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Cultural Advantage as an Alternative Framework: An Introduction

F.Smarandache&V.Christianto UniversityofNewMexico,200CollegeRd.,Gallup,NM87301,USA Emails:smarand@unm.edu,fsmarandache@yahoo.com Email:vxianto@yahoo.com,site:http://www.sciprint.org


Abstract Despitetheeconomicsjargononrationalchoice,nowadaystheentireworldhasnothingelsetochooseexceptto succumbunderthespellofmagicwordsofmoderneconomics,i.e.neoliberalism,financialliberalization,free market(laissezfaire),andglobalization.Allofthesecanbeshowntobepartofapreconception,i.e.farbeyond theneutralideaofnaturalsciences. InFritjofCaprasbookTurningPoint(BantamBooks,1982)thesephenomenaaresummarizedasfollows: economicsthinkinghavestartedbyassumingthatineconomicssciencesonecanachievethesamegeneralityand universalitythatphysicistsenjoyindoingNaturalSciences.Inotherwords,economiststrytobecomethroughtheir workhardscienceratherthanrecognizingthatineconomicsthesubjectoftheirstudyishuman/peoplewhichis farfrombeingpredictable,eitherasindividualorassociety. Inourhumbleopinion,economicsisamixtureofboth,hardandsoftsciences.Inordertoshowthis,weintroduce a new study, called PolyEmporium Theory, where we show that phenomena from hard science and soft science coexistandinteractineconomics.PolyEmporiumTheoryisthestudyofinteractionsamongmany(bigandsmall) firmsinthemarket,anditisdifferentfromoligopolysincepolyemporiumtakesintoconsiderationthesmallfirms too(notonlythebigfirmsthatdominatethemarketasinoligopoly). Theabovelogicofthinkingisthestartingpointtosubmitanewidea,undertheheadingofCulturalAdvantage. Thefirstbookintheserieshastitle:CulturalAdvantageforCities:AnalternativeforDevelopingCountries.This presentationsummarizesitsbasicideas,withahopethattheseideasmaybefoundinterestingtodevelopfurther. Forclaritythereadersarereferredtothebook.

Introduction

Insimplewords,theentirehistoryofeconomicsassciencecanbesummarizedassystematicmethods togivereasonableexplanationofhumanbehaviorinordertofulfilltheirneeds.Furthermore,the progresswasinspiredbytheremarkablesuccessofNewtonianmechanicsindescribingtheworld[2]. Inthesameway,economistssinceAdamSmithstrivedsohardtobringorderintotheapparently chaoticphenomenawithrespecttohumanresponsestovariousvariables(governmenttaxationrules, marketcompetition,etc.).Inconclusion,thestrangehistoryofEconomicscanbesummarizedas follows:


Thesedayspeopleliketocallneoclassicaleconomicsmainstreameconomicsbecausemostuniversities offernothingelse.Thenamealsobackhandedlystigmatizesasoddball,flaky,deviant,disreputable,perhaps unAmericanthoseeconomistswhoventurebeyondthenarrowconfinesoftheneoclassicalaxioms.To understandthepowerfulattractionofthoseaxiomsonemustknowalittleabouttheirorigins.Theyarenot whatanoutsidermightthink.Althoughtodayneoclassicaleconomicscavortswithneoliberalism,itbegan asanhonestintellectualandwouldbescientificendeavor.Itspatronsaintwasneitheranideologuenora politicalphilosophernorevenaneconomist,butSirIsaacNewton.Thefoundingfathersofneoclassical economicshopedtoachieve,andtheirdescendentslivingtodaybelievetheyhad,fortheeconomic universewhatNewtonhadachievedforthephysicaluniverse.[2]

Despitetheeconomicsjargonitselfonrationalchoice,nowadaystheentireworldhasnothingelseto chooseexcepttosuccumbunderthespellofmagicwordsofmoderneconomics,i.e.neoliberalism, financialliberalization,freemarket(laissezfaire),andglobalization.Allofthesecanbeshowntobe partofapreconception,i.e.farbeyondtheneutralideaofnaturalsciences. Anotherimplicationofthisneoclassicaleconomicscanbesummarizedasfollows:


Neoclassicaleconomicsisbyitsownaxiomsincapableofofferingacoherentconceptualizationofthe individualoreconomicagent.Fromwheredothepreferencesthatsupposedlydictatetheindividualschoice comefrom?Notfrominterpersonalrelations,becauseifindividualdemandswereinterdependent,they wouldnotbeadditiveandthusthemarketdemandfunctionneoclassicalismskeyanalyticaltoolwouldbe undefined.Andnotfromsociety,becauseneoclassicalismsNewtonianatomismtranslatesasmethodological individualism,meaningthatsocietyistobeexplainedintermsofindividualsandnevertheotherwayaround. [2]

Acaveatoffinancialliberalizationhasoftenbeendiscussedinmonetarypolicysessions,i.e.studies revealedthatliberalizationisneatlylinkedandoftenprecedesfinancialinstability.Inotherwords,the magicwordhasnowbecomethecurseandperilforthemoderneconomicsbelievers[3]:


Followingliberalization,manydevelopingcountriesfoundthemselvesinvolvedinaconditionofhigh instabilityandincreasingfragilityoftheirfinancialsystems.Therefore,thequestionarisesastowhy countriesshouldenactpoliciesthatmovetheirfinancialsystemsfromasituationofrelativestabilitytoone ofpotentialinstability.

InFritjofCaprasbookTurningPoint(BantamBooks,1982)thesephenomenaaresummarizedas follows:economicsthinkinghavestartedbyassumingthatineconomicssciencesonecanachievethe
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samegeneralityanduniversalitythatphysicistsenjoyindoingNaturalSciences.Inotherwords, economiststrytobecomethroughtheirworkhardscienceratherthanrecognizingthatineconomics thesubjectoftheirstudyishuman/peoplewhichisfarfrombeingpredictable,eitherasindividualoras society.


Asweknow,naturalsciencesarenormallyconsideredas hardscience,whilesocialsciencesareconsideredassoft science.ThisterminologycanbetracedbacktoFritjof Capra,etc.Inthemeantime,someeconomistsconsider themselvesasdoinghardsciencewhileotherseemtobe inclinedtosoftscience.Notsurprising,therefore,thatsome economistsseemveryaccustomedtoprescribingsolutions toeconomicsproblems,usinghardtechnologies,hard methods,visavishumanisticconsiderations.SeealsoE.F Schumachersthinkingonmetaeconomics. Therefore,byconsideringCulturaladvantagehere,weare practicallyintroducingmoresoftsciencesintoeconomic thinking.Inotherwords,unlikemoderneconomicsthatis morelikelytobealienatedtotheculturalcontextofthe peoplewheretheyareimplemented,hereweproposeto introducemoreCulturalstudiesbeforeprescribinganew solution,especiallyfordevelopingcountries.[1]

Withthisnewinsight,wetrytolookagaintohumanashuman,notonlyasmeasureofeconomics textbook,orjustanobjectintheannualeconomicprogressreport. Withrespecttodevelopmenttheory,theimplicationsofthosemoderneconomicsconceptscanbe summarizedintermsofconventionalbeliefthattobecomeprosperousallcountriesshouldtakethe sameindustrializationpathasothercountriesintheFirstWorldhavetaken.ThisisknownasRostows developmenttheory,whichcanbesummarizedasfollows:[11]


Theprocessofindustrializationentailsatransitionfromanagriculturaltoanindustrialsociety, associatedwithamovementtowardshigherpercapitaincomeandproductivitylevels.

Despiteallthejargonssurroundingthisdevelopmenttheory,itisrecognizedthatthedevelopmentvia industrializationmethodhasnotbeensousefulsofar,inotherwordsmostcountriesremaininthe sameproblemsasbefore:[13]


Thisdevelopmentis,unfortunately,oftenmoresymbolicthanrealformanycountriesandactuallyhelps thesesocietiesverylittle.Industrializationisnotthesolutionformanycountriesseekingtoimprove conditionsfortheircitizens.[13]

Inotherwordsthedevelopmenttheoryisquitesimilartoanideologyratherthanascience[12];itis fullofpremisesbasedonperceptionorinterpretationofhistoryinthesocalledFirstWorldcountries [14]. Inanattempttomakeaconnectionbetweeneconomicsashardscienceandeconomicsassoftscience weproposeanewtheoryonPolyEmporium,whichwillbedescribedinthelastsectionofthis presentation.Inourhumbleopinion,economicsisamixtureofboth,andsoftsciences. Amodifiedgravityequationandsomeimplications Thesocalledgravityequationhasbeenknownbyeconomistsformorethan4decadeswithvarious degreeofacceptance.Therearenumerousstudiesthathaveestimatedgravityequationstoquantify impactofvarioustradecostsonbilateraltradeflows.[5,p.5] Whilethismodeliswidelyknownforitssimplicity,partofthecriticsaddressedtothismodeliscaused byitsprecisiontotheactualsituation.Itisalsooftencitedthatthegravityequationshavenosufficient theoreticalgrounds[5,p.5].Wecancallthisissueasrepresentationproblem. Inthissectionwediscussfirstareviewofexistingliteratureonthisequation,andhowitcanbe modifiedtorepresentbettertheactualcondition. (a) Existingmodelsofgravityequations. InaccordancewithAndersonandvanWilcoop,thegravityequationcanbewrittenasfollows[5,p.6]:

y i y j t ij xij = w y Pi Pj

(2)

Wherexrepresentsthenominaldemandsofcountryjfromgoodsfromcountryi,andy representsthe Worldoutput,respectively.Theotherparametersarenormallydeterminedbycurvedfittingplot.[5,p. 78].ThePiandPjparametersareoftencitedasDixitStiglitzconsumerbasedpricelevels[7,p.4]. Anotherexpressionofgravityequationscanbeexpressedasfollows[6,p.48,eq.4.12]:

Pr X ij =

Yi 0.5Y j0.5 2

(3)

Whichisoftencitedtobenotrealisticandoversimplified.Otherstudiesforexchangemarketproblem havebeenreported,forinstancesee[8][9]. (b) Amodifiedgravityequation.


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Whatisclearfromtheabovesummaryofgravityequationisthattheroleofgeography(distance) betweencountriesaffectsthetradebetweenthem[10].Thereforeitisworthwhiletotakeinto considerationnotonlygeographicaldistance,butalsogeographicalassetsandculturalassetsintothe gravitypotentialoftradebetweentwocountries(sometimesitisrelatedtopotentialFDI,see [7][8][9]). Inotherwords,theproposedmodifiedgravityequationherecanbeexpressedasfollows:

Pr X ij =

Yi 0.5Y j0.5 2

+ GCPi + GCPj ,

(4)

WheretheGCPwithindexirepresentsthesumofgeographicalandculturalpotential(assets)ofthe countryi,andtheGCPwithindexjrepresentsthesamepotentialforcountryj,respectively. Rationaleforthismodificationisbecausetheroleoflocationcanbeintroducedintogravityequationto achievebetterrepresentationofthemodel. Thisequation(4)cantakeintoconsiderationthedemandpullofecotourismofacountry,forinstance. Andtheotherpullfactorscanbeintroducedintotheequation;thisiswhyweintroducethesigma symbols. Thereforeitcanbeexpectedthatequation(4)canleadintomorerealisticeconomicsmodel. Interpretationoftheequation: (a) Thegravityequation(2)(3)representsbilateraltrademagnitudebetweentwocountriesgiventheir distanceandGDP.Ofcourse,onecanaskwhetherGDPalonecan'pull'thebilateraltrade.For instance,smallcountriescanhavelargerGDPthanChina,forinstanceBelgium,butweknowthat almostallEuropeslargecompaniesareheadingtowardinvestingorrelocatingintoChina,not Belgium.ThereforeGDPaloneisnottriggeringbilateraltrade.Whatseemsmakemoresenseisthat thesizeoftheeconomiesshallbetakenintoconsiderationtoointo(3).Thereforeperhapsitwould bemoreappropriatetoreplacetheGDPwitheconomyscale,whichisGDPtimespopulationofthe countryinquestion. (b) Anotherthingwecanconcludefromgravityequation(3)isthatGDPwilltriggerFDI,nottheother wayaround.Thisappearstobeincontradictionwiththecommonassumptionindevelopment theory,i.e.thatFDIwillimproveGDPofthecountryinquestion.Soundslikecircularlogic? (c) Furthermore,inequation(4)weintroducenewtermsintherighthandsideoftheequation.Given theelectronicintegrationoftheglobalmarketplace,itwouldmeanthattherecouldbeeconomics bilateraltradedespitethedistanceoftwoormorecountries.Withcomparisonwithinstantaneous actionatdistanceinQuantumMechanics,thenperhapsonecanthinkofpossibleeconomics entanglementbetweencountriesindistance.

(d) Toincludesigmasymbolsintotheoriginalgravityequation(3)willgivenoclueforthesituation, exceptperhapsifweconsidera'group'(orcluster)ofcountries,forinstanceEUROtoLatino America,etc. Otherplausibleideas: PolyEmporiumTheory(F.Smarandache) We now propose the polyemporium theory. A search done in Google on May 3rd, 2008, for the term polyemporiumreturnednoentry,soweintroduceitforthefirsttime. Thus "polyemporium" etymologically comes from poly = many, and emporium = trade center, store with a wide variety of selling things; therefore polyemporium is the study of interactions among many (bigandsmall)firmsinthemarket. Polyemporium is different from oligopoly since polyemporium takes into consideration the small firms too (not only the big firms that dominate the market as in oligopoly). Polyemporium considers the real situationofthemarket,wherebigfirmsandsmallfirmscoexistandinteractingmoreorless. First, lets present the duopoly theory, which is a theory of two firms that dominate and interact in the market, proposed by A. Cournot (18011877) in the year 1838. In Cournots model, if one firm changes its output, the other will also change its output by the same quantity, and eventually both firms will convergetowardsequilibrium. In 1883 Bertrands duopoly model, devised by Joseph Bertrand (18221900), if one firm changes its price and the second firm follows, eventually both firms would reach a price (equilibrium) where they wouldstay. Both models are similar to two mathematical sequences that little by little converge towards the same limit. Bertrandsmodeliscriticizedbecauseitignorestheproductioncostandmarketentrybynewfirms. Inoligopoly,whichisanextensionofduopoly,asmallnumberofsellingfirmscontrolthemarket.There is a big degree of interaction among these firms, which set the price, and the price is high and rigid. There is a perfect oligopoly, where all firms produce an identical product, and imperfect oligopoly, wherethefirmsproductsaredifferentiatedbutinessencearesimilar. Isitpossibletomixinggravityequations(1)and(2)andthenaddingtheculturalstuff. Howtowriteagravityequationforagroupofcountries?

SirThomasMore(14781535)usedthistheoryinhisUtopia(1516)andthenA.Cournotdid.Eachfirm canactasaleaderonitsmarketshare,eithertheycollude,oronefirmsetsthepriceandothersfollow. An analogue of oligopoly is the oligopsony, where a few buying firms control the market. They set the pricewhichisnormallylowandrigid. The cartel (or trust) influences the price too by regulating the production and marketing, but its influence is of less degree than monopolys or oligopolys. Inflexible price or administered pricing (1930s)issetinmonopolies,oligopolies,governmentorganizations,cartels. Howwouldinteractnfirms,F1,F2,,Fn,forn3,producingasimilarproductinthesamemarket?A firmcanbeabusiness,acorporation,aproprietorship,orapartnership. Therearethreecasesofthepolyemporium,whichwillbedetailedbelow: 1)Allfirmsarelargeandtheydominatethemarket,sowehaveanoligopolyoroligopsony. 2)Some firms are large, and dominate a big share of the market, while others are small, and donotdominate. In this subcase, either the small firms are grouped around some of the large firms (as satellites)justasingrowthpoletheory,othersmallfirmsmightexitthecompetition. Thiscasealsoincludesthepossibilitythatnewfirmsenterthemarket,sotheycommenceby smallinvestmentsandlatercangrow. The relationship between large firms in this case can lead either to oligopoly/oligopsony if they succeed to eliminate the small competitors, or to semioligopoly/ semioligopsony if theycontrolabigpartofthemarket,butnotthewholemarket. Smallfirmsmightcolludeandformlargerfirms. 3)Allfirmsaresmallandtheydonotdominatethemarket. As in mathematics, it is akin having n sequences, which interact, that we need to study their limit. Wouldtheyconvergetowardsthesamelimit? Surely,therewouldalwaysbeamonopolisticcompetitionbetweenthem. Asinmonopoly,eachfirmattemptstodominatethemarket,topreventcompetition,inordertocontrol the price. But monopoly is outlawed in most capitalistic countries. If one firm, lets say (without lost of generality) F1, alters its output, the others F2, , Fn, should also respond, otherwise they loose customers. If its an imperfect competition, i.e. a market with a large number of sellers and buyers but having differentiated products, the interaction between these firms is less than in a perfect competition, and

they all tend towards a socalled in our opinion multiequilibrium, as in a weighting machine with many balances,orasinamathematicalweightedaverage. Nevertheless,ifthesefirmsproduceahomogeneousproductformanybuyers,asinperfect competition,theirinterdependenceincreases.Disequilibriumofonefirmwouldaffectothers. Ifsuperiortechnologycommencestobeintroducedbysomefirms,thequalityoftheirproductwill increaseandthepricedecrease. Thismaygeneratethetheoryofgrowthpole,enunciatedbySirWilliamPetty(16231687)andFranois Perroux(19031987),whichreferstothefactthatsmallerfirmsaregroupedaroundacentralcoreof firmsthatbecomecatalysts.Maximumgrowthandproductexcellenceforthesefirmspresumesoptimal management. Ifthegovernmentcontrolstheculturaleconomics,thentradeunionsofculturalworkersshouldbe createdforcounterbalancing.Becausethisgivesbirthtoabilateralmonopoly,whichisamarketwitha singlebuyerandasingleseller,mostlyreferringtothegovernmentdealingconditionsandsalarieswith unionsofworkers. Thedynamicityofthemarketkeepsthefirmsinapermanentcompetition,andcompetitionmeans progress. WeextendEngelslaw(1857)thattheproportionofincomespentonfoodfallsasindividualincome increasestoasimilarlawrelatedtoculturaleconomics: Asindividualincomeincreases,theproportionofamountspentonculturaleventdecreases. Thus,asindividualincomeincreasesanaccelerationofculturaleconomicsoccurs. Moreover,adjustedfromtheabsoluteincomehypothesis(1936,1960s,and1970s)byJ.M.Keynesand later refined by James Tobin (b. 1918), we derive the absolute income cultural hypothesis applicable to theculturaleconomics:asincomerises,culturalconsumptionrisesbutgenerallynotatthesamerate. The18thcenturyabsoluteadvantagetheory,whichstatesthatpeopleandnationstradesincetheyhave exceedingproductioninsomeparticularfield,doesnotapplyinculturaleconomics.Norcomparative advantageapproachthatsupersededabsoluteadvantagetheoryworks,becausewecantreally comparecultures. Comparativecost,developedbyRobertTorrens(17801864)andDavidRicardo(17721823),whichisa featureofcomparativeadvantage,assertsthattradebetweencountriesisbeneficevenifonecountryis moreefficient,becauseofthevarietyofproducts.Similarly,culturaleconomicsbenefitsfromitscultural difference.Themoredistinguishableisaculture,thebetterchanceofincreasingtheculturaleconomics. Economicculturecanbeviewedbothaspartofculturaleconomy,art(craftsmanship)economy,and alsopartof(music)entertainmentindustry,anddependsontaste,advertisement,curiosity,history,and thequalityofbeingdiverse,distinctive,withalargespectrumofvarieties.

Themostinterestingcaseisthethirdone,whereallnfirmsaresmallandtheydonotdominatethe market.Letssee,forexample,anetworkofindependentrestaurantsinacity.Theyinteractlittlewith eachother.Thequality,taste,distance,andpriceofcoursemakethedifferencebetweenthem. They do not collude but in rare situations since each of them has its specific, its exotism, which they dont want to loose. They cannot make an oligopoly since new restaurants may easily enter the market with its specific, and because the taste changes periodically. They remain into multiequilibrium. Similarly for international cultural economics, where each culture has its specific, and thats what attractsvisitors,tourists. Ingeneral,thenfirmseventuallytendtowardsmultiequilibrium,wheretheystayforawhile.Inmulti equilibriumeachfirmtendstowardsitsspecificsubequilibrium. Periodically this multiequilibrium is partially or totally disturbed, due to technology, government intervention, wars, crises, reorganization of the firms, change in customers taste and preferences, but then again the firms return to stability. This period of multidisequilibrium is a natural state, since economy is dynamic, and the disturbance is a launching pad to refreshment; in order to rebalance the market, these n firms must improve their technology, their structure, cut production cost, or else they exitthecompetition.Allthebadforthegood,saysaRomanianproverb,sodisequilibriumbringslater newbloodintoeconomy. Thiscycleofmultiequilibriummultidisequilibriumrepeatscontinuously. Economicssystemsmovefrommultidisequilibriumtomultiequilibriumbackandforth[thisishard science,sinceitisaneconomicsinvariant],butthemovements/changesfromonetoanotherarenot easytopredictwhenandhow,nortocontrol[thisissoftscience,becauseofthesmallprobabilitythat wecancalculatethemwith]. Concludingremarks TheideaofCulturalAdvantageswhileperhapshasbeendiscussedelsewhereismostlytreatedonlyas subchapter in discussions concerning competitive advantage, or development economics studies. But most economics students keep on thinking in the framework of RicardoAdam Smiths Comparative Advantage or Porters Competitive Advantage, i.e. a country should be able to offer goods at competitiveprices(readlowprices)tokeepitscompetitiveedge. But in the framework of Cultural Advantages, these rules are now changing. While price keeps on being a determining factor, other factors also play critical roles, for instance willingness to learn new cultures, andtogainnew(exotic)experience,whichcanbefoundbyvisitingothercountries.Thisisthebeginning ofCulturalAdvantagestudies. To summarize our ideas in this presentation, the cultural economics is possible mainly because modern consumers demand not only goods (called mass products), but also experience (learn each others cultures,languages,etc.)

Weacknowledgethatthisstudyisfarfrombeingcomplete,andthereforewouldliketoinviteothersto contributetoitsfurtherdevelopment. Acknowledgment Thankstonumerouscolleaguesfordiscussionsonplentythings,inparticularspecialthankstoProf.L. Wilardjo&ProfD.WidihandojofromUKSW,Indonesia. Revised.1st:8thAug08.Revised2nd:14thOct.08.Revised3rd:24thOct.2008. References: [1]V.Christianto&F.Smarandache,CulturalAdvantageforCities:AnalternativeforDeveloping Countries,InfoLearnQuest,USA,2008,p..17(URL: http://www.gallup.unm.edu/~smarandache/CulturalAdvantage.pdf) [2]ThestrangehistoryofEconomics,http://www.paecon.net/#_A_PAE_History [3]B.Schneider,Gettingthedomesticfinancialarchitectureright,ODI,2001,URL: http://www.odi.org.uk/events/winter2001_financingfordev/schneider6.html [4]F.Smarandache&V.Christianto,CulturaladvantageforDevelopingcountries:Abooksummary, submittedtoInt.J.ofSocialEconomics,ref.MS#2008064(18thAug.2008) [5]Shirono,K.,TherealeffectsofcommoncurrenciesinEastAsia,IMFWorkingpaper,WP/07/166 (2007)p.37,URL:http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1007915 [6]Foldvari,P.,TheeconomicimpactofEuropeanIntegrationontheNetherlands,Diss.Thes.(2006), URL:http://igiturarchive.library.uu.nl/dissertations/20060328200011/c4.pdf [7]Melitz,J.,NorthSouthandDistanceintheGravitymodel,CentredeRechercheenEconomiqueet Statistique,(2005)p.4,URL:www.crest.fr/doctravail/document/200511.pdf [8]Berthou,A.,Aninvestigationofeffectofrealexchangeexchangemarketmovement,Working paperseries,No.920,July2008,URL:www.ecb.int/pub/pdf/scpwps/ecbwp920.pdf [9]deSousa,J.&J.Lochard,DothesinglecurrencyaffectFDI?Agravitylikeapproach,(June2006) p.9,URL:http://www.fmkp.si/Files/File/Konference/EIIE%202006/deSousa.pdf [10]Guerin,S.,Theroleofgeographyinfinancialintegration,(2007) http://www.luiss.it/ricerca/centri/llee/file/llwp36.pdf

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[11]IndustrializationandDeIndustrialization, http://uk.encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_781531184/industrialization_and_deindustrialization.html [12]Sometheoriesofruraldevelopment,http://www.idrc.ca/en/ev331492011DO_TOPIC.html; seealso[12a]Rostowstheoryofindustrialdevelopment,URL: http://teacherweb.ftl.pinecrest.edu/snyderd/APHG/Unit%207/PDFs/7%20%20Rostow.pdf [13]Conceptsofdevelopment,URL: http://teacherweb.ftl.pinecrest.edu/snyderd/APHG/Unit%207/26review.htm [14]Rostow,W.W.,Bewareofhistoriansbearingfalseanalogies,ForeignAffairs,Spring,1988URL: http://www.foreignaffairs.org/19880301fareviewessay7900/waltwrostow/bewareofhistorians bearingfalseanalogies.html

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