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ANSYS Workbench Verification Manual

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Table of Contents

Introduction ............................................................................................................................................... 1 Overview ............................................................................................................................................... 1 Index of Test Cases .................................................................................................................................. 2 I. DesignModeler Descriptions ................................................................................................................... 7 1. VMDM001: Extrude, Chamfer, and Blend Features ................................................................................. 9 2. VMDM002: Cylinder using Revolve, Sweep, Extrude, and Skin-Loft ....................................................... 11 3. VMDM003: Extrude, Revolve, Skin-Loft, and Sweep .............................................................................. 13 II. Mechanical Application Descriptions ................................................................................................... 15 1. VMMECH001: Statically Indeterminate Reaction Force Analysis ........................................................... 17 2. VMMECH002: Rectangular Plate with Circular Hole Subjected to Tensile Loading ................................. 19 3. VMMECH003: Modal Analysis of Annular Plate .................................................................................... 21 4. VMMECH004: Viscoplastic Analysis of a Body (Shear Deformation) ...................................................... 23 5. VMMECH005: Heat Transfer in a Composite Wall ................................................................................. 25 6. VMMECH006: Heater with Nonlinear Conductivity .............................................................................. 27 7. VMMECH007: Thermal Stress in a Bar with Temperature Dependent Conductivity ................................ 29 8. VMMECH008: Heat Transfer from a Cooling Spine ............................................................................... 31 9. VMMECH009: Stress Tool for Long Bar with Compressive Load ............................................................ 33 10. VMMECH010: Modal Analysis of a Rectangular Plate ......................................................................... 35 11. VMMECH011: Large Deflection of a Circular Plate with Uniform Pressure ........................................... 37 12. VMMECH012: Buckling of a Stepped Rod .......................................................................................... 39 13. VMMECH013: Buckling of a Circular Arch .......................................................................................... 41 14. VMMECH014: Harmonic Response of a Single Degree of Freedom System ......................................... 43 15. VMMECH015: Harmonic Response of Two Storied Building under Transverse Loading ........................ 45 16. VMMECH016: Fatigue Tool with Non-Proportional Loading for Normal Stress .................................... 47 17. VMMECH017: Thermal Stress Analysis with Remote Force and Thermal Loading ................................ 49 18. VMMECH018: A Bar Subjected to Tensile Load with Inertia Relief ....................................................... 51 19. VMMECH019: Mixed Model Subjected to Bending Loads with Solution Combination ......................... 53 20. VMMECH020: Modal Analysis for Beams ........................................................................................... 55 21. VMMECH021: Buckling Analysis of Beams ......................................................................................... 57 22. VMMECH022: Structural Analysis with Advanced Contact Options ..................................................... 59 23. VMMECH023: Curved Beam Assembly with Multiple Loads ............................................................... 61 24. VMMECH024: Harmonic Response of a Single Degree of Freedom System for Beams ......................... 63 25. VMMECH025: Stresses Due to Shrink Fit Between Two Cylinders ........................................................ 65 26. VMMECH026: Fatigue Analysis of a Rectangular Plate Subjected to Edge Moment ............................. 67 27. VMMECH027: Thermal Analysis for Shells with Heat Flow and Given Temperature .............................. 69 28. VMMECH028: Bolt Pretension Load Applied on a Semi-Cylindrical Face ............................................. 71 29. VMMECH029: Elasto-Plastic Analysis of a Rectangular Beam .............................................................. 73 30. VMMECH030: Bending of Long Plate Subjected to Moment - Plane Strain Model ............................... 75 31. VMMECH031: Long Bar with Uniform Force and Stress Tool - Plane Stress Model ................................ 77 32. VMMECH032: Radial Flow due to Internal Heat Generation in a Copper Disk - Axisymmetric Model .... 79 33. VMMECH033: Electromagnetic Analysis of a C-Shaped Magnet ......................................................... 81 34. VMMECH034: Rubber cylinder pressed between two plates .............................................................. 85 35. VMMECH035: Thermal Stress in a Bar with Radiation ........................................................................ 87 36. VMMECH036: Thermal Stress Analysis of a Rotating Bar using Temperature Dependant Density ......... 89 37. VMMECH037: Cooling of a Spherical Body ........................................................................................ 91 38. VMMECH038: Crashing Blocks Simulation with Transient Structural Analysis ...................................... 93 39. VMMECH039: Transient Response of a Spring-mass System ............................................................... 95 40. VMMECH040: Deflection of Beam using Symmetry and Anti-Symmetry ............................................. 97 41. VMMECH041: Brooks Coil with Winding for Periodic Symmetry ......................................................... 99

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Workbench Verification Manual 42. VMMECH042: Hydrostatic Pressure Applied on a Square Bar with Fully, Partially Submerged in a Fluid ....................................................................................................................................................... 103 43. VMMECH043: Fundamental Frequency of a Simply-Supported Beam .............................................. 105 44. VMMECH044: Thermally Loaded Support Structure ......................................................................... 107 45. VMMECH045: Laterally Loaded Tapered Support Structure .............................................................. 109 46. VMMECH046: Pinched Cylinder ...................................................................................................... 111 47. VMMECH047: Plastic Compression of a Pipe Assembly .................................................................... 113 48. VMMECH048: Bending of a Tee-Shaped Beam ................................................................................. 115 49. VMMECH049: Combined Bending and Torsion of Beam ................................................................... 117 50. VMMECH050: Cylindrical Shell under Pressure ................................................................................. 119 51. VMMECH051: Bending of a Circular Plate Using Axisymmetric Elements .......................................... 121 52. VMMECH052: Velocity of Pistons for Trunnion Mechanism ............................................................... 123 53. VMMECH053: Simple Pendulum with SHM motion .......................................................................... 125 54. VMMECH054: Spinning Single Pendulum ........................................................................................ 127 55. VMMECH055: Projector mechanism- finding the acceleration of a point .......................................... 131 56. VMMECH056: Coriolis component of acceleration-Rotary engine problem ....................................... 133 57. VMMECH057: Calculation of velocity of slider and force by collar ..................................................... 135 58. VMMECH058: Reverse four bar linkage mechanism ......................................................................... 137 59. VMMECH059: Bending of a solid beam (Plane elements) ................................................................. 139 60. VMMECH060: Crank Slot joint simulation with flexible dynamic analysis .......................................... 141 61. VMMECH061: Out-of-plane bending of a curved bar ....................................................................... 145 62. VMMECH062: Stresses in a long cylinder ......................................................................................... 147 63. VMMECH063: Large deflection of a cantilever ................................................................................. 149 64. VMMECH064: Small deflection of a Belleville Spring ........................................................................ 151 65. VMMECH065: Thermal Expansion to Close a Gap at a Rigid Surface .................................................. 153 66. VMMECH066: Bending of a Tapered Plate ........................................................................................ 155 67. VMMECH067: Elongation of a Solid Tapered Bar .............................................................................. 157 68. VMMECH068: Plastic Loading of a Thick Walled Cylinder .................................................................. 159 69. VMMECH069: Barrel Vault Roof Under Self Weight ........................................................................... 161 70. VMMECH070: Hyperelastic Thick Cylinder Under Internal Pressure ................................................... 163 71. VMMECH071: Centerline Temperature of a Heat Generating Wire .................................................... 165 72. VMMECH072: Thermal Stresses in a Long Cylinder ........................................................................... 167 73. VMMECH073: Modal Analysis of a Cyclic Symmetric Annular Plate ................................................... 169 74. VMMECH074: Tension/Compression Only Springs ........................................................................... 171 75. VMMECH075: Harmonic Response of Two-Story Building under Transverse Loading ........................ 173 76. VMMECH076: Elongation of a Tapered Shell with Variable Thickness ............................................... 175 77. VMMECH077: Heat Transfer in a Bar with Variable Sheet Thickness .................................................. 177 78. VMMECH078: Gasket Material Under Uniaxial Compression Loading-3-D Analysis ........................... 179 79. VMMECH079: Natural Frequency of a Motor-Generator ................................................................... 183 80. VMMECH080: Transient Response of a Spring-mass System ............................................................. 185 81. VMMECH081: Statically Indeterminate Reaction Force Analysis ........................................................ 187 82. VMMECH082: Fracture Mechanics Stress for a Crack in a Plate .......................................................... 191 83. VMMECH083: Transient Response to a Step Excitation ..................................................................... 193 84. VMMECH084: Mullins Effect on a Rubber Tube Model Subjected to Tension Loading ........................ 197 85. VMMECH085: Bending of a Composite Beam .................................................................................. 199 86. VMMECH086: Stress Concentration at a Hole in a Plate .................................................................... 201 87. VMMECH087: Campbell Diagrams and Critical Speeds Using Symmetric Orthotropic Bearings ......... 205 88. VMMECH088: Harmonic Response of a Guitar String ....................................................................... 209 89. VMMECH089: Delamination Analysis of a Double Cantilever Beam Using Contact-Based Debonding ..................................................................................................................................................... 211 90. VMMECH090: Delamination Analysis of a Double Cantilever Beam Using Interface Delamination ..... 213 III. Design Exploration Descriptions ....................................................................................................... 215

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Workbench Verification Manual 1. VMDX001: Optimization of L-Shaped Cantilever Beam under Axial Load ............................................ 217 2. VMDX002: Optimization of Bar with Temperature-Dependent Conductivity ....................................... 219 3. VMDX003: Optimization of Water Tank Column for Mass and Natural Frequency ................................ 221 4. VMDX004: Optimization of Frequency for a Plate with Simple Support at all Vertices ......................... 225 5. VMDX005: Optimization of Buckling Load Multiplier with CAD Parameters and Young's Modulus ....... 227

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Introduction

The following topics are discussed in this chapter: Overview Index of Test Cases

Overview

This manual presents a collection of test cases that demonstrate a number of the capabilities of the Workbench analysis environment. The available tests are engineering problems that provide independent verification, usually a closed form equation. Many of them are classical engineering problems. The solutions for the test cases have been verified, however, certain differences may exist with regard to the references. These differences have been examined and are considered acceptable. The workbench analyses employ a balance between accuracy and solution time. Improved results can be obtained in some cases by employing a more refined finite element mesh but requires longer solution times. For the tests, an error rate of 3% or less has been the goal. These tests were run on an Intel Xeon processor using Microsoft Windows 7 Enterprise 64-bit . These results are reported in the test documentation. Slightly different results may be obtained when different processor types or operating systems are used. The tests contained in this manual are a partial subset of the full set of tests that are run by ANSYS developers to ensure a high degree of quality for the Workbench product. The verification of the Workbench product is conducted in accordance with the written procedures that form a part of an overall Quality Assurance program at ANSYS, Inc. You are encouraged to use these tests as starting points when exploring new Workbench features. Geometries, material properties, loads, and output results can easily be changed and the solution repeated. As a result, the tests offer a quick introduction to new features with which you may be unfamiliar. Some test cases will require different licenses, such as DesignModeler, Emag, or Design Exploration. If you do not have the available licenses, you may not be able to reproduce the results. The Educational version of Workbench should be able to solve most of these tests. License limitations are not applicable to Workbench Education version but problem size may restrict the solution of some of the tests. The archive files for each of the Verification Manual tests are available at the Customer Portal. Download the ANSYS Workbench Verification Manual Archive Files. These zipped archives provide all of the necessary elements for running a test, including geometry parts, material files, and workbench databases. To open a test case in Workbench, locate the archive and import it into Workbench. You can use these tests to verify that your hardware is executing the ANSYS Workbench tests correctly. The results in the databases can be cleared and the tests solved multiple times. The test results should be checked against the verified results in the documentation for each test. ANSYS, Inc. offers the Workbench Verification and Validation package for users that must perform system validation.

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Introduction This package automates the process of test execution and report generation. If you are interested in contracting for such services contact the ANSYS, Inc. Quality Assurance Group.

Test Case Number VMMECH001 VMMECH002 VMMECH003 VMMECH004 VMMECH005 VMMECH006 VMMECH007 VMMECH008 VMMECH009 VMMECH010 VMMECH011 VMMECH012 VMMECH013 VMMECH014 VMMECH015 VMMECH016 VMMECH017 VMMECH018 VMMECH019 Element Type Solid Solid Solid Solid Solid Solid Solid Solid Solid Shell Shell Solid Shell Solid Solid Solid Solid Solid Beam Shell VMMECH020 VMMECH021 VMMECH022 VMMECH023 VMMECH024 VMMECH025 VMMECH026 VMMECH027 VMMECH028 VMMECH029 Beam Beam Solid Beam Beam Solid Shell Shell Solid Solid Modal Buckling Static Structural Static Structural Harmonic Static Structural Static Structural Static Structural Static Structural Static Structural Nonlinear, Plastic Materials Linear Fatigue Linear Thermal Stress Nonlinear, Contact Linear Analysis Type Static Structural Static Structural Modal Structural Static Thermal Static Thermal Static Structural Static Thermal Static Structural Modal Static Structural Buckling Buckling Harmonic Harmonic Static Structural Static Structural Static Structural Static Structural Fatigue Linear Thermal Stress Linear, Inertia relief Linear Solution Options Linear Linear Free Vibration Nonlinear, Viscoplastic Materials Linear Nonlinear Nonlinear Thermal Stress Linear Linear Free Vibration Nonlinear, Large Deformation

Index of Test Cases Test Case Number VMMECH030 VMMECH031 VMMECH032 VMMECH033 VMMECH034 VMMECH035 Element Type 2-D Solid, Plane Strain 2-D Solid, Plane Stress 2-D Solid, Axisymmetric Solid Solid Solid Analysis Type Static Structural Static Structural Static Structural Static Structural Static Structural Coupled (Static Thermal and Static Stress) Static Structural Transient Thermal Transient Structural Transient Structural Flexible Dynamic Flexible Dynamic Sequence Loading Linear Thermal Stress Electromagnetic Nonlinear, Large Deformation Solution Options

VMMECH040 VMMECH041 VMMECH042 VMMECH043 VMMECH044 VMMECH045 VMMECH046 VMMECH047 VMMECH048 VMMECH049 VMMECH050 VMMECH051 VMMECH052 VMMECH042 VMMECH054 VMMECH055

Beam Solid Solid Beam Beam Shell Shell 2-D Solid, Axisymmetric Beam Beam Axisymmetric Shell Axisymmetric Shell Multipoint Constraint Multipoint Constraint Multipoint Constraint Multipoint Constraint

Static Structural Static Structural Static Structural Modal Static Structural Static Structural Static Structural Static Structural Static Structural Static Structural Static Structural Static Structural Rigid Dynamic Rigid Dynamic Rigid Dynamic Rigid Dynamic Nonlinear, Plastic Materials Linear Thermal Stress Electromagnetic Hydrostatic Fluid

Introduction Test Case Number VMMECH056 VMMECH057 VMMECH058 VMMECH059 VMMECH060 Element Type Multipoint Constraint Multipoint Constraint Multipoint Constraint 2-D Plane Stress Shell Solid Multipoint Constraint VMMECH061 VMMECH062 VMMECH063 VMMECH064 VMMECH065 Beam Axisymmetric Shell Shell Shell Solid Shell VMMECH066 VMMECH067 VMMECH068 VMMECH069 VMMECH070 VMMECH071 VMMECH072 VMMECH073 VMMECH074 Shell Solid 2-D Solid, Plane Strain Shell 2-D Solid 2-D Thermal Solid 2-D Thermal Solid Solid Solid Spring VMMECH075 VMMECH076 VMMECH077 VMMECH078 Solid Shell Thermal Shell 3-D Solid 3-D Gasket VMMECH079 VMMECH080 Pipe Spring Mass

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Analysis Type Rigid Dynamic Rigid Dynamic Rigid Dynamic Static Structural Transient Structural

Solution Options

Flexible Dynamic

Static Structural Static Structural Static Structural Static Structural Static Structural Linear Thermal Stress Nonlinear, Large Deformation

Static Structural Static Structural Static Structural Static Structural Static Structural Static Thermal Static Structural Modal Rigid Body Dynamics Harmonic Static Structural Static Thermal Static Structural Linear Thermal Stress Nonlinear, Large Deformation Nonlinear, Plastic Materials

Index of Test Cases Test Case Number VMMECH081 Pipe Mass VMMECH082 VMMECH083 VMMECH084 VMMECH085 VMMECH086 Solid Spring, Mass Solid Solid Solid Element Type Analysis Type Modal Spectral Static Structural Transient Dynamic Static Structural Static Structural Static Structural Submodeling (2D2D) VMMECH087 Line Body Point Mass Bearing Connection VMMECH088 Beam Static Structural Modal Harmonic VMMECH089 VMMECH090 Solid Solid Static Structural Static Structural Contact-Based Debonding Interface Delamination Linear Perturbation Modal Fracture Mechanics Mode Superposition Nonlinear, Hypereleastic Composite Material Solution Options

Overview

Feature: Drawing Units: Extrude, Chamfer, and Blend Millimeter

Test Case

Create a Model using Extrude, Chamfer, and Blend features. A polygonal area is extruded 60 mm. A rectangular area of 30 mm x 40 mm [having a circular area of radius 6 mm subtracted] is extruded to 20 mm. Both resultant solids form one solid geometry. A rectangular area (24 mm x 5 mm) is subtracted from the solid. Two rectangular areas (40 mm x 10 mm) are extruded 10 mm and subtracted from solid. Two rectangular areas (25 mm x 40 mm) are extruded 40 mm and subtracted from solid. A Chamfer (10 mm x 10 mm) is given to 4 edges on the resultant solid. Four Oval areas are extruded and subtracted from Solid. Fillet (Radius 5 mm) is given to 4 edges using Blend Feature. Verify Volume of the resultant geometry. Figure 1: Final Model after creating Extrude, Chamfer, and Blend

Calculations

1. Volume of Solid after extruding Polygonal Area: v1 = 264000 mm3. 2. Volume of rectangular area having circular hole: v2 = 21738.05 mm3. Net Volume = V = v1 + v2 = 285738.05 mm3. 3. Volume of rectangular (24mm x 5mm) solid extruded 30mm using Cut Material = 3600 565.5 = 3034.5 mm3. Net volume V = 285738.05 3034.5 = 282703.5 mm3. 4. Volume of two rectangular areas each 40mm x 10mm extruded 10mm = 8000 mm3.

VMDM001 Net volume V = 282703.5 8000 = 274703.5 mm3. 5. Volume of two rectangular areas 25mm x 40mm extruded 40mm = 80000 mm3. Net volume V = 274703.5 80000 = 194703.5 mm3. 6. Volume of four solids added due to Chamfer = 4 x 500 = 2000 mm3 Net volume V = 194703.5 + 2000 = 196703.5 mm3. 7. Volume of four oval areas extruded 10 mm = 7141.6 mm3. Net volume V = 196703.5 - 7141.6 = 189561.9 mm3. 8. Volume of 4 solids subtracted due to Blend of radius 5 mm = 429.2 mm3. Hence Net volume of final Solid body = V = 189561.9 429.2 = 189132.7 mm3.

Results Comparison

Results Volume (mm3) Surface Area (mm ) Number of Faces Number of Bodies

2

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Overview

Feature: Drawing Units: Revolve, Sweep, Extrude, and Skin-Loft Millimeter

Test Case

Create a Model using Revolve, Sweep, Extrude, and Skin-Loft features. A Rectangular area (100 mm x 30 mm) is revolved about Z-Axis in 3600 to form a Cylinder. A circular area of radius 30 mm is swept 100 mm using Sweep feature. A circular area of radius 30 mm is extruded 100 mm. A solid cylinder is created using Skin-Loft feature between two coaxial circular areas each of radius 30 mm and 100 mm apart. Verify Volume of the resultant geometry. Figure 2: Final Model after creating Revolve, Sweep, Extrude, and Skin-Loft

Calculations

1. Volume of Cylinder created after Revolving Rectangular area (100 mm x 30 mm) = v1 = 282743.3 mm3. 2. Volume of Cylinder created when a circular area (Radius 30mm) is swept 100 mm = v2 = 282743.3 mm3. Net Volume = V = v1 + v2 = 282743.3 + 282743.3 = 565486.6 mm3. 3. Volume of Cylinder after extruding a circular area (Radius 30 mm) 100 mm = 282743.3 mm3. Net Volume = V = 565486.6 + 282743.3 = 848229.9 mm3. 4. Volume of Cylinder created after using Skin-Loft feature between two circular areas of Radius 30 mm and 100 mm apart. = 282743.3 mm3. Net Volume of the final Cylinder = 848229.9 + 282743.3 = 1130973.2 mm3.

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VMDM002

Results Comparison

Results Volume (mm3) Surface Area (mm ) Number of Faces Number of Bodies

2

Error (%) 0 0 0 0

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Overview

Feature: Drawing Units: Extrude, Revolve, Skin-Loft, and Sweep Millimeter

Test Case

Create a Model using Extrude, Revolve, Skin-Loft, and Sweep. A rectangular area (103 mm x 88 mm) is extruded 100 mm to form a solid box. A circular area of radius 25 mm is revolved 900 using Revolve feature and keeping Thin/Surface option to Yes and 3 mm Inward and Outward Thickness. A solid is subtracted using Skin-Loft feature between two square areas (each of side 25 mm) and 100 mm apart. The two solid bodies are frozen using Freeze feature. A circular area of radius 25 mm is swept using Sweep feature and keeping Thin/Surface option to Yes and 3 mm Inward and Outward Thickness. Thus a total of 4 geometries are created. Verify the volume of the resulting geometry. Figure 3: Final Model after creating Extrude, Revolve, Skin-Loft and Sweep

Calculations

1. Volume of rectangular (103 mm x 88 mm) solid extruded 100mm = 906400 mm3. 2. Volume of solid after revolving circular area of Radius 25 mm through 900 = 29639.6 mm3. Net Volume of solid box, Va = 906400 - 29639.6 = 876760.3 mm3. 3. Volume of additional body created due to Revolve feature = Vb= 11134.15 mm3. 4. Volume of the rectangular box cut after Skin-Loft between two square areas each of side 25 mm = 62500 mm3. Net Volume of solid box becomes Va = 876760.3 62500 = 814260.3 mm3. 5. Volume of additional two bodies created due to Sweep feature:

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VMDM003 Vc = 47123.9 mm3 and Vd = 28352.8 mm3. And total volume that gets subtracted from box due to Sweep Feature = 75476.7 mm3. Hence Net volume of box, Va = 814260.3 - 75476.7 = 738783.6 mm3. Sum of volumes of all four bodies = Va+Vb+Vc+Vd = 738783.6 + 11134.15 + 47123.9 +28352.8 = 825394.4 mm3.

Results Comparison

Results Volume (mm3) Surface Area (mm ) Number of Faces Number of Bodies

2

Error (%) 0 0 0 0

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Overview

Reference: S. Timoshenko, Strength of Materials, Part 1, Elementary Theory and Problems, 3rd Edition, CBS Publishers and Distributors, pg. 22 and 26 Linear Static Structural Analysis Solid

Test Case

An assembly of three prismatic bars is supported at both end faces and is axially loaded with forces F1 and F2. Force F1 is applied on the face between Parts 2 and 3 and F2 is applied on the face between Parts 1 and 2. Apply advanced mesh control with element size of 0.5 . Find reaction forces in the Y direction at the fixed supports. Figure 4: Schematic

Geometric Properties Cross section of all parts = 1 x 1 Length of Part 1 = 4" Length of Part 2 = 3" Length of Part 3 = 3

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VMMECH001

Results Comparison

Results Y Reaction Force at Top Fixed Support (lbf ) Y Reaction Force at Bottom Fixed Support (lbf ) Target 900 600 Mechanical 901.14 598.86 Error (%) 0.127 -0.190

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Overview

Reference: Analysis Type(s): Element Type(s): J. E. Shigley, Mechanical Engineering Design, McGraw-Hill, 1st Edition, 1986, Table A-23, Figure A-23-1, pg. 673 Linear Static Structural Analysis Solid

Test Case

A rectangular plate with a circular hole is fixed along one of the end faces and a tensile pressure load is applied on the opposite face. A convergence with an allowable change of 10% is applied to account for the stress concentration near the hole. The Maximum Refinement Loops is set to 2 and the Refinement mesh control is added on the cylindrical surfaces of the hole with Refinement = 1. Find the Maximum Normal Stress in the x direction on the cylindrical surfaces of the hole. Figure 5: Schematic

Results Comparison

Results Maximum Normal X Stress (Pa) Target 312.5 Mechanical 315.2 Error (%) 0.864

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Overview

Reference: R. J. Blevins, Formula for Natural Frequency and Mode Shape, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company Inc., 1979, Table 11-2, Case 4, pg. 247 Free Vibration Analysis Solid

Test Case

An assembly of three annular plates has cylindrical support (fixed in the radial, tangential, and axial directions) applied on the cylindrical surface of the hole. Sizing control with element size of 0.5 is applied to the cylindrical surface of the hole. Find the first six modes of natural frequencies. Figure 6: Schematic

Geometric Properties Inner diameter of inner plate = 20" Inner diameter of middle plate = 28" Inner diameter of outer plate = 34" Outer diameter of outer plate = 40"

Loading

21

VMMECH003 Material Properties Geometric Properties Thickness of all plates = 1" Loading

Results Comparison

Results 1st Frequency Mode (Hz) 2nd Frequency Mode (Hz) 3rd Frequency Mode (Hz) 4th Frequency Mode (Hz) 5th Frequency Mode (Hz) 6th Frequency Mode (Hz) Target 310.911 318.086 318.086 351.569 351.569 442.451 Mechanical 310.21 315.6 315.64 346.73 347.11 437.06 Error (%) -0.23 -0.78 -0.77 -1.38 -1.27 -1.22

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Overview

Reference: B. Lwo and G. M. Eggert, "An Implicit Stress Update Algorithm Using a Plastic Predictor". Submitted to Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, January 1991. Nonlinear Structural Analysis Solid

Test Case

A cubic shaped body made up of a viscoplastic material obeying Anand's law undergoes uniaxial shear deformation at a constant rate of 0.01 cm/s. The temperature of the body is maintained at 400C. Find the shear load (Fx) required to maintain the deformation rate of 0.01 cm/sec at time equal to 20 seconds. Figure 7: Schematic

x h Problem Model

Material Properties Ex (Young's Modulus) = 60.6 GPa (Poisson's Ratio) = 0.4999 So = 29.7 MPa Q/R = 21.08999E3 K A = 1.91E7 s-1 = 7.0 Geometric Properties h = 1 cm thickness = 1 cm Loading Temp = 400C = 673K Velocity (x-direction) = 0.01 cm/sec @ y = 1 cm Time = 20 sec

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a = 1.3

Results Comparison

Results Fx, N Target 845.00 Mechanical -791.76 Error (%) -6.3

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Overview

Reference: Analysis Type(s): Element Type(s): F. Kreith, Principles of Heat Transfer, Harper and Row Publisher, 3rd Edition, 1976, Example 2-5, pg. 39 Linear Static Thermal Analysis Solid

Test Case

A furnace wall consists of two layers: fire brick and insulating brick. The temperature inside the furnace is 3000F (Tf) and the inner surface convection coefficient is 3.333e-3 BTU/s ft2F (hf). The ambient temperature is 80F (Ta) and the outer surface convection coefficient is 5.556e-4 BTU/s ft2F (ha). Find the Temperature Distribution. Figure 8: Schematic

Material Properties Fire brick wall: k = 2.222e-4 BTU/s ft F Insulating wall: k = 2.778e-5 BTU/s ft F

Geometric Properties Cross-section = 1" x 1" Fire brick wall thickness = 9" Insulating wall thickness = 5"

Loading

Results Comparison

Results Minimum Temperature (F) Maximum Temperature (F) Target 336 2957 Mechanical 336.68 2957.2 Error (%) 0.202 0.007

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Overview

Reference: Analysis Type(s): Element Type(s): Vedat S. Arpaci, Conduction Heat Transfer, Addison-Wesley Book Series, 1966, pg. 130 Nonlinear Static Thermal Analysis Solid

Test Case

A liquid is boiled using the front face of a flat electric heater plate. The boiling temperature of the liquid is 212F. The rear face of the heater is insulated. The internal energy generated electrically may be assumed to be uniform and is applied as internal heat generation. Find the maximum temperature and maximum total heat flux. Figure 9: Schematic

Material Properties k = [0.01375 * (1 + 0.001 T)] BTU/s inF Temperature (F) 32 1000 Conductivity (BTU/s inF) 1.419e-002 2.75e-002

Loading Front face temperature = 212F Internal heat generation = 10 BTU/s in3

Results Comparison

Results Maximum Temperature (F) Maximum Total Heat Flux (BTU/s in2) Target 476 10 Mechanical 480.58 9.9997 Error (%) 0.96 -0.003

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Overview

Reference: Analysis Type(s): Element Type(s): Any basic Heat Transfer book Nonlinear Thermal Stress Analysis Solid

Test Case

A long bar has thermal conductivity that varies with temperature. The bar is constrained at both ends by frictionless surfaces. A temperature of TC is applied at one end of the bar (End A). The reference temperature is 5C. At the other end, a constant convection of h W/m2C is applied. The ambient temperature is 5C. Advanced mesh control with element size of 2 m is applied. Find the following: Minimum temperature Maximum thermal strain in z direction (on the two end faces) Maximum deformation in z direction Maximum heat flux in z direction at z = 20 m Figure 10: Schematic

Material Properties E = 2e11 Pa =0 = 1.5e-05 / C k = 0.038*(1 + 0.00582*T) W/m C Temperature (C) 5 800 Conductivity (W/m C) 3.91e-002 0.215

Loading Rear face temperature T = 100C Film Coefficient h = 0.005 W/m2C Ambient temperature = 5C Reference temperature = 5C

29

VMMECH007

Analysis

Temperature at a distance "z" from rear face is given by:

z

5

=

Results Comparison

Results Minimum Temperature (C) Maximum Thermal strain (z = 20) (m/m) Maximum Thermal strain (z = 0) (m/m) Maximum Z Deformation (m) Maximum Z Heat Flux (z = 20) (W/m2) Target 38.02 0.000495 0.001425 0.00232 0.165 Mechanical 38.014 0.00049521 0.001425 0.002341 0.16507 Error (%) -0.016 0.042 0.000 0.905 0.042

30

Overview

Reference: Analysis Type(s): Element Type(s): Kreith, F., Principles of Heat Transfer, Harper and Row, 3rd Edition, 1976, Equation 2-44a, pg. 59, Equation 245, pg. 60 Linear Static Thermal Analysis Solid

Test Case

A steel cooling spine of cross-sectional area A and length L extend from a wall that is maintained at temperature Tw. The surface convection coefficient between the spine and the surrounding air is h, the air temper is Ta, and the tip of the spine is insulated. Apply advanced mesh control with element size of 0.025'. Find the heat conducted by the spine and the temperature of the tip. Figure 11: Schematic

Material Properties Material Properties E = 4.177e9 psf = 0.3 Thermal conductivity k = 9.71e-3 BTU/s ft F

Results Comparison

Results Temperature of the Tip (F) Heat Conducted by the Spine (Heat Reaction) (BTU/s) Target 79.0344 6.364e-3 Mechanical 79.078 6.3614e-3 Error (%) 0.055 -0.041

31

32

Overview

Reference: Analysis Type(s): Element Type(s): Any basic Strength of Materials book Linear Static Structural Analysis Solid

Test Case

A multibody of four bars connected end to end has one of the end faces fixed and a pressure is applied to the opposite face as given below. The multibody is used to nullify the numerical noise near the contact regions. Find the maximum equivalent stress for the whole multibody and the safety factor for each part using the maximum equivalent stress theory with tensile yield limit. Figure 12: Schematic

Material Properties Mater- E (Pa) ial Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Tensile Yield (Pa) 2.07e8 2.8e8 2.5e8 2.8e8 Loading Pressure = 2.5e8 Pa

33

Results Comparison

Results Maximum Equivalent Stress (Pa) Safety Factor for Part 1 Safety Factor for Part 2 Safety Factor for Part 3 Safety Factor for Part 4 Target 2.5e8 0.828 1.12 1 1.12 Mechanical 2.5e8 0.828 1.12 1 1.12 Error (%) 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

34

Overview

Reference: Blevins, Formula for Natural Frequency and Mode Shape, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company Inc., 1979, Table 11-4, Case 11, pg. 256 Free Vibration Analysis Shell

Test Case

A rectangular plate is simply supported on both the smaller edges and fixed on one of the longer edges as shown below. Sizing mesh control with element size of 6.5 mm is applied on all the edges to get accurate results. Find the first five modes of natural frequency. Figure 13: Schematic

Loading

Results Comparison

Results 1st Frequency Mode (Hz) 2nd Frequency Mode (Hz) 3rd Frequency Mode (Hz) 4th Frequency Mode (Hz) Target 595.7 1129.55 2051.79 2906.73 Mechanical 590.03 1118.4 2038.1 2879.3 Error (%) -0.952 -0.987 -0.667 -0.994

35

VMMECH010 Results 5th Frequency Mode (Hz) Target 3366.48 Mechanical 3350 Error (%) -0.489

36

Overview

Reference: Timoshenko S.P., Woinowsky-Krieger S., Theory of Plates and Shells, McGraw-Hill, 2nd Edition, Article 97, equation 232, pg. 401 Nonlinear Structural Analysis (Large Deformation On) Shell

Test Case

A circular plate is subjected to a uniform pressure on its flat surface. The circular edge of the plate is fixed. To get accurate results, apply sizing control with element size of 5 mm on the circular edge. Find the total deformation at the center of the plate. Figure 14: Schematic

Results Comparison

Results Total deformation (m) Target 0.00125 Mechanical 0.0012374 Error (%) -1.008

37

38

Overview

Reference: Analysis Type(s): Element Type(s): Warren C. Young, Roark's Formulas for Stress & Strains, McGraw Hill, 6th Edition, Table 34, Case 2a, pg. 672 Buckling Analysis Solid

Test Case

A stepped rod is fixed at one end face. It is axially loaded by two forces: a tensile load at the free end and a compressive load on the flat step face at the junction of the two cross sections. To get accurate results, apply sizing control with element size of 6.5 mm. Find the Load Multiplier for the First Buckling Mode. Figure 15: Schematic

Geometric Properties Larger diameter = 0.011982 m Smaller diameter = 0.010 m Length of larger diameter = 0.2 m Length of smaller diameter = 0.1 m

Loading Force at free end = 1000 N Force at the flat step face = 2000 N Both forces are in the z direction

Results Comparison

Results Load Multiplier Target 22.5 Mechanical 22.958 Error (%) 2.0356

39

40

Overview

Reference: Analysis Type(s): Element Type(s): Warren C. Young, Roark's Formulas for Stress Strains, McGraw Hill, 6th Edition, Table 34, Case 10, pg. 679 Buckling Analysis Shell

Test Case

A circular arch of a rectangular cross section (details given below) is subjected to a pressure load as shown below. Both the straight edges of the arch are fixed. Find the Load Multiplier for the first buckling mode. Figure 16: Schematic

Results Comparison

Results Load Multiplier Target 544 Mechanical 546.07 Error (%) 0.4

41

42

Overview

Reference: Analysis Type(s): Element Type(s): Any basic Vibration Analysis book Harmonic Analysis Solid

Test Case

An assembly where four cylinders represent massless springs in series and a point mass simulates a spring mass system. The flat end face of the cylinder (Shaft 1) is fixed. Harmonic force is applied on the end face of another cylinder (Shaft 4) as shown below. Find the z directional Deformation Frequency Response of the system on the face to which force is applied for the frequency range of 0 to 500 Hz for the following scenarios using Mode Superposition. Solution intervals = 20. Scenario 1: Damping ratio = 0 Scenario 2: Damping ratio = 0.05 Figure 17: Schematic

Material Properties Material Shaft 1 Shaft 2 Shaft 3 Shaft 4 E (Pa) 1.1e11 1.1e11 4.5e10 4.5e10 0.34 0.34 0.35 0.35 Loading Force = 1e7 N (Zdirection) Point Mass = 3.1044 Kg (kg/m3) 1e-8 1e-8 1e-8 1e-8

43

VMMECH014

Results Comparison

Results Maximum Amplitude without damping (m) Phase angle without damping (degrees) Maximum Amplitude with damping (m) Phase angle with damping (degrees) Target 0.1404 180 0.14 175.6 Mechanical 0.14123 180 0.1408 175.58 Error (%) 0.591 0.000 0.577 0.000

44

Overview

Reference: Analysis Type(s): Element Type(s): W. T. Thomson, Theory of Vibration with Applications, 3rd Edition, 1999, Example 6.4-1, pg. 166 Harmonic Analysis Solid

Test Case

A two-story building has two columns (2K and K) constituting stiffness elements and two slabs (2M and M) constituting mass elements. The material of the columns is assigned negligible density so as to make them as massless springs. The slabs are allowed to move only in the y direction by applying frictionless supports on all the faces of the slabs in the y direction. The end face of the column (2K) is fixed and a harmonic force is applied on the face of the slab (M) as shown in the figure below. Find the y directional Deformation Frequency Response of the system at 70 Hz on each of the vertices as shown below for the frequency range of 0 to 500 Hz using Mode Superposition. Use Solution intervals = 50. Figure 18: Schematic

Material Properties Material Block 2 Shaft 2 Block 1 Shaft 1 E (Pa) 2e18 4.5e10 2e18 9e10 0.3 0.35 0.3 0.35 (kg/m3) 7850 1e-8 15700 1e-8

45

VMMECH015 Geometric Properties Block 1 and 2: 40 mm x 40 mm x 40 mm Shaft 1 and 2: 20 mm x 20 mm x 200 mm Loading Force = -1e5 N (y direction)

Results Comparison

Results Maximum Amplitude for vertex A (m) Maximum Amplitude for vertex B (m) Target 0.20853 0.074902 Mechanical 0.21174 0.075838 Error (%) 1.5 1.2

46

Overview

Reference: Analysis Type(s): Element Type(s): Any basic Machine Design book Fatigue Analysis Solid

Test Case

A bar of rectangular cross section has the following loading scenarios. Scenario 1: One of the end faces is fixed and a force is applied on the opposite face as shown below in Figure 19: Scenario 1 (p. 47). Scenario 2: Frictionless support is applied to all the faces of the three standard planes (faces not seen in Figure 20: Scenario 2 (p. 47)) and a pressure load is applied on the opposite faces in positive yand z-directions. Find the life, damage, and safety factor for the normal stresses in the x, y, and z directions for nonproportional fatigue using the Soderberg theory. Use a design life of 1e6 cycles, a fatigue strength factor or 1, a scale factor of 1, and 1 for coefficients of both the environments under Solution Combination. Figure 19: Scenario 1

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47

VMMECH016 Material Properties Yield Tensile Strength = 3.5e8 Pa Endurance Strength = 2.2998e6 Pa Number of Cycles 1000 1e6 Alternating Stress (Pa) 4.6e8 2.2998e6 Geometric Properties Bar: 20 m x 1 m x 1m Loading Scenario 1: Force = 2e6 N (y-direction) Scenario 2: Pressure = -1e8 Pa

Analysis

Non-proportional fatigue uses the corresponding results from the two scenarios as the maximum and minimum stresses for fatigue calculations. The fatigue calculations use standard formulae for the Soderberg theory.

Results Comparison

Results Stress Component - Component X Life Damage Safety Factor Stress Component - Component Y Life Damage Safety Factor Stress Component - Component Z Life Damage Safety Factor Target Mechanical 300.31 0.019025 Error (%) -0.156 0.157 0.132 -0.764 0.772 -0.683 0.001 0.001 0.013

48

VMMECH017: Thermal Stress Analysis with Remote Force and Thermal Loading

Overview

Reference: Analysis Type(s): Element Type(s): Any basic Strength of Materials book Linear Thermal Stress Analysis Solid

Test Case

A cylindrical rod assembly of four cylinders connected end to end has frictionless support applied on all the cylindrical surfaces and both the flat end faces are fixed. Other thermal and structural loads are as shown below. Find the Deformation in the x direction of the contact surface on which the remote force is applied. To get accurate results apply a global element size of 1.5 m. Figure 21: Schematic

Loading Given temperature (End A) = 1000C Given temperature (End B) = 0C Remote force = 1e10 N applied on the contact surface at a distance 7 m from end A. Location of remote force = (7,0,0) m

Results Comparison

Results Maximum X Deformation (m) Target 0.101815 Mechanical 0.10025 Error (%) -1.5

49

50

Overview

Reference: Analysis Type(s): Element Type(s): Any basic Strength of Materials book Linear Static Structural Analysis (Inertia Relief On) Solid

Test Case

A long bar assembly is fixed at one end and subjected to a tensile force at the other end as shown below. Turn on Inertia Relief. Find the deformation in the z direction Figure 22: Schematic

Geometric Properties Cross-Section = 2mx2m Lengths of bars in order from End A: 2 m, 5 m, 10 m, and 3 m.

Analysis

z = where: L = total length of bar A = cross-section m = mass

2

51

VMMECH018

Results Comparison

Results Maximum Z Deformation (m) Target 2.5e-6 Mechanical 2.5043E-06 Error (%) 0.172

52

Overview

Reference: Analysis Type(s): Element Type(s): Any basic Strength of Materials book Linear Static Structural Analysis Beam and Shell

Test Case

A mixed model (shell and beam) has one shell edge fixed as shown below. Bending loads are applied on the free vertex of the beam as given below. Apply a global element size of 80 mm to get accurate results. Scenario 1: Only a force load. Scenario 2: Only a moment load. Find the deformation in the y direction under Solution Combination with the coefficients for both the environments set to 1. Figure 23: Scenario 1

53

VMMECH019 Material Properties Geometric Properties Beam rectangular cross section = 10 mm x 10 mm Beam length = 500 mm Loading Moment M = 4035 Nmm @ z-axis

Analysis

y = where: I = total bending length of the mixed model I = moment of inertia of the beam cross-section

l3

l2

Results Comparison

Results Maximum Y-Deformation (mm) Target -7.18742 Mechanical -7.2542 Error (%) 0.929

54

Overview

Reference: Analysis Type(s): Element Type(s): Any basic Vibration Analysis book Modal Analysis Beam

Test Case

Two collinear beams form a spring mass system. The density of the longer beam is kept very low so that it acts as a massless spring and the smaller beam acts as a mass. The end vertex of the longer beam (acting as a spring) is fixed. The cross section details are as shown below. Find the natural frequency of the axial mode. Figure 25: Cross Section Details for Both Beams

Material Properties Material Spring Mass E (Pa) 1.1e11 2e11 0.34 0 (kg/m3) 1e-8 7.85e5

55

VMMECH020 Geometric Properties Spring beam length = 500 mm Mass beam length = 5 mm Loading

Results Comparison

Results Natural Frequency of Axial Mode (Hz) Target 1188.6 Mechanical 1190.5 Error (%) 0.160

56

Overview

Reference: Analysis Type(s): Element Type(s): Warren C. Young, Roark's Formulas for Stress and Strains, McGraw Hill, 6th Edition, Table 34, Case 3a, pg. 675 Buckling Analysis Beam

Test Case

A beam fixed at one end and is subjected to two compressive forces. One of the forces is applied on a portion of the beam of length 50 mm (L1) from the fixed end and the other is applied on the free vertex, as shown below. Find the load multiplier for the first buckling mode. Figure 27: Schematic

Results Comparison

Results Load Multiplier Target 10.2397 Mechanical 10.198 Error (%) -0.407

57

58

Overview

Reference: Analysis Type(s): Element Type(s): Any basic Strength of Material book Nonlinear Static Structural Analysis Solid

Test Case

An assembly of two parts with a gap has a Frictionless Contact defined between the two parts. The end faces of both the parts are fixed and a given displacement is applied on the contact surface of Part 1 as shown below. Find the Normal stress and Directional deformation - both in the z direction for each part for the following scenarios: Scenario 1: Interface treatment - adjust to touch. Scenario 2: Interface treatment - add offset. Offset = 0 m. Scenario 3: Interface treatment - add offset. Offset = 0.001 m. Scenario 4: Interface treatment - add offset. Offset = -0.001 m. Validate all of the above scenarios for Augmented Lagrange and Pure Penalty formulations. Figure 28: Schematic

Geometric Properties Gap = 0.0005 m Dimensions for each part: 0.1 m x 0.1 m x 0.5m

Results Comparison

The same results are obtained for both Augmented Lagrange and Pure Penalty formulations.

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

59

VMMECH022 Results Target 6e-4 6e-4 2.4e8 Mechanical 6e-4 5.9786e4 2.4e8 Error (%) 0.000 -0.357 0.000

Adjust To Touch

Maximum directional z deformation Part 1 (m) Maximum directional z deformation Part 2 (m) Maximum normal z stress Part 1 (Pa) Maximum normal z stress Part 2 (Pa)

-2.4e8 -2.3915e8 -0.354 6e-4 1e-4 2.4e8 -4e7 6e-4 1.1e3 2.4e8 6e-4 0.000

Maximum directional z deformation Part 1 (m) Maximum directional z deformation Part 2 (m) Maximum normal z stress Part 1 (Pa) Maximum normal z stress Part 2 (Pa)

Maximum directional z deformation Part 1 (m) Maximum directional z deformation Part 2 (m) Maximum normal z stress Part 1 (Pa) Maximum normal z stress Part 2 (Pa)

-4.4e8 -4.3843e8 -0.357 6e-4 0 2.4e8 0 6e-4 0 2.4e8 0 0.000 0.000 0.000 0

60

Overview

Reference: Analysis Type(s): Element Type(s): Any basic Strength of Materials book Linear Static Structural Analysis Beam

Test Case

An assembly of two curved beams, each having an included angle of 45, has a square cross-section. It is fixed at one end and at the free end a Force F and a Moment M are applied. Also, a UDL of "w " N / mm is applied on both the beams. Use a global element size of 30 mm to get accurate results. See the figure below for details. Find the deformation of the free end in the y direction. Figure 29: Schematic

Equivalent Loading:

61

VMMECH023 Material Properties Beam 2: E2 = 2e5 MPa 2 = 0 2 = 7.85e-6 kg/mm3 Geometric Properties Included angle = 45 Loading UDL w = -5 N/mm (y direction) on both beams This UDL is applied as an edge force on each beam with magnitude = -5 (2 x 3.14 x 105) / 8 = -412.334 N

Analysis

The deflection in the y direction is in the direction of the applied force F and is given by: 3 1 = 3 + 2 where: = deflection at free end in the y direction I = moment of inertia of the cross-section of both beams + +

2 2

+ 4 + 4

Results Comparison

Results Minimum Y Deformation (mm) Target -8.416664 Mechanical -8.4688 Error (%) 0.619

62

Overview

Reference: Analysis Type(s): Element Type(s): Any basic Vibration Analysis book Harmonic Analysis Beam

Test Case

Two collinear beams form a spring-mass system. The density of the longer beam is kept very low so that it acts as a massless spring and the smaller beam acts as a mass. The end vertex of the longer beam (acting as a spring) is fixed. A Harmonic force F is applied on the free vertex of the shorter beam in z direction. Both beams have hollow circular cross-sections, as indicated below. Scenario 1: Damping ratio = 0 Scenario 2: Damping ratio = 0.05 Find the z directional deformation of the vertex where force is applied at frequency F = 500 Hz for the above scenarios with solution intervals = 25 and a frequency range of 0 to 2000 Hz. Use both Mode Superposition and Full Method. Figure 30: Schematic

Material Properties Mater- E ial (Pa) Mass 2e11 (kg/m3) 7.85e5 Loading Harmonic force F = 1 e6 N (z-direction)

63

VMMECH024 Geometric Properties Inner radius = 5 mm Length of longer beam = 100 mm Length of shorter beam = 5 mm Loading

Results Comparison

Results Target Mechanical Error (%) -0.859 -0.876 -0.003 -1.046

Mode Superposi- Maximum z directional deforma- 4.11332e- 4.078e-3 tion tion without damping (m) 3 Maximum z directional deforma- 4.11252e- 4.0765etion with damping (m) 3 3 Full Method Maximum z directional deforma- 4.11332e- 4.1132etion without damping (m) 3 3 Maximum z directional deforma- 4.11252e- 4.0695etion with damping (m) 3 3

64

Overview

Reference: Analysis Type(s): Element Type(s): Stephen P. Timoshenko, Strength of Materials, Part 2 - Advanced Theory and Problems, 3rd Edition, pg. 208-214 Linear Static Structural Analysis Solid

Test Case

One hollow cylinder is shrink fitted inside another. Both cylinders have length L and both the flat faces of each cylinder are constrained in the axial direction. They are free to move in radial and tangential directions. An internal pressure of P is applied on the inner surface of the inner cylinder. To get accurate results, apply a global element size of 0.8 inches. Find the maximum tangential stresses in both cylinders.

Note

Tangential stresses can be obtained in the Mechanical application using a cylindrical coordinate system. To simulate interference, set Contact Type to Rough with interface treatment set to add offset with Offset = 0. Figure 31: Schematic

Material Properties Both cylinders are made of the same material E = 3e7psi

65

VMMECH025 Material Properties =0 = 0.28383 lbm/in3 Geometric Properties Ro = 8 Length of both cylinders = 5 Loading

Results Comparison

Results Maximum normal y stress, inner cylinder (psi) Maximum normal y stress, outer cylinder (psi) Target 35396.67 42281.09 Mechanical 35738 42279 Error (%) 1.0 0.0

Note

Here y corresponds to direction of a cylindrical coordinate system.

66

Overview

Reference: Analysis Type(s): Element Type(s): Any standard Machine Design and Strength of Materials book Fatigue Analysis Shell

Test Case

A plate of length L, width W, and thickness T is fixed along the width on one edge and a moment M is applied on the opposite edge about the z-axis. Find the maximum Bending Stress (Normal X Stress) and maximum Total Deformation of the plate. Also find the part life and the factor of safety using Goodman, Soderberg, & Gerber criteria. Use the x-stress component. Consider load type as fully reversed and a Design Life of 1e6 cycles, Fatigue Strength factor of 1, and Scale factor of 1. Figure 32: Schematic

Material Properties E = 2e11 Pa = 0.0 Ultimate tensile strength = 1.29e9 Pa Endurance strength = 1.38e8 Pa Yield Strenth = 2.5e8 Pa No. of Cycles 1000 1e6 Alternating Stresses (Pa) 1.08e9 1.38e8 Loading Moment M = 0.15 Nm (counterclockwise @ z-axis)

67

Results Comparison

Results Target Mechanical 9e8 6.4981e4 0.15333 1844.4 0.15333 1844.4 0.15333 1844.4 Error (%) 0.000 0.279 0.020 0.005 0.020 0.005 0.020 0.005

Maximum normal x-stress (Pa) Maximum total deformation (m) SN-Goodman SN-Soderberg SN-Gerber Safety factor Life Safety factor Life Safety Factor Life

68

VMMECH027:Thermal Analysis for Shells with Heat Flow and Given Temperature

Overview

Reference: Analysis Type(s): Element Type(s): Any standard Thermal Analysis book Thermal Stress Analysis Shell

Test Case

A plate of length (L), width (W), and thickness (T) is fixed along the width on one edge and heat flow (Q) is applied on the same edge. The opposite edge is subjected to a temperature of 20 C. Ambient temperature is 20 C. To get accurate results, apply a sizing control with element size = 2.5e-2 m. Find the maximum temperature, maximum total heat flux, maximum total deformation, and heat reaction at the given temperature. Figure 33: Schematic

Material Properties E = 2e11 Pa = 0.0 Coefficient of thermal expansion = 1.2e5/C Thermal conductivity k = 60.5 W/mC

Analysis

Heat Reaction = -(Total heat generated) Heat flow due to conduction is given by: =

h l

69

VMMECH027 where: Th = maximum temperature T1 = given temperature Total heat flux is: = Temperature at a variable distance z from the fixed support is given by:

z

= h

0 l

Results Comparison

Results Target Mechanical 86.116 2e4 Error (%) 0.000 0.000 0.781 0.000

Maximum Temperature (C) Maximum Total Heat Flux (W/m ) Maximum Total Deformation (m) Heat Reaction (W)

2

86.1157 2e4

7.93386e- 7.9958e5 5 -5 -5

70

Overview

Reference: Analysis Type(s): Element Type(s): Any standard Strength of Materials book Static Structural Analysis Solid

Test Case

A semi-cylinder is fixed at both the end faces. The longitudinal faces have frictionless support. A bolt pretension load is applied on the semi-cylindrical face. To get accurate results, apply sizing control with element size of 0.01 m. Find the Z directional deformation and the adjustment reaction due to the bolt pretension load. Figure 34: Schematic

Analysis

The bolt pretension load applied as a preload is distributed equally to both halves of the bar. Therefore the z-directional deformation due to pretension is given by: Pretension = =

71

VMMECH028

Results Comparison

Results Target Mechanical Error (%)

-5.00E08

72

Overview

Reference: Analysis Type(s): Element Type(s): Timoshenko S., Strength of Materials, Part II, Advanced Theory and Problems, Third Edition, Article 64, pp. 349 Static Plastic Analysis Solid

Test Case

A rectangular beam is loaded in pure bending. For an elastic-perfectly-plastic stress-strain behavior, show that the beam remains elastic at M = Myp = ypbh2 / 6 and becomes completely plastic at M = Mult = 1.5 Myp. To get accurate results, set the advanced mesh control element size to 0.5 inches. Figure 35: Stress-Strain Curve

73

VMMECH029

Analysis

The load is applied in three increments: M1 = 24000 lbf-in, M2 = 30000 lbf-in, and M3 = 36000 lbf-in.

Results Comparison

M/Myp State 1 1.25 1.5 fully elastic elasticplastic plastic Target Equivalent Stress (psi) 36000 36000 solution not converged State fully elastic elasticplastic plastic Mechanical Equivalent Stress (psi) 36059 36288 solution not converged 0.164 0.800 Error (%)

74

Overview

Reference: Analysis Type(s): Element Type(s): Any standard Strength of Materials book Plane Strain Analysis 2D Structural Solid

Test Case

A long, rectangular plate is fixed along the longitudinal face and the opposite face is subjected to a moment of 5000 lbf-in about the z-axis. To get accurate results, set the advanced mesh control element size to 0.5 inches. Find X normal stress at a distance of 0.5 inches from the fixed support. Also find total deformation and reaction moment. Figure 37: Schematic

Analysis

Since the loading is uniform and in one plane (the x-y plane), the above problem can be analyzed as a plane strain problem. Therefore, the moment applied will be per unit length (5000/1000 = 5 lbf-in). Analysis takes into account the unit length in the z-direction.

75

VMMECH030 Figure 38: Plane Strain Model (analyzing any cross section (40 x 1) along the length)

Results Comparison

Results Normal Stress Maximum Normal Stress in the X-Direction (psi) Maximum Total Deformation (in) Reaction Moment (lbf-in) Target 30 30 0.1655e-2 -5 Mechanical 30 30 0.16553e-2 -5 Error (%) 0.000 0.000 0.018 0.000

76

VMMECH031: Long Bar with Uniform Force and Stress Tool - Plane Stress Model

Overview

Reference: Analysis Type(s): Element Type(s): Any standard Strength of Materials book Plane Stress Analysis 2D Structural Solid

Test Case

A long, rectangular bar assembly is fixed at one of the faces and the opposite face is subjected to a compressive force. To get accurate results, set the advanced mesh control element size to 1 m. Find the maximum equivalent stress for the whole assembly and safety factor, safety margin, and safety ratio for the first and last part using the maximum equivalent stress theory with Tensile Yield Limit. Figure 39: Schematic

Material Properties Material Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 E (Pa) 1.93e11 7.1e10 2e11 1.1e11 0 0 0 0 Loading Force = 1e9 N in the negative x-direction Tensile Yield (Pa) 2.07e8 2.8e8 2.5e8 2.8e8

Geometric Properties Part 1: 2 3m Part 2: 2 10 m Part 3: 2 5m Part 4: 2 2m mx2mx mx2mx mx2mx mx2mx

77

VMMECH031

Analysis

Since the loading is uniform and in one plane, the above problem can be analyzed as a plane stress problem. Analysis is done considering thickness of 2 m along z-direction Figure 40: Plane Stress Model (Analyzing any cross section along Z)

Results Comparison

Results Maximum Equivalent Stress (Pa) Part 1 Safety Factor Safety Margin Safety Ratio Part 4 Safety Factor Safety Margin Safety Ratio Target 2.5e8 0.828 -0.172 1.207 1.12 0.12 0.892 Mechanical 2.5e8 0.828 -0.172 1.2077 1.12 0.12 0.89286 Error (%) 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.058 0.000 0.000 0.096

78

VMMECH032: Radial Flow due to Internal Heat Generation in a Copper Disk Axisymmetric Model

Overview

Reference: Analysis Type(s): Element Type(s): Any basic Heat Transfer book Axisymmetric Analysis 2D Structural Solid

Test Case

A copper disk with thickness t and radii Ri and Ro is insulated on the flat faces. It has a heat-generating copper coaxial cable (of radius Ri) passing through its center. The cable delivers a total heat flow of Q to the disk. The surrounding air is at a temperature of To with convective film coefficient h. To get accurate results, set the advanced mesh control element size to 0.002 m. Find the disk temperature and heat flux at inner and outer radii. Figure 41: Schematic

Geometric Properties Ri = 10 mm Ro = 60 mm t = 8 mm

Loading Q = 100 W (Internal Heat Generation = 39788735.77 W/m3) Film coefficient h = 1105 W/m2-C Surrounding temperature To = 0C

Analysis

Because the geometry and loading are symmetric about the y-axis, the above problem can be analyzed as an axisymmetric problem.

79

Results Comparison

Results Maximum Temperature (C) Minimum Temperature (C) Maximum Heat Flux (W/m ) Minimum Heat Flux (W/m )

2 2

80

Overview

Reference: Analysis Type(s): Element Type(s): J. A. Edminster, Theory and Problems of Electromagnetics, Tata McGraw Hill, 2nd Edition, Example 11.9, pg. 181 Electromagnetic Analysis Solid

Test Case

A C-shaped magnet has a coil with 400 turns and a cross section of the core with area 4 cm2. A current of 0.1 A flows through the coil. The air gap is 0.2 cm and the coil details are given in Figure 44: Coil Details in cm (p. 82). Flux parallel is applied on the nine outer faces as shown in Figure 46: Flux Parallel Applied on 9 Outer Faces (p. 82). To get accurate results, set the advanced mesh control element size to 0.003 m. Find the total flux density and total field intensity. Figure 43: Schematic

81

Material Properties Young's Modu- Poisson's Ralus (Pa) tio Air Body Coil Core 1e7 1.1e11 2e11 0 0.34 0.3 Density (kg/m3) 0 8300 7850 Loading Voltage = 0 V Current = 0.1 A Relative Permeability 1 1 500 Electric Resistivity (ohmm) 0 2e-7 0

82

Analysis

Using the analogy of Ohm's law of Magnetism, we have the following equation:

Magnetic flux is:

where: N = number of turns I = current Lc = mean core length La = air gap Ac = cross-sectional area of core Aa = apparent area of air gap c = permeability of core a = permeability of air The air-gap average flux density is given by:

Results Comparison

Results Total Flux Density (T) Total Field Intensity (A/m) Target 4.061e-2 32320.0585 Mechanical 0.040662 32357 Error (%) 0.128 0.114

83

84

Overview

Reference: T. Tussman, K.J. Bathe, "A Finite Element Formulation for Nonlinear Incompressible Elastic and Inelastic Analysis", Computers and Structures, Vol. 26 Nos 1/2, 1987, pp. 357-409 Nonlinear Static Structural Analysis (Large Deformation ON) Solid

Test Case

A rubber cylinder is pressed between two rigid plates using a maximum imposed displacement of max. Determine the total deformation. Figure 47: Schematic

Solid2: Mooney-Rivlin Constants Solid2: Quarter Circular Cylinder C10 = 2.93e5 Pa C01 = 1.77e5 Pa Incompressibility Parameter D1 1/Pa =0 Radius = 0.2 m Length = 0.05m

Analysis

Due to geometric and loading symmetry, the analysis can be performed using one quarter of the cross section. Frictionless supports are applied on 3 faces (X = 0, Z = 0 and Z = 0.05 m).

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 85

VMMECH034 Given displacement of 0.1m is applied on the top surface. The bottom surface of Solid1 is completely fixed. Frictionless Contact with Contact stiffness factor of 100 is used to simulate the rigid target. Augmented Lagrange is used for Contact formulation.

Results Comparison

Results Total Deformation (m) Target 0.165285 Mechanical 0.16526 Error (%) 0

86

Overview

Reference: Analysis Type(s): Element Type(s): Any Basic Heat transfer and Strength of Materials book Coupled Analysis (Static Thermal and Static Stress) Solid

Test Case

Heat of magnitude 2500 W and Heat Flux of magnitude 625 W/m2 is flowing through a long bar (2 x 2 x 20) m in an axial direction, and radiating out from the other face having emissivity 0.3; Ambient Temperature is maintained at 20C. Find the following: Temperatures on End Faces. Thermal strain and Directional deformation and Normal Stress in Z direction if both the end faces have frictionless supports and Reference temperature of 22C. Figure 48: Schematic

Geometric Properties Part 1: 2 2m Part 2: 2 5m Part 3: 2 10 m Part 4: 2 3m mx2mx mx2mx mx2mx mx2mx

Loading Heat Flow = 2500W on Part 4 Heat Flux = 625 W/m2 on Part 4 Radiation = 20C, 0.3

Analysis

(Heat flowing through body) Q = (Heat Flow) + (Heat Flux * Area) = 5000 W

87

VMMECH035 (Heat flowing through body) = (Heat Conducted through body) = (Heat Radiated out of the Surface) i.e. Q = Qr =QC = 5000 W. Heat Radiated out of the body

4 T 4 ) W; Qr = A ( T 2

gives T2 = 260.16C.

c = K 1 b

gives T1 = 673.38C.

in = = ! = The compressive stress introduced is given by,

_

ax = =
.
0 673.38 = 7.8
656
0 m / m

9 "

z = -#vg$the%&#l$st%#'* E = -+,:<=>>? +:@ P# Temperature at a distance z from the face with higher temperature is given by,

Only half-length is considered for calculating deformation, since deformation is symmetric

= O VXYZ[\] + ^VZu`VuZ\] RSfj

Results Comparison

Results Temperature on Part 4(C) Temperature on Part 1 (C) Maximum Thermal Strain (m/m) Minimum Thermal Strain (m/m) Normal Stress in Z direction (Pa) Directional Deformation in Z direction (m) Target 673.38 260.16 7.81656e-3 2.85792e-3 -1.067448e9 -0.0123966 Mechanical 673.49 260.15 7.8179e-3 0.0028578 -1.0183e9 -0.012572 Error (%) 0 0 0 0 -4.6 1.4

88

VMMECH036: Thermal Stress Analysis of a Rotating Bar using Temperature Dependant Density

Overview

Reference: Analysis Type(s): Element Type(s): Any Basic Strength of Materials book Static Stress Analysis (Sequence Loading) Solid

Test Case

A Bar (2 m x 2m x 20m) with one end fixed and with a rotational velocity about X axis at location (1, 1, 0) is subjected to a Uniform Temperature (Thermal Condition Load) in three steps. For all the steps, Reference Temperature is 0C. Frictionless Support is applied on all the longitudinal faces. Figure 49: Schematic

Material Properties E = 1 x 106 Pa = 1 x 10-5 1/C =0 Temperature C 50 100 150 Density kg/m3 30 60 90

Loading Rotational Velocity (rad/s) in steps: 1. (1, 0, 0) 2. (0.5, 0, 0) 3. (0.25, 0, 0) Thermal Condition C 1. 50C 2. 100C 3. 150C

89

VMMECH036

Analysis

Rotational Stress

=

0

2 2

Thm

=

3

Df

= =

./.14

+!"#"%!'#$ (")&**

+ +

56789 :;<6=>87?6@

CFCGH

A6787?6@89 :;<6=>87?6@

5B;=>89 :; <6=>87?6@

Results Comparison

Results Equivalent Stress (Pa) Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Total Deformation (m) Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Target 6500 4000 2625 0.09 0.06 0.045 Mechanical 6502.6 4001.3 2625.5 0.09 0.06 0.045 Error (%) 0.040 0.032 0.019 0 0 0

90

Overview

Reference: Analysis Type(s): Element Type(s): F. Kreith, "Principles of Heat Transfer", 2nd Printing, International Textbook Co., Scranton, PA, 1959, pg. 143, ex. 4-5. Transient Thermal Analysis Plane

Test Case

Determine the temperature at the center of a spherical body, initially at a temperature T0, when exposed to an environment having a temperature Te for a period of 6 hours (21600 s). The surface convection coefficient is h. Initial temperature, T0 = 65 F Surface temperature, Te = 25F Convection coefficient h = 5.5556e-4 BTU/s-ft2-F Time, t = 21600 seconds Radius of the sphere ro = 2 in = 1/6 ft Figure 50: Schematic

3

Loading Convection applied on Edge = 5.5556e4 BTU/s-ft2-F Ambient Temperature for Convection = 25F

91

VMMECH037

Analysis

Since the problem is axisymmetric, only a 2-D quarter model is used.

Results Comparison

Results Temperature at the Centre of body after 21600s (F) Target 28 Mechanical 28.688 Error (%) 2.457

92

Overview

Reference: Analysis Type(s): Element Type(s): Any basic Kinematics book. Flexible Dynamic Analysis Solid

Test Case

Left Block of mass 2.355e-4 kg is given a constant initial velocity of 100 mm/sec to collide with the middle block1of mass 1.1775e-4 kg. All three blocks are resting on Base. Frictionless supports are applied as shown in the figure and also on the bottom faces of left and middle blocks. Right block is fixed using Fixed Support and the base is fixed by applying Fixed Joint. Find the velocity of both the moving blocks after impact. Figure 51: Schematic

Geometric Properties Left Block = 3mm x 2mm x 5mm Middle Block = 2.5mm x 2mm x 3mm Right Block =3mm x 6mm x 4mm

93

VMMECH038 Material Properties Geometric Properties Base = 3mm x 8.607mm x 75.15mm Loading

Analysis

For Perfectly Elastic Collision between the blocks, mL (Li - Lf) = mM (Mf - Mi) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .I Li + Lf = Mf + Mi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II mL, mM = Mass of Left and Middle Block in kg Li, Lf = Initial and Final Velocity of the Left Block in mm/sec Mi = Initial velocity of Middle Block in mm/sec = 0 as it is at rest Mf = Velocity of Middle Block after impact in mm/sec Solving I and II, Lf = 33.3 mm/sec Mf = 133.34 mm/sec

Results Comparison

Results Velocity of Left Block after impact (mm/sec) Velocity of Middle Block after impact (mm/sec) Target 33.3 133.4 Mechanical 33.809 132.38 Error (%) 1.5 -0.8

94

Overview

Reference: Analysis Type(s): Element Type(s): R. K. Vierck, Vibration Analysis, 2nd Edition, Harper & Row Publishers, New York, NY, 1979, sec. 5-8. Flexible Dynamic Analysis Solid and Spring

Test Case

A system containing two masses, m1 and m2, and two springs of stiffness k1 and k2 is subjected to a pulse load F(t) on mass 1. Determine the displacement response of the system for the load history shown. Figure 52: Schematic

95

VMMECH039

Results Comparison

Results Y1, m (@ t = 1.3s) Y2, m (@ t = 1.3s) Y1, m (@ t = 2.4s) Y2, m (@ t = 2.4s) Target 14.48 3.99 18.32 6.14 Mechanical 14.335 3.9151 18.511 6.1971 Error (%) -1 -1.9 1 0.9

96

Overview

Reference: Analysis Type(s): Element Type(s): Any Basic Strength of Materials Book Static Structural Analysis Beam

Test Case

A long bar 1m X 1m X 24m with simply supported ends is subjected to lateral load of 1000 N at a distance of 8m from one end. Find Deformation at the 8m from simply Supported end. Scenario 1: Considering Symmetry Scenario 2: Considering Anti-Symmetry Figure 53: Schematic

Analysis

Scenario 1: Considering Symmetry = 3

97

VMMECH040 3 3

Results Comparison

Results Scenario 1: Directional Deformation in Y-direction (m) Scenario 2: Directional Deformation in Y-direction (m) Target -2.569e-5 -1.70662e-6 Mechanical -2.5695e-5 -1.7383e-6 Error (%) 0.019 1.856

98

Overview

Reference: Analysis Type(s): Element Type(s): W. Boast, Principles of Electric and Magnetic Fields, 1948 Harpers Brothers, Page 242, Equation 12.05. Electromagnetic Analysis Solid

Test Case

The winding body is enclosed in an Air Body. The radius of Coil is 30 mm and cross section is 20 mm X 20 mm. The number of turns is 200 and current is 0.5 A. "Flux Parallel" is applied on all the 7 outer surfaces. Periodic Symmetry is applied on two faces. The dimensions of the air body are such that it encloses the coil. Find the Total Flux Density. Figure 54: Dimensions of Body

99

Material Properties Young's Modulus (Pa) DSVM41_MAT1 (Emag Part) DSVM41_MAT2 (Winding Body) 1e7 1.1e11 Poisson's Ratio 0 0.34 Density (kg/m3) 0 8300 Relative Permeability 1 1 Electric Resistivity (ohm-m) 0 2e-7

Analysis

Flux Density =

2+

where: N = number of turns (1) I = current per turn (100) mu = (4 x x 10-7) S = width of coil (20e-3m) R = radius to midspan of coil (3*S/2) = =

+

100

VMMECH041

Results Comparison

Results Total Flux Density (T) Target 1.99e-3 Mechanical 0.0019848 Error (%) -0.3

101

102

VMMECH042: Hydrostatic Pressure Applied on a Square Bar with Fully, Partially Submerged in a Fluid

Overview

Reference: Analysis Type(s): Element Type(s): Any Basic Strength of Materials Book Static Structural Analysis Solid

Test Case

Long bar 20m x 2m x 2m is immersed in a fluid and is fixed at one end. Fluid density is 1000 kg/m3 and Hydrostatic acceleration is 10 m/s2 in negative Z direction. Hydrostatic pressure is applied on a longitudinal face normal to X-axis at different locations as given in the scenarios below. Find normal stress in Z direction of square bar. Scenario 1: Square bar is partially immersed in the fluid up to 15 m in Z direction from the fixed support. Scenario 2: Square bar is fully immersed in the fluid up to 25 m in Z direction from the fixed support Figure 56: Schematic

103

VMMECH042 Material Properties Geometric Properties Loading Scenario 1: (2,1,5) m Scenario 2: (2,1,-5) m

Analysis

Scenario 1: Partialy Submerged (Pressure distribution in triangular form) Pressure distribution on square bar in triangular form, one end is maximum and other end is zero Pressure on square bar = P = x g x h Load per meter is w = P x L = Maximum bending moment = Normal stress = Bending stress = Maximum bending moment / Sectional Modulus Scenario 2: Fully Submerged (Pressure distribution in trapezoidal form) Maximum bending moment = where: W1 = Maximum Load per meter (@ 25m) W2 = Minimum Load per meter (@ 5m) Normal stress = Bending stress = Maximum bending moment / Sectional Modulus

1

Results Comparison

Results Normal Stress (Partially Submerged) (Pa) Normal Stress (Fully Submerged) (Pa) Target 8.4375e6 3.50e7 Mechanical 8529300 3.5241e7 Error (%) -1.088 0.689

104

Overview

Reference: Analysis Type(s): Element Type(s): W. T. Thompson, Vibration Theory and Applications, 2nd Printing, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1965, pg. 18, ex. 1.5-1 Modal Analysis Beam

Test Case

Determine the fundamental frequency f of a simply-supported beam of length = 80 in and uniform cross-section A = 4 in2 as shown below. Figure 57: Schematic

Loading

Results Comparison

Results Frequency (Hz) Target 28.766 Mechanical 28.613 Error (%) 0.532

105

106

Overview

Reference: S. Timoshenko, Strength of Material, Part I, Elementary Theory and Problems, 3rd Edition, D. Van Nostrand Co., Inc., New York, NY, 1955, pg. 30, problem 9. Linear Thermal Stress Analysis Beam

Test Case

An assembly of three vertical wires has a rigid horizontal beam on which a vertically downward force Q is acting. Length of the wires is 20 in, the spacing between the wires is 10 in and the reference temperature is 70 F. The entire assembly is subjected to a temperature rise of T. Find the stresses in the copper and steel wire of the structure shown below. The wires have a cross-sectional area of A. Figure 58: Schematic

Material Properties VMSIM044_material_rigid: Er = 3e16 psi r = 0 VMSIM044_material_copper: Ec = 1.6e7 psi c = 0 c = 9.2e-6 / F VMSIM044_material_steel:

107

Results Comparison

Results Stress in steel (psi) Stress in copper (psi) Target 19695 10152 Mechanical 19695 10152 Error (%) 0.00 0.00

108

Overview

Reference: S. H. Crandall, N. C. Dahl, An Introduction to the Mechanics of Solids, McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York, NY, 1959, pg. 342, problem 7.18. Static Structural Analysis Shell

Test Case

A cantilever beam of thickness t and length has a depth which tapers uniformly from d at the tip to 3d at the wall. It is loaded by a force F at the tip, as shown. Find the maximum bending stress at the mid-length (X = ). Figure 59: Schematic

Geometric Properties = 50 in d = 3 in t = 2 in

Results Comparison

Results Bending stress at mid length (psi) Target 8333 Mechanical 8373.7 Error (%) 0.5

109

110

Overview

Reference: R. D. Cook, Concepts and Applications of Finite Element Analysis, 2nd Edition, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, NY, 1981, pp. 284-287 H. Takemoto, R. D. Cook, "Some Modifications of an Isoparametric Shell Element", International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, Vol. 7 No. 3, 1973. Analysis Type(s): Element Type(s): Static Structural Analysis Shell

Test Case

A thin-walled cylinder is pinched by a force F at the middle of the cylinder length. Determine the radial displacement at the point where F is applied. The ends of the cylinder are free edges. A one-eighth symmetry model is used. One-fourth of the load is applied due to symmetry. Figure 60: Schematic

111

VMMECH046

Analysis

Due to symmetrical boundary and loading conditions, one-eighth model is used and one-fourth of the load is applied.

Results Comparison

Results Deflection (in) Target -0.1139 Mechanical 0.11376 Error (%) -0.1

112

Overview

Reference: S. H. Crandall, N. C. Dahl, An Introduction to the Mechanics of Solids, McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York, NY, 1959, pg. 180, ex. 5.1. Plastic Structural Analysis Axisymmetric

Test Case

Two coaxial tubes, the inner one of 1020 CR steel and cross-sectional area As, and the outer one of 2024-T4 aluminum alloy and of area Aa, are compressed between heavy, flat end plates, as shown below. Determine the load-deflection curve of the assembly as it is compressed into the plastic region by an axial displacement. Assume that the end plates are so stiff that both tubes are shortened by exactly the same amount. Figure 61: Schematic

Material Properties VMSIM047_CR_steel: Es = 26,875,000 psi (yp)s = 86,000 psi VMSIM047_T4_aluminum alloy:

Loading 1st Load step: = 0.032 in 2nd Load step: = -0.05 in 3rd Load step: = -0.10 in

113

VMMECH047 Material Properties Ea = 11,000,000 psi (yp)a = 55,000 psi = 0.3 Geometric Properties Wall thickness = 0.5 in Aluminum: Inside radius = 3.5697185 in Wall thickness = 0.5 in Loading

Analysis

Because the geometry and loading are symmetric about the y-axis, the above problem can be analyzed as an axisymmetric problem.

Results Comparison

Results Load, lb for Deflection @ 0.032 in Load, lb for Deflection @ 0.05 in Load, lb for Deflection @ 0.1 in Target 1.0244e6 1.262e6 1.262e6 Mechanical 1033900 1262800 1267200 Error (%) 0.9 0.1 0.412

114

Overview

Reference: S. H. Crandall, N. C. Dahl, An Introduction to the Mechanics of Solids, McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York, NY, 1959, pg. 294, ex. 7.2. Static Structural Analysis Beam

Test Case

Find the maximum tensile and compressive bending stresses in an unsymmetrical T beam subjected to uniform bending Mz, with dimensions and geometric properties as shown below. Figure 62: Schematic

Results Comparison

Results StressBEND, Bottom (psi) StressBEND, Top (psi) Target 300 -700 Mechanical 300 -700 Error (%) 0 0

115

116

Overview

Reference: S. Timoshenko, Strength of Material, Part I, Elementary Theory and Problems, 3rd Edition, D. Van Nostrand Co., Inc., New York, NY, 1955, pg. 299, problem 2. Static Structural Analysis Beam

Test Case

A vertical bar of length and radius r is subjected to the action of a horizontal force F acting at a distance d from the axis of the bar. Determine the maximum principal stress max. Figure 63: Problem Sketch

117

VMMECH049

Results Comparison

Results Principal stressmax (psi) Target 7527 Mechanical 7515.5 Error (%) -0.153

118

Overview

Reference: S. Timoshenko, Strength of Material, Part I, Elementary Theory and Problems, 3rd Edition, D. Van Nostrand Co., Inc., New York, NY, 1955, pg. 45, article 11. A. C. Ugural, S. K. Fenster, Advanced Strength and Applied Elasticity, Elsevier, 1981. Analysis Type(s): Element Type(s): Static Structural Analysis Axisymmetric Shell element

Test Case

A long cylindrical pressure vessel of mean diameter d and wall thickness t has closed ends and is subjected to an internal pressure P. Determine the axial stress y and the hoop stress z in the vessel at the mid-thickness of the wall. Figure 65: Schematic

119

VMMECH050

Analysis

An axial force of 5654866.8 lb ((Pd2)/4) is applied to simulate the closed-end effect.

Results Comparison

Results Stressy (psi) Stressz (psi) Target 15000 30000 Mechanical 15000 30002 Error (%) 0 0.007

120

Overview

Reference: S. Timoshenko, Strength of Material, Part II, Elementary Theory and Problems, 3rd Edition, D. Van Nostrand Co., Inc., New York, NY, 1956, pp. 96, 97, and 103. Static Structural Analysis Axisymmetric Shell element

Test Case

A flat circular plate of radius r and thickness t is subject to various edge constraints and surface loadings. Determine the deflection at the middle and the maximum stress max for each case. Case 1: Uniform loading P, clamped edge Case 2: Concentrated center loading F, clamped edge Figure 66: Schematic

Case 1:

Case 2:

121

VMMECH051

Geometric Properties r = 40 in t = 1 in

Analysis

Because the geometry and loading are symmetric about the y-axis, the above problem can be analyzed as an axisymmetric problem.

Results Comparison

Results Case 1: Case 2: Deflection (in) Stressmax (psi) Deflection (in) Stressmax (psi) Target -0.08736 7200 -0.08736 3600 Mechanical -0.087114 7212.8 -0.088025 3607.9 Error (%) -0.282 0.178 0.761 0.219

122

Overview

Reference: Analysis Type(s): Element Type(s): Any Basic Kinematics book Rigid Dynamic Analysis Multipoint Constraint Element

Test Case

The Trunnion mechanism has the following data (all distances are center-to-center distances): Crank radius OA = 100 mm and is oriented at 30 deg to Global Y Axis AB = 400 mm AC = 150 mm CE = 350 mm EF = 300 mm Constant Angular Velocity at Crank = 12.57 rad/s Center of Trunnion is at distance of 200 mm from line of stroke of Piston B horizontally and 300 mm vertical from Center of Crank Find the Velocity of Piston (F) at the 180 deg from Initial Position Find the Velocity of Piston (B) at the 180 deg from Initial Position Figure 67: Schematic

123

VMMECH052 Material Properties E = 2e11 Pa = 0.3 Geometric Properties AB = 400 mm AC = 150 mm CE = 350 mm EF = 300 mm Loading Constant angular velocity at crank = 12.57 rad/s

Analysis

Analysis done using graphical solution. Consider the Space Diagram, Velocity Diagram at the 180 from Initial Position. Figure 68: Schematic

Results Comparison

Results Velocity of Piston (F) m/s Velocity of Piston (B) m/s Target 501.8 955 Mechanical 497.04 959.72 Error (%) -0.949 0.494

124

Overview

Reference: Analysis Type(s): Element Type(s): Any Basic Kinematics book Rigid Dynamic Analysis Multipoint Constraint Element

Test Case

A simple pendulum as shown in Figure 69: Schematic (p. 125) has a SHM motion about its hinged point given by the following equation: = 1.571*sin (0.5235*t) rad The hinge point coordinates are: 1. Hinge point = (0, 0, -35.56) mm Find the relative angular acceleration of pendulum after t = 3s. Figure 69: Schematic

Analysis

The pendulum is having SHM motion in X-Z plane about the hinge. Angular acceleration of pendulum:

125

VMMECH053 = =

2

Results Comparison

Results Relative angular acceleration of pendulum after t = 3s (rad/s2) Target -0.433 Mechanical -0.43054 Error (%) -0.568

126

Overview

Reference: Analysis Type(s): Element Type(s): Any Basic Kinematics book Rigid Dynamic Analysis Multipoint Constraint Element

Test Case

A uniform bar A is connected to a vertical shaft by a revolute joint. The vertical shaft is rotating around its vertical axis at a constant velocity . A point mass M is attached at the tip of the bar in the figure below. The length of bar A is L. Its mass is m, its rotational inertia to its principal axis are Jx, Jy, Jz. The angle of the bar A to the vertical axis is denoted as . The motion equation has been established as follows.

( J J + 1 ml 2 + Ml 2 ) 2 ( J z + 14 ml 2 + Ml 2 ) x y 4

+ mgl

+ Mgl

The problem is solved for { { during the first second of motion. The WB/Mechanical results are compared to a fourth order Runge-Kutta solution.

127

Material Properties

Geometric Properties L= 2.2361 m m = 551.45 kg M = 100.0 kg Jx = 229.97 kg-m2 Jy = 2.7293 kg-m2 Jz = 229.97 kg-m2

Loading = 17.1522

= tan-1(1,2) =0

Results Comparison

Results Target -1.3233 116.1368 Mechanical -1.3233 116.1368 Error (%) 0.0 0.0

128

VMMECH054 Results Target -2.6755 119.8471 Mechanical -2.6755 119.8471 Error (%) 0.0 0.0

129

130

Reference: Analysis Type(s): Element Type(s): Any Basic Kinematics book Rigid Dynamic Analysis Multipoint Constraint Element

Test Case

The mechanism shown in figure is used to pull a movie through a projector. The mechanism is driven by the drive wheel rotating at a constant -58.643 rad/s. The link lengths of all the links are constant as given below. Link AB length r1 = 18mm Link BC length r2 = 48mm Length BX = x = 45 mm and CX = y = 28 mm The horizontal distance between A and C is length=34 mm. Determine the acceleration of point C with a change of angle of link AB (1) from 0 to 60 in counter clockwise direction. Figure 73: Schematic

131

VMMECH055 Material Properties E = 2e11 Pa = 0.3 Geometric Properties r1 = 18 mm r2 = 48 mm x = 45 mm y = 28 mm Loading Constant rotational velocity = -58.643 rad/s

Analysis

Results Comparison

Results Relative acceleration (1 = 10) mm/s2 Relative acceleration (1 = 30) mm/s2 Relative acceleration (1 = 60) mm/s2 Target -12.06 1.317 6.739 Mechanical -12.043 1.3168 6.7386 Error (%) -0.141 -0.015 -0.006

132

Reference: Analysis Type(s): Element Type(s): Any Basic Kinematics book Rigid Dynamic Analysis Multipoint Constraint Element

Test Case

Kinematics diagram of one of the cylinders of a rotary engine is shown below. OA is 50mm long and fixed at point o. The length of the connecting rod AB is 125mm. The line of stroke OB is inclined at 50 to the vertical. The cylinders are rotating at a uniform speed of 300 rpm in a clockwise direction, about the fixed center O. Find Angular acceleration of the connecting rod. Figure 74: Schematic

Geometric Properties Connecting rod AB is 125mm Crank OA is 50mm long OB is inclined at 50 to the vertical.

133

VMMECH056

Analysis

3

Results Comparison

Results Angular acceleration (radian/s2) Target 294.52 Mechanical 294.53 Error (%) 0

134

Overview

Reference: Beer-Johnston Vector Mechanics for Engineers Statics & Dynamics (In SI Units), 7th Edition, TATA McGRAW HILL Edition 2004, Problem 13.73, Page No: 793 Rigid Dynamic Analysis Multipoint Constraint Element

Test Case

A 1.2 Kg collar is attached to a spring and slides without friction along a circular rod in a vertical plane. The spring has an undeformed length of 105 mm and a constant K = 300 N/m. Knowing that the collar is at rest at "C" and is given a slight push to get it moving. Length OP = 75 mm. Length OB = 180 mm. Determine the force exerted by the rod on the collar as it passes through point "A" and "B". Figure 75: Schematic

135

VMMECH057 Material Properties E = 2e11 Pa = 0.3 Geometric Properties Spring: Undeformed length = 105 mm Stiffness K = 300 N/m Loading Gravitational acceleration = -9.8066 m/s2 (Y Direction)

Results Comparison

Results At point A (N) At point B (N) Target 14.88 -23.6 Mechanical 14.992 -23.667 Error (%) 0.753 0.3

136

Overview

Reference: Analysis Type(s): Element Type(s): Results are simulated using MATLAB Rigid Dynamic Analysis Multipoint Constraint Element

Test Case

The figure (below) shows a reverse four bar linkage consisting of uniform rigid links PQ, QR, and RS and ground PS. Link PQ is connected with revolute joints to links QR and PS at points Q and P, respectively. Link RS is connected with revolute joints to links QR and PS at points R and S, respectively. The link lengths of all the links are constant as given below. Fixed Link PS length r1 = 0.5m Crank Link PQ length r2 = 0.15m Link QR length r3 = 0.4m Link RS length r4 = 0.45m Gravity g = 9.81m/sec2 Determine the angular accelerations, angular velocity and rotation of link RS at joint R.

137

Geometric Properties Link PS length r1 = 0.5m Link PQ length r2 = 0.15m Link QR length r3 = 0.4m Link RS length r4 = 0.45m

Analysis

Results are obtained using MATLAB.

Results Comparison

Results Angular Acceleration (rad/s ) Angular Velocity (rad/sec) Rotation (rad)

2

138

Overview

Reference: Analysis Type(s): Element Type(s): R. J. Roark, Formulas for Stress and Strain, 4th Edition, McGrawHill Book Co., Inc., New York, NY, 1965, pp. 104, 106. Static Structural Analysis 2-D Plane Stress Shell element

Test Case

A beam of length and height h is built-in at one end and loaded at the free end with: a moment M a shear force F For each case, determine the deflection at the free end and the bending stress Bend at a distance d from the wall at the outside fiber. Figure 77: Schematic

Case 1:

Case 2:

139

VMMECH059

Geometric Properties = 10 in h = 2 in d = 1 in

Analysis

Since the loading is uniform and in one plane, the above problem can be analyzed as a plane stress problem.

Results Comparison

Results Case 1: Case 2: Deflection (in) StressBend (psi) Deflection (in) StressBend (psi) Target 0.00500 -3000 0.00500 -4050 Mechanical 0.00500 -3000 0.0051232 -4051.5 Error (%) 0 0 2 0

140

Overview

Reference: Analysis Type(s): Element Type(s): Mechanical APDL Multibody Analysis Flexible Dynamic Analysis Solid and Multipoint Constraint Element

Test Case

The figure shows crank slot model consists of a base and two rods. The two rods are attached to each other and the base with three bolts. The base of the model is fixed to the ground via a fixed joint and Bolt3 connected with slot joint to base. Define Rod1 and Rod2 as a flexible body and run the crank slot analysis using a Flexible Dynamic Analysis. Determine the Equivalent (von Mises) Stress for both flexible rods. Figure 78: Schematic

141

VMMECH060

Analysis

Figure 79: Contour Plot

Results Comparison

Results Equivalent (von Mises) Stress (MPa) Target 0.398 Mechanical 0.40834 Error (%) 2.6

142

VMMECH060 Results Force @ Bolt1 (N) Target 7.67 Mechanical 7.6808 Error (%) 0.141

143

144

Overview

Reference: S. Timoshenko, Strength of Material, Part I, Elementary Theory and Problems, 3rd Edition, D. Van Nostrand Co., Inc., New York, NY, 1955, pg. 412, eq. 241. Static Structural Analysis Beam

Test Case

A portion of a horizontal circular ring, built-in at A, is loaded by a vertical (Z) load F applied at the end B. The ring has a solid circular cross-section of diameter d. Determine the deflection at end B and the maximum bending stress Bend. Figure 82: Schematic

Results Comparison

Results Deflection (in) Target -2.648 Mechanical -2.655 Error (%) 0.264

145

VMMECH061 Results StressBend (psi) Target 6366.0 Mechanical 6399.2 Error (%) 0.522

146

Overview

Reference: S. Timoshenko, Strength of Material, Part II, Elementary Theory and Problems, 3rd Edition, D. Van Nostrand Co., Inc., New York, NY, 1956, pg. 213, problem 1 and pg. 213, article 42. Static Structural Analysis Axisymmetric Shell

Test Case

A long thick-walled cylinder is initially subjected to an internal pressure p. Determine the radial displacement r at the inner surface, the radial stress r, and tangential stress t, at the inner and outer surfaces and at the middle wall thickness. Internal pressure is then removed and the cylinder is subjected to a rotation about its center line. Determine the radial r and tangential t stresses at the inner wall and at an interior point located at r = Xi. Figure 83: Schematic

Case 1:

Case 2:

147

VMMECH062

Loading Case 1: Pressure = 30,000 psi (radial direction) Case 2: Rotational velocity = 1000 rad/s (Y direction)

Because the geometry and loading are symmetric about the y-axis, the above problem can be analyzed as an axisymmetric problem.

Results Comparison

Results Case 1: Displacementr, in (r = 4 in) Stressr, psi (r = 4 in) Stressr, psi (r = 6 in) Stresst, psi (r = 8 in) Stresst, psi (r = 4 in) Stresst, psi (r = 6 in) Stresst, psi (r = 8 in) Stressr, psi (r = 4 in) Stresst, psi (r = 4 in) Stressr, psi (r = 5.43 in) Stresst, psi (r = 5.43 in) Target 0.0078666 -30000. -7778. 0 50000. 27778. 20000. Mechanical 0.0076267 -29988 -7775.3 0.79611 49988 27775 19999 Error (%) -3.05 -0.04 -0.035 --0.024 -0.011 -0.005

Case 2:

148

Overview

Reference: K. J. Bathe, E. N. Dvorkin, "A Formulation of General Shell Elements - The Use of Mixed Interpolation of Tensorial Components , International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, Vol. 22 No. 3, 1986, pg. 720. Static Structural Analysis Shell

Test Case

A cantilever plate of length , width b and thickness t is fixed at one end and subjected to a pure bending moment M at the free end. Determine the true (large deflection) free-end displacements and the top surface stress at the fixed end using shell elements. Figure 84: Schematic

Geometric Properties = 12 mm b = 1 mm t = 1 mm

Analysis

Large deformation is used to simulate the problem.

149

VMMECH063

Results Comparison

Results Directional Deformation Xdirection (mm) Directional Deformation Zdirection (mm) Normal Stress X-direction (N/mm2) Target -2.9 -6.5 94.25 Mechanical -2.9354 -6.608 94.266 Error (%) 1.221 1.662 0.017

150

Overview

Reference: S. Timoshenko, Strength of Material, Part II, Elementary Theory and Problems, 3rd Edition, D. Van Nostrand Co., Inc., New York, NY, 1956, pg. 143, problem 2. Static Structural Analysis Shell

Test Case

The conical ring shown below represents an element of a Belleville spring. Determine the deflection y produced by a load F per unit length on the inner edge of the ring. Figure 85: Schematic

Results Comparison

Results Directional Deformation Ydirection (in) Target -0.0028205 Mechanical -0.0029273 Error (%) 3.8

151

152

Overview

Reference: Analysis Type(s): Element Type(s): C. O. Harris, Introduction to Stress Analysis, The Macmillan Co., New York, NY, 1959, pg. 58, problem 8. Static Thermal Stress Analysis Solid and Shell

Test Case

An aluminum-alloy bar is initially at a temperature of 70F. Calculate the stresses and the thermal strain in the bar after it has been heated to 170F. The supports are assumed to be rigid. Use a global mesh size of 0.25 in. Figure 86: Schematic

-5

153

Results Comparison

Results Normal Stress Y (psi) Thermal Strain Y (in/in) Target -6125 1.25e-003 Mechanical -6122.4 1.25e-003 Error (%) 0 0

154

Overview

Reference: Analysis Type(s): Element Type(s): C. O. Harris, Introduction to Stress Analysis, The Macmillan Co., New York, NY, 1959, pg. 114, problem 61. Static Structural Analysis Shell

Test Case

A tapered cantilever plate of rectangular cross-section is subjected to a load F at its tip. Find the maximum deflection and the maximum principal stress 1 in the plate. Use a global mesh size of 0.75 in. Figure 87: Schematic

Loading F = 10 lbf

155

VMMECH066

Results Comparison

Results Maximum Principal Stress (psi) Directional Deformation Z (in) Target 1600 -0.042667 Mechanical 1614.7 -0.042746 Error (%) 0.9 -0.2

156

Overview

Reference: Analysis Type(s): Element Type(s): C. O. Harris, Introduction to Stress Analysis, The Macmillan Co., New York, NY, 1959, pg. 237, problem 4. Static Structural Analysis Solid

Test Case

A tapered aluminum alloy bar of square cross-section and length L is suspended from a ceiling. An axial load F is applied to the free end of the bar. Determine the maximum axial deflection in the bar and the axial stress y at mid-length (Y = L/2). Use a global mesh size of 0.5 in. Figure 88: Schematic

157

VMMECH067

Geometric Properties L = 10 in d = 2 in

Results Comparison

Results Directional Deformation Y (in) Normal Stress Y at L/2 (psi) Target 0.0048077 4444 Mechanical 0.0048215 4463 Error (%) - 0.287 - 0.428

158

Overview

Reference: S. Timoshenko, Strength of Material, Part II, Elementary Theory and Problems, 3rd Edition, D. Van Nostrand Co., Inc., New York, NY, 1956, pg. 388, article 70. Static, Plastic Analysis (Plane Strain) 2-D Structural Solid

Test Case

A long thick-walled cylinder is subjected to an internal pressure p (with no end cap load). Determine the radial stress, r, and the tangential (hoop) stress, t, at locations near the inner and outer surfaces of the cylinder for a pressure, pel, just below the yield strength of the material, a fully elastic material condition. Determine the effective (von Mises) stress, eff, at the same locations for a pressure, pult, which brings the entire cylinder wall into a state of plastic flow. Use a global mesh size of 0.4 in along with a Mapped Face Meshing. Figure 89: Schematic

159

VMMECH068 Material Properties E = 30 x 106 psi yp = 30,000 psi = 0.3 Geometric Properties a = 4 in b = 8 in Loading pel = 12,990 psi pult = 24,011 psi

Analysis

This problem is modeled as a plane strain problem with only a quarter of the cross-section as shown in the above figures. Symmetry conditions are used on the edges perpendicular to X and Y axes. Load is applied in two steps as shown in the above table. The stresses are calculated at a distance of r = 4.4 in and 7.6 in, w.r.t a cylindrical coordinate system whose origin is same as that of the global coordinate system.

Results Comparison

Results Fully Elastic Stressr, psi (X = 4.4 in) Stresst, psi (X = 4.4 in) Stressr, psi (X = 7.6 in) Stresst, psi (X = 7.6 in) Fully Plastic Stresseff, psi (X = 4.4 in) Stresseff, psi (X = 7.6 in) Target -9984 18645 -468 9128 30000 30000 Mechanical -9948.8 18609 -469.1 9129.1 30000 30000 Error (%) -0.4 -0.2 0.2 0 0 0.00

160

Overview

Reference: R. D. Cook, Concepts and Applications of Finite Element Analysis, 2nd Edition, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, NY, 1981, pp. 284-287. Static Analysis Shell

Test Case

A cylindrical shell roof of density is subjected to a loading of its own weight. The roof is supported by walls at each end and is free along the sides. Find the x and y displacements at point A and the top and bottom stresses at points A and B. Express stresses in the cylindrical coordinate system. Use a global mesh size of 4 m. Figure 90: Schematic

161

VMMECH069

Analysis

A one-fourth symmetry model is used. Displacements, UX and UY, and the longitudinal rotation, ROTZ, are constrained at the roof end to model the support wall.

Results Comparison

Results Directional Deformation Y @ A, m Directional Deformation X @ A, m Stressz, Top @ A, Pa Stressz, Bottom @ A, Pa Stressangle, Top @ B, Pa Stressangle, Bottom @ B, Pa Target -0.3019 -0.1593 215570 340700 191230 -218740 Mechanical -0.30903 -0.16267 223680 350030 184270 -210980 Error (%) 2.362 2.116 3.762 2.738 -3.639 -3.5

162

Overview

Reference: Analysis Type(s): Element Type(s): J. T. Oden, Finite Elements of Nonlinear Continua, McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York, NY, 1972, pp. 325-331. Static, Large Deflection Analysis 2-D Structural Solid Elements

Test Case

An infinitely long cylinder is made of Mooney-Rivlin type material. An internal pressure of Pi is applied. Find the radial displacement at the inner radius and the radial stress at radius R = 8.16 in. Use a global mesh size of 1 in along with a Mapped Face Meshing. Figure 91: Schematic

163

VMMECH070

Material Properties Mooney-Rivlin material coefficients: C10 = 80 psi C01 = 20 psi D1 = 0 /psi

Analysis

Because of the loading conditions and the infinite length, this problem is solved as a plane strain problem. A one-fourth symmetry model is used. The total pressure is applied in two load increments 90 and 150 psi. Stress and Deformation are expressed in cylindrical coordinate system.

Results Comparison

Results Deformation at inner radius in radial direction, in Radial Stress at r = 8.16 in, psi Target 7.18 -122 Mechanical 7.1819 -122 Error (%) 0.026 0

164

Overview

Reference: W. M. Rohsenow, H. Y. Choi, Heat, Mass and Momentum Transfer, 2nd Printing, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1963, pg. 106, ex. 6.5. Thermal Analysis 2-D Thermal Solid Elements

Test Case

Determine the centerline temperature TcL and the surface temperature Ts of a bare steel wire generating heat at the rate Q. The surface convection coefficient between the wire and the air (at temperature Ta) is h. Also, determine the heat dissipation rate q. Use a global mesh size of 0.02 ft along with a Mapped Face Meshing. Figure 92: Schematic

165

VMMECH071

-3

Analysis

Because of the symmetry in loading conditions and in the geometry, this problem is solved as an axisymmetric problem. The solution is based on a wire 1 foot long.

Results Comparison

Results Centerline Temperature, F Surface Temperature, F Heat dissipation rate, BTU/s Target 419.9 417.9 -0.094861 Mechanical 419.94 417.85 -0.094861 Error (%) 0.01 0.012 0.00

166

Overview

Reference: S. Timoshenko, Strength of Material, Part II, Elementary Theory and Problems, 3rd Edition, D. Van Nostrand Co, Inc., New York, NY, 1956, pg. 234, problem 1. Thermal Stress Analysis 2-D Thermal Solid Elements

Test Case

A long thick-walled cylinder is maintained at a temperature Ti on the inner surface and To on the outer surface. Determine the temperature distribution through the wall thickness. Also determine the axial stress a and the tangential (hoop) stress t at the inner and outer surfaces Edge sizing is used for all edges and edge behavior is defined as hard. Figure 93: Schematic

Loading Ti = -1F

167

VMMECH072 Material Properties = 1.435 x 10-5/F = 0.3 k = 8.333e-4 Btu/s-in-F Geometric Properties Loading To = 0F

Analysis

Because of the symmetry in loading conditions and in the geometry, this problem is solved as an axisymmetric problem. The axial length is arbitrary and it is taken has 0.1 in. Nodal coupling is used in the static stress analysis. Model is used for the thermal and stress solutions.

Results Comparison

Thermal Analysis T,F (at X = 0.1875 in) T,F (at X = 0.2788 in) T,F (at X = 0.625 in) Static Analysis Stressa, psi (at X = 0.1875 in) Stresst, psi (at X = 0.1875 in) Stressa, psi (at X = 0.625 in) Stresst, psi (at X = 0.625 in) Target -1.0000 -0.67037 0 Target 420.42 420.42 -194.58 -194.58 Mechanical -1.0000 -0.67052 0 Mechanical 416.06 405.31 -195.06 -195.01 Error (%) 0 0.022 0 Error (%) -1.037 -3.594 0.247 0.221

168

Overview

Reference: R. D. Blevins, Formulas for Natural Frequency and Mode Shape, New York, NY, VanNostrand Reinhold Publishing Inc., 1979, PP. 246-247, 286-287. Mode-Frequency Analysis Solid

Test Case

The fundamental natural frequency of an annular plate is determined using a mode-frequency analysis. The lower bound is calculated from the natural frequency of the annular plates that are free on the inner radius and fixed on the outer. The bounds for the plate frequency are compared to the theoretical results. Figure 94: Schematic

37 cm

0.5cm

100 cm

100 cm

Loading

169

-9 -6

Geometric Properties Inside Radius (b) = 18.5 cm Thickness (h) = 0.5 cm Sector Angle = 30

Loading

kg/cm2

= 1.415 x 10 kg-

According to Blevins, the lower bound for the fundamental natural frequency of the annular plate is found using the formula presented in Table 11-2 of the reference: =

(1)

Where, 2 = 4.80

Results Comparison

Results Frequency (Hz) Target 23.38 Mechanical Error (%) 23.0747648726393 -1.305539

170

Overview

Reference: Analysis Type(s): Element Type(s): Rao, Singiresu S. Mechanical Vibrations. 4th ed. Singapore: Prentice Hall, 2004. 20. Rigid Body Dynamic Spring Analysis Solid

Test Case

This test calculates the elastic forces of both tension and compression only springs. A compression only spring uses a negative (compressive) displacement. A tension only spring uses a positive (tensile) displacement. Both spring types are analyzed in tension and compression loading. The detection of the spring state being in tension or compression is determined by the non-linear solver. Figure 95: Schematic

0.5 m

Tensile (x 1 )

Material Properties k = 1.0e7 N/m x1 = 0.5 m x2 = -0.5 m m = 7850 kg

Compressive (x 2 )

Geometric Properties Lo = 1 m Loading

Hookes Law: Elastic Force = Spring Constant * Displacement F = k*x Spring 1: Compression Only spring

Release 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 171

Results Comparison

Tensile Displacement (x1) Results Elastic Force (N) Spring 1 Elastic Force (N) Spring 2 Compressive Displacement (x2) Results Elastic Force (N) Spring 1 Elastic Force (N) Spring 2 Target -5.0e6 0 Mechanical -5.0e6 0 Error (%) 0 0 Target 0 5.0e6 Mechanical 0 5.0e6 Error (%) 0 0

172

Overview

Reference: Analysis Type(s): Element Type(s): W. T. Thomson, Theory of Vibration with Applications, 3rd Edition, 1999, Example 6.4-1, pg. 166 Harmonic Analysis Solid

Test Case

A two-story building has two columns (2K and K) constituting stiffness elements and two slabs (2M and M) constituting mass elements. Find the y directional deformation frequency response of the system at 70 Hz on each of the vertices for the frequency range of 0 to 500 Hz using mode superposition as the solution method. Figure 96: Schematic

Material Properties Material Block 2 Shaft 2 Block 1 Shaft 1 Geometric Properties Block 1 and 2: 40 mm x 40 mm x 40 mm Shaft 1 and 2: 20 mm x 20 mm x 200 mm E (Pa) 2e18 4.5e10 2e18 9e10 0.3 0.35 0.3 0.35 Loading Force = -1e5 N (y direction) (kg/m3) 7850 1e-8 15700 1e-8

173

VMMECH075

The material of the columns is assigned negligible density to make them as massless springs. The slabs are allowed to move only in the y direction by applying frictionless supports on all the faces of the slabs in the y direction. The end face of the column (2K) is fixed and a harmonic force is applied on the face of the slab (M) as shown in Figure 96: Schematic (p. 173). Set the solution intervals to 50. Add the frictionless support and fixed support in a modal system, and then link the modal system to a harmonic response system.

Note

There are frictionless supports on 8 faces of the geometry shown.

Results Comparison

Results Maximum Amplitude for Vertex A (m) Maximum Amplitude for Vertex B (m) Target 0.20853 0.074902 Mechanical 0.2119 0.075859 Error (%) 1.6 1.3

174

Overview

Reference: Analysis Type(s): Element Type(s): C. O. Harris, Introduction to Stress Analysis, The Macmillan Co., New York, NY, 1959, pg. 237, problem 4. Static Structural Analysis Shell

Test Case

A tapered aluminum alloy plate of length L with varying thickness across length is suspended from a ceiling. An axial load F is applied to the free end of the plate. Determine the maximum axial deflection in the plate and the axial stress y at mid-length (Y = L/2). Use a global mesh size of 0.5 in with mapped-face meshing. Figure 97: Schematic

Geometric Properties Tapered plate: L = 10 in Base width = 2 in Top width = 1 in Thickness varying from 2 in to 1 in from base to top.

175

VMMECH076

Results Comparison

Results Directional Deformation Y (in) Normal Stress Y at L/2 (psi) Target 0.0048077 4444 Mechanical 0.0048137 4454.6 Error (%) -0.1246 -0.2379

176

Overview

Reference: For basic equation: Frank P. Incropera and David P. DeWitt, Heat and Mass Transfer, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2002, 5th Edition pg. 5. Static Thermal Analysis Shell

Test Case

A 10 x 50 mm plate with a thickness varying from 1 mm to 4 mm is maintained at temperatures of 100 C and 200 C as shown below. Find the following: Temperatures at mid of the surface. Heat flow reactions on end edges. Figure 98: Schematic

Loading Temperature (T1) on edge (@ 1mm thickness) = 100 C Temperature (T2)on edge (@ 4mm thickness) = 200 C

177

VMMECH077

Analysis

Heat flow due to conduction is given by:

= =

(2)

The area for conduction varies from A1 to A2. The area Ay at any distance y is given as: +

(3)

=

Inserting Equation 3 (p. 178) in equation Equation 2 (p. 178) and integrating the equation from 0 to L,

(4)

!=

(5)

Results Comparison

Results Heat reaction at T1 (W) Heat reaction at T2 (W) Temperature at mid of surface (C) Target 2.618 -2.618 166.083 Mechanical 2.6188 -2.6188 166.09 Error (%) 0.00 0.00 0.00

178

Overview

Reference: Analysis Type(s): Element Type(s): Any Nonlinear Material Verification Text Static Analysis (ANTYPE=0) 3-D Structural Solid Elements 3-D Gasket Elements

Test Case

A thin interface layer of thickness t is defined between two blocks of length and width l placed on top of each other. The blocks are constrained on the left and bottom and back faces. The blocks are loaded with pressure P on the top face. Determine the pressure-closure response for gasket elements.

179

VMMECH078

180

VMMECH078

Analysis

A 3-D analysis is performed first using a mesh of 4 x 4 gasket elements. In order to simulate the loadingunloading behavior of gasket material, the model is first loaded with a pressure P1 and unloaded and then loaded with a pressure P2 and unloaded. The pressure-closure responses simulated are compared to the material definition. Because of convergence issues, the model could not be unloaded to 0 Pa and was instead unloaded to 100 Pa.

Results Comparison

Target GK-PRES GK-CLOS GK-PRES GK-CLOS 4.4006E+07 4.064E-04 1.5715E+08 6.8327E-04 Mechanical 4.4006E+07 4.064E-04 1.5715E+08 6.8327E-04 Error (%) 0 0 0 0 Gasket Pressure and Closure at End of 1st Loading:

181

182

Overview

Reference: Analysis Type(s): Element Type(s): W. T. Thomson. Vibration Theory and Applications . 2nd Printing, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ. pg. 10, ex. 1.3-3. 1965. Mode-Frequency Analysis Pipe Element

Test Case

A small generator of mass m is driven by a main engine through a solid steel shaft of diameter d. If the polar moment of inertia of the generator rotor is J, determine the natural frequency f in torsion. Assume that the engine is large compared to the rotor so that the engine end of the shaft may be assumed to be fixed. Neglect the mass of the shaft also. Figure 99: Schematic

2

Loading

= 8.00 in

J = .031 lb-in-sec2

Results Comparison

Results Lower Order F, Hz Higher Order F, Hz Target 48.781 48.781 Mechanical 48.781 48.781 Error (%) 0 0

183

184

Overview

Reference: Analysis Type(s): Element Type(s): R. K. Vierck. Vibration Analysis . 2nd Edition. Harper & Row Publishers, New York, NY, 1979. sec. 5-8. Transient Dynamic Mode Superposition Analysis

Test Case

A system containing two masses, m1 and m2, and two springs of stiffness k1 and k2 is subjected to a pulse load F(t) on mass 1. Determine the displacement response of the system for the load history shown. Figure 100: Schematic

Geometric Properties

185

VMMECH080

Results Comparison

Results Y1 , m (@ t = 1.3s) Y2 , m (@ t = 1.3s) Y1 , m (@ t = 2.4s) Y2 , m (@ t = 2.4s) Target 14.48 3.99 18.32 6.14 Mechanical 14.349 3.9478 18.097 6.094 Error (%) -0.9 -1.1 -1.2 -0.7

186

Overview

Reference: P.Bezler, M. Hartzman, and M. Reich. Dynamic Analysis of Uniform Support Motion Response Spectrum Method, (NUREG/CR-1677), Brookhaven National Laboratory, August 1980. Problem 2. Pages 48-80. Modal analysis Spectral analysis Elastic straight pipe elements Structural Mass element

Test Case

This benchmark problem contains three-dimensional multi-branched piping systems. The total mass of the system is represented by structural mass elements specified at individual nodes. Modal and response spectrum analyses are performed on the piping model. Frequencies obtained from modal solve and the nodal/element solution obtained from spectrum solve are compared against reference results. The NUREG intermodal/interspatial results are used for comparison. Figure 101: Schematic

187

VMMECH081 Material Properties Pipe Elements: E = 27.8999 x 106 psi. Nu = 0.3 Density = 2.587991718e10 lb-sec2/in4 Mass Elements (lb-sec2/in): (Mass is isotropic) Mass @ node 1: M = 0.447000518e-01 Mass @ node 2: M = 0.447000518e-01 Mass @ node 3: M = 0.447000518e-01 Mass @ node 4: M = 0.447000518e-01 Mass @ node 5: M = 0.432699275e-01 Mass @ node 6: M = 0.893995859e-02 Mass @ node 7: M = 0.432699275e-01 Mass @ node 8: M = 0.893995859e-02 Mass @ node 9: M = 0.893995859e-02 Mass @ node 10: M = 0.432699275e-01 Mass @ node 11: M = 0.893995859e-02 Mass @ node 12: M = 0.432699275e-01 Mass @ node 13: M = 0.893995859e-02 Mass @ node 14: M = 0.893995859e-02 Geometric Properties Straight Pipe: Outer Diameter = 2.375 in Wall Thickness = 0.154 in Loading Acceleration response spectrum curve defined by SV and FREQ commands.

Results Comparison

Results 1 2 3 4 5 Target 8.712 8.806 17.510 40.370 41.630 Mechanical 8.7121 8.8091 17.509 40.368 41.642 Error (%) 0.00 0.04 0.01 0.00 0.03

188

VMMECH081 Results Node UX at node6 UY at node8 UZ at node8 Target 0.46186 0.0025747 0.446591 Mechanical 0.46186 0.0025747 0.44949 Error (%) 0.00 0.00 0.65

189

190

Overview

Reference: Analysis Type(s): Element Type(s): W.F.Brown, Jr., J.E.Srawley, Plane strain crack toughness testing of high strength metallic materials, ASTM STP-410, (1966). Static Structural Analysis Solid

Test Case

A long plate with a center crack is subjected to an end tensile stress 0 as shown in problem sketch. Symmetry boundary conditions are considered and the fracture mechanics stress intensity factor KI is determined. Figure 102: Schematic

191

VMMECH082

Results Comparison

Results Stress Intensity KI Target 1.0249 Mechanical 1.0504 Error (%) 2.5

192

Overview

Reference: W. T. Thomson, Vibration Theory and Applications, 2nd Printing, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1965, pg. 102, article 4.3. Mode-Superposition Transient Dynamic Analysis

Test Case

A spring-mass-damping system that is initially at rest is subjected to a step force change F acting on the mass. Determine the displacement u at time t for damping ratio, = 0.5. Figure 103: Schematic

193

VMMECH083

2

Loading F= 200 lb

The damping coefficient c is calculated as 2 sqrt(km) = 10 lb-sec/in for = 0.5.

194

VMMECH083

Results Comparison

Results Total Def Max ( = 0.5) Time = 0.20 sec Target 1.1531 Mechanical 1.1544 Error (%) 0.1

195

196

Overview

Reference: .W.Ogden, et al., A Pseudo-elastic Model for the Mullins Effect in Filled Rubber", Royal Society of London Proceedings Series A., (1989), pg: 2861-2877. Static Analysis Solid

Test Case

An axisymmetric rubber plate made of Neo-Hookean material is modeled with radius R and height H. The model is subjected to cyclic displacement loading on the top surface. The axial stress obtained at different load steps is compared against the reference solution. Figure 105: Schematic

197

VMMECH084 Material Properties r = 2.104 m = 30.45 =0.2 Geometric Properties Loading Step 2: = 2.0 Step 3: = 3.0 Step 4: = 2.0 Step 5: = 1.5 Step 6: = 1.0

Results Comparison

Results Stretch 1.5 2.0 3.0 2.0 1.5 1.0 Axial Stress (Pa) Target 12.666 28.000 69.333 20.819 8.660 0.000 Mechanical 12.667 28.000 69.333 20.823 8.6704 0.0 Error (%) 0.008 0.0 0.0 0.019 0.12 0.0

198

Overview

Reference: R. J. Roark, W. C. Young, Formulas for Stress and Strain, McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York, NY, 1975, pg. 112114, article 7.2. Static Analysis Solid

Test Case

A beam of length and width w made up of two layers of different materials is subjected to a uniform rise in temperature from Tref to To, and a bending moment My at the free-end. Ei and i correspond to the Young's modulus and thermal coefficient of expansion for layer i, respectively. Determine the free-end displacement (in the Z-direction) and the X-direction stresses at the top and bottom surfaces of the layered beam. Figure 107: Schematic

6

Geometric Properties

= 8 in

w = 0.5 in t1 = 0.2 in t2 = 0.1 in

199

VMMECH085 Material Properties E2 = 0.4 x 106 psi 2 = 0.6 x 10-4 in/in/F Geometric Properties Loading

Results Comparison

Results Displacement, in StressxTOP , psi StressxBOT , psi Target -0.832 1731 2258 Mechanical -0.832 1731 2258 Error (%) 0.0 0.0 0.0

200

Overview

Reference: Analysis Type(s): Element Type(s): R. J. Roark, Formulas for Stress and Strain, 4th Edition, McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York, NY, 1965, pg. 384 Static Structural, Submodeling (2D-2D) Solid

Test Case

Determine the maximum stress at a circular hole cut into a rectangular plate loaded with uniform tension P. Figure 108: Plate Problem Sketch

Geometric Properties L = 12 in d = 1 in t = 1 in

Due to symmetry, only a quarter sector of the plate is modeled. The reference result is from an infinitely long plate. Using a transferred load from the coarse model, the submodel result closely approximates the fine model.

201

VMMECH086

Results Comparison

2D-2D Results

Results Fine Model Coarse Model Submodel Equivalent Stress - Max Equivalent Stress - Max Equivalent Stress - Max Target 3018 3018 3018 Mechanical 3025.7 2272.1 3032.8 Error (%) 0.255 -24.715 0.490

202

203

204

VMMECH087: Campbell Diagrams and Critical Speeds Using Symmetric Orthotropic Bearings

Overview

Reference: Nelson, H.D., McVaugh, J.M., The Dynamics of RotorBearing Systems Using Finite Elements , Journal of Engineering for Industry, Vol 98, pp. 593-600, 1976 Modal Analysis Line Body Point Mass Bearing Connection

Test Case

A rotor-bearing system is analyzed to determine the forward and backward whirl speeds. The distributed rotor is modeled as a configuration of six elements, with each element composed of subelements. See Table 1: Geometric Data of Rotor-Bearing Elements (p. 205) for a list of the geometric data of the individual elements. Two symmetric orthotropic bearings are located at positions four and six. A modal analysis is performed on the rotor-bearing system with multiple load steps to determine the whirl speeds and Campbell values for the system. Figure 112: Rotor-Bearing Configuration

Table 1: Geometric Data of Rotor-Bearing Elements Element Number 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 1 Subelement number Axial Distance to Subelement 0.00 1.27 5.08 7.62 8.89 Inner Diameter (cm) Outer Diameter (cm) 0.51 1.02 0.76 2.03 2.03

205

VMMECH087 Element Number 2 3 4 5 6 4 5 6 1 2 1 2 1 2 3 4 Material Properties Shaft E11 = 2.078 x 1011 Pa G12 = 1.0 x 1014 Pa Density = 7806 kg/m3 Mass Element Mass = 1.401 kg Polar inertia = 0.002 kgm2 Diametral inertia = 0.00136 kgm2 Bearing Element Spring coefficients K11 = K22 = 3.503 x 107 N/m K12 = K21 = -8.756 x 106 N/m Subelement number Axial Distance to Subelement 10.16 10.67 11.43 12.70 13.46 16.51 19.05 22.86 26.67 28.70 30.48 31.50 34.54 1.52 Geometric Properties Refer to Table 1: Geometric Data of Rotor-Bearing Elements (p. 205) Loading Rotational Velocity Spin (1) = 1000 RPM Spin (2) = 20000 RPM Spin (3) = 40000 RPM Spin (4) = 60000 RPM Spin (5) = 80000 RPM Spin (6) = 100000 RPM 1.52 1.78 Inner Diameter (cm) Outer Diameter (cm) 3.30 3.30 2.54 2.54 1.27 1.27 1.52 1.52 1.27 1.27 3.81 2.03 2.03

A modal analysis is performed on the rotor-bearing system with QR Damp methods using pipe elements (PIPE288) to determine the whirl speeds and Campbell values. A point mass is used to model the rigid disk (concentrated mass). Two symmetric orthotropic bearings are used to assemble the rotor system. No shear effect is included in the rotor-bearing system. The displacement and rotation along and around the X-axis is constrained so that the rotor-bearing system does not have any torsion or traction related displacements.

206

VMMECH087 Backward and forward whirl speeds for slope = 1 @ 100000 RPM are determined from the modal analysis.

Results Comparison

Target PIPE288 Mode 1 (BW) Mode 2 (FW) Mode 3 (BW) Mode 4 (FW) 10747.0000 19665.0000 39077.0000 47549.0000 10793.4 19560.0 39668.4 48207.0 1.004 0.995 1.015 1.014 Mechanical Ratio Backward and forward whirl speeds for slope = 1 @ 100000 RPM

207

208

Overview

Reference: Blevins, R.D., Formulas for Natural Frequency and Mode Shape, Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York, NY, 1979, pg. 90, tab. 7-1 Static Structural Linear Perturbed Modal Linear Perturbed Harmonic Element Type(s): Beam

Analysis Type(s):

Test Case

A uniform stainless steel guitar string of length l and diameter d is stretched between two rigid supports by a tensioning force F1, which is required to tune the string to the E note of a C scale. The string is then struck near the quarter point with a force F2. Determine the fundamental frequency, f1. Also, show that only the odd-numbered frequencies produce a response at the midpoint of the string for this excitation. Material Properties E = 190 x 109 Pa = 7920 kg/m3 Geometric Properties l = 710 mm c = 165 mm d = 0.254 mm Loading F1 = 84 N F2 = 1 N

Enough elements are selected so that the model can be used to adequately characterize the string dynamics. The stress stiffening capability of the elements is used. Linear perturbed harmonic analysis determines the displacement response to the lateral force F2. Figure 114: Guitar String Problem

209

VMMECH088

Results Comparison

Target Modal Frequency Response f, Hz f1, (322.2 Hz) f2, (644.4 Hz) f3, (966.6 Hz) f4, (1288.8 Hz) f5, (1611.0 Hz) f6, (1933.2 Hz) 322.2 Response No Response Response No Response Response No Response Mechanical 322.621 Response, 320 < f < 328 No Response Response, 966 < f < 974 No Response Response, 1611 < f < 1619 No Response Ratio 1.001

210

Overview

Reference:

Alfano, G., Crisfield, M.A., Finite Element Interface Models for the Delamination Analysis o Mechanical and Computation Issues , International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engine 1736, 2001 Static Structural Solid

Test Case

A double cantilever beam of length l, width w, and height h with an initial crack of length a at the free end is subjected to a maximum vertical displacement Umax at the top and bottom free end nodes. Determine the vertical reaction at point P, based on the vertical displacement using the contact-based debonding capability. Figure 116: Double Cantilever Beam Sketch

Material Properties Composite E11 = 135.3 GPa E22 = 9.0 GPa E33 = 9.0 GPa G12 = 5.2 GPa 12 = 0.24 13 = 0.24 23 = 0.46 Interface C1 = 1.7 MPa C2 = 0.28 N/mm

Loading Umax = 10 mm

211

A double cantilever beam is analyzed under displacement control using 2-D plane strain formulation elements. An imposed displacement of Uy = 10 mm acts at the top and bottom free vertex. Contact debonding is inserted at the interface. Defined fracture-energy based debonding material is used to define the material for contact debonding. Equivalent separation-distance based debonding material is also used for the contact debonding object. Based on the interface material parameters used, results obtained using Mechanical are compared to results shown in Figure 15(a) of the reference material.

Results Comparison

Target RFORCE FY (N) DISP UY (mm) RFORCE FY (N) DISP UY (mm) 50.677 1.50 24.553 10.00 Mechanical 50.677 1.50 24.553 10.00 Ratio 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 Max RFORCE and corresponding displacement using debonding

212

Overview

Reference: Analysis Type(s): Element Type(s):

Alfano, G., Crisfield, M.A., Finite Element Interface Models for the Delamination Analysis o Engineering, Vol 50, pp. 1701-1736, 2001 Static Structural Solid

Test Case

A double cantilever beam of length l, width w, and height h with an initial crack of length a at the free end is subjected to a maximum vertical displacement Umax at the top and bottom free end nodes. Determine the vertical reaction at point P based on the vertical displacement for the interface model. Figure 117: Double Cantilever Beam Sketch

Material Properties Composite E11 = 135.3 GPa E22 = 9.0 GPa E33 = 9.0 GPa G12 = 5.2 GPa 12 = 0.24 13 = 0.24 23 = 0.46 Interface C1 (maximum stress) = 25 MPa C2 (normal separation) = 0.004 mm C3 (shear separation) = 1000 mm

Loading Umax = 10 mm

213

VMMECH090

A double cantilever beam is analyzed under displacement load using interface elements for delamination and 2-D plane strain formulation elements. An imposed displacement of Uy = 10 mm acts at the top and bottom free vertex. An Interface Delamination object is inserted to model delamination. Equivalent material constants are used for the interface material, as Mechanical uses the exponential form of the cohesive zone model and the reference uses a bilinear constitutive model.

Results Comparison

Lower Order Results Target Mechanical 60.069 1.000 Ratio

Max RFORCE and corresponding DISP: RFORCE FY (N) DISP UY (mm) RFORCE FY (N) DISP UY (mm) 60.00 1.00 1.001 1.000

End RFORCE and corresponding DISP 24.00 10.00 24.288 10.00 1.012 1.00

Max RFORCE and corresponding DISP RFORCE FY (N) DISP UY (mm) RFORCE FY (N) DISP UY (mm) 60.00 1.00 1.001 1.000

End RFORCE and corresponding DISP 24.00 10.00 24.289 10.00 1.012 1.00

214

Overview

Reference: Analysis Type(s): Element Type(s): From the Basic Principle Goal Driven Optimization 3-D Solid

Test Case

An L-shaped beam with dimensions 30 x 25 mm with 4 mm as the rib thickness and 300 mm in length has the surface fixed at one end. A force of 10,000 N is then applied to the opposite end of the beam. Input Parameters: Width, Height, and Length (CAD Geometry) Volume, Stress, and Deflection

217

VMDX001 Parameter Length Volume Stress Deflection Type Input Output Output Output Limits 250 mm L 350 mm n/a n/a n/a Desired Value No Preference Minimum Possible Minimum Possible Minimum Possible Importance High Low High High

Analysis

Beam volume: = + +

2

5

Minimizing we get dimensions as: L = Length = 0.250 m W = Width = 0.030 m H = Height = 0.035 m

Results Comparison

Results Volume (V) Deformation (D) Stress () Target 6.9e-5 m

3

4.5290e-5 m 3.62319e7 Pa

218

Overview

Reference: Analysis Type(s): Element Type(s): From the Basic Principle Goal Driven Optimization 3-D Solid

Test Case

A long bar 2 X 2 X 20 m is made up of material having thermal conductivity linearly varying with the temperature K = k0*(1 + a*T) W/m-C, k0 = 0.038, a = 0.00582. The bar is constrained on all faces by frictionless support. A temperature of 100C is applied at one end of the bar. The reference temperature is 5C. At the other end, a constant convection coefficient of 0.005 W/m2C is applied. The ambient temperature is 5C. Input Parameters: Convection coefficient, coefficient of thermal expansion and length Temperature (scoped on end face), thermal strain

Loading Frictionless Support (on all faces) Reference temperature = 5C Temperature on end face T = 100C Convection on other end face Convection coefficient h = 5e-3 W/m2C Ambient temperature Ta = 5C

219

VMDX002 Parameter Length (l) Convection coefficient (h) Coefficient of temperature expansion () Temperature (T) Thermal strain () Type Input Input Limits 15 m l 25 m 0.004 W/m2C h 0.006 W/m2C 1.4e-5/C 1.6e-5/C Desired Value No Preference No Preference Importance Low Low

Input

No Preference

Low

Output Output

n/a n/a

High High

Analysis

Temperature:

s

7 22 a

Minimizing we get input parameters as: l = beam length = 25 m h = convection coefficient = 0.006 W/m2C = coefficient of thermal expansion = 1.4e-5/C

Results Comparison

Results Length (l) Convection coefficient (h) Target 25 m 0.006 W/m2C DesignXplorer Error (%) 25 m 0.006 W/m2C 1.4e-5/C 29.553C 3.437e-4 m/m 0 0 0 -0.3278 -0.4115

Coefficient of thermal expan- 1.4e-5/C sion () Temperature (T) Thermal strain () 29.6528C 3.4514e-4 m/m

220

VMDX003: Optimization of Water Tank Column for Mass and Natural Frequency

Overview

Reference: Analysis Type(s): Element Type(s): S. S. Rao, Optimization Theory and Application Second edition, example 1.10, page 28-30 Goal Driven Optimization with APDL 3-D Solid

Test Case

A uniform column of rectangular cross section b and d m is to be constructed for supporting a water tank of mass M. It is required to: 1. minimize the mass of the column for economy 2. maximize the natural frequency of transverse vibration of the system for avoiding possible resonance due to wind. Design the column to avoid failure due to direct compression (should be less than maximum permissible compressive stress) and buckling (should be greater than direct compressive stress). Assume the maximum permissible compressive stress as max. The design vector is defined as: = where: b = width of cross-section of column d = depth of cross-section of column Input Parameters: Width and Height Mass, Natural Frequency, Direct Stress, Buckling Stress Loading Mass of water tank M = 1000000 Kg Acceleration due to gravity = Length, I = 20 m 9.81 m/s2 T= T

3

221

VMDX003 Results Width b Depth d Mass of column M Natural frequency w Direct stress Buckling stress Target 0.36102 m 1.3181 m 21890 kg 0.87834 rad/sec 2.0386e7 Pa 6.1526e6 Pa DesignXplorer Error (%) 0.36102 m 1.318137 m 21889.77 kg 0.87816 rad/sec 2.0383e7 Pa 6.15174e6 Pa 0.000 0.002 0.001 -0.020 -0.015 -0.013

Analysis

Minimize:

Maximize:

wr k w = 3 Subject to constraints: D _S = x d Bg_S =

1/ 2 3 +

Required objective is obtained by having: b = 0.36102 m d = 1.3181 m M = (minimum) = 21890 kg W = (maximum) = 0.87834 rad/sec Direct stress = 2.0386e7 Pa Buckling stress = 6.1526e6 Pa

Results Comparison

Results Width b Depth d Mass of column M Target 0.36102 m 1.3181 m 21890 kg DesignXplorer Error (%) 0.36102 m 1.318137 m 21890.1957 kg 0.000 0.002807 -0.00089

222

VMDX003 Results Natural frequency w Direct stress Buckling stress Target 0.87834 rad/sec 2.0386e7 Pa 6.1526e6 Pa DesignXplorer Error (%) 0.87816 rad/sec 2.0383e7 Pa 6.15174e6 Pa -0.02074 -0.01277 -0.0139

223

224

VMDX004: Optimization of Frequency for a Plate with Simple Support at all Vertices

Overview

Reference: Analysis Type(s): Element Type(s): Blevins, Formula for Natural Frequency and Mode Shape, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company Inc., 1979, pg. 269-271 Goal Driven Optimization 3-D Shell

Test Case

A square plate of side 250 mm and thickness 5 mm is simply supported on all its vertices. Input Parameters: Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio and density First natural frequency

Geometric Properties Length a = 250 mm Width b = 250 mm Thickness h = 5 mm Type Input Input Constraints 1.8e11 Pa E 2.2e11Pa 0.27 0.30

225

VMDX004 Parameter Density First Natural Frequency w Type Input Output Constraints 7065 kg/m3 8635 kg/m3 N/a Desired Value No Preference Minimum Possible Importance Low High

Analysis

First Natural Frequency:

2

1/ 2

Minimizing we get dimensions as: Young's Modulus E = 1.8e11 Pa Poisson's Ratio = 0.27 Density = 8635 kg/m3 First Natural Frequency w = 124.0913 rad/s

Results Comparison

Results Young's Modulus E Poisson's Ratio Density First Natural Frequency w Target 1.8e11 Pa 0.27 8635 kg/m 124.0913 rad/s

3

3

123.36 rad/s

226

VMDX005: Optimization of Buckling Load Multiplier with CAD Parameters and Young's Modulus

Overview

Reference: Analysis Type(s): Element Type(s): Timoshenko, Strength of Materials, Part 2 (Advanced theory and problems), pg. 167168 Goal Driven Optimization 3-D Solid

Test Case

The cantilever bar of length 25 feet is loaded by uniformly distributed axial force p = 11 lbf on one of the vertical face of the bar in negative Z-direction. The bar has a cross-sectional area A is 0.0625 ft2. Input Parameters: Side of Square C/S , Length of Cantilever Bar and Young's Modulus Load Multiplier of the First Buckling Mode Genetic Algroithm

Geometric Properties Cross-section of square = 0.25 ft. x 0.25 ft. Length of bar = 25 ft. Type Input Constraints 0.225 ft. a 0.275 ft.

Loading Fixed support on one face, Force = 11 lbf (Negative Z-direction) on top face Desired Value No Preference Importance N/A

227

VMDX005 Parameter Length Young's Modulus First buckling mode load multiplier Type Input Input Output Constraints 22.5 ft. l 27.5 ft. 3.7594e9 psf E 4.5948e9 psf N/A Desired Value No Preference No Preference Maximum Possible Importance N/A N/A N/A

Analysis

Assuming that under the action of uniform axial load a slight lateral bucking occurs. The expression for deflection is: =

2

cr

cr

where: q = force per unit length The first critical buckling load is:

The load multiplier is given by the ratio of critical load to applied load The first buckling multiplier is:

5 E.a l

228

VMDX005 Cross-section side a = 0.275 ft. Length l = 22.5 ft. Young's Modulus E = 4.5948e9 psf Buckling load multiplier = 3083.32

Results Comparison

Results First buckling mode load multiplier Target 3083.32 DesignXplorer Error (%) 3036.07 -1.532

229

230

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