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Chapter 21 <The Progressive Impulse> o Belief in progress society capable of improvement and growth=nations destiny o natural laws of market

t place/laissez faire not sufficient to create order and stability -> needed human intervention Varieties of Progressivism Antimonopoly: fear of concentrated power and limit concentration of power. appealed to middle class, helped gvt to regulate and break up trusts Belief in social cohesion: individuals linked to society as whole. efforts to help women, industrial workers, immigrants, African Americans Faith in knowledge: the principles of natural/social sciences. knowledge = vehicle for making society more equitable and humane The Muckrakers named after Roosevelt accusation of them raking up muck through his writings exposed scandal, corruption, and injustice to public in attempt to progress society major target was trusts and railroads: thought they were corrupt Ida Tarbell studied Standard Oil trust and exposed corruption Lincoln Steffens reported on boss rule urged people to care about politics opposition to monopoly and pro social unity concern about social justice and need for social responsibility linked with Protestantism Salvation Army, Charles Sheldons In his steps about social gospel popular

The Social Gospel

Rauschenbusch: Protestant theologian published discourses on possibilities for human salvation through Christian reform Pope published rerum novarum as justification for their own crusade for social justice Father John Ryan: Catholic liberal that worked to expand scope of Catholic social welfare programs

Settlement House Movement belief in influence of environment on individual development to elevate distressed, required improvement of living conditions crowded immigrant neighborhoods in cities= source of distress Jane Addams and Hull House: settlement house staffed by members of educated middle class helped immigrants adapt to language and customs of US college women involvement led to women social work, used scientific study and reports to convey message The Allure of Expertise Thorstein Veblen : social scientist criticized industrial tycoons, proposed new system in which power would reside in the hands of highly trained engineers who would understand machine process by which society should run Rise of social sciences: produced generation of bureaucratic reformers concerned with structure of organizations and building new political and economic institutions capable of managing society expanded new group of middle-class professionals industries needed managers and technicians new middle class: included scientists and accountants, etc new class emphasized education and individual accomplishment ideal of professionalism very weak The Professions

led to American Medical Association: called for scientific standards for admission to practice of medicine State laws passed licensing laws for physicians rise of scientific training and research Johns Hopkins Lawyers: professional bar associations and growth of graduate schooling National Association of Manufacturers in 1895 and US chamber of Commerce in 1912: businessmen organization farmers: national farm bureau federation designed to spread scientific farming methods entrance requirements excluded blacks, women, immigrants and undesirables

Women and the Professions womens colleges gave way to professional women settlement houses, social work, teaching black women teaching was only professional opportunity (segregated schools) Nursing after Civil War, librarians

<WOMEN AND REFORM> The New Woman children beginning school earlier and work moving into factory and office -> no need for women to stay at home all day declining family size -> women lived longer after children grew up women that never married percentage increased Frances Willard temperance movement, Anna Shaw suffrage movement both were single women Boston Marriages relationships between women divorce rate increased higher level of women education female communities

The Clubswomen

organizations to provide women an outlet for intellectual energies : General Federation of Womens Clubs to organize local activities became more concerned with social betterment non-partisan image made it hard for politicians to ignore them African Americans generally excluded made clubs of own (national association of colered women) Charlotte Perkins: deemed traditional gender roles obsolete A public space for women pressured politics by pushing for state laws that regulated conditions of working class women and child labor : led to mother pensions (pensions to widowed or abandoned mothers with small children) and Childrens Bureau in Labor Department

Womens Trade Union League: 1903 raised money to support strikes and marched on picket lines and bailed striking women out of jail

Woman Suffrage seemed very radical because women argued that suffrage was a natural right just like men Stanton pro natural right idea, said mother was just one small part of womens large contribution to society antisuffrage movement formed by defending existing social norms. some were women, who associated suffrage with divorce and neglect of children Early 20th century suffragists more organized-- Anna Shaw + Carrie Chapman Catt formed National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) Began to make safer arguments for suffrage in that voting would not ruin distinct sphere but allow women to bring special virtues to societys problems and contribute to politics. Some claimed could soothe male aggression (WWI)

1910 Washington extended suffrage to women, more hesitant in East b/c of associations w/ ethnic conflict (Catholics) over temperance movement

1920 Nineteenth Amendment ratified guaranteeing female political rights; others (including Alice Pauls Womans Party) wanted to fight on for an Equal Rights Amendment to prohibit all discrimination based on sex

African Americans not affected by woman suffrage 19th amendment

<THE ASSAULT ON THE PARTIES> need for reform in government for social reforms to happen parties were considered corrupt Early Attacks greenbackism and populsim: efforts to break republican and democratic dominance in politics independent republics (mugwumps) 1880s/1890s, states adopted secret ballot decreased parties power in election Parties critics wanted to increase power of people by permitting them to circumvent partisan institutions and express their will directly at poll/increase power of nonpartisan nonelective officials Municipal Reform Licoln Steffens (progressive) anti party system increased interest in municipial government (both aristocratic and middle class) they challenged city bosses, saloon owners, businessmen in urban machines local newspapers pooped on them/ immigrants that needed the city bosses didnt like reformers

but eventually gained political gains

New Forms of Governance reformers gained support of city charter mayor and council replaced by an elected, nonpartisan commission City0manager plan elected officials hired an outside expert, usually business mangaer or engineer, to take charge of gvt by staying untainted by corrupting influence of politics Tom Johnson reformer fought to increase low assessments on railrod and utilities properties and lower streetcar fairs and impose municipal ownership on basic utilities Newton D Baker took over after Johnsons death Populists proposed initiative and referendum: allowed reformers to circumvent state legislatures by submitting new legislation directly to voters in general elections. referendum: allowed legislatures to return to electorate for approval Direct and Primary Recall: gave selection of candidates to the people. used as way to prevent blacks from voting. Recall gave voters right to remove epublic official from office at special election (called if enough people signed a petition) wanted to limit influence of corporations on statehouse activities Famous state-level reformer was Gov Robert LaFollette in Wisconsin- regulated RRs, utilities, workplace, graduated taxes on inherited wealth Parties and Interest Groups Reform did not destroy parties but led to decline in their influence- seen by decreasing voter turnout. Interest groups emerged from professional organizations or labor to advance own demands directly to govt, not thru party Statehouse Progressivism

SOURCES OF PROGRESSIVE REFORM Labor, the Machine, and Reform Samuel Gomperss American Federation of Labor mostly uninvolved in reform at time, but local unions played role in passing some state reform laws Parties tried to preserve interest by adapting- some bosses allowed their machines to be vehicle of social reform (e.g. Charles Murphy of Tammany Hall supported legislation for working conditions, child labor) Triangle Shirtwaist Fire 1911 in NY killed many women workers b/c bosses had locked emergency exits. Commission delivered report calling for reform in labor conditions- reform lead in legislature by Tammany Dems. Imposed regulation on factory owners and mechanisms for enforcement Western Progressives In Western states reformers targeted federal govt b/c powerful as it never had been in East (power over lands and resources, subsidies for RRs and water projects, issues transcended state borders). Weaker local + state govts political led to weaker W polit. parties, govts passed progressive reforms more quickly African Americans and Reform AAs faced large legal, social, economic, political obstacles in challenging their oppressed status and seeking reform- many embraced Booker T Washingtons message of self-improvement over long-term social change 1900s new Niagara Movement led by WEB Du Bois (author of 1903 The Souls of Black Folk) called for immediate civil rights, professional education 1909 joined w/ supportive white progressives to form National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), used federal lawsuits in pursuit of equal rights. Guinn v. United States (1915) Supreme Court

ruled grandfather clause illegal; Buchanan v. Worley (1917) Court outlawed some segregationNAACP established itself as leading black organization Crusade for Social Order and Reform The Temperance Crusade Many progressives saw elimination of alcohol as way to restore societal order- women saw alcohol as source of problems for families, employers saw it as roadblock to efficiency, political reformers saw saloon as Machine institution 1873 temperance supporters formed Womens Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) led by Frances Willard, together w/ Anti-Saloon League called for abolition of saloons and prohibition of manufacture and sale of alcohol Opposition by immigrant and working-class voters; regardless, national effort and start of WWI moral fervor led to 1920 Eighteenth Amendment prohibition Immigration Restriction Reformers saw growing immigrant population as source of social problems- some wanted to help assimilation, others to limit flow of new immigrants Early century pressure to slow immigration, heightened by growth of eugenics movement arguing human inequalities hereditary and immigration (especially of non-Anglo E. Eurs and Asians) resulting in growth of unfit peoples Publicist Madison Grants 1916 The Passing of the Great Race tied together eugenics + Nativism; Congresss Dillingham Report said new immigrants less assimilable than earlier groups, restrictions should be based on nationality Others supported restrictions as means to solve urban overcrowding, unemployment, strained social services, and unrest

Challenging the Capitalist Order The Dream of Socialism Radical opposition to capitalist system strongest btwn 1900-1914 Socialist Party under Eugene V. Debs - wanted to change structure of economy, but disagreement as to extent and tactics moderates favored nationalizing only major industries, use electoral politics radicals including union Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) under William Haywood wanted abolition of wage slave system, favored use of general strike, supported unskilled workers (strong force in West) 1917 strike by IWW led to federal government crackdown on union b/c needed materials in mobilization for war; IWW never fully recovered Socialist Party refusal to support war + growing antiradicalism led to decline of socialism as powerful political force in America Decentralization and Regulation Most progressives also saw major problem in great corporate centralization + consolidation, but instead of nationalizing industries wanted federal govt to create balance btwn need for big business and need for competition Lawyer Louis Brandeis argued about curse of bigness, saw it as threat to efficiency and freedom, limited individual control of own destiny Others believed combinations sometimes helped efficiency, therefore govt should distinguish btwn good and bad trusts to protect against abuses by bad concentrations. Supported by nationalist Herbert Croly in 1909 The Promise of American Life Movement growing for industry cooperation and self-regulation; others wanted active govt role in regulation and planning economy

<Theodore Roosevelt and the Modern Presidency> -> made new powers, envisioned US as global power, became more than just a figurehead for the country capital The Accidental President VP Theodore Roosevelt assumed presidency September 1901after Pres McKinley assassinated Reputation as an independent and wild man became champion of cautious an moderate change, reform to protect society against more radical changes Government, Capital, and Labor Roosevelt saw fed govt as mediator of the public good. Not opposed to industrial combinations but realized potential for abuse of power Supported regulation of trusts- created Department of Commerce and Labor 1903 to publicly investigate corporations. Did make effort to break up some trusts- used Sherman Antitrust Act to break up Northern Securities Company monopoly over RRs in Northwest Saw govt as impartial regulator for labor as well- 1902 strike by United Mine workers led Roosevelt to ask labor and management to accept impartial federal arbitration, threatened to seize mines if management balked The Square Deal Reform not priority during first years as president, more concerned w/ winning reelection by not alienating conservative Republicans, winning support of businessmen and using patronagewon 1904 election First targeted RR industry by asking Congress to increase fed power to oversee rates- Hepburn Railroad Regulation Act of 1906 restored some govt regulatory power

Supported Congress passing Pure Food and Drug Act, after Upton Sinclairs 1906 The Jungle supported Meat Inspection Act. Also favored 8 hour work day for labor, workmens compensation, and inheritance and income taxes Roosevelt and Conservation

Concerned w/ unregulated exploitation of resources and wilderness- used executive power to restrict private development on govt land, saw goal of conservation to carefully manage development and to apply same scientific method of management being used in cities

President supported public reclamation and irrigation projects- 1902 Newlands Act funded dam construction, reservoirs, canals in West to open new lands for irrigation, cultivation and power development Roosevelt and Preservation

Pres also sympathized w/ naturalists who wanted to protect land, wildlife from human intrusion Expanded National Forest System for rational lumbering, but also grew National Park System to protect lands from any development : Yellowstone, Yosemite

The Hetch Hetchy Controversy Hetch Hetchy Valley in Yosemite seen as beautiful land by naturalists, but San Francisco residents + Roosevelts head of National Forest System Gifford Pinchot wanted land to build dam + reservoir for citys growing water needs Pinchot saw needs of city more important than claims of preservation; issue placed in 1908 referendum, dam approved by large margin in election The Panic of 1907

Despite reforms govt still had little control over industrial economy; in 1907 production outgrew domestic + foreign demand, speculation + poor management led to panic.

JP Morgan pooled assets of NY banks to prop up banks, made deal with Pres to allow US Steel to purchase Tennessee Coal and Iron Company shares

B/c of Panic of 1907 and promise made in 1904 to step down four years later, did not seek renomination and reelection for 1908 bid <The Troubled Succession> Taft and the Progressives

During early administration called on Congress to lower tariff (a progressive demand), refused to oppose Repub Old Guard. Result was Payne-Aldrich Tariff - reduced tariffs little, raised others- progressives resented inaction

1909 Ballinger-Pinchot Dispute in which Head of Forest Service Gifford Pinchot was told that Sec of Interior Richard Ballinger had sold public lands in Alaska for personal profit. Taft thought charges groundless, Pinchot leaked info to press-- Taft fired Pinchot, progressives alienated The Return of Roosevelt

Roosevelt upset w/ Taft and believed only he was capable of reuniting Republican Party; 1910 outlined New Nationalism that moved away from conservatism + argued only effort of strong fed govt could bring social justice Spreading Insurgency

In 1910 Congressional elections many conservative Repub candidates lost and progressives reelected; Dems gained maj in House, seats in Senate Reform sentiment on the rise, but Roosevelt claimed he only wanted to pressure Taft into action; Roosevelt decided to run, however, after Taft

charged US Steel acquisition of Tennessee Coal and Iron Company had been illegal and reform candidate Robert LaFollettes campaign collapsed Roosevelt versus Taft i)Taft had support of conservative Repubs and party leaders, Roosevelt supported by progressives- at convention Republican National Committee gave nomination to Taft. Roosevelt left Repub Party and established own Progressive Party w/ himself as nominee (nicknamed Bull Moose Party) 3)Woodrow Wilson and The New Freedom a)Woodrow Wilson i)Reform support growing in Democratic Party as well as Repub Party; Dems chose progressive Woodrow Wilson as 1912 Presidential election nominee ii)Wilson supported New Freedom- held that bigness was unjust and wanted to destroy, not regulate monopoly (whereas Roosevelts New Nationalism believed in govt regulation of concentration) iii)Roosevelt and Taft split Repub vote, Wilson elected b)The Scholar as President i)Wilson bold and forceful- used position as leader of Dems to build coalition to support his program (Dem majorities existed in both houses) ii)Greatly lowered tariff in Underwood-Simmons Tariff in order to introduce competition into market + breakup trusts; to make up for revenues past graduated income tax iii)1913 Congress passed Federal Reserve Act- regional Fed banks made up of regional banks + issued loans at discount rate, issued Fed Reserve notes backed by govt, shifted funds to meet credit demands + protect banks. Supervising Federal Reserve Board members selected by Pres iv)1914 Wilson began to deal w/ monopoly, Congress passed Federal Trade Commission Act and Clay Antitrust Act (1)FTC was regulatory agency to help business determine whether their actions were legal, also power to prosecute unfair trade practices

(2)Clayton Antitrust Bill to allow break up of trusts weakened by conservative opposition; ultimately administration decided that government supervision and regulation by FTC sufficient c)Retreat and Advance i)Pres believed New Freedom accomplished, therefore didnt support progressive suffrage movement and efforts to halt segregation in federal agencies after Dems had heavy losses in Congress in 1914 elections to Repubs (who won support from Progressive party) Wilson began new reforms ii)Wilson supported appointment of progressive Louis Brandeis to Supreme Court; supported measured expanding role of federal govt 1916 Keating-Owen Act regulated child labor (struck down by Sup C b/c relied on interstate commerce clause in Const), 1914 Smith-Lever Act to help agricultural extension education

Chapter 23 <The Road to War> The Collapse of European Peace Competing alliances The triple entete Britain, France, Russia vs Triple alliance Austro-hungarian Empire, Germany, Italy assassination of Archduke Ferdinand in Siberia Germany, Austria Hungary launch assault on Sibera, Siberia asks Russia for help. Germany declares war on Russia and France and Great Britain joins in for alliance and powers sake Italy joined Britain and French despite alliance to Germany in 1914 neutral but hard to actually stay so because Irish Americans and German Americans sided with alliance and more sided with Britain because of admiration. Britain propaganda about alliance -> more British support economic ties to Britain neutrality would mean not sending ships to both Germany and Britain, but US depended on Britain for trade Wilsons Neutrality

Lusitania Germany used submarine warfare to sink Lusitania of Britain and killed many Americans as well. Had munitions and people but TR called it act of piracy. Also shot vessel at Sussex French steamer without warning unlawful tactics

Preparedness vs Pacifism Wilson did not intervene for either side because of re-election + domestic division Economic and militarily preparations debated by pacifists and interventionists. However, by 1916 military armament largely under way Wilson won extremely close 1916 because of association w/ ability to keep US independent, although Democratss barely held on to Congressional majorities A War for Democracy After election Wilson wanted country unified and justified if to enter war, should fight to create new progressive world order & not for material gains January 1917 Germany began offensive and continuation of unrestricted submarine warfare to defeat Allies before US entrance; February Zimmerman Telegram urged Mexicans to join w/ Germany (increased public sentiment toward war); March Russian Revolution toppled czar for republican govt April 1917 US officially declared war on side of Allies 2)War Without Stint a)Entering the War i)Immediately w/ US entrance Allied navy able to dramatically reduce sinkings in troop + supply convoys ii)1917 withdrawal of Russian forces after Bolshevik Revolution (Lenin) led Germans to put resources on Western Front, Allies needed US ground troops b)The American Expeditionary Force i)US army too small to supply needed troops- April 1917 Wilson urged passage of Selective Service Act to draft soldiers into American Expeditionary Force

ii)AEF was diverse-- women served as auxiliaries in non-combat roles; AfricanAmerican soldiers served in segregated units or had menial roles c)The Military Struggle i)US ground forces insignificant until spring 1918; AEF under Gen John Pershing maintained command structure independent from other Allies ii)US forced tipped stalemate + balance of power to Allies--- June 1918 helped repel German offensive at Chateau-Thierry iii)Beginning Sept US forced fighting in Argonne Forest (as part of Allied Meuse-Argonne Offensive); pushed Germans back + cut off supply routes iv)11/11/1918 Great War ended w/ Allies on German border