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==Sources==

=== Foods === <!-- This chart is misleading and doesn't match the text {| class="wikitable sortable" style = "float: right; margin-left:15px; text-align:center" |+Animal Sources of Vitamiliver, cooked, pan-fried || || Turkey, all classes, giblets, cooked, simmered, some giblet fat || | | Braunschweiger pork liver sausage || |-

| Raw Pacific oysters || || Cooked Alaska king crab || || Raw clams || || Simmered chicken giblets || || Beef (uncooked sirloin)|| || Egg (raw, whole chicken's egg) || || Yogurt |-

|| Raw chicken breast|| 0.20 |} -->

Ultimately, animals must obtain vitamin B directly or indirectly from [[bacteria]], and these bacteria may inhabit a section of the gut which is distal to the section where B is absorbed. Thus, [[herbivorous]] animals must either obtain b from bacteria in their [[rumen]]s, or (if fermenting plant material in the [[hindgut]]) by reingestion of [[cecotrope]] feces.

Vitamin B is found in most animal derived foods, including fish and shellfish, meat (especially liver), poultry, eggs, milk, and milk products. However, the binding capacity of egg yolks and egg whites is markedly diminished after heat treatment. An NIH Fact Sheet lists a variety of animal food sources of B

Besides certain fermented foods, there are currently only a few non-animal food sources of biologically active B. making kombucha a potential "high" food source of B<sub>12</sub>. Because kombucha is produced by a symbiosis between yeast and bacteria, the possibility that kombucha contains B does not contradict current knowledge. But no scientific studies have yet been published confirming the fact, nor whether the b in kombucha is the biologically active B.

A Japanese fermented black tea known as [[Batabata-cha]] has been found to contain biologically active B {{cite pmid Unlike kombucha which is made by fermenting already prepared tea, Batabata-cha is fermented while still in the tea leaf state.

''[[Chlorella]]'',<ref name="Kittaka-Katsura H 2002"/><ref name="Watanabe F 2002">{{cite pmid| contain mostly biologically active b in the fresh state,<ref name="Yamada K 1999"/> but even its fresh state vitamin activity has not been verified by animal enzyme assay.

One group of researchers has reported that the purple laver seaweed known as Susabi-nori (''[[Porphyra]] yezoensis'').<ref name="Watanabe F 2000"/><ref name="Takenaka S > in its fresh state contains B activity in the rat model, which implies that source would be active in humans. These results have not been confirmed.

Foods [[Food fortification|fortified]] with b are also sources of the vitamin although they cannot be regarded as true food sources of B since the vitamin is added in supplement form, from commercial bacterial production sources, such as cyanocobalamin. Examples of B fortified foods include fortified [[breakfast cereals]], fortified [[soybean|soy]] products, fortified [[energy bar]]s, and fortified [[nutritional yeast]]. The UK [[Vegan Society]], the Vegetarian Resource Group, and the [[Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine]], among others, recommend that every vegan all of these may contain labeled amounts of vitamin activity. Supplemental B<sub>12</sub> added to beverages in one study was found to degrade to contain varying levels of pseudovitamin-B. One report Unconventional natural sources of B<sub>12 also exist, but their utility as food sources of B are doubtful. For example, plants pulled from the ground and not washed scrupulously may contain remnants of|journal=The American journal of clinical is also found in lakes|author= Albert MJ, Mathan VI, Baker SJ| title= Vitamin B synthesis by human small whether sufficient amounts of the vitamin could be produced to meet nutritional needs.

===Supplements=== [[File:Hydroxocobalamin Injection.jpg|thumb|300px|Hydroxocobalamin injection USP (1 Vitamin B<sub>12</sub> is provided as a supplement in many processed foods, and is also available in vitamin pill form, including multi-vitamins. Vitamin B can be supplemented in healthy subjects also by liquid, transdermal patch, nasal spray, or injection and is available singly or in combination with other suppleme=29 May 2012 However, no scientific studies have shown that B

[[Cyanocobalamin]] is converted to its active forms, first [[hydroxocobalamin]] and then [[methylcobalamin]] and [[adenosylcobalamin]] in the liver.

The sublingual route, in which B12 is presumably or supposedly absorbed more directly under the tongue, has not proven to be necessary or helpful, even though a number of lozenges, pills, and even a lollipop designed for sublingual absorption, are being marketed. A 2003 study found no significant difference in absorption for serum levels from oral vs. sublingual delivery of 0.5&nbsp;mg of cobalam.Replacement therapy for vitamin B12 deficiency: comparison between the sublingual and oral route|volume=5||journal=British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology|doi Sublingual methods of replacement are effective only because of the typically high doses

Injection and patches are sometimes used if digestive absorption is impaired, but there is evidence that this course of action may not be necessary with modern high potency oral supplements (such as 0.5 to 1&nbsp;mg or more). Even pernicious anemia can be treated entirely by the oral route.journal|author=Bolaman Z, Kadikoylu G, Yukselen V, Yavasoglu I, Barutca S, Senturk T |title=Oral versus intramuscular cobalamin treatment in megaloblastic anemia: a single-center, prospective, randomized, open-label study |journal=Clin Ther |volume=25 |issue=12 |pages=312434 |year=2003 |Cite journal|author=Lane LA, RojasFernandez C |title=Treatment of vitamin b(12)-deficiency anemia: oral versus parenteral therapy |journal=Ann Pharmacother |volume=36 |issue=78 |pages=126872 |year=200

However, if the patient has inborn errors in the methyltransfer pathway (cobalamin C disease, combined [[methylmalonic aciduria]] and [[homocystinuria]]), treatment with intravenous, intramuscular journal|author=Roze E, Gervais D, Demeret S, ''et al.''

|title=Neuropsychiatric disturbances in presumed late-onset cobalamin C disease |journal=Arch.

==== Non-cyano forms as supplements ==== |doi={{Cite journal|author=Heil SG, Hogeingual [[methylcobalamin]] has become available in 1&nbsp;mg tablets. Such tablets have higher bioavailability than the older cyanocobalamin. No [[cyanide]] is released with methylcobolamin, although the amount of cyanide (2% of the weight, or 20 ''micrograms'' cyanide in a 1&nbsp;mg cyanocobalamin tab) is far less than ingested in many natural foods. Although the safety of cyanocobalamin has not been seriously questioned, the safety of the other types is also well established.