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Governing Equations in mechanics, thermodynamics, etc., are derived for constant mass systems In fluid mechanics, often, the interest is not of the moving fluid but its action on the structures through which it passes Pressure drop in a pipe Forces on pipe bends Temperature of fuel elements in a reactor

There is a need to convert the laws for a fixed mass to laws for a fixed or moving (having relative velocity with the fluid) volume. This is accomplished by the Reynolds transport theorem Before we derive it let us have a quick look at laws for the fixed mass

Conservation of Mass

Conservation of Angular Momentum

dM sys dt

= 0;

where M sys =

dm =

M sys

d

sys

dH sys dt

= T;

where H sys =

r Vdm =

M sys

r Vd

sys

dPsys dt

M sys

r g dm + Texternal

M sys

Vd

sys

Shaft Torque

First law of thermodynamics

Second law of thermodynamics

dE sys dt

= Q W;

where E sys =

e dm =

M sys

e d

sys

dSsys dt

Q + Sp T

where Ssys =

s dm =

M sys

s d

sys

N M 1

P V H

e=u+

Internal

V2 + gz 2

kinetic potential

N sys =

dm =

M sys

d

sys

r V

E e S s

This theorem converts conservation laws from Control Mass system to Control Volume System . We will derive this with mass balance first Then we shall generalize and apply to other conservation laws We shall not cover Thermodynamics laws here but will apply them

dM sys dt

Initially at time t, control mass and control volume coincide After t, the control mass (Msys) has moved partially out

min

= M sys ( t + t ) M sys ( t ) t

t 0

mout

M CV ( t + t ) m in + m out M CV ( t ) t t 0

M ( t + t ) M CV ( t ) m in + m out M CV ( t + t ) m in + m out M CV ( t ) = CV t t t 0

t 0

dM sys dt = d + V.dA t CV CS

=

=

M CV m in + m out t

d + V.dA + V.dA t CV CSin CSout

A V

Conservation of Mass

dM sys dt

=0

d + V.dA = 0 t CV CS

dM sys dt =

in

d = V.dA = 0 t CV CS

Rate of increase of mass in control volume Net rate of influx of mass through control surface

d + V.dA t CV CS

Application-I

Seawater flows steadily through a simple conical-shaped nozzle at the end of a fire hose as illustrated in Fig. If the nozzle exit velocity must be at least 20 m/s. determine the minimum pumping capacity required in m3/s.

Application-II

dV + V.dA = 0 t cv cs

Zero flow is steady

V.dA = m 2 m1 = 0

cs

If Density is constant Q1 - Q2 = 0

Or, Q1 = Q2 = Q = V2A2

Q = 20

40 10 3 4

= 0.0251 m 3 / s

Application-III

Moist air (a mixture of dry air and water vapor) enters a dehumidifier at the rate of 324 kg/hr. Liquid water drains out of the dehumidifier at a rate of 7.3 kg/hr Determine the mass flow rate of the dry air and the water vapor leaving the dehumidifier. A simplified sketch of the process is provided in Fig.

Application-IV

dV + V.dA = 0 t cv cs

Zero flow is steady

m3 = ?

V.dA = m1 + m 2 + m 3 = 0

cs

Now if we take the whole system as control volume

m 1 = 324 kg / hr

m1 m 2 m 3 + m 4 m 5 = 0 m 4 = m5

m 3 = 7.3 kg / hr

Generalization

Conservation of Momentum

Newtons Second Law Also called conservation of momentum

dN sys dt

d + V.dA t CV CS

Net rate of outflux of the property through control surface

N M 1

P V

dPsys dt

= F;

V d + V V.dA = F t CV CS

Conservation Mass Lin. Mom Ang. Mom I-law-Thermo II-law-Thermo

r V

E e S s

Application-V

FA

Application-VI

FA anchoring force that holds the nozzle in place Wn weight of the nozzle Ww weight of the water in the nozzle P1 gage pressure at section (1) A1 cross section area at section (1) P2 gage pressure at section (2) A2 cross section area at section (2)

Determine the anchoring force required to hold in place a conical nozzle attached to the end of a laboratory sink faucet shown in Fig. when the water flowrate is 0.6 liters. The nozzle mass is 0.1 kg. The nozzle inlet and exit diameters are 16 mm and 5 mm, respectively. The nozzle axis is vertical and the axial distance between sections (1) and (2) is 30 mm. The pressure at section (1) is 464 kPa.

z

Wn p1A1 w1

Ww

w1 z direction velocity at the control volume entrance (assumed uniform) w2 z direction velocity at the control volume exit (assumed uniform)

The anchoring force sought is the reaction force between the faucet and nozzle threads. To evaluate this force, control volume selected includes the nozzle and the water contained in the nozzle

p2A2 w2

The action of atmospheric pressure cancels out in every direction and is not shown

Application-VII

V d + V V.dA = F t CV CS

Zero flow is steady

Application-VIII

m = A1 w 1 = Q = 1000 0.6 10 3 = 0.6 kg / s

V V.dA = ( w 1 )(m1 ) + ( w 2 )m 2

CS

F = FS + FB = FA p1A1 + p 2 A 2 Wn Ww

m1w 1 m 2 w 2 = FA p1A1 + p 2 A 2 Wn Ww

Conservation of mass

0

dV + V.dA = 0 t cv cs

W1 =

m1 m 2 = 0 or m1 = m 2 = m

W2 =

Application-IX

Wn = m n g = 0.1 9.81 = 0.981 N

(0.03) (0.016)2 + (0.004)2 + (0.016)(0.004) 9.81 = 0.0278 N Ww = 1000 12

h 2 Ww = Vw g = D1 + D 2 2 + D1 D 2 g 12

dN sys dt

Mass Balance

Atmospheric pressure

p2 = 0

d + Vrel .dA t CV CS

d + Vrel .dA = 0 t CV CS

FA = m (w 1 w 2 ) + p1A1 p 2 A 2 + Wn + Ww

FA = (0.6 )(2.98 30.6) + 0.981+ (464000) 2.011104 + 0.0278 0

Momentum Balance

FA = 77.75 N

Application-X

An airplane moves forward at a speed of 971 kmph as shown in Fig. The frontal intake area of the jet engine is 0.8m2 and the entering air density is 0.736 kg/m3. A stationary observer determines that relative to the earth, the jet engine exhaust gases move away from the engine with a speed of 1050 kmph. The engine exhaust area is 0.558 m2 and the exhaust gas density is 0.515kg/m3. Estimate the mass flow rate of fuel into the engine.

Application-XI

d + Vrel .dA = 0 t CV CS

0

CS

control Volume

m fuel in = 2 A 2 W2 1A1W1

= 2.5278 kg / s

A vane on wheels moves with constant velocity Vo when a stream of water having a nozzle exit velocity of V1 is turned 45o by the vane as indicated in Fig. Determine the magnitude and direction of the force, F, exerted by the stream of water on the vane surface. The speed of the water jet leaving the nozzle is 33 m/s, and the vane is moving to the right with a constant speed of 6 m/s.

A1 = 5.6 10-4 m2

x-direction

cs

z-direction

CS

Application-XII

Vrel d + Vrel Vrel .dA = F t CV CS

0

0.3 m

m rel 1 = m rel 2 = m

Conservation of mass;

Water flow is frictionless and that the change in water elevation across the vane is negligible. Therefore, Vrel is constant

Rz Rx W

The relative veloicty of the stream of water entering the control volume Vrel-1 = V1 Vo = 33- 6 = 27 m/s = Vrel-2

dH sys dt = T;

R x = 119.6 N

r V d + r V V.dA = T t CV CS

T = r Fs +

Due to surface forces

r g dm + Texternal

M sys

(15.12)(+ 27 Cos45) = R z

R z = 290.3 N

R=

1.65

Shaft Torque

Let us apply it and learn it. We will do it for a fixed control volume as rotating control volume needs many more terms that are beyond the scope of this first course

= 67.6

Application-I

y Neglect tip length x

Application-II

The mass balance can be applied even to accelerating control volume using

0

CS

Since the density is constant Given: Geometry, flow rate through sprinkler, rotational speed and pressure at inlet To Find: jet speed relative to each nozzle, frictional torque

Q water in

moving CV

= Q water out

moving CV

Application-III

Note that at inlet, the volume flow rate for moving control volume is same as that for fixed control volume, which is known

Application-IV

We know that T has three components

stationary CV

Q water in Vrel =

moving CV

= Q water out

moving CV

= Q water in

T = r Fs + r Fs = 0

1. 2.

r g dm + Texternal

M sys

Q 2A jet

To get the frictional torque, we need to solve the angular momentum equation

r g dm = 0

M sys

r V d + r V V.dA = T t CV CS

This is a vector equation; but we need only the Z component Note that we refer to fixed CV

T = Texternal = Tfriction = Tk

Application-V

Computation of transient term

r V d t CV

Application-VI

Computation of flux term term

CS

r V V.dA

r = ( r cos i + r sin j)

R V Re l

i

= (Vrel cos r sin ) i + ( Vrel sin + r cos ) j r V = ( Vrel r sin cos + r sin ) k + (Vrel r sin cos r 2 sin 2 )( k ) = r 2k

2 2

r = ( R cos i + R sin j )

V = (Vrel R ) sin i ( Vrel R ) cos j

r V = R cos i ((Vrel R ) cos ) j + R sin j (Vrel R ) sin i

r V d = r 2Adr k =

CV 0

3

R A r V d = k =0 t CV t 3

R 3 A k 3

= ( Vrel R )Rk

V.dA = Q

A

T = (Vrel R )R kQ

dPsys dt = F;

Valid only for Inertial Frame (non-accelerating)

In the discussion XYZ frame is inertial frame and PQR would be non inertial

For problems like a rocket taking off, we need accelerating frame analysis For simplicity only rectilinear accelerating frames would be considered An example would illustrate application

Conservation of momentum

d ( VPQR + VRe l )d = FXYZ =

sys sys

d VXYZ d

sys

dt

dt d VRe l d

sys

dt

d VRe l d FPQR

sys

Application

Given Initial Mass = 400 kg Fuel consumption rate = 5 kg/s Exhaust Velocity = 3500 m/s Find Initial acceleration Atmospheric pressure all around and air resistance neglected 0 -400 X 9.81

sys

d VPQR d =

sys

dt

dt

d VPQR d FPQR

sys

a Re ld =

sys

dt

Ve

FPQR

sys

a Re ld =

400 X ay

FS PQR + FB PQR a Re ld =

-3500 X 5

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