shall require or deem necessary to an understanding and determination of the dispute. The arbitrators shall be the sole judge of the relevancy and materiality of the evidence offered or produced, and shall not be bound to conform to the Rules of Court pertaining to evidence. Arbitrators shall receive as exhibits in evidence any document which the parties may wish
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to submit and the exhibits shall be properly identified at the time of submission. All exhibits shall remain in the custody of the Clerk of Court during the course of the arbitration and shall be returned to the parties at the time the award is made. The arbitrators may make an ocular inspection of any matter or premises which are in dispute, but such inspection shall be made only in the presence of all parties to the arbitration to the arbitration, unless any party who shall have received notice thereof fails to appear, in which event such inspection shall be made in the absence of such party. (Sec. 15, DAL) At the close of the hearings, the arbitrators shall specifically inquire of all parties whether they have any further proof or witnesses to present, upon the receipt of a negative reply from all parties, the arbitrators shall declare the hearing closed unless the parties have signified an intention to file briefs. Then the hearing shall be closed by the arbitrations after the receipt of briefs and/or reply briefs. Definite time limit for the filing of such briefs must be fixed by the arbitrators at the close of the hearing. Briefs may be filed by the parties within 15 days after the close of the oral hearings; the reply briefs, if any, shall be filed within 5 days following such 15-day period. (Sec. 16, DAL) The hearing may be reopened by the arbitrators on their own motion or upon the request of any party, upon good cause, shown at any time before the award is rendered. When hearings are thus reopened the effective date for the closing of the
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hearings shall be the date of the closing of the reopened hearing. (Sec. 17, DAL) The parties to a submission or contract to arbitrate may, by written agreement, submit their dispute to arbitration by other than oral hearing. The parties may submit an agreed statement of facts. They may also submit their respective contentions to the duly appointed arbitrators in writing; this shall include a statement of facts, together with all documentary proof. Parties may also submit a written argument. Each party shall provide all other parties to the dispute with a copy of writing to any other partys statements and proofs; but if such party fails to do so within 7 days after receipt of such statements and proofs, he shall be deemed to have waived his right to reply. Upon the delivery to the arbitrators of all statements and documents, together with any reply statements, the arbitrators shall declare the proceedings in lieu of hearing closed. (Sec. 18, DAL) Arbitration under a contract or submission shall be deemed a special proceeding, of which the court specified in the contract or submission, or if none be specified, the Court of First Instance for the province or city in which one of the parties resides or is doing business, or in which the arbitration was held, shall have jurisdiction. Any application to the court, or a judge thereof, hereunder shall be made in manner provided for the making and hearing of motions, except as otherwise herein expressly provided. (Sec. 22, DAL)

Assistance in Taking Evidence Arbitrators shall have the power to require any person to attend a hearing as a witness. They shall have the power to subpoena witnesses and documents when the relevancy of the testimony and the materiality thereof has been demonstrated to the arbitrators. Arbitrators may also require the retirement of any witness during the testimony of any other witness. All of the arbitrators appointed in any controversy must attend all the hearings in that matter and hear all the allegations and proofs of the parties; but an award by the majority of them is valid unless the concurrence of all of them is expressly required in the submission or contract to arbitrate. The arbitrator or arbitrators shall have the power at any time, before rendering the award, without prejudice to the rights of any party to petition the court to take measures to safeguard and/or conserve any matter which is the subject of the dispute in arbitration. (Sec. 14, DAL) The arbitral tribunal or a party with the approval of the arbitral tribunal may request from competent court of this State assistance in taking evidence. The court may execute the request within its competence and according to its rules on taking evidence. (Art. 27, Model Law) Any party to an arbitration, whether domestic or foreign, may request the court to provide assistance in taking evidence. (Rule 9.1, SAR)

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A party requiring assistance in the taking of evidence may petition the court to direct any person, including a representative of a corporation, association, partnership or other entity (other than a party to the ADR proceedings or its officers) found in the Philippines, for any of the following: a. To comply with a subpoena ad testificandum and/or subpoena duces tecum; b. To appear as a witness before an officer for the taking of his deposition upon oral examination or by written interrogatories; c. To allow the physical examination of the condition of persons, or the inspection of things or premises and, when appropriate, to allow the recording and/or documentation of condition of persons, things or premises (i.e., photographs, video and other means of recording/documentation); d. To allow the examination and copying of documents; and e. To perform any similar acts. (Rule 9.5, SAR) If the evidence sought is not privileged, and is material and relevant, the court shall grant the assistance in taking evidence requested and shall order petitioner to pay costs attendant to such assistance. (Rule 9.8, SAR) Confidentiality Subject to the terms of the submission or contract, if any are specified therein, are arbitrators selected as prescribed herein must, within five days after appointment if the parties to the controversy reside
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within the same city or province, or within fifteen days after appointment if the parties reside in different provinces, set a time and place for the hearing of the matters submitted to them, and must cause notice thereof to be given to each of the parties. The hearing can be postponed or adjourned by the arbitrators only by agreement of the parties; otherwise, adjournment may be ordered by the arbitrators upon their own motion only at the hearing and for good and sufficient cause. No adjournment shall extend the hearing beyond the day fixed in the submission or contract for rendering the award, unless the time so fixed is extended by the written agreement of the parties to the submission or contract or their attorneys, or unless the parties have continued with the arbitration without objection to such adjournment. The hearing may proceed in the absence of any party who, after due notice, fails to be present at such hearing or fails to obtain an adjournment thereof. An award shall not be made solely on the default of a party. The arbitrators shall require the other party to submit such evidence as they may require for making an award. No one other than a party to said arbitration, or a person in the regular employ of such party duly authorized in writing by said party, or a practicing attorney-at-law, shall be permitted by the arbitrators to represent before him or them any party to the arbitration. Any party desiring to be represented by counsel shall notify the other party or parties of such intention at least five days prior to the hearing.
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The arbitrators shall arrange for the taking of a stenographic record of the testimony when such a record is requested by one or more parties, and when payment of the cost thereof is assumed by such party or parties. Persons having a direct interest in the controversy which is the subject of arbitration shall have the right to attend any hearing; but the attendance of any other person shall be at the discretion of the arbitrators. (Sec. 12, DAL) "CONFIDENTIAL INFORMATION" means any information, relative to the subject of mediation or arbitration, expressly intended by the source not to be disclosed, or obtained under circumstances that would create a reasonable expectation on behalf of the source that the information shall not be disclosed. It shall include (1) communication, oral or written, made in a dispute resolution proceedings, including any memoranda, notes or work product of the neutral party or non-party participant, as defined in this Act; (2) an oral or written statement made or which occurs during mediation or for purposes of considering, conducting, participating, initiating, continuing of reconvening mediation or retaining a mediator; and (3) pleadings, motions manifestations, witness statements, reports filed or submitted in an arbitration or for expert evaluation. (Sec. 3(h), ADRA)

The arbitration proceedings, including the records, evidence and the arbitral award, shall be considered confidential and shall not be published except (1) with the consent of the parties, or (2) for the limited purpose of disclosing to the court of relevant documents in cases where resort to the court is allowed herein. Provided, however, that the court in which the action or the appeal is pending may issue a protective order to prevent or prohibit disclosure of documents or information containing secret processes, developments, research and other information where it is shown that the applicant shall be materially prejudiced by an authorized disclosure thereof. (Sec. 23, ADRA) As a general rule, arbitration is confidential. Exceptions to this rule is that (1) if the parties expressly waive confidentiality, or (2) disclose to the court who can intervene. Court intervention is allowed in the following cases: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) application for interim measure; appointment of arbitrator; challenge of arbitrator; vacate/modify the award; enforce the award.

A party, counsel or witness who disclosed or who was compelled to disclose information relative to the subject of ADR under circumstances that would create a reasonable expectation, on behalf of the source, that the information shall be kept confidential has the right to prevent such information from being further disclosed without the
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express written consent of the source or the party who made the disclosure. (Rule 10.1, SAR) A party may request a protective order at anytime there is a need to enforce the confidentiality of the information obtained, or to be obtained, in ADR proceedings. If there is a pending court proceeding in which the information obtained in an ADR proceeding is required to be divulged or is being divulged, the party seeking to enforce the confidentiality of the information may file a motion with the court where the proceedings are pending to enjoin the confidential information from being divulged or to suppress confidential information. (Rule 10.2, SAR) A protective order may be granted only if it is shown that the applicant would be materially prejudiced by an unauthorized disclosure of the information obtained, or to be obtained, during an ADR proceeding. (Rule 10.4, SAR) If the court finds the petition or motion meritorious, it shall issue an order enjoining a person or persons from divulging confidential information. In resolving the petition or motion, the courts shall be guided by the following principles applicable to all ADR proceedings: Confidential information shall not be subject to discovery and shall be inadmissible in any adversarial proceeding, whether judicial or quasi judicial. However, evidence or information that is otherwise admissible or subject to discovery does not become inadmissible or protected from
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discovery solely by reason of its use therein. (Rule 10.8, SAR)

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REFERRAL TO ARBITRATION If any suit or proceeding be brought upon an issue arising out of an agreement providing for the arbitration thereof, the court in which such suit or proceeding is pending, upon being satisfied that the issue involved in such suit or proceeding is referable to arbitration, shall stay the action or proceeding until an arbitration has been had in accordance with the terms of the agreement: Provided that the applicant, for the stay is not in default in proceeding with such arbitration. (Sec. 7, DAL) A court before which an action is brought in a matter which is the subject matter of an arbitration shall, if at least one party so requests not later that the pre-trial conference, or upon the request of both parties thereafter, refer the parties to arbitration unless it finds that the arbitration agreement is null and void, inoperative or incapable of being performed. (Sec. 24, ADRA) In interpreting the Act, the court shall have due regard to the policy of the law in favor of arbitration. Where action is commenced by or against multiple parties, one or more of whom are parties who are bound by the arbitration agreement although the civil action may continue as to those who are not bound by such arbitration agreement. (Sec. 25, ADRA) A court before which an action is brought in a matter which is the subject of an arbitration agreement shall, if a party so requests not later than when submitting his first statement on the substance of the dispute, refer the parties to

arbitration unless it finds that the agreement is null and void, inoperative or incapable of being performed. Where an action referred to in par. 1 of this article has been brought, arbitral proceedings may nevertheless be commenced or continued, and an award may be made, while the issue is pending before the court. (Art. 8, Model Law) Where the arbitration agreement exists before the action is filedThe request for referral shall be made not later than the pre-trial conference. After the pre-trial conference, the court will only act upon the request for referral if it is made with the agreement of all parties to the case. Submission agreementIf there is no existing arbitration agreement at the time the case is filed but the parties subsequently enter into an arbitration agreement, they may request the court to refer their dispute to arbitration at any time during the proceedings. (Rule 4.2, SAR) As a general rule, a request for arbitration is made not later than the pre-trial conference. Exceptions to this rule are the following: 1) if there is an arbitration clause, upon the request of both parties; and 2) submission agreements. (Autea) After hearing, the court shall stay the action and, considering the statement of policy embodied in Rule 2.4, above, refer the parties to arbitration if it finds prima facie, based on the pleadings and supporting documents
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submitted by the parties, that there is an arbitration agreement and that the subject-matter of the dispute is capable of settlement or resolution by arbitration in accordance with Section 6 of the ADR Act. Otherwise, the court shall continue with the judicial proceedings. (Rule 4.5, SAR) When a case is referred to arbitration, the proceedings are merely suspended and not dismissed because there may be other needs for the parties to make use of the role of the court (e.g. interim measures, assistance in taking evidence, appointment of arbitrators, challenging the arbitrator, termination of mandate, etc.). (Autea) An order referring the dispute to arbitration shall be immediately executory and shall not be subject to a motion for reconsideration, appeal or petition for certiorari. An order denying the request to refer the dispute to arbitration shall not be subject to an appeal, but may be the subject of a motion for reconsideration and/or a petition for certiorari. (Rule 4.6, SAR) The court shall not decline to refer some or all of the parties to arbitration for any of the following reasons: a. b. c. Not all of the disputes subject of the civil action may be referred to arbitration; Not all of the parties to the civil action are bound by the arbitration agreement and referral to arbitration would result in multiplicity of suits; The issues raised in the civil action could be speedily and efficiently resolved in its entirety by the court rather than in arbitration;

d. e.

Referral to arbitration does not appear to be the most prudent action; or The stay of the action would prejudice the rights of the parties to the civil action who are not bound by the arbitration agreement.

The court may, however, issue an order directing the inclusion in arbitration of those parties who are not bound by the arbitration agreement but who agree to such inclusion provided those originally bound by it do not object to their inclusion. (Rule 4.7, SAR) As a general rule, it is not ministerial on the part of the court to grant a motion to suspend proceedings, unless it finds the arbtration agreement null and void, inoperative or incapable of being performed. The benchmarks for determining if the dispute is arbitrable are the Exclusions provided by ADRA. (Autea) Despite the pendency of the action referred to in Rule 4.1, above, arbitral proceedings may nevertheless be commenced or continued, and an award may be made, while the action is pending before the court. (Rule 4.8, SAR) Fiesta World Mall Corporation v. Linberg Philippines (2006) Where a party has already filed a complaint with the trial court without prior recourse to arbitration, the proper procedure to enable an arbitration panel to resolve the parties dispute pursuant to their contract is for the trial court to stay the proceedings. After the arbitration

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proceeding has been pursued and completed, then the trial court may confirm the award made by the arbitration panel. Commentary: This case illustrates the discretionary nature on the part of the judge to determine whether or not the dispute should be referred to arbitration. The judge determines whether a dispute falls under the arbitration clause or the non-arbitrable clause. Once it has been determined that the case is arbitrable, the court no longer has discretion whether to refer the dispute to arbitration or not. Del Monte Corporation-USA v. Court of Appeals (2001) The object of arbitration is to allow the expeditious determination of a dispute. Where the issue before the court could not be speedily and efficiently resolved in its entirety if simultaneous arbitration proceedings and trial, or suspension of trial pending arbitration, is allowed, the court should hear and adjudicate the case in a single and complete proceeding.

INTERIM MEASURES OF PROTECTION The counterpart concept of interim measures in convetional litigation are provisional remedies. A party in arbitration is like a party in litigation. If one thinks the other party is trying to dissipate or conceal his assets in fraud of the plaintiff in order to frustrate a potential future judgment, specific provisional remedies under the Rules of Court shall be applicable. (Autea) Instead of going to the tribunal, the party who would like to avail of interim measures may go to the court. Under Sec. 14 of DAL, it is up to the party where to ask for interim measures. (Autea) The arbitrator or arbitrators shall have the power at any time, before rendering the award, without prejudice to the rights of any party to petition the court to take measures to safeguard and/or conserve any matter which is the subject of the dispute in arbitration. (Sec. 14, DAL) Under this law, both the tribunal and the court have the power to grant interim measures. It is up to the party to choose. What is not allowed is that asking both the tribunal and the court to grant interim measures which would constitute forum shopping. (Autea) Sec. 28 of ADRA provides the considerations needed before the interim measures may be granted. (Autea) It is not incompatible with an arbitration agreement for a party to request, before constitution of the tribunal, from a Court an interim measure of protection and for the Court to

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grant such measure. After constitution of the arbitral tribunal and during arbitral proceedings, a request for an interim measure of protection or modification thereof, may be made with the arbitral tribunal or to the extent that the arbitral tribunal has no power to act or is unable to act effectively, the request may be made with the Court. The arbitral tribunal is deemed constituted when the sole arbitrator or the third arbitrator who has been nominated, has accepted the nomination and written communication of said nomination and acceptance has been received by the party making request. The following rules on interim or provisional relief shall be observed: 1) 2) Any party may request that provision relief be granted against the adverse party.

whom the relief is requested, the grounds for the relief, and evidence supporting the request. (5) The order shall be binding upon the parties. (6) Either party may apply with the Court for assistance in Implementing or enforcing an interim measure ordered by an arbitral tribunal. (7) A party who does not comply with the order shall be liable for all damages resulting from noncompliance, including all expenses, and reasonable attorney's fees, paid in obtaining the order's judicial enforcement. (Sec. 28, ADRA) Before the constitution of the arbitral tribunal, interim relief may be sought from courts. Once the tribunal has been constituted, interim relief may be sought from the arbitral tribunal. Unless the arbitral tribunal no longer has the power to act or is unable to act effectively, the request may be made with the court. Under the ADRA, the interim measure granted by the court may also be modified by the arbitral tribunal. (Autea) It is not incompatible with an arbitration agreement for a party to request, before or during arbitral proceedings, from a court an interim measure of protection and for a court to grant such measure. (Art. 9, Model Law) Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, the arbitral tribunal may, at the request of a party, order any party to take such interim measure of protection as the arbitral tribunal may consider necessary in respect of the subject-matter of the dispute. The arbitral tribunal may require any party to

Such relief may be granted: (i) to prevent irreparable loss or injury: (ii) to provide security for the performance of any obligation; (iii) to produce or preserve any evidence; or (iv) to compel any other appropriate act or omission. (3) The order granting provisional relief may be conditioned upon the provision of security or any act or omission specified in the order. (4) Interim or provisional relief is requested by written application transmitted by reasonable means to the Court or arbitral tribunal as the case may be and the party against whom the relief is sought, describing in appropriate detail the precise relief, the party against

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provide appropriate security in connection with such measure. (Art. 17, Model Law) A petition for an interim measure of protection may be made (a) before arbitration is commenced, (b) after arbitration is commenced, but before the constitution of the arbitral tribunal, or (c) after the constitution of the arbitral tribunal and at any time during arbitral proceedings but, at this stage, only to the extent that the arbitral tribunal has no power to act or is unable to act effectively. (Rule 5.2, SAR) The following grounds, while not limiting the reasons for the court to grant an interim measure of protection, indicate the nature of the reasons that the court shall consider in granting the relief: a. b. c. d. The need to prevent irreparable loss or injury; The need to provide security for the performance of any obligation; The need to produce or preserve evidence; or The need to compel any other appropriate act or omission. (Rule 5.4, SAR)

e.

property; or, Assistance in the enforcement of an interim measure of protection granted by the arbitral tribunal, which the latter cannot enforce effectively. (Rule 5.6, SAR)

The court shall not deny an application for assistance in implementing or enforcing an interim measure of protection ordered by an arbitral tribunal on any or all of the following grounds: a. b. The arbitral tribunal granted the interim relief ex parte; or The party opposing the application found new material evidence, which the arbitral tribunal had not considered in granting in the application, and which, if considered, may produce a different result; or The measure of protection ordered by the arbitral tribunal amends, revokes, modifies or is inconsistent with an earlier measure of protection issued by the court.

c.

The following, among others, are the interim measures of protection that a court may grant: a. b. c. d. Preliminary injunction directed against a party to arbitration; Preliminary attachment against property or garnishment of funds in the custody of a bank or a third person; Appointment of a receiver; Detention, preservation, delivery or inspection of

If it finds that there is sufficient merit in the opposition to the application based on letter (b) above, the court shall refer the matter back to the arbitral tribunal for appropriate determination. (Rule 5.11, SAR) Any court order granting or denying interim measure/s of protection is issued without prejudice to subsequent grant, modification, amendment, revision or revocation by the arbitral tribunal as may be warranted. An interim measure of protection issued by the arbitral tribunal shall, upon its issuance, be deemed to have ipso jure modified, amended, revised or revoked an interim
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measure of protection previously issued by the court to the extent that it is inconsistent with the subsequent interim measure of protection issued by the arbitral tribunal. (Rule 5.13, SAR) Any question involving a conflict or inconsistency between an interim measure of protection issued by the court and by the arbitral tribunal shall be immediately referred by the court to the arbitral tribunal which shall have the authority to decide such question. (Rule 5.14, SAR) The court shall defer action on any pending petition for an interim measure of protection filed by a party to an arbitration agreement arising from or in connection with a dispute thereunder upon being informed that an arbitral tribunal has been constituted pursuant to such agreement. The court may act upon such petition only if it is established by the petitioner that the arbitral tribunal has no power to act on any such interim measure of protection or is unable to act thereon effectively. (Rule 5.15, SAR) Finally, under the SAR, the power of the arbitral tribunal to modify interim measures granted by the court may then be amended, modified, or revoked by the arbitral tribunal. Hence, there was a dilution of power of the court to grant interim relief once an arbitral tribunal has been constituted. (Autea)

ARBITRAL AWARD An agreement to refer a dispute to arbitration shall mean that the arbitral award shall be final and binding. Consequently, a party to an arbitration is precluded from filing an appeal or a petition for certiorari questioning the merits of an arbitral award. (Rule 19.7, SAR) Although the SAR gives the losing party the remedy to prevent enforcement of the arbitral award, it must be noted that the grounds to vacate, set aside or refuse recognition are not on the merits of the arbitration. (Autea) When parties resort to court regarding arbitral awards, the procedure followed by the court is not summary. (Autea) In all kinds of arbitration, there is a presumption of enforcement. (Autea) An arbitral award shall enjoy the presumption that it was made and released in due course of arbitration and is subject to confirmation by the court. (Rule 11.9, SAR) Unless a ground to vacate, set aside or refuse recognition an arbitral award is fully established, the court shall confirm the award. (Autea) When an award is vacated, the court cannot substitute its own judgment. Instead, the court must remand the case to the same arbitrators or a different set of arbitrators. (Autea) Domestic Arbitral Award Any stipulation that the arbitrators award or decision shall be final, is valid, without prejudice to Articles 2038, 2039, and 2040. (Art. 2044, CC)

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Confirmation of the arbitral award by the court is not essential to the validity of the award because of Art. 2044 of the Civil Code. It does not go into the validity of the award and is only necessary for the enforcement of the award. Thus, an arbitral award, once confirmed by the court, becomes executory. (Autea) Unless the parties shall have stipulated by written agreement the time within which the arbitrators must render their award, the written award of the arbitrators shall be rendered within thirty days after the closing of the hearings or if the oral hearings shall have been waived, within thirty days after the arbitrators shall have declared such proceedings in lieu of hearing closed. This period may be extended by mutual consent of the parties. (Sec. 19, DAL) The award must be made in writing and signed and acknowledged by a majority of the arbitrators, if more than one; and by the sole arbitrator, if there is only one. Each party shall be furnished with a copy of the award. The arbitrators in their award may grant any remedy or relief which they deem just and equitable and within the scope of the agreement of the parties, which shall include, but not be limited to, the specific performance of a contract. In the event that the parties to an arbitration have, during the course of such arbitration, settled their dispute, they may request of the arbitrators that such settlement be embodied in an award which
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shall be signed by the arbitrators. No arbitrator shall act as a mediator in any proceeding in which he is acting as arbitrator; and all negotiations towards settlement of the dispute must take place without the presence of the arbitrators. The arbitrators shall have the power to decide only those matters which have been submitted to them. The terms of the award shall be confined to such disputes. The arbitrators shall have the power to assess in their award the expenses of any party against another party, when such assessment shall be deemed necessary. (Sec. 20, DAL) Where an award is vacated, the court, in its discretion, may direct a new hearing either before the same arbitrators or before a new arbitrator or arbitrators to be chosen in the manner provided in the submission or contract for the selection of the original arbitrator or arbitrators, and any provision limiting the time in which the arbitrators may make a decision shall be deemed applicable to the new arbitration and to commence from the date of the court's order. Where the court vacates an award, costs, not exceeding fifty pesos and disbursements may be awarded to the prevailing party and the payment thereof may be enforced in like manner as the payment of costs upon the motion in an action. (Sec. 24, DAL)

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In any one of the following cases, the court must make an order modifying or correcting the award, upon the application of any party to the controversy which was arbitrated: (a) Where there was an evident miscalculation of figures, or an evident mistake in the description of any person, thing or property referred to in the award; or (b) Where the arbitrators have awarded upon a matter not submitted to them, not affecting the merits of the decision upon the matter submitted; or (c) Where the award is imperfect in a matter of form not affecting the merits of the controversy, and if it had been a commissioner's report, the defect could have been amended or disregarded by the court. The order may modify and correct the award so as to effect the intent thereof and promote justice between the parties. (Sec. 25, DAL) Notice of a motion to vacate, modify or correct the award must be served upon the adverse party or his counsel within thirty days after award is filed or delivered, as prescribed by law for the service upon an attorney in an action. (Sec. 26, DAL) Upon the granting of an order confirming, modifying or correcting an award, judgment may be entered in conformity therewith in the court wherein said
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application was filed. Costs of the application and the proceedings subsequent thereto may be awarded by the court in its discretion. If awarded, the amount thereof must be included in the judgment. (Sec. 27, DAL) The party moving for an order confirming, modifying, correcting, or vacating an award, shall at the time that such motion is filed with the court for the entry of judgment thereon also file the following papers with the Clerk of Court: (a) The submission, or contract to arbitrate; the appointment of the arbitrator or arbitrators; and each written extension of the time, if any, within which to make the award. (b) A verified of the award. (c) Each notice, affidavit, or other paper used upon the application to confirm, modify, correct or vacate such award, and a copy of each of the court upon such application. The judgment shall be docketed as if it were rendered in an action. The judgment so entered shall have the same force and effect in all respects, as, and be subject to all the provisions relating to, a judgment in an action; and it may be enforced as if it had been rendered in the court in which it is entered. (Sec. 28, DAL)

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A domestic arbitral award when confirmed shall be enforced in the same manner as final and executory decisions of the Regional Trial Court. The confirmation of a domestic award shall be made by the regional trial court in accordance with the Rules of Procedure to be promulgated by the Supreme Court. A CIAC arbitral award need not be confirmed by the regional trial court to be executory as provided under E.O. No. 1008. (Sec. 40, ADRA) Asset Privatization Trust v. Court of Appeals (1998) As a rule, the award of an arbitrator cannot be set aside for mere errors of judgment either as to the law or as to the facts. Courts are without power to amend or overrule merely because of disagreement with matters of law or facts determined by the arbitrators. They will not review the findings of law and fact contained in an award, and will not undertake to substitute their judgment for that of the arbitrators, since any other rule would make an award the commencement, not the end, of litigation. Errors of law and fact, or an erroneous decision of matters submitted to the judgment of the arbitrators, are insufficient to invalidate an award fairly and honestly made. Judicial review of an arbitration is, thus, more limited than judicial review of a trial.

Nonetheless, the arbitrators awards is not absolute and without exceptions. The arbitrators cannot resolve issues beyond the scope of the submission agreement. The parties to such an agreement are bound by the arbitrators award only to the extent and in the manner prescribed by the contract and only if the award is rendered in conformity thereto. Thus, Sections 24 and 25 of the Arbitration Law provide grounds for vacating, rescinding or modifying an arbitration award. Where the conditions described in Articles 2038, 2039 and 2040 of the Civil Code applicable to compromises and arbitration are attendant, the arbitration award may also be annulled. Commentary: When a court dismisses a case, it loses its jurisdiction. It must be remembered that a petition (not a motion) is filed when the court has no jurisdiction. Thus, when the court suspended the proceedings for arbitration, the proper pleading to file is a motion because the court did not lose its jurisdiction. (Autea) International Commercial Arbitral Award Model Law, Article 28. Rules applicable to substance of dispute. (1) The arbitral tribunal shall decide the dispute in accordance with such rules of law as are chosen by the parties as applicable to the substance of the dispute. Any designation of the law or legal system of a given State shall be construed, unless otherwise expressed, as directly
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referring to the substantive law of that State and not to its conflict of laws rules. (2) Failing any designation by the parties, the arbitral tribunal shall apply the law determined by the conflict of laws rules which it considers applicable. (3) The arbitral tribunal shall decide ex aequo et bono or as amiable compositeur only if the parties have expressly authorized it to do so. (4) In all cases, the arbitral tribunal shall decide in accordance with the terms of the contract and shall take into account the usages of the trade applicable to the transaction. Model Law, Article 29. Decision-making by panel of arbitrators. In arbitral proceedings with more than one arbitrator, any decision of the arbitral tribunal shall be made, unless otherwise agreed by the parties, by a majority of all its members. However, questions of procedure may be decided by a presiding arbitrator, if so authorized by the parties or all members of the arbitral tribunal. Model Law, Article 30. Settlement. (1) If, during arbitral proceedings, the parties settle the dispute, the arbitral tribunal shall terminate the proceedings and, if requested by the parties and not objected to by the arbitral tribunal, record the settlement in the form of an arbitral award on agreed terms.

(2) An award on agreed terms shall be made in accordance with the provisions of article 31 and shall state that it is an award. Such an award has the same status and effect as any other award on the merits of the case. Model Law, Article 31. Form and contents of award. (1) The award shall be made in writing and shall be signed by the arbitrator or arbitrators. In arbitrator proceedings with more than one arbitrator, the signatures of the majority of all members of the arbitral tribunal shall suffice, provided that the reason for any omitted signature is stated. (2) The award shall state the reasons upon which it is based, unless the parties have agreed that no reasons are to be given or the award is an award on agreed terms under article 30. (3) The award shall state its date and the place of arbitration as determined in accordance with article 20 (1). The award shall be deemed to have been made at that place. (4) After the award is made, a copy signed by the arbitrators in accordance with paragraph (1) of this article shall be delivered to each party. Model Law, Article 32. Termination of proceedings. (1) The arbitral proceedings are terminated by the final award or by an order of the arbitral tribunal in accordance with paragraph (2) of this article.

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(2) The arbitral tribunal shall issue an order for the termination of the arbitral proceedings when: (a) the claimant withdraws his claim, unless the respondent objects thereto and the arbitral tribunal recognizes a legitimate interest on his part in obtaining a final settlement of the dispute; (b) the parties agree on the termination of the proceedings; (c) the arbitral tribunal finds that the continuation of the proceedings has for any other reason become unnecessary or impossible. 3. The mandate of the arbitral tribunal terminates with the termination of the arbitral proceedings, subject to the provisions of articles 33 and 34 (4). Model Law, Article 33. Correction of interpretation of award; additional award. (1) Within thirty days of receipt of the award, unless another period of time has been agreed upon by the parties: (a) a party, with notice to the other party, may request the arbitral tribunal to correct in the award any errord in computation, any clerical or typographical errors or any errors of similar nature; (b) if so agreed by the parties, a party, with notice to the other party, may request the
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arbitral tribunal to give an interpretation of a specific point or part of the award. If the arbitral tribunal considers the request to be justified, it shall make the correction or give the interpretation within thirty days of receipt of the request. The interpretation shall form part of the award. (2) The arbitral tribunal may correct any error of the type referred to in paragraph (1) (a) of this article on its own initiative within thirty days of the day of the award. (3) Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, a party, with notice to the other party, may request, within thirty days of receipt of the award, the arbitral tribunal to make an additional award as to claims presented in the arbitral proceedings but omitted from the award. If the arbitral tribunal considers the request to be justified, it shall make the additional award within sixty days. (4) The arbitral tribunal may extend, if necessary, the period of time within which it shall make a correction, interpretation or an additional award under paragraph (1) or (3) of this article. (5) The provisions of article 31 shall apply to a correction or interpretation of the award or to an additional award. Model Law, Article 34. Application for setting aside as exclusive recourse against arbitral award. (1)
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Recourse to a court against an arbitral award may be made only by an application for setting aside in accordance with paragraphs (2) and (3) of this article. (2) An arbitral award may be set aside by the court specified in article 6 only if: (a) the party making the application furnishes proof that: (i) a party to the arbitration agreement referred to in article 7 was under some incapacity; or the said agreement is not valid under the law to which the parties have subjected it or, failing any indication thereon, under the law of this State; or (ii) the party making the application was not given proper notice of the appointment of an arbitrator or of the arbitral proceedings or was otherwise unable to present his case; or (iii) the award deals with a dispute not contemplated by or not falling within the terms of the submission to arbitration, or contains decisions on matters beyond the scope of the submission to arbitration, provided that, if the decisions on matters submitted to arbitration can be separated from those not so submitted, only that part of the award which contains decisions on

matters not submitted to arbitration may be set aside; or (iv) the composition of the arbitral tribunal or the arbitral procedure was not in accordance with the agreement of the parties, unless such agreement was in conflict with a provision of this Law from which the parties cannot derogate, or, failing such agreement, was not in accordance with this Law; or (b) the court finds that: (i) the subject-matter of the dispute is not capable of settlement by arbitration under the law of this State; or (ii) the award is in conflict with the public policy of this State. (3) An application for setting aside may not be made after three months have elapsed from the date on which the party making that application had received that award or, if a request had been made under article 33, from the date on which that request had been disposed of by the arbitral tribunal. (4) The court, when asked to set aside an award, may, where appropriate and so requested by a party, suspend the setting aside proceedings for a period of time determined by it in order to give the arbitral tribunal an opportunity to resume the
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arbitral proceedings or to take such other action as in the arbitral tribunal's opinion will eliminate the grounds for setting aside. Model Law Article 35. Recognition and enforcement. (1) An arbitral award, irrespective of the country in which it was made, shall be recognized as binding and, upon application in writing to the competent court, shall be enforced subject to the provisions of this article and of article 36. (2) The party relying on an award or applying for its enforcement shall supply the duly authenticated original award or a duly certified copy thereof, and the original arbitration agreement referred to in article 7 or a duly certified copy thereof. If the award or agreement is not made in an official language of this State, the party shall supply a duly certified translation thereof into such language. Model Law, Article 36. Grounds for refusing recognition or enforcement. (1) Recognition or enforcement of an arbitral award, irrespective of the country in which it was made, may be refused only: (a) at the request of the party against whom it is invoked, if that party furnishes to the competent court where recognition or enforcement is sought proof that: (i) a party to the arbitration agreement referred to in article 7 was under some incapacity; or the said agreement is not
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valid under the law to which the parties have subjected it or, failing any indication thereon, under the law of the country where the award was made; or (ii) the party against whom the award is invoked was not given proper notice of the appointment of an arbitrator or of the arbitrator proceedings or was otherwise unable to present his case; or (iii) the award deals with a dispute not contemplated by or not falling within the terms of the submission to arbitration, or it contains decisions on matters beyond the scope of the submission to arbitration, provided that, if the decisions on matters submitted to arbitration can be separated from those not so submitted, that part of the award which contains decisions on matters submitted to arbitration may be recognized and enforced; or (iv) the composition of the arbitral tribunal or the arbitral procedure was not in accordance with the agreement of the parties or, failing such agreement, was not in accordance with the law of the country where the arbitration took place; or (v) the award has not yet become binding on the parties or has been set aside or suspended by a court of the country in

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which, or under the law of which, that award was made; or (b) if the court finds that: (i) the subject-matter of the dispute is not capable of settlement by arbitration under the law of this State; or (ii) the recognition or enforcement of the award would be contrary to the public policy of this State. (2) If an application for setting aside or suspension of an award has been made to a court referred to in paragraph (1) (a) (v) of this article, the court where recognition or enforcement is sought may, if it considers it proper, adjourn its decision and may also, on the application of the party claiming recognition or enforcement of the award, order the other party to provide appropriate security. Foreign Arbitral Award The New York Convention shall govern the recognition and enforcement of arbitral awards covered by the said Convention. The recognition and enforcement of such arbitral awards shall be filled with regional trial court in accordance with the rules of procedure to be promulgated by the Supreme Court. Said procedural rules shall provide that the party relying on the award or applying for its enforcement shall
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file with the court the original or authenticated copy of the award and the arbitration agreement. If the award or agreement is not made in any of the official languages, the party shall supply a duly certified translation thereof into any of such languages. The applicant shall establish that the country in which foreign arbitration award was made is a party to the New York Convention. If the application for rejection or suspension of enforcement of an award has been made, the regional trial court may, if it considers it proper, vacate its decision and may also, on the application of the party claiming recognition or enforcement of the award, order the party to provide appropriate security. (Sec. 42, ADRA) The recognition and enforcement of foreign arbitral awards not covered by the New York Convention shall be done in accordance with procedural rules to be promulgated by the Supreme Court. The Court may, grounds of comity and reciprocity, recognize and enforce a nonconvention award as a convention award. (Sec. 43, ADRA) A foreign arbitral award when confirmed by a court of a foreign country, shall be recognized and enforced as a foreign arbitral award and not a judgment of a foreign court. A foreign arbitral award, when confirmed by the regional trial court, shall be enforced as a foreign
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arbitral award and not as a judgment of a foreign court. A foreign arbitral award, when confirmed by the regional trial court, shall be enforced in the same manner as final and executory decisions of courts of law of the Philippines. (Sec. 44, ADRA) A party to a foreign arbitration proceeding may oppose an application for recognition and enforcement of the arbitral award in accordance with the procedural rules to be promulgated by the Supreme Court only on those grounds enumerated under Article V of the New York Convention. Any other ground raised shall be disregarded by the regional trial court. (Sec. 45, ADRA) Tuna Processing v. Philippine Kingford (2012) In the enforcement of a foreign arbitral award, the rule that bars foreign corporations not licensed to do business in the Philippines from maintaining a suit in our courts is not available to the losing party. When a party enters into a contract containing a foreign arbitration clause and submits itself to arbitration, it becomes bound by the contract, arbitration and the result of the arbitration, conceding thereby the capacity of the other party to [1] enter into the contract, [2] participate in the arbitration and [3] cause the implementation of the result.

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how to enforce award period of filing

DOMESTIC petition to confirm At any time after the lapse of 30 days from receipt by the petitioner of the arbitral award.

INTERNATIONAL petition to recognize and enforce

FOREIGN petition to recognize or enforce

At any time from receipt of the award. If a timely petition to set aside an arbitral award is filed, the opposing party must file therein and in opposition thereto the petition for recognition and enforcement of the same award within the period for filing an opposition.

how to correct/modify award

Petition to modify or correct. See Sec. 25, DAL for grounds. A petition to correct an arbitral award may be included as part of a petition to confirm the arbitral award or as a petition to confirm that award. petition to vacate Not later than 30 days from the receipt of the arbitral award. 1. Award was procured through corruption, fraud or undue means

how to prevent enforcement period of filing1 grounds to prevent enforcement

petition to set aside Within 3 months from the time the petitioner receives a copy thereof.

petition to refuse recognition Within 3 months from the time the petitioner receives a copy thereof. 1. A party to the arbitration agreement was under some incapacity; or the said agreement is not valid under the law to which the parties have subjected it or, failing any

1. A party to the arbitration agreement was under some incapacity; or the said agreement is not valid under 2. Evident partiality in the arbitral the law to which the parties tribunal; have subjected it or, failing any

Belated filing of the petition to confirm will not give a new period for the losing party to file a petition to vacate. In other words, if a petiton to confirm is filed but the period to file a petition to vacate has already lapsed, the subsequent filing of the former will not renew the latter. (Autea)
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3. Arbitral tribunal was guilty of misconduct or misbehaviour that has materially prejudiced the rights of any party. 4. 5. 6. 7.

indication thereof, under the law of the country where the award was made; or

indication thereof, under the law of the country where the award was made; or

2. The party making the 2. The party making the application was not given application was not given Disqualification of one or more proper notice of the proper notice of the arbitrators. appointment of an arbitrator or appointment of an arbitrator or of the arbitral proceedings or of the arbitral proceedings or Tribunal exceeded its powers; was otherwise unable to was otherwise unable to present his case; or present his case; or No arbitration agreement; or 3. The award deals with a dispute 3. The award deals with a dispute Party to arbitration is judicially not contemplated by or not not contemplated by or not declared to be incompetent. falling within the terms of the falling within the terms of the submission to arbitration, or submission to arbitration, or contains decisions on matters contains decisions on matters beyond the scope of the beyond the scope of the submission to arbitration; submission to arbitration; provided that, if the decisions provided that, if the decisions on matters submitted to on matters submitted to arbitration can be separated arbitration can be separated from those not so submitted, from those not so submitted, only that part of the award only that part of the award which contains decisions on which contains decisions on matters not submitted to matters not submitted to arbitration may be set aside; or arbitration may be set aside; or 4. The composition of the arbitral 4. The composition of the arbitral tribunal or the arbitral tribunal or the arbitral procedure was not in procedure was not in accordance with the agreement accordance with the of the parties or, failing such agreement of the parties or, agreement, was not in failing such agreement, was

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accordance with the law of the country where arbitration took place; or

not in accordance with the law of the country where arbitration took place; or

5. The subject-matter of the 5. The award has not yet dispute is not capable of become binding on the settlement or resolution by parties or has been set aside arbitration under Philippine law; or suspended by a court of or the country in which that award was made;2 or 6. The recognition or enforcement of the award would be contrary 6. The subject-matter of or to public policy. resolution by arbitration under Philippine law; or 7. The recognition or enforcement of the award would be contrary to public policy.

This paragraph is exclusive to foreign arbitral awards. (Autea)


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MEDIATION The provisions of this Chapter shall cover voluntary mediation, whether ad hoc or institutional, other than courtannexed. The term "mediation' shall include conciliation. (Sec. 7, ADRA) Confidentiality What comes out in mediation is generally confidential. Matters that come out in mediation cannot be subject to discovery measures and are inadmissible in any proceedings. (Autea) Information obtained through mediation proceedings shall be subject to the following principles and guidelines: (a) Information obtained through mediation shall be privileged and confidential. (b) A party, a mediator, or a nonparty participant may refuse to disclose and may prevent any other person from disclosing a mediation communication. (c) Confidential Information shall not be subject to discovery and shall be inadmissible if any adversarial proceeding, whether judicial or quasi-judicial, However, evidence or information that is otherwise admissible or subject to discovery does not become inadmissible or protected from discovery solely by reason of its use in a mediation.

(d) In such an adversarial proceeding, the following persons involved or previously involved in a mediation may not be compelled to disclose confidential information obtained during mediation: (1) the parties to the dispute; (2) the mediator or mediators; (3) the counsel for the parties; (4) the nonparty participants; (5) any persons hired or engaged in connection with the mediation as secretary, stenographer, clerk or assistant; and (6) any other person who obtains or possesses confidential information by reason of his/her profession. (e) The protections of this Act shall continue to apply even of a mediator is found to have failed to act impartially. (f) A mediator may not be called to testify to provide information gathered in mediation. A mediator who is wrongfully subpoenaed shall be reimbursed the full cost of his attorney's fees and related expenses. (Sec. 9, ADRA) A privilege arising from the confidentiality of information may be waived in a record, or orally during a proceeding by the mediator and the mediation parties. A privilege arising from the confidentiality of information may likewise be waived by a nonparty participant if the information is provided by such nonparty participant. A person who discloses confidential information shall be precluded from asserting the privilege under Section 9 of this Chapter to bar disclosure of the rest of the information
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necessary to a complete understanding of the previously disclosed information. If a person suffers loss or damages in a judicial proceeding against the person who made the disclosure. A person who discloses or makes a representation about a mediation is preclude from asserting the privilege under Section 9, to the extent that the communication prejudices another person in the proceeding and it is necessary for the person prejudiced to respond to the representation of disclosure. (Sec. 10, ADRA) (a) There is no privilege against disclosure under Section 9 if mediation communication is: (1) in an agreement evidenced by a record authenticated by all parties to the agreement; (2) available to the public or that is made during a session of a mediation which is open, or is required by law to be open, to the public; (3) a threat or statement of a plan to inflict bodily injury or commit a crime of violence; (4) internationally used to plan a crime, attempt to commit, or commit a crime, or conceal an ongoing crime or criminal activity; (5) sought or offered to prove or disprove abuse, neglect, abandonment, or exploitation in a proceeding in which a public agency is protecting the interest of an individual protected by law; but this exception does not apply where
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a child protection matter is referred to mediation by a court or a public agency participates in the child protection mediation; (6) sought or offered to prove or disprove a claim or complaint of professional misconduct or malpractice filed against mediator in a proceeding; or (7) sought or offered to prove or disprove a claim of complaint of professional misconduct of malpractice filed against a party, nonparty participant, or representative of a party based on conduct occurring during a mediation. (b) There is no privilege under Section 9 if a court or administrative agency, finds, after a hearing in camera, that the party seeking discovery of the proponent of the evidence has shown that the evidence is not otherwise available, that there is a need for the evidence that substantially outweighs the interest in protecting confidentiality, and the mediation communication is sought or offered in: (1) a court proceeding involving a crime or felony; or (2) a proceeding to prove a claim or defense that under the law is sufficient to reform or avoid a liability on a contract arising out of the mediation.

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(c) A mediator may not be compelled to provide evidence of a mediation communication or testify in such proceeding. (d) If a mediation communication is not privileged under an exception in subsection (a) or (b), only the portion of the communication necessary for the application of the exception for nondisclosure may be admitted. The admission of particular evidence for the limited purpose of an exception does not render that evidence, or any other mediation communication, admissible for any other purpose. (Sec. 11, ADRA) Mediated Settlement Agreement The mediation shall be guided by the following operative principles: (a) A settlement agreement following successful mediation shall be prepared by the parties with the assistance of their respective counsel, if any, and by the mediator. The parties and their respective counsels shall endeavor to make the terms and condition thereof complete and make adequate provisions for the contingency of breach to avoid conflicting interpretations of the agreement. (b) The parties and their respective counsels, if any, shall sign the settlement agreement. The mediator shall certify that he/she explained the contents of the settlement agreement to the parties in a language known to them.

(c) If the parties so desire, they may deposit such settlement agreement with the appropriate Clerk of a Regional Trial Court of the place where one of the parties resides. Where there is a need to enforce the settlement agreement, a petition may be filed by any of the parties with the same court, in which case, the court shall proceed summarily to hear the petition, in accordance with such rules of procedure as may be promulgated by the Supreme Court. (d) The parties may agree in the settlement agreement that the mediator shall become a sole arbitrator for the dispute and shall treat the settlement agreement as an arbitral award which shall be subject to enforcement under Republic Act No. 876, otherwise known as the Arbitration Law, notwithstanding the provisions of Executive Order No. 1008 for mediated dispute outside of the CIAC. (Sec. 17, ADRA) A mediated settlement agreement (MSA) is a product of a successful mediation. To enforce the MSA The parties may (1) deposit this with the court or (2) convert this to an arbitral award so that, in the event of breach, it would be enforced as if there was an arbitral award. In the latter case, there is no need to deposit the MSA in court. (Autea) Rule 15 of SAR apply to private mediation and court-referred mediation. Court-annexed mediation is governed by circulars of the SC. (Autea) Any party to a mediation that is not court-annexed may deposit with the court the written settlement
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agreement, which resulted from that mediation. (Rule 15.1, SAR) At any time after an agreement is reached, the written settlement agreement may be deposited. (Rule 15.2, SAR) Any of the parties to a mediated settlement agreement, which was deposited with the Clerk of Court of the Regional Trial Court, may, upon breach thereof, file a verified petition with the same court to enforce said agreement. (Rule 15.5, SAR) After a summary hearing, if the court finds that the agreement is a valid mediated settlement agreement, that there is no merit in any of the affirmative or negative defenses raised, and the respondent has breached that agreement, in whole or in part, the court shall order the enforcement thereof; otherwise, it shall dismiss the petition. (Rule 5.18, SAR) Court-Annexed vs. Court-Referred "COURT-ANNEXED MEDIATION" means any mediation process conducted under the auspices of the court, after such court has acquired jurisdiction of the dispute. (Sec. 3(l), ADRA) "COURT-REFERRED MEDIATION" means mediation ordered by a court to be conducted in accordance with the Agreement of the Parties when as action is prematurely commenced in violation of such agreement. (Sec. 3(m), ADRA)
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