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FACULTY OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL

ENGINEERING
DEPT.OF GEOTECHNICAL AND
TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING
GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

REPORT
SUBJECT CODE
TEST CODE & TITLE
COURSE CODE
TESTING DATE
STUDENT NAME
GROUP
1.
2.
GROUP MEMBER NAMES

3.
4.
5.

LECTURER/ INSTRUCTOR/ TUTOR


NAME
REPORT RECEIVED DATE
MARKS

EXAMINER COMMENT

ATTENDANCE/ DISCIPLINE
& INVOLVEMENT

/15%

DATA ANALYSIS

/20%

RESULT

/20%

DISCUSSION

/25%

CONCLUSION

/20%

TOTAL

/100%
RECEIVED STAMP

STUDENT CODE OF ETHIC


(SCE)
DEPT. OF GEOTECHNICAL AND TRANSPOTATION ENGINEERING
FACULTY OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

I, hereby confess that I have prepared this report on my own effort. I also admit not
to receive or give any help during the preparation of this report and pledge
that everything mentioned in the report is true.

_________________
Student Signature

Name

Matric No. :
Date

FACULTY: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG.


DEPARTMENT: GEOTECHNICAL AND
TRANSPORTATION
ENGINEERING
TEST TITLE : PROCTOR STANDARD SOIL
COMPACTION

PAGE NO.:
EDITION:

1/9

REVIEW NO.:
EFFECTIVE
DATE:
AMENDMENT
DATE:

5/12/07
5/12/07

1.0 OBJECTIVE : To obtain the maximum value of dry density and the optimum moisture content.
2.0 LEARNING OUTCOME
At the end of this experiment, students are able to:

Understand the relationship between dry density and moisture content for a given
degree of compactive effort

Understand the moisture content for the most efficient compaction.

Obtain the maximum dry density can be achieved for particular type of soil.
3.0 THEORY
Compaction of soil the process by which the solid particles are packed more closely together by
mechanical means, thus increasing the dry density, Markwick, 1994. it is achieved through the
reduction of the air voids in the soil. At low moisture content, the soil grain is surrounded by a thin film
of water, which tends to keep the grains apart even when compacted. In addition of more water, up to
certain point, more air to be expelled during compaction. At the point, soil grains become as closely
packed together as they can, that is at the dry density is at its maximum. When the amount of water
exceeds the required to achieve this condition, the excess water begin to push particles apart, so the
dry density reduced.
The moisture content at which the greatest value of dry density achieved for the given compaction effort
is the optimum moisture content, (OMC), and the corresponding dry density is the maximum dry density

Figure 1: Relationship between dry density (pd) against moisture content w for several types of soil.

FACULTY: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG.


DEPARTMENT: GEOTECHNICAL AND
TRANSPORTATION
ENGINEERING
TEST TITLE : PROCTOR STNADARD SOIL
COMPACTION

PAGE NO.:
EDITION:

2/9

REVIEW NO.:
EFFECTIVE
DATE:
AMENDMENT
DATE:

5/12/07
5/12/07

4.0 TEST EQUIPMENTS


1. Cylindrical metal mould, internal dimensions 105mm diameter and 115.5mm high. (fitted with a
detachable and removable extension collar.
2. Metal rammer with 50mm diameter face weighing 205kg, sliding freely in a tube which controls
the height of drop to 300mm
3. Measuring cylinder; 200ml or 500ml (plastic)
4. 20mm BS sieve and receiver
5. Large metal tray
6. electronic balance
7. Jacking apparatus for extracting compacted material from mould.
8. small tools: palette knife, steel-straight edge, 300mm long, steel rule, scoop or garden trowel
9. Drying oven, 105-110C and other equipment for moisture content determination.

Figure 2 : Mould base plate and the metal rammer

FACULTY: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG.


DEPARTMENT: GEOTECHNICAL AND
TRANSPORTATION
ENGINEERING
TEST TITLE : PROCTOR STNADARD SOIL
COMPACTION

PAGE NO.:
EDITION:

3/9

REVIEW NO.:
EFFECTIVE
DATE:
AMENDMENT
DATE:

5/12/07
5/12/07

5.0 PROCEDURES
1. Veify the mould, baseplate, extension, collar and rammer to be used are those that conform to
BS 1377. weight the mould body to the nearest 1g (m 1). Measure its internal diameter (D)mm
and length (L)mm in several places and calculate the mean dimensions.
2. Calculate the internal volume of the mould (V)mm 3 using

V =

D2 L
4000

Apply with an oily cloth on the internal surface of mould to ease the removal of soil later on.
3. Measure the empty metal tray and 5kg of air dried soil sample that the has passing through
sieve no.4 (4.75mm)
4. place the mould assembly on a solid base, such as concrete floor. Add loose soil so that after
eacch sequence of compaction the mould will be one-third filled.
5. compact the soil by applying 27 blows of the rammer dropping from the controlled height of the
300mm. ensure that the rammer is properly in place before releasing, Figure 3, Note: do not
attempt to grab the lifting knob before the rammer has come to rest. The sequence as shown in
Figure 4 has to be followed. Repeat for the second and third layer that the final shall not more
than 6mm above the mould body, Figure 5.

Figure 3 Hand position when releasing rammer

FACULTY: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG.


DEPARTMENT: GEOTECHNICAL AND
TRANSPORTATION
ENGINEERING
TEST TITLE : PROCTOR STNADARD SOIL
COMPACTION

PAGE NO.:
EDITION:

4/9

REVIEW NO.:
EFFECTIVE
DATE:
AMENDMENT
DATE:

5/12/07
5/12/07

Figure 5 Soil in mould after compaction


1. Trimming of by removing the extension collar, cut away the excess soil and level off to the top
of the mould. Any cavities rsulting from removal of stones at the surface shoul be filled with fine
material.
2. Remove the baseplate carefully, trim the soil at the lower end of the mould. Weigh soil and
mould to the nearest g.
3. Fit the mould on to the extruder and jack out the soil. Break up the sample on the tray.
4. Take up to three representative samples in moisture content containers for measurement of
moisture content. This must be done immediately before the soil dry out. The average of three
measurements is w%. (Preferably one from each layer).
5. Break up the material on the tray and mix with the remainder of the prepared sample. Add an
increment of water, approximately as follows :
Sandy and gravelly soils : 1 2% (50 100 ml of water to 5 kg of soil)
Cohesive soils : 2 4 % (100 200 ml of water to 5 kg of soil)

FACULTY: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG.


DEPARTMENT: GEOTECHNICAL AND
TRANSPORTATION
ENGINEERING
TEST TITLE : PROCTOR STNADARD SOIL
COMPACTION

PAGE NO.:
EDITION:

5/9

REVIEW NO.:
EFFECTIVE
DATE:
AMENDMENT
DATE:

5/12/07
5/12/07

6.0 SAMPLE CALCULATIONS


1.

Calculate the bulk density, of each compacted specimen from the equation

m2 m1
Mg / m 3 (if volume = 1000 cm3)
1000

Where : m1 mass of mould; m2 mass of soil and mould

=
V =

m2 m1
Mg / m 3 (if volume = V cm3)
V

D 2 L
4

(check all conversion of unit)

2. Calculate moisture content, wn% for each compacted specimen.

wn =

w2 w1
100
w1 w0

Where : w2 weight of moist soil + container, w1 weight of dry soil + container


w0 weight of empty container
3. Calculate the average value of moisture content, w% for each compacted specimen.

w=
4.

w1 + w2 + w3
3

Calculate corresponding dry density, d

100
d =
Mg/m3
100 + w
5.

Plot of graph dry density, d against moisture content, w. Draw a smooth curve through the
points.

FACULTY: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG.


DEPARTMENT: GEOTECHNICAL AND
TRANSPORTATION
ENGINEERING
TEST TITLE : PROCTOR STNADARD SOIL
COMPACTION

PAGE NO.:
EDITION:

6/9

REVIEW NO.:
EFFECTIVE
DATE:
AMENDMENT
DATE:

5/12/07
5/12/07

6. Sample calculation:
Serial no.

Test No :

A : TEST CRITERIA
Location :

No. of layer :3

Rammer mass :
2.5 kg
No. of separate
batch :

Soil Description :
Brown sandy clay with a little fine gravel
Sample preparation :
Air dried and riffled

Blows per layer :


27

Location No:
Sample No.:

B : DENSITY CALCULATION VOLUME OF CYLINDER = 1002 CM 3


Measurement No.
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
Cylinder + soil = A g
3786
3907
3999
3962
Cylinder = B g
1917
1917
1917
1917
Soil mass = A B g
1869
1990
2082
2045
Wet density =
1.865
1.986
2.078
2.041

(5)
3908
1917
1991
1.987

7. Sample calculation:
Serial no.

Test No :

A : TEST CRITERIA
Location :

No. of layer :3

Rammer mass :
2.5 kg
No. of separate
batch :

Soil Description :
Brown sandy clay with a little fine gravel
Sample preparation :
Air dried and riffled

Blows per layer :


27

Location No:
Sample No.:

B : DENSITY CALCULATION VOLUME OF CYLINDER = 1002 CM 3


Measurement No.
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
Cylinder + soil = A g
3786
3907
3999
3962
Cylinder = B g
1917
1917
1917
1917
Soil mass = A B g
1869
1990
2082
2045
Wet density =
1.865
1.986
2.078
2.041

(5)
3908
1917
1991
1.987

C : Plotting of air voids line, Va = 0%, 5% AND 10% (Use Gs = S = 2.65)


Use the equation below using w = 1Mg/m3

Va
100 Mg / m 3
d =
1
w
+
S 100
1

FACULTY: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG.

PAGE NO.:

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DEPARTMENT: GEOTECHNICAL AND


TRANSPORTATION
ENGINEERING
TEST TITLE : PROCTOR STNADARD SOIL
COMPACTION

EDITION:
REVIEW NO.:
EFFECTIVE
DATE:
AMENDMENT
DATE:

5/12/07
5/12/07

8. Final plot of a graph along with the air voids line

FACULTY: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG.

PAGE NO.:

8/9

DEPARTMENT: GEOTECHNICAL AND


TRANSPORTATION
ENGINEERING

EDITION:
REVIEW NO.:
EFFECTIVE
DATE:
AMENDMENT
DATE:

TEST TITLE : PROCTOR STNADARD SOIL


COMPACTION

5/12/07
5/12/07

8.0 CALCULATIONS
A : TEST CRITERIA
Location :

Location No:

Rammer mass :
2.5 kg

Soil Description :

Sample No.:

No. of separate
batch :

Sample preparation :
Air dried and riffled

Serial no.

Test No :

No. of layer :3
Blows per layer :
27

B : DENSITY CALCULATION VOLUME OF CYLINDER = 1002 CM 3


Measurement No.
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
Cylinder + soil = A g

(5)

Cylinder = B g
Soil mass = A B g
Wet density =

Measurement No. 1
Wet soil + container,w2 (g)

C : MOISTURE CONTENT
(1)
(2)

(3)

Dry soil + container,w1 (g)


Empty container, w0 (g)
Moisture content, wn (%),
AVERAGE MOISTURE, w%

Measurement No. 2
Wet soil + container,w2 (g)

(1)

(2)

(3)

Dry soil + container,w1 (g)


Empty container, w0 (g)
Moisture content, wn (%),
AVERAGE MOISTURE, w%
FACULTY: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG.

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DEPARTMENT: GEOTECHNICAL AND


TRANSPORTATION
ENGINEERING

EDITION:
REVIEW NO.:

(1)

(2)

EFFECTIVE
DATE:
AMENDMENT
DATE:
(3)

(1)

(2)

(3)

(1)

(2)

(3)

TEST TITLE : PROCTOR STNADARD SOIL


COMPACTION
Measurement No. 3

5/12/07

5/12/0
7

Wet soil + container,w2 (g)


Dry soil + container,w1 (g)
Empty container, w0 (g)
Moisture content, wn (%),
AVERAGE MOISTURE, w%
Measurement No. 4
Wet soil + container,w2 (g)
Dry soil + container,w1 (g)
Empty container, w0 (g)
Moisture content, wn (%),
AVERAGE MOISTURE, w%
Measurement No. 5
Wet soil + container,w2 (g)
Dry soil + container,w1 (g)
Empty container, w0 (g)
Moisture content, wn (%),
AVERAGE MOISTURE, w%
D : DRY DENSITY CALCULATION (USE ACTUAL VOLUME OF CYLINDER )
Measurement No.
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

(5)

AVG MOISTURE, w%

Dry density, d
E : PLOTTING OF DRY DENSITY AGAINST MOISTURE CONTENT WITH AIR VOIDS LINE
AT 0%, 5% AND 10%. USE PROPER GRAPH PAPER
8.0 QUESTIONS
1. Define and explain what is meant by optimum moisture content, and how it is determined in the
laboratory.
2. Explain fully the principles and methods involved in soil compaction. How do you use the
Proctor test apparatus in the field for checking the soil compaction?