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# SNUx446.

345 Robot Mechanics and Control, Part I Midterm Examination April, 2014

Problem 1 (20 points) Using an appropriate version of Grueblers formula, derive the degrees of freedom of the two mechanisms shown below.

(a)

(b)

## Figure 1: Mechanisms for Problem 1

Problem 2 (20 points) (a) Use Grueblers formula to nd the degrees of freedom of the parallel mechanism shown in Figure 2. Each leg is an M RP R serial chain, where M is a four-bar parallelogram linkage.

R P

R R R

Figure 2: Problem 2(a) (b) The two-arm humanoid (upper body only) of Figure 3 is rigidly grasping a box as shown. The box can only slide on the table; the bottom face of the box must always be in contact with the table. How many degrees of freedom does this system have?

## Figure 3: Problem 2(b)

Problem 3 (20 points) The insect robot of Figure 4 has a body, four legs, and four wings as shown. Each leg is connected to its neighboring leg by a USP open chain. Assuming all links are rigid, answer the following questions, using Gr ublers formula to justify each of your answers: (a) Suppose you pick up the robot by its body, so that only its legs and wings can move. How many degrees of freedom does the robot have? (b) Now suppose the robot is in airborne ight. How many degrees of freedom does the robot have? (c) Now suppose the robot is standing with all four feet in contact with the ground. Assume each foot-ground contact can be modeled as a frictionless point contact, and that each foot must always maintain contact with the ground. How many degrees of freedom does the robot have?

## Figure 4: Insect robot of Problem 3

Problem 4 (20 points) The grasp shown in Figure 5 consists of three point contacts with friction, with friction coecient = 1. Determine whether the grasp is force closure.

Figure 5: Exercise 2

Problem 5 (20 points) (a) In the planar grasp of Figure 6(a), contacts A and B are frictionless, while contact C has friction, with friction cone as shown given by the angle . Find the smallest value of that makes this grasp a force closure grasp. (b) Now suppose contacts A and B have friction, with 90 friction cones as shown in Figure 6(b). Find the smallest value of that makes this grasp a force closure grasp.
1 1 1 1

A
1

B
1 1

B
1

C
(a) Problem 2(a)

C
(b) Problem 2(b)

## Figure 6: Grasps for Problem 5

Problem 6 (20 points) The square object of Figure 7 has four holes as shown. The four holes form parts of a circle. (a) In the planar grasp of Figure 7(a), contacts A, B , and C are all frictionless point contacts. Suppose contact B is allowed to slide along any of the three sides of the hole as shown in Figure 7(a). Find all possible locations for B that make this grasp force closure. (b) In the planar grasp of Figure 7(b), contacts A and B are frictionless point contacts, while contact C is a point contact with friction cone (dened by angle ) as shown. Determine the range of angle so that the grasp is force closure.
2
2

A
45

A
45

1
45 45

0.5

0.5

(a)

(b)

## Figure 7: Grasped object for Problem 6

Problem 7 (20 points) The input-output system of Figure 8 takes as input a vector p R3 , and outputs a vector Rp R3 , where R SO(3) is some unknown rotation matrix to be determined.

Figure 8: Input-output system for Problem 7 0 1 2 (a) For the three inputs 0 , 1 , 2 2 , the system outputs the three vectors 1 2 0 1 0 2 2 1 2 , , 2 , respectively. Find, if it exists, the rotation matrix R. 2 2 2 2 1 1 0 2 , 0 , and their respective outputs 1 (b) Given two input vectors 1 , 2 1 0 2 2 1 2 1 . Find, if it exists, the rotation matrix R. 2
3 2

## Hint: Given a 3 3 matrix

a b c A = d e f , g h i

## its inverse (if it exists) is given by A1 ei f h ch bi bf ce 1 f g di ai cg cd af = det A dh eg bg ah ae bd

where det A = aei + bf g + cdh ceg bdi af h. Problem 8 (20 points) Recall that the ZXZ Euler angles for a rotation matrix R are dened as follows: R = Rot( z , )Rot( x, )Rot( z , ), where , [0, 2 ) and [0, ]. Find the ZXZ Euler angles for the following rotation matrix: 1 1 0 2 2 1 1 2 R = 1 . 2 2
1 2 1 2 1 2