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Royal Institute of Technology (KTB)

Investigations of
Beat Recoveiy in
Biffeient
Refiigeiation System
Solutions in
Supeimaikets
Effsys2 pioject final iepoit
SamerSawalhaandYangChen
20100630

TableofContents
Summary .................................................................................................................................... 4
1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 5
1.1 Background .................................................................................................................. 5
1.2 Objectives .................................................................................................................... 5
1.3 Methodology ................................................................................................................ 6
1.4 Project partners and acknowledgment ......................................................................... 6
2 Description of refrigeration and heat recovery systems ..................................................... 7
2.1 Energy use in supermarkets and typical heating requirements .................................... 7
2.2 Refrigeration system solutions .................................................................................... 9
2.2.1 Conventional R404A system and CO2 pump circulation .................................... 9
2.2.2 Cascade systems with CO2 ................................................................................ 10
2.2.3 CO2 trans-critical systems ................................................................................. 12
2.3 Heat Recovery System Solutions .............................................................................. 13
2.3.1 Fixed head pressure (FHP) ................................................................................. 14
2.3.2 De-superheater (DSH) ........................................................................................ 14
2.3.3 Heat pump cascade (HPC) ................................................................................. 15
2.3.4 Heat pump cascade for sub-cooling (HPSC) ...................................................... 15
3 Field measurements .......................................................................................................... 16
3.1 Calculations of heat recovery .................................................................................... 16
3.2 CO
2
trans-critical system 1 ........................................................................................ 16
3.2.1 System design and operation .............................................................................. 16
3.2.2 Existing mode of operation and selection of operating conditions for heat
recovery with heat pump .................................................................................................. 17
3.2.3 Recoverable heat with heat pump solution ........................................................ 20
3.3 CO2 trans-critical system 2 ....................................................................................... 21
3.3.1 System design and operation .............................................................................. 21
3.3.2 Total heat recovery ............................................................................................. 22
3.3.3 Performance analysis of medium temperature unit (KA3) ................................ 25
4.2.4 Performance of booster unit (KAFA1) ............................................................... 27
3.4 Conclusions ............................................................................................................... 28
4 Computer simulation modelling ....................................................................................... 30
3

4.1 System performance in floating condensing-No heat recovery ................................. 31
4.2 System performance in fixed head pressure (FHP) heat recovery ............................ 33
4.3 System performance in heat pump cascade (HPC) heat recovery ............................. 34
4.4 System performance in heat pump cascade for sub-cooling (HPSC) heat recovery . 36
4.5 System performance in de-superheater (DSH) heat recovery ................................... 37
4.6 Annual energy consumption calculations .................................................................. 47
4.7 Conclusions ............................................................................................................... 48
5 Experimental measurements of CO
2
heat pump test rig .................................................. 50
5.1 System Layout ........................................................................................................... 50
5.2 Working principle ...................................................................................................... 50
5.3 Methodology .............................................................................................................. 51
5.4 Testing results ............................................................................................................ 54
5.4.1 Operating conditions .......................................................................................... 54
5.4.2 Overall system performance ............................................................................... 54
5.4.3 Results for the compressor part .......................................................................... 57
5.4.4 UA value with the flow rate ............................................................................... 63
5.5 Comparison with other studies .................................................................................. 64
5.5.1 Case study 1 ....................................................................................................... 65
5.5.2 Case Study 2 ....................................................................................................... 65
5.5.3 Case Study 3 ....................................................................................................... 67
5.6 Conclusions ............................................................................................................... 68
6 Overall conclusions .......................................................................................................... 69
7 References ........................................................................................................................ 70


4

Summary

Thisprojecttheoretically investigatesdifferent heat recoverysolutionsforthe refrigeration systems


insupermarketapplications.Italsoreportsfieldmeasurementsandexperimentalinvestigationsthat
havebeenconductedforselectedsystemsolutionswithCO2astherefrigerant.
Theoretical analysis has been performed using computer simulation models developed to simulate
the refrigeration system solutions; CO2 transcritical (parallel and booster), NH3/CO2 cascade,
R404A/CO2 cascade, and R404A conventional. Two supermarkets operating with CO2 transcritical
refrigeration systems have been selected for the field measurements analysis. The systems have
differentheatrecoverymethods.Fortheexperimentalinvestigations,atestrighasbeenbuiltatthe
laboratoryofAppliedThermodynamics andRefrigerationdivision atKTH, itis usedin theprojectto
validate computer simulations and it is also used to evaluate various components such as heat
exchangers,compressors,expansionvalvesandcontrolsystemsforCO2system.
The field measurements demonstrated the performance of the system and gave better
understanding of the systems behaviour and its control. It also provided key input parameters for
the computer simulation modelling. The difficulty in estimating the heating demand in the real
installations and the difficulty in comparing real installations stressed the need to use computer
simulationmodellingtoevaluateandcomparethedifferentsystemsolutions.
The experimental evaluation tested key components and control of the CO
2
system in heat pump
mode, overall system evaluation has been also performed. The methods used to estimate the mass
flowrateinthefieldmeasurementshavebeenverified,thecompressoriskeycomponentswherean
extensive analysis have been performed. Good agreement between the actual mass flow
measurements in the test rig and the estimation from the compressor manufacturer data has been
observed.
Inthecomputersimulationmodelling,thesystemswiththelowestenergyconsumptioninproviding
the required cooling and heating in an average size supermarket are the CO2 systems with
recovering heat from the desuperheater, heat pump at the subcooling side, and what has been
definedasTR1alternativeinthestudy.Thesystemshavesimilarorlowerenergyconsumptionthana
refrigeration system running in floating condensing with a separate heat pump to provide the
requiredheatingdemand.
Studies conducted in this project prove that the CO
2
systems investigated are efficient solutions for
simulationsrefrigeratingandheatinginsupermarketapplication.
5

1 Introduction

1.1 Background
Supermarkets are intensive energy consumers with constantly increasing number of installations.
About50%oftheenergyconsumptioninthesupermarketisabsorbedbytherefrigerationsystemto
cover the cooling demands, simultaneously; heating is needed in the supermarket where the
rejected heat from the refrigeration system is usually higher than the needs. It is an interesting
possibility to utilize the rejected heat from the refrigeration system to cover the heating needs in
supermarkets.
The environmentally friendly natural refrigerants are seen to be a long term solution in many
refrigerationapplicationsaswellasinsupermarkets.Thenewsolutionsprovideinterestingpotential
for reclaiming heat from the refrigeration system. Solutions such as parallel, centralized, cascade,
direct,indirect,single,two,ormultiplestageexist insupermarketstodaywhereeachsolutionwill
have different temperature levels at which heat is rejected. It will also have different capacities at
different temperature levels depending on the design of the plant, refrigeration loads, ambient
conditions,andthetypeofcompressor.
Previous research conducted at the Energy Technology Department at KTH shows that when
comparing cooling efficiencies in supermarkets, solutions which are based on natural refrigerants
have good potential in energy savings compared to conventional systems. Additionally, certain
systems, such as transcritical CO2, have good heat rejection characteristics with relatively high
efficiency when used in certain heat pump mode. However, the system is sensitive to the
conditions/requirementsunderwhichitoperates.Therefore,itisimportanttostudyitsperformance
underthesupermarketheatingrequirements.
Thisprojectinvestigatestheheatrecoveryperformanceofthenewsystemsolutionsthataremainly
based on natural refrigerants in supermarket refrigeration. The new system solutions with natural
refrigerants provide fresh possibilities for heat recovery due to the different temperature levels at
which certain heat capacities are rejected. Thus, the investigated system modifications and
optimizations will take into account not only the cooling efficiency but also the efficient heat
recoveryaccordingtotheneedsinthesupermarket.
1.2 Objectives
Theobjectiveofthisprojectistoinvestigatetheheatrecoveryperformanceofthenewrefrigeration
systemsolutionsinsupermarketapplications.Thefocusisonenvironmentallyfriendlysystemswith
naturalworkingfluids,mainlyCO2transcriticalsystems.Theprojectanalyzesthetemperaturelevels
andcapacitiesofrejectedheatfromdifferentsystemsolutionsandinvestigatesitsmatchingwiththe
heatingneedsinsupermarkets.
Usingsimulationtoolsthisprojectalsoaimsatdefiningthesystemsolution/swhichhasgoodenergy
efficiencyforsimultaneouscoolingandheatrecovery.
In order to verify the theoretical analysis experimental/field tests are performed for selected
systems.
6

1.3 Methodology
The work in this project is conducted based on the previous knowledge in refrigeration engineering
developed at the Energy Technology Department in projects dealing with energy efficiency and
alternative refrigeration system solutions in supermarket as well as heat pump applications.
Experience in developing computer simulation tools and the development of a stateoftheart
experimental test rig are important guide and resource in conducting the system analysis. Field
measurements of selected systems are used to evaluate its performance and to have input
parameterstothesimulationmodels.
Theworkinthisprojectisdividedinthreemainworkpackages:
Fieldmeasurements
TwosupermarketsoperatingwithCO2transcriticalrefrigerationsystemshavebeenselectedforthe
analysis. The systems have different heat recovery methods. The evaluation of the systems focused
on analyzing the performance of the system in both refrigeration and heat recovery modes.
Computer simulation modelling has been used in validating the results of the field measurements
and to evaluate the system performance under different cooling and heating requirements, which
wouldnotbepossibletochange/controlinrealinstallations.
Computersimulationmodelling
Computermodelshavebeendevelopedtosimulatetheperformanceofeachsystemsolutionunder
investigation. The refrigeration system solutions include, CO2 transcritical (parallel and booster),
NH3/CO2 cascade, R404A/CO2 cascade, and R404A conventional. Most of the assumptions for the
computer simulation models have been extracted from the field measurements data and the
simulation models then has been used to evaluate the performance of the selected systems under
differentoperatingconditions.
Experimentalinvestigations
A testrig has been built up at KTH, in the laboratory of Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration
division, the test rig is used in the project to validate computer simulations and it is also used to
evaluate various components such as heat exchangers, compressors, expansion valves and control
systems for CO2 system. Different system configurations are evaluated to optimally match the heat
rejectionoftherefrigerationsystemtothevariouspossibleheatsinksforbestpossibleefficiency.
1.4 Projectpartnersandacknowledgment
The project has been conducted by the Energy Technology Department at KTH in cooperation with
the following companies: AlfaLaval, Ahlsell, Nibe, IVT, SRM, Danfoss, Green and Cool, RANOTOR,
Climacheck,ICASverigeAB,andHuurreSwedenAB.TheprojectiscofinancedbytheSwedishEnergy
Agency(STEM).
ThroughtheprojectclosecooperationhasbeenmaintainedwithIUCSverigesEnergi&Kylcentrum
AB(IUCSEK).
I would like to thank all the project partners for their contributions to this work and Jaime Arias at
KTHwhohelpedinprovidingsomedata.
7

2 Descriptionofrefrigerationandheatrecoverysystems
2.1 Energyuseinsupermarketsandtypicalheatingrequirements
InSweden,approximately3%ofthenationalelectricityconsumedisusedinsupermarkets(Sjberg,
1997).AtypicalsupermarketinSwedenusesbetween3550%ofitstotalelectricityconsumptionfor
refrigerationequipment(Lundqvist,2000).Figure21showstheenergyuseinatypicalsupermarket
inSweden,ascanbeseeninthefigure,considerableportionofenergyisconsumedinrefrigeration,
lighting and HVAC, while refrigeration system rejects considerable amount of heat. The recovery of
heat from the refrigeration system presents potential to reduce or recover heating needs for HVAC
andservicewater.

Figure21:TypicalenergyuseinasupermarketinSweden(Arias,2005)
Common heating applications in a supermarket consist of floor heating, heater for HVAC system,
service water heater and in some applications, defrosting of evaporator coils. Some heating
applicationsandtemperaturerequirementsarelistedinthefollowingtable.

Table21:Temperaturerequirementsinheatingapplications(WulfinghoffD.R,1999)
Applications Temperaturelevel(
o
C)
Floorheating About27
HVACdimensioningtemp 33
Servicehotwater 54
Hydronicsystem 7040

Energy usage i n a supermarket


Refrigeration,
47%
Lighting, 27%
HVAC, 13%
Kitchen, 3%
Outdoors, 5%
Others, 5%
8

Theoretically,inrefrigerationsystemheatcanberecoveredfromcompressoroil,desuperheaterand
condenser. Potential of heat recovery depends on the quality and quantity of heat required and
experiencevariesonthepercentageofhightemperaturethatcanberecovered.
Heat recovery system solutions in supermarket are used mainly to heat the space air. The practical
experience indicated that though seemingly high quantity of heat is rejected by supermarket
refrigeration systems, only 4070% of the necessary heat can be recovered (Arias, 2005). Arias also
suggested that refrigeration system not operating continuously to be the likely reason for less
recovery of heat. In a typical Swedish supermarket HVAC system and refrigeration system are
installed and operated by different companies. Therefore HVAC and refrigeration systems are
separated from each other by heat exchanger which has been cited as another reason for the low
heatrecoverypercentage.
Animportantparameterintheanalysisoftheheatrecoverypotentialforrefrigerationsystemisthe
match between the heating and cooling demands. At low outdoor temperatures the relative
humidityislowandsoisthecoolingcapacityofthesystem,atthesametimetheheatingdemandin
the supermarket increases. Therefore, the relative size/capacity of the refrigeration system to the
size/heating needs in the supermarket is an essential parameter to investigate in order to achieve
efficientsimultaneouscoolingandheating.
The regulations on synthetic refrigerants have forced major changes in the refrigeration, air
conditioning,andheatpumpindustries.Generally,thenewsituationrequiredtheoldrefrigerantsto
bereplaced,systemstobetighterandnewsystemsolutionswhichrequirelessrefrigerantchargeto
be introduced. Nevertheless, the energy consumption of the systems should be kept as low as
possible.
HFCrefrigerantswereexpectedtobeanacceptablereplacementforthephasedoutCFCandHCFCs
but they became subject to regulations in some countries due to their Global Warming Potential
(GWP).InSweden, R404A,whichhasGWPvalueof3784,hasbeenintensivelyusedinsupermarket
installations as a replacement for the Ozone layer depleting refrigerants, mainly R22. In order to
reducetherefrigerantcharge,systemsthatuseanindirectsolutionwereapplied.Systemstightness
hasbeenimprovedduetotaxesenforcedonHFCrefrigerants.
NaturalrefrigerantsareseenasapotentiallypermanentsolutionwhereCO
2
istheonethatfitsbest
insupermarketapplications,mostlyduetosafetyreasons,asitcanbedirectlyusedinpublicareas.
CO
2
was first used as a secondary working fluid in indirect system solutions, the first CO
2
indirect
systemplantwasimplementedinSwedenin1995.
TheknowledgeandexperiencegainedfromearlyresearchworkonCO
2
andtheearlyinstallationsof
CO
2
incommercialapplicationspromoteditswiderapplicationinsupermarketswithdifferentsystem
solutions. Cascade systems with CO
2
in the low stage and transcritical solutions where CO
2
is the
onlyworkingfluidhavebeenappliedinSwedeninmanyinstallations.
Different solutions have been applied in the CO2 cascade and transcritical concepts which resulted
inaninterestingwidevarietyofconventionalandnewrefrigerationsystemsolutionsinSweden.The
differentrefrigerationsystemsolutionswillthenhavedifferentperformanceinheatrecoverymode,
9

it also provide fresh possibilities for heat recovery which is different than the conventional
techniques.
ThefollowingsectionsdescribethemaincategoriesoftherefrigerationsystemsolutionsinSwedish
supermarketsandthemaintechniquesforheatrecovery.
2.2 Refrigerationsystemsolutions
In general, two temperature levels are required in supermarkets for chilled and frozen products.
Product temperatures of around +3C and 18C are commonly maintained. In these applications,
with a large difference between evaporating and condensing temperatures, the cascade or other
twostage systems become favourable and are adaptable for the twotemperature level
requirementsofthesupermarket.Thefollowingsubsectionsdescribetheconventionalandthemain
CO2basedsolutionsinsupermarkets.
2.2.1 ConventionalR404AsystemandCO2pumpcirculation
Systems using R404A are referred to as conventional technologies where it is used as replacement
forOzonelayerdepletingrefrigerants.TheR404Asystemconsistsoftwoseparatecircuits;DXatthe
low temperature unit and with brine at the medium temperature level. A heat exchanger is
connectingthemediumandthelowtemperaturestagesofthesystemtofurthersubcooltheliquid
comingoutofthelowtemperaturecondenserorsubcooler.
Due to the steepness of the isentropic compression lines for R404A twostage compression with
intercooling has very little influence on improving the COP of the medium and low temperature
levels.Therefore,twostagecompressionisnotaconventionalsolutionwithR404A.
Thefollowingfigureisasimpleschematicofthesystem.

Figure22:SchematicdiagramofaconventionalR404Asystem
DuetotheregulationsontheHFCchargesintherefrigerationsystemstheuseofindirectsystemat
thelowstagehasbeenappliedinordertoavoidtheuseofR404AinDXsolutions.CO2hasbeenused
inmanyinstallationsasthesecondaryworkingfluidwheretheoperatingpressureisreasonable(11
barsat37C).Figure23isasimpleschematicoftheR404ACO2indirectrefrigerationsystem.
10

Figure23:SchematicdiagramofR404AsystemwithCO2pumpcirculationatthelowtemperaturelevel
FromgainingexperienceinoperatingCO
2
atfreezingtemperaturelevels,thesameconcepthasbeen
applied to medium temperature levels, as reported by Madsen et al. (2003). The temperature
requiredforchilledfoodisusuallyaround+3Candshouldnotgohigherthan7Cforlongperiodsof
time.Assuming7KoftemperaturedifferenceinthedisplaycabinetresultsinCO
2
operatingat4C,
which corresponds to around 31 bars. In this case, components that can withstand 40 bars
(corresponding to saturation temperature of 6C) can handle CO
2
with acceptable safety margins.
However,suchsystemsolutionisnotappliedinSweden.
Onlytheconventionalsystemsolutionwillbeanalyzedinthisstudybecauseofthesimilarityonthe
heatrejectionsidebetweenthetwosystems.
2.2.2 CascadesystemswithCO2
Cascade systems with CO
2
in the lowtemperature stage have been applied in several supermarket
installationsinSweden.Twomainpossiblearrangementsarethefollowing:
R404ACO2cascade
In this system arrangement, which exists in several installations in Sweden, the refrigerant in the
hightemperaturestageisR404A.Themediumtemperaturecircuitusesaconventionalsinglephase
secondaryworkingfluids.CO
2
istheworkingfluidinthelowtemperaturecircuitwhereitrejectsthe
heattothebrineatthemediumtemperaturelevel.Thefollowingplotisasimpleschematicofsuch
system.

11

Figure24:SchematicdiagramofR404ACO2cascadesystemwithbrineatthemediumtemperaturelevel
NH3CO2cascade
A solution which is based on natural refrigerants and an alternative candidate to conventional
systemsistheNH3/CO2cascadeconcept.Figure25isaschematicdiagramofsuchasystemsolution
whichhasbeenbuiltandtestedinalaboratoryenvironment(Sawalha,2008).Inthissystemconcept
CO2 pressure levels are acceptable; when condensing at 3C pressure is about 32 bars. At this
temperaturelevel,ascanbeseeninFigure25,thecoolingloadinthemediumtemperaturelevelis
providedbycirculatingCO2thataccumulatesinthetank.

Figure25:SchematicdiagramofNH3CO2cascadesystemwithCO2astherefrigerantforthemedium
temperaturelevel
12

This system has not been installed in supermarkets in Sweden yet but has been included in part of
the analysis in this study in order to demonstrate its relative performance in heat recovery mode.
However, it has been demonstrated that this system has very good performance in refrigeration
mode,4050%higherCOPcomparedtoconventionalsolutions(Sawalha,2008).
2.2.3 CO2transcriticalsystems
Due to the widespread interest in CO2 as an alternative to synthetic refrigerants in the two major
refrigerant consuming applications, i.e. mobile air conditioning and commercial refrigeration,
components which are specially designed to handle CO2 have become increasingly available and
competitive in price. This made it possible to build CO2 transcritical systems for supermarkets, the
maintwoarrangementsappliedinSwedishsupermarketsare:
Parallelarrangement
InthissystemtwoseparateparallelCO
2
circuitsoperatingbetweentheambienttemperatureonthe
highsideandtheintermediateandfreezingtemperaturelevelsontheothersides.Inordertoobtain
reasonable efficiency, the CO
2
circuit that operates between ambient and freezing temperatures
shouldhavetwostagecompressionwithanintercooler.Thefollowingfigureisasimpleschematicof
theparallelsystemsolution.
Medium
Temperature
Freezer

Figure26:SchematicdiagramofCO2parallelsystemsolutionwithtwostagecompressiononthelow
temperaturelevel
Boostersystemsolution
In this system solution the refrigerant is expanded in two different pressure/temperature levels,
medium and low. As can be seen in Figure 27, the low stage compressor (booster) rejects the
dischargegasintothesuctionlineofthehighstagecompressormixingwiththesuperheatedreturn
vapourfromthemediumtemperaturelevel.
13

Figure27:SchematicdiagramofCO2boostersystemsolution(TR2)
2.3 HeatRecoverySystemSolutions
Arefrigerationsystemwithoutcontroltorecoverheatwilloperateinfloatingcondensingwherethe
condensing temperature follows the ambient temperature to a minimum condensing level which is
usually 10C. This is a guideline adapted in the refrigeration industry mainly to ensure proper
function of the expansion valve and following the recommendations of the compressor
manufacturers. In this case, the heating needs in the supermarket are covered by district heating
(DH) or a separate heat pump system (SHP). Figure 28 is a schematic of system with floating
condensing(FC)thatrejectsheatdirectlytotheambient.IncaseofR404Asystemitismostcommon
thatthecondenserrejectsheattoacoolantloopinsteadofdirectlytotheambientduetothecharge
minimizationrequirements.
Heat rejection to ambient-
Floating condensing

Figure28:SchematicoftheheatrejectionsideofasystemwithfloatingcondensingarrangementNoheat
recoveryarrangement
Heat recovery system solutions in supermarkets are used mainly to heat the space air. Different
systemsolutionsforheatrecoveryarepresentedinthefollowingsubsections.
14

2.3.1 Fixedheadpressure(FHP)
Figure29showsthelayoutofFHPheatrecovery.Inthisheatrecoverysolutionthesystemoperates
infloatingcondensingandwhenheatingisrequiredthecondensingpressureiselevatedinorderto
provide the proper temperature for the heating system. As can be seen in the figure, the coolant
extracts heat from the condenser of the refrigeration system and rejects the heat to the HVAC
systembeforeenteringthedrycooler.

Figure29:Schematicdiagramofthefixedheadpressureheatrecoverysystem
2.3.2 Desuperheater(DSH)
Figure 210 is a simple schematic of a system running with heat recovery in the desuperheater. In
this system solution heat is rejected in a desuperheater which is installed before the air cooled
condenser. Depending on the temperature level that can be reached in the heating system supply
fluid, the system can provide heat to HVAC system or floor heating which requires lower operating
temperature. The condensing pressure in the system is controlled according to the heating needs;
the regulating valve, after the condenser in the schematics, controls the discharge pressure in the
systemaccordingtotherequiredcapacityfromthedesuperheater.

Figure210:Schematicdiagramoftheheatrecoveryatthedesuperheater
This heat recovery solution is viable in the systems operating with refrigerants that have high
dischargetemperatures.CO2andNH3systemshaveratherhighdischargetemperaturecomparedto
15

R404A (50C and 67C compared to 30C respectively, assuming isentropic compression between
5Cevaporationand25Ccondensing).
2.3.3 Heatpumpcascade(HPC)
Anotherconceptofheatrecoveryfromrefrigerationsystemistheuseofheatpumptoextractheat
from the condenser coolant at low temperature and transfer it to the HVAC system at high
temperature levels. This system enables the use of rejected heat at the same time allows the
refrigerationsystemtooperateatrelativelylowcondensingpressure.
HP
+
-

Figure211:Schematicdiagramofheatpumpcascadeheatrecoverysystem
2.3.4 Heatpumpcascadeforsubcooling(HPSC)
Similar arrangement to the cascade heat pump solution is to connect the heat pump after the
condenser in the refrigeration system so the refrigeration system operates at low condensing
pressure when the ambient temperature is low and heating is needed. The heat pump at the same
time recover the heat from the refrigeration system and provide further subcooling to the
refrigeration system and improve its efficiency. Figure 212 is a schematic of a refrigeration system
withheatpumpatsubcooling.

Figure212:Schematicdiagramofheatpumpatsubcoolingheatrecoverysystem
16

3 Fieldmeasurements

Refrigeration systems in two supermarkets with CO2 transcritical systems have been analysed for
heat recovery. The data from these supermarkets have been collected through the online interface
IWMAC (Iwmac, 2009). The electric power consumption of the compressor, pressure and
temperaturesatkeypointsarerecordedevery5minutes.Theimportantperformanceindicatorsare
thereby calculated. Microsoft Excel have been used for data analysis and NIST reference properties
have been used to calculate the properties of refrigerants through the REFPROP 7.0 (Eric W.
Lemmon,MarkO.McLinden,&MarciaL.Huber,2002).
Analysesofdatafromthefieldmeasurementshavebeenusedtogenerateassumptionsanddevelop
the different computer simulation models. Some of the parameters have been either taken directly
orderivedusingthefiguresintheliterature.
3.1 Calculationsofheatrecovery
The supermarket is installed with measurements of temperature and pressure on the refrigerant
circuits. Temperatures are also measured on the coolant loop. The main measurement points are
indicated in Figure 31. Power consumption of the compressors in the four units is measured
separately.Theestimationofheatrecoverycapacityisbasedontheparametersontherefrigeration
side.
The mass flow of the refrigerant is estimated from the compressor manufacturer data at the
measuredconditionsinthesupermarket.Theheattransferredacrosstheevaporator,thecondenser
and the intercooler is then calculated as the product of mass flow rate of refrigerant and the
enthalpydifferenceacrosstheheatexchangers.
Heat loss in the oil cooler is calculated as the difference between the measured electrical power of
the compressor and the calculated shaft power and the heat loss from the compressor body to the
ambient,whichisassumedas7%ofthemeasuredelectricalpowerinput.
Total heat rejected from the refrigeration system is the sum of the condensers, the intercoolers
andtheoilcoolerscapacitieswhenconnectedtoheatrejectionloop.
3.2 CO
2
transcriticalsystem1
The measurement is carried out on a supermarket located in the far north of Sweden. The
refrigeration system is a parallel CO2 transcritical and the heat recovery arrangement is by using a
heat pump in cascade to the refrigeration system. The system is a combination of the refrigeration
systeminFigure26andtheheatrecoverysysteminFigure211.Thesystemsolutionisreferredto
astranscriticalsystem1(TR1).
3.2.1 Systemdesignandoperation
Figure 31 is a schematic diagram of the system TR1. The refrigeration system is a parallel system
withtwocircuitsforlowtemperaturelevelandtwocircuitsformediumtemperaturelevel.TheLow
temperature units designated as FA1 and FA2 have two twostage compressors each. Medium
temperatureunitsKA1andKA2havefoursinglestagecompressorseach.Thecompressorsarefrom
Dorin;TCDH372BDforthelowtemperatureandTCS373Dforthemediumtemperature.
17

Oil cooler
Inter-Cooler
Oil cooler
+
-
Heat pump COP=3.6
Q_max =300kW
T_hp in=13
o
C
- Pressure
-Temperature
KA1/KA2
FA1/FA2
T_con,b,o =18
o
C
45
o
C
-10
o
C
-35
o
C
dTapp=5K
dTapp=5K
dTapp=5K
dTsc=2K
dTsc=2K
dTsc=2K
Qoilcooler=15%
Qoilcooler=15%
dTsh=10K
dTsh,ex=10K
dTsh,ex=15K
dTsh=10K

Figure31:Schematicdiagramofthetranscriticalsystem1(TR1)
All four circuits reject heat to the common coolant loop which is cooled by dry cooler. The
compressoroilcooleralsorejectheattothesamecoolantloop.Aheatexchangerisconnectedtothe
coolantloopbeforethedrycoolertorecoverheat.Thisheatexchangerisconnectedto300kWheat
pump, which is meant to deliver heat to the HVAC system of the supermarket. At the time of
investigationtheheatpumpisnotinoperation,soalltheheatisrejectedthroughthedrycooler.
It can be observed in the schematic that the coolant system at the condensers side rejects heat to
the heat pump system via an additional heat exchanger and not directly to the heat pump
evaporator.Thedecisionofconnectingtherefrigerationsystemtotheheatpumpwastakenatlater
stage of the project and it was technically easier to establish the connection via an additional heat
exchanger. It might be also related to the separate legal responsibilities of the refrigeration and
HVAC systems; so the systems are treated as two separate envelopes connected by a heat
exchanger.
3.2.2 Existingmodeofoperationandselectionofoperatingconditionsfor heat
recoverywithheatpump
Atthetimewhenthesystemhasbeenanalyzedtheheatrecoverysystemwasnotinoperationdue
totechnicalproblemswhichwerenotrelatedtothesolutionconcept.Therefore,theperformancein
the system has been analyzed in the refrigeration mode and then the system performance in heat
recoverymodewaspossibletosimulateandevaluateusingthesystemperformanceanddesigndata.
Figure32showstheplotoftotalcoolingcapacity,averagecondensingtemperature(T_condensing),
commonsupplytemperatureofcoolantbrine(T_com,b,o)andtotalheatrejectedinthesystem.
18

Figure32:Monthlyaverageofcoolingcapacity,compressorpower,andheatrejectedbasedonthe
measurementsoftranscriticalsystem1(TR1)
ThecommonbrinetemperatureoftheheatrejectionloopforthemonthsofJanuaryandFebruaryin
2008 was not recorded. The brine temperatures are monthly averages. In the existing mode of
operationthebrinetemperatureisabove18
o
ConlyinJulyandAugust.Thedesigninlettemperature
ofbrinetotheheatpumpis13C.Thisrequiresthattheminimumsupplytemperatureofbrinefrom
the refrigeration system to be 18
o
C; this is assuming 5K temperature difference across the heat
exchanger.
The selection criteria of the operating conditions in the heating season is that the system should
operate at conditions to ensure the minimum supply temperature to the heat pump, so the
refrigeration system would have to operate at discharge pressure corresponding to that of August
(58bar).ThispointofselectionishighlightinFigure32.
The selection criteria of operating conditions for individual units are also pointed out in Figure 33
and Figure 34. The top line is the curve of total heat rejected by the system. This includes heat
rejectedfromoilcoolerandtheintercoolerofthetwostageunitsatthelowtemperaturelevel.Oil
coolercapacitywasfoundtoberatherconstantovertheyearatabout8kWandintercoolercapacity
wasfoundtobeabout13kW.
0
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100
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)
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
20
25
T

(
C
)
Cooling capacity Compressor power T_ambient T_com,b,o T_condensing
19

Figure33:Existingmodeofoperationofmediumtemperatureunit(KA1)andselectionofoperatingcondition
forheatrecoveryinTR1
From Figure 33, the operating conditions for medium temperature unit to run the system in heat
recoverymodeisselectedaspointedoutbytheellipseinthefigure.Correspondingtocommonbrine
outlettemperatureof18
o
C,condensingpressureisselectedat58barsandthecorrespondingcooling
COPof3.2intheheatrecoverymode.

Figure34:Existingoperatingconditionsoflowtemperatureunit(FA1)andselectionofoperatingconditions
forheatrecoveryinTR1
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
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Q
(
k
W
)
,
T
(
C
)
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
C
O
P
Cooling capacity Total heat rejected T_cond T_com,b,o COP
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10
15
20
25
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35
40
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(
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W
)
,
T
(
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)
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
C
O
P
Cooling capacity Total heat rejected T_com,b,o T_cond COP
20

From the above figure, operating conditions for heat recovery mode is selected corresponding to
commonbrineoutlettemperatureof18
o
C.Thereforelowtemperatureunitsneedtobeoperatedat
condensing temperature of at least 20
o
C at COP of 1.7. These operating conditions have been
assumedtocalculatetheheatthatcanberecoveredifoperatedinheatrecoverymode.
3.2.3 Recoverableheatwithheatpumpsolution
From the above selections, the refrigeration system is set to operate at condensing temperature of
20
o
Contheheatrecoverymode.TheCOPofmediumandlowtemperatureunitsaresetto3.2and
1.7 respectively during the heat recovery mode. Using these values, compressor power, oil cooler
capacity,andthetotalheatrejectediscalculated.Totalheatrejectedisusedastheheatsourcefor
the heat pump. Using the design COP of the heat pump, which is obtained from the heat pump
manufacturing data (CIAT, 2010), total heat that is provided by the heat pump is calculated. This
potentialiscomparedwiththemaximumcapacityoftheheatpump,thusheatpotentialislimitedto
maximumcapacityoftheheatpump.Powerconsumptionoftheheatpumpisestimatedbydividing
thetotalheatsuppliedbytheheatpumpbyitsCOP.
Total heat recovery as calculated is presented in Figure 35. To compare the heating potential and
the maximum capacity of the heat pump, heat recovery was considered even for the warm months
of June, July and August. Presented in the plot from bottom to top of the curve are power
consumption of the compressors of the refrigeration system while operating without any heat
recovery(E_ref_refonlymode),thepowerconsumptionofthecompressorsofrefrigerationsystem
whenoperatingonheatrecoverymode(E_ref_HRmode),totalpowerconsumptioninheatrecovery
mode (E_tot_HR mode), Cooling capacity of the refrigeration system, COP of heating and heating
capacity of the heat pump. The total power on heat pump mode (E_tot_HR mode) is sum of the
powerconsumedbythecompressorsoftheheatpumpandtherefrigerationsystem.

Figure35:Estimatedheatrecoverypotentialwithheatpumpsystem.
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
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,
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(
k
W
)
0
1
2
3
4
5
C
O
P
E_ref_ref only mode E_ref_HR mode E_tot_HR mode
cooling capacity heat pump capacity COP heating
Maximum capacity of heat pump=301kW
21

TheflatcurveforheatpumpcapacityfromApriltoOctoberisduetoreachingthemaximumcapacity
oftheheatpump.TheupperlimitofCOPofheatingislimitedbyCOPoftheheatpump.
As it has been pointed out earlier, the results are an estimate combining the measurements with
system requirements and manufacturer data. Since the heat pump was not in operation it was not
possible to obtain the heating demand in the supermarket; therefore, the potential heat recovery
wasusedinsteadoftherealheatingdemand.However,theheatingCOPcanbeusedfromtheabove
figuresasagoodindicationofthesystemperformance.
3.3 CO2transcriticalsystem2
ThissupermarketislocatednearthecityofGoteborg,whichisatthewesterncoastofSweden.
3.3.1 Systemdesignandoperation

Oil cooler
Ground heat
source
+ +
Floor heating
-Pressure
-Temperature
Desuperheater Desuperheater
KAFA1/KAFA2
KA3

Figure36:Schematicdiagramoftranscriticalsystem2(TR2)
This is a CO
2
transcritical system with two booster units (two separate units similar to the booster
systeminsection2.2.3)forthelowandmediumtemperaturelevels(KAFA1&KAFA2)andaseparate
medium temperature circuit (KA3). Compressors in the medium temperature circuit, and high stage
ofboosterunits,areofTCS373DmodelfromDorinwithsweptvolumeof12.6m
3
/hat2900rpm.The
boostercompressorsareofSCS362DmodelfromDorinwithsweptvolumeof10.7m
3
/hat2900rpm.
Ontheheatrejectionside,allthreeunitsareconnectedwithadesuperheaterbeforetheaircooled
condenser/gascooler.Thedesuperheatersareconnectedtoacommonbrineloopwhichisusedto
transfer the recovered heat. The recovered heat is used for floor heating and HVAC system of the
building.Thecompressorsoilinthissystemiscooledbyaseparateaircooler.
Theheatrecoverysystemoperatessoastomaintainacertainsupplytemperatureofthebrinetothe
heatingsystem,inthefieldmeasurementtheaverageheatingsystemsupplytemperaturewasabout
22

35
o
C.

Theheatrecoverycapacityofindividualunitismaintainedbyopeningorclosingtheelectronic
valve connected to the refrigerant line after the gas cooler. This raises or decreases the discharge
pressuretherebycontrollingthedesuperheatercapacity.Thesupplytemperatureofthebrineisalso
controlled by controlling the flow rate of brine to the desuperheater. Supply of brine to each de
superheater is controlled with the variable speed pump. The refrigerant line is also externally sub
cooledfromtheboreholebeforethesupplytothecabinets.
To calculate the heat recovery capacity on the refrigerant side the measurements of temperature
andpressurebeforeandafterthedesuperheaterisnecessary.Whilemeasurementsofpressureand
temperature for key points on the refrigerant line were available from September 2008, the
measurementoftemperatureattheexitofdesuperheaterwasavailableonlyfromMarch2009.The
temperature measurement of brine in and out of the desuperheater was available from October
2008.Theaveragedifferencebetweenthetemperatureofhotgasoutofdesuperheaterandthatof
the temperature of brine at the inlet of the desuperheater for March is used to backcalculate the
hotgastemperatureforthepastmonths.Theaveragetemperaturedifferencebetweenhotgasand
the brine inlet for the heat exchanger of the medium temperature unit KA3 was 4K, but for low
temperatureunitKAFA1was1KandforKAFA2was0K.Sincetheapproachtemperaturedifferenceof
1 and 0 is considered too low, which could be attributed to measurement inaccuracy, both values
have been discarded and approach temperature of 4K was used for all the desuperheaters.
Thereforethetemperaturedifference of4Kisaddedtothecommonbrineinlettemperaturetoget
thetemperatureofhotgasexitingthedesuperheaterforthemissingmeasurements.Theprocedure
canalsobefollowedinFigure37.

Figure37:schematicdiagramofdesuperheatershowingtheassumedparameterintheheatrecovery
calculationinTR2.
3.3.2 Totalheatrecovery

23

Table 31 presents monthly average values of power consumption, cooling capacity, COP of
refrigeration,totalheatrejected,heatrecoveredandsubcoolingwithborehole.Theheatrecovered
istheheatrejectedinthedesuperheater.Thepercentageofheatrecoveryiscalculatedastheratio
of heat recovered in desuperheater to that of the total heat rejected by the refrigeration system.
Thepercentageofheatrecoveredinthedesuperheatervariesfrom24%to35%inrelationtothe
totalheatrejectedintherefrigerationsystem.
The subcooling with the borehole is expressed as the percentage of cooling capacity to indicate
improvementduetothesubcoolingwithborehole.Thetotalheatrejectedinthesystemisequalto
thesumofcoolingcapacityandcompressorpowerminusoilcoolercapacity,boreholecapacityand
heat loss from the compressor body. The heat loss from compressor body is assumed as 7% of the
totalelectriccompressorpower.
Theheatrecoverycapacityfromtherefrigerantsidehasbeencomparedtomeasurementsfromthe
HVACsideandthedifferencehasbeenfoundtobeabout4%,whichismarginalforasystemofsuch
size.

24

Table31:Monthlyaveragevaluesofheatrecoverywiththesupplytemperatureofbrinetotheheating
systemsof35
o
CinTR2

The relationship between cooling capacity, heat recovery and condensing temperature can be
observed in Figure 38. Since heat recovery is only in the desuperheater, in the plot heat recovery
capacityisthedesuperheaters(Q_desuperheater).
Description
Oct08
Nov
08
Dec08 Jan09 Feb09
Mar
09
Apr
09
Average outdoor
temperature(
o
C)
10 6 4 3 2 5 11
Compressorpower(kW) 57 59 57 54 55 56 55
Coolingcapacity(kW) 183 177 174 163 165 168 176
TotalCOP 3.34 3.10 3.04 3.00 3.00 3.02 3.27
Totalheatrejected(kW) 211 201 179 166 164 170 187
Q_desuperheater (heat
recovered)(kW)
50 55 56 55 57 56 46
Q_borehole (sub
cooler)(kW)
9 12 29 30 33 32 24
Q_oilcooler(kW) 11 11 12 11 12 11 10
% of Heat recovery =
(Q_desuperheater/total
heatrejected)
24% 27% 31% 33% 35% 33% 25%
Q_borehole as
percentage of cooling
capacity
5% 7% 17% 19% 20% 19% 13%
25

Figure38:Totalcoolingcapacity,heatrecoveredandboreholecapacityinTR2
Theoilcoolercapacity doesntchange muchovertime.Theevaporationtemperaturesarefoundto
beratherconstantovertime;forlowtemperatureunitat35
o
Candmediumtemperatureat10
o
C.It
is seen that the heat recovery capacity is increased during colder months of December to March
compared to warmer months of October, November and April. Therefore condensing temperature
duringthecoldermonthsisslightlyhigherby3
o
CandCOPofthesystemdropsslightly;3compared
to3.3duringthewarmermonths.
The capacity is increased by raising the condensing pressure, which is achieved by closing the
electronic valve in the refrigerant line after the condenser. The temperature of the brine is
maintained by regulating the flow rate of brine into the desuperheater. It is more convenient to
understand these controls on individual units over shorter period and has been discussed in the
followingsubsections.
3.3.3 Performanceanalysisofmediumtemperatureunit(KA3)
Figure 39 presents the monthly average of cooling capacity, COP, condensing temperature, heat
recoveredandtheboreholecapacity.
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Oct-08 Nov-08 Dec-08 J an-09 Feb-09 Mar-09 Apr-09
Month
Q
,

(
k
W
)
,

T
(
C
)
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
C
O
P
T_ambient Q_desuperheater Q_borehole T_cond COP
26

Figure39:Monthlyperformanceinaveragesofmediumtemperatureunit(KA3)inTR2
The heat recovery capacity increases, while the cooling capacity decreases. The increase in heat
recoverycapacityandincreaseincondensingtemperaturearedirectlyproportional.Thisreducesthe
COP of the refrigeration system. The borehole subcooling capacity is low during the period from
October to January, while condensing temperature has been increasing during these months. Sub
cooling from the ground source reduces the compressor power consumed and therefore increases
COP.TheincreaseinCOPduetosubcoolingcanbeobservedinthemonthsofFebruaryandMarch.
Heatrecoveryandcontrolofmediumtemperatureunitfor24hoursispresentedinFigure310.The
top curve is the percentage opening of the electronic valve in the refrigerant line after the
condenser.Themiddlecurveisthedischargepressure.Thebottomcurveistheheatrecoveredinthe
desuperheater. It is seen that heat recovery starts at about 7 AM and stops at around 10 PM. The
dischargepressureisincreasedafter7AMtomeettheheatingdemand.Thepressureisincreasedby
partially closing the electronic valve. The valve is almost 100% (fully open) during the night time
whenthereisnoheatingdemand.

0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Oct-08 Nov-08 Dec-08 J an-09 Feb-09 Mar-09 Apr-09
Month
Q
,
E
(
k
W
)
,
T
(
C
)
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
C
O
P
T_cond Cooling capacity Q_desuperheater T_ambient Q_borehole(subcooling) COP
27

Figure310:Operationofmediumtemperatureunitoveraperiodof24hoursinTR2
4.2.4 Performanceofboosterunit(KAFA1)
The monthly average of cooling capacity, COP and heat recovery capacity are presented in the
followingplot.

Figure311:Averagemonthlyperformanceof(boostersystem)(KAFA1)inTR2
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
00:00 02:25 04:30 06:55 08:40 10:20 12:10 13:55 16:00 17:50 20:35 23:00
Tiime (march 24,2009)
Q
(
k
W
)
,

P
(
b
a
r
)
,

C
a
p
a
c
i
t
y
(
%
)
Electronic valve opening 2 per. Mov. Avg. (Discharge Presure) 2 per. Mov. Avg. (Q_desuperheater)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Oct-08 Nov-08 Dec-08 J an-09 Feb-09 Mar-09 Apr-09
Month
Q
,
E
(
k
W
)
,
T
(
C
)
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
C
O
P
T_cond Q_desuperheater Q_borehole(subcooling) cooling capcacity COP
28

Ascanbeseenin the plot,itisnecessarytomaintaincondensingtemperatureofabout23
o
Cinthe
coldermonthstorecoverthesameorlessamountofheattothatofOctoberandApril.Thismaybe
due to the drop in cooling capacity in colder months. The decrease in cooling capacityisdueto the
decrease in cooling demand in the medium temperature unit. The cooling capacity of low
temperatureunitisfoundtoberatherconstant.
ThecontroloftheboostersystemoveradayperiodandheatrecoverycapacityispresentedinFigure
312.Itcanbeseenthatthedischargepressureiscontrolledwithinsmallerrangeofvariationthanin
the case of KA3. This could be accounted by the fact that the heat recovery capacity in the booster
systemishigherthanincaseofthemediumtemperaturelevelsystem.

Figure312:Operationofboosterunit(KAFA1)overaperiodof24hours.
3.4 Conclusions
Withthedrivetoreducenetenergyconsumption,heatrecoveryisgainingpopularityinsupermarket
refrigeration systems. In Sweden most of the new supermarkets are installed with heat recovery
systems. Field measurements of TR1 and TR2 did give insight on the performance of the systems in
heatrecoverymode.Theworkinthisprojectalsodemonstratedthecontrolofthesystem,especially
TR2,andprovidedbetterunderstandingofthesystembehaviour.
In case of TR1, actual field measurements on the heat recovery system would have provided more
information on the performance of the system, unfortunately, for technical reasons the heat pump
systemwasnotinoperation.
For TR1, if the refrigeration system was operated without heat recovery, condensing temperature
was as low as 13C, where as to operate in heat recovery mode with heat pump the minimum
condensing temperature has to be 20C. This puts burden on the refrigeration system by reducing
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
00:00 01:40 03:20 05:05 06:45 08:25 10:05 11:45 13:25 15:05 16:45 18:25 20:05 21:45 23:25
Time (March 24, 2009)
Q
(
k
W
)
,
P
(
b
a
r
)
,

C
a
p
a
c
i
t
y

(
%
)
Electronic valve opening 2 per. Mov. Avg. (Discharge pressure) 2 per. Mov. Avg. (Q_desuperheater)
29

theCOPofrefrigerationsystem.Butontheotherhand,largecapacityofheatisavailable.Thepower
consumption as calculated is for the maximum capacity; therefore, the high values of power
consumption by the heat pump may be misleading. In reality the heat pump should be running in
partloadthushavinglowerpowerconsumptionthanpresented.
From the field measurement of TR2, it was found that up to 30% of the total heat rejected can be
recovered at a temperature of 35C. The rest of heat is rejected to the ambient through the air
cooled condenser. It is however seen that the amount of heat recovered is less compared to TR1
where the condensing temperature has to be raised above 20C, which increases the pressure ratio
thus the COP of refrigeration drops. The TR2 has higher efficiency mainly because there is the
externalsubcoolingfromthegroundsource.
Oneoftheproblemsfacedinthisprojectwastogetthereadingatthepointofinterestinboththe
refrigeration side and on the heat recovery side. The comprehensive field measurement that
providesinformationontheavailableheatonrefrigerationsystemsideandontheheatingdemand
sideisnecessarytogivebetterindicationofsystemperformance.
In reality the systems solutions vary in some form or other. This makes it difficult to compare
different systems based on a certain performance criteria such as COP of refrigeration system, COP
of heating, power consumption heating and cooling capacity etc. Therefore computer simulation
modellingisimportanttodevelopfaircomparisonofdifferentsystems.


30

4 Computersimulationmodelling
Modelling is an important part of this study because of the difficulty to compare systems in field
measurements. Systems in real installations have different settings, operating conditions, capacities
and requirements. It is more challenging when the comparison is for the simultaneous heating and
cooling, which adds more variables to the systems under investigation. Also in the computer
simulationmodelsitwillbepossibletocomparesystemsthatdo notexistinrealinstallationsusing
inputvariablesfromexistingsystems.
The assumptions for the different systems have been kept as practically similar as possible;
therefore, the results of the comparisons should be treated as relative to the systems under
comparison. Models are written using EES software, its basic function is to provide the numerical
solution to a set of algebraic equations. It has many builtin mathematical and thermophysical
propertyfunctionsforrefrigerants(Klein,2006).
DetailsoftheassumptionsusedinthemodelscanbefoundinFrelchox(Frelchox,2009)andNidup
(Nidup,2009).Someofthekeyassumptionisthatthecoolingcapacityoftherefrigerationsystemat
the medium temperature level is constant below 10C ambient. Freezing capacity is assumed to be
constant which agrees with data from the field measurements, this may be attributed to the use of
coversonthefreezingcabinets.
Below10Cambient,heatingdemandstarts(Nidup,2009)andithasbeensimulatedforanaverage
size supermarket in Sweden using CyberMart (Arias, 2005) by Jaime Arias. The generated heating
demandvaluesbyCyberMarthavebeenplottedagainstambienttemperatureandtheplotinFigure
41:hasbeengenerated.

Figure41:HeatingdemandinaveragesizesupermarketinSwedenatdifferentambienttemperatures
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
40 30 20 10 0 10 20 30 40
H
e
a
t
i
n
g

d
e
m
a
n
d

(
k
W
)
T,amb(C)
Heatingdemandinaveragesizesupermarket
31

Ascanbeseenintheplot,heatingdemandstartswhentheambienttemperatureislowerthan10C
andincreasesforlowertemperatures.Thestartoftheheatingisaninputvariabletothecalculations
model but the capacities are dependent on the supermarket envelope, requirements and activities,
etc.
4.1 SystemperformanceinfloatingcondensingNoheatrecovery
Severalsystemshavebeenanalyzedbutthemainsystemsthatwillbepresentedinthischapterare
the parallel transcritical CO2 system (TR1), conventional R404A and the booster CO2 system with
lowpressurereceiver(TR3).SimpleschematicoftheR404AconventionalispresentedinFigure22.
Theboostersystem(TR3)issimilartothesystempresentedinsection2.2.3exceptfortheadditional
receiverafterthehighstageregulationvalve,schematicofthesystemTR3ispresentedinFigure42.

Figure42:SchematicdiagramofCO2boostersystemsolutionwithlowpressurereceiver(TR3)
IntheTR3systemsolutionthepressureinthereceiverismaintainedatlevelreasonablyhigherthan
for the medium temperature/pressure level. Vapour is extracted from the receiver and flashed into
heat exchanger which subcools the liquid on one side and evaporates liquid droplets on the other.
The main influence the receiver has is to improve the heat transfer in the evaporators due to the
lowervapourcontententeringtheevaporatorandtoincreasetheefficiencyofthelowtemperature
circuit. The influence of the low temperature circuit is highlighted in the process plot on the Ph
diagraminFigure43.
32

Figure43:PhdiagramoftherefrigerationprocessinthesystemTR3
TR1 system is similar to the solution presented in Figure 26 in section 2.2.3 with an addition of
mechanicalsubcoolingatthelowtemperatureunitbythemediumtemperatureunit,ascanbeseen
inthefollowingfigure.

Figure44:SchematicofTR1systemwithmechanicalsubcooling
Thesystemshavebeensimulatedfortheevaporationtemperatures,35Cand10Catthelowand
medium temperature levels respectively. Condensing is assumed to take place in air cooled
condenser/gas cooler; this is a conventional solution for CO2 but not for R404A systems. The
minimum condensing temperature of the systems is assumed to be 10C. Figure 45 is a plot of the
mediumandlowtemperatureCOPsofthethreedifferentsystemsinfloatingcondensingmode.
33

Figure45:MediumandlowtemperatureCOPofdifferentsystemsolutionsfordifferentambient
temperatures.
As can be observed in the plot, the CO2 systems, TR1 and TR3, have higher COP than the R404A
conventional at ambient temperatures lower than 20C; this is mainly due to the presence of the
brine loop in the R404A system and due to loss in COP for the CO2 systems when operating trans
critically.
TheR404AconventionalsystemhashigherlowtemperatureCOPthantheCO2systems,especiallyat
high ambient/heat rejection temperatures. The TR3 system has similar freezer COP to TR1, this is
mainlyduetotheinfluenceofthereceiverwhichismoreprominentathighdischargepressures.
4.2 Systemperformanceinfixedheadpressure(FHP)heatrecovery
Inthissolutionforheatrecoverythesystemswillhavetooperatewithacoolantloopconnectedto
the condenser and the HVAC system as sketched in Figure 29. When heating is needed in the
supermarket,ambienttemperatureislowerthan10C,thenthesystemwillhavetooperateathigh
dischargepressureinordertoprovidethecoolantwithatemperatureof45Ctotheheatingsystem;
accordingly,thesystemwillhavelowrefrigerationsystemCOPsintheheatrecoverymode.
TheCOPoftheTR1andR404AconventionalsystemintheFHPisplottedinthefollowingfigure.The
systemTR3willhavecomparableCOPstoTR1,ascanbeobservedinFigure45,thereforeitwillnot
beincludedinsomeofthefollowingcomparisonfigures.

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
-10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
C
O
P

(
-
)
Ambient temperature (C)
Med & Low COP- Air cooled condenser
TR1,med
TR3, med
R404A conv, med
R404A conv, Fr
TR1, Fr with SC
TR3, Fr
34

Figure46:MediumandlowtemperatureCOPofTR1andR404AconventionalsystemintheFHPheatrecovery
systemsolution.
Ascanbeseenintheplot,theCO2systemwillhavemuchlowerCOPcomparedtotheconventional
R404Asystem,especiallyforthelowtemperatureCOP,duetooperatingathighdischargepressure.
This indicates that the heating COP of CO2 in such system solution is quite low compared to R404A
system especially that the CO2 systems have steeper COP lines than the conventional system and
thereforemoresensitivetoincreaseindischargepressure.
4.3 Systemperformanceinheatpumpcascade(HPC)heatrecovery
When heat pump is connect in a cascade arrangement to the refrigeration system the system will
have to provide the coolant to heat pump at lower temperature than in the FHP arrangement.
ApplyingtheconditionsforthesystemTR1thathasbeenanalyzedinthefieldmeasurements,Figure
31, the refrigeration system is required to provide a coolant temperature to heat pump system of
13C,consequently,itwillhavetooperateatacondensingtemperatureofabout20C.
TheCOPoftheTR1andR404AconventionalsystemsintheHPCheatrecoverymodeisplottedinthe
followingfigure.
0
0,5
1
1,5
2
2,5
3
3,5
-10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
C
O
P

(
-
)
T,amb [C]
TR1 Med R404A conv. Med TR1 Fr R404A conv. Fr
35

Figure47:MediumandlowtemperatureCOPofTR1andR404AconventionalsystemintheHPCheatrecovery
systemsolution.
As can be observed in the plot, TR1 system has higher efficiency at the medium temperature level
thantheR404Awhenthesystemisoperatingintheheatrecoverymode.However,thefreezerCOP
fortheTR1systemislowerforallthetemperaturerange.SincetheCOPcurvesintheplotintersect,
aclearerindicationofthesystemperformanceistocalculatetheannualenergyconsumptionofeach
systemsolutionwhichwillbepresentedinlatersectionofthischapter.
TheCOPoftheheatpumpthatisconnectedincascadetotherefrigerationsystemisobtainedfrom
themanufacturerdata(CIAT,2010)andplottedinFigure48.
0
0,5
1
1,5
2
2,5
3
3,5
4
-10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
C
O
P

(
-
)
T, amb [C]
Heat pump cascade-45C
TR1 Med
R404A conv. Med
TR1 Fr
R404A conv. Fr
36

Figure48:COP1oftheheatpumpintheTR1system(CIAT,2010)
For coolant outlet temperature from the heat pump evaporator of 7C and to provide the heating
systemwith45CsupplytheheatpumpwillhaveaCOPofabout3,7.
The cooling capacities profile at the medium temperature level is 100kW below 10C and reaches
200kWat35C.Thecoolingcapacityatthelowtemperaturelevelisconstantandequal35kW.Using
the COPs of the refrigeration system and the heat pump the annual energy consumption with the
ambient temperature of Stockholm results in comparable energy consumption for both systems,
slightlylessfortheR404Asystem.
4.4 Systemperformanceinheatpumpcascadeforsubcooling(HPSC)heat
recovery
Figure 49 is a schematic of a booster system with heat pump connected after the condenser/gas
cooler. In this solution the refrigeration system operates in floating condensing and for ambient
temperature lower than 5C the system operates at the minimum condensing pressure. The heat
pumpextractsthenecessaryheatfromtherefrigerationsystemandprovidessubcoolingto7C.The
desuperheater capacity is also recovered without controlling the condensing pressure, return
temperaturefromtheheatingsystemisassumedtobe30C.
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
10 5 0 5 10 15
C
O
P
1
(

)
Evaporatorwateroutlettemp(C)
COP1ofaheatpumpinHPCsystem
Condwateroutlettemp=35C
Condwateroutlettemp=45C
37

Figure49:Schematicdiagramofboostersystemwithheatpumpatsubcoolingforheatrecovery
ComparedtotheHPCrefrigeration/heatrecoveryarrangement,describedinsection4.3,intheHPSC
solution the refrigeration system operates at lower condensing pressure due to the direct heat
rejectiontotheambientandtheheatpumpunitwilloperateatlowerevaporationtemperature.
Theenergeticperformanceofthissystemsolutioninrelation to theothersystemsinthisstudywill
bepresentedinthefollowingsections.
4.5 Systemperformanceindesuperheater(DSH)heatrecovery
Figure 410 is a simple schematic of a booster system running with heat recovery in the de
superheater. In this system solution heat is rejected only in the desuperheater which is installed
beforetheaircooledcondenser.Thedischargepressureofthesystemiscontrolledaccordingtothe
requiredheatinthesupermarket.
38

Figure410:Schematicdiagramofaboostersystemwithheatrecoveryinthedesuperheater
Figure 411 demonstrates how the system is being controlled in the desuperheater heat recovery
mode. As can be seen in the figure, when the discharge pressure increases the available heat for
recovery in the desuperheater increases. In this case the return temperature from the heating
systemisassumedtobe20Cand5KapproachtemperaturedifferenceisassumedbetweentheCO2
inthedesuperheaterandtheheatingsystemworkingfluid.

Figure411:PhdiagramoftheheatrecoveryprocessintheDSHheatrecovery
Figure 412 is a plot of the system COP at different ambient temperatures when the system is
controlled for heat recovery in the desuperheater. As can be seen in the plot, when the ambient
temperature drops, right side of the pot, the COP increases due to lower condensing pressure.
Heatingdemandstartsat10Cambientanddischargepressureisraisedtorecovertherequiredheat,
consequently,theCOPoftherefrigerationsystemdrops.
39

Figure412:MediumtemperaturelevelCOPandheatingdemandfordifferentambienttemperatures.Heating
systemreturntemperatureis20C.
The range of flat line of COP is due to reaching the condensing temperature and the possibility to
rejectalltherefrigerationsystemheatinthedesuperheater.Theassumed20Creturntemperature
from the heating system is rather low, a more realistic value would be 30C and both cases have
beeninvestigatedinthefurthercalculations.
The following plot shows the energy consumption of the refrigeration system at different ambient
temperatures for heating system return temperatures of 20 and 30C. A flat line in the energy
consumption curve is also observed for the 20C return temperature case, however, in the case of
the 30C return the line is not flat due to the shape of the isotherm over the critical point, the
isothermfor35CcanbeobservedinFigure411.
40

Figure413:Energyconsumptionoftherefrigerationsystematdifferentambienttemperatures.Forheating
systemreturntemperatureof20Cand30C.
InordertoevaluatethesystemperformanceinheatrecoverymodetheheatingCOPofthesystemis
definedastheratiobetweentheheatingdemand,plottedinFigure41,totheenergyconsumedto
provide the heat, which is the difference between the energy consumption of the refrigeration
systeminheatrecoverymodeandfloatingcondensingmode.Thiscanbeobservedinthedifference
between the processes in the following plot. The assumed cooling capacity of the system and the
calculated COPs suggest that the refrigeration system is able to provide all the needed heat in the
supermarket.

Figure414:Phdiagramoftwoprocesses;heatrecoveryandfloatingcondensingmodes.
41

The heating COP of the booster system with heat recovery in the desuperheater is plotted in the
following figure for the cases of 20 and 30C return temperature from the heating system. The
straightlineintheplotistheheatingCOPofaconventionalheatpumpsystem,about3,2according
toresearchworkdoneatIUCSEK(Rogstam,2010).

Figure415:HeatingCOPofboostersystemwithheatrecoveryfromdesuperheater.Forheatingsystemreturn
temperatureof20Cand30C.
Ascanbeobservedintheplotthesystemwith30Creturntemperaturefromtheheatingsystemhas
lowerCOPthanaconventionalheatpumpsystem. Therefrigerationsysteminthesecalculationsis
not controlled for subcooling in the gas cooler when the system is running in the heat recovery
mode.Whentheambienttemperatureislowtheheatingdemandishighandthedischargepressure
is raised to recover heat, in this case the gas cooler can be operated to further cool the refrigerant
beforepassingtheexpansionvalve.
Runningthegascoolertocooltherefrigerantdownintheheatrecoverymodehastwomaineffects
on the system performance, it increased the system COP which is a positive influence but it also
reducestheavailableheattorecoveryinthedesuperheateratcertaindischargetemperature;thisis
duetothesmallermassflowraterunninginthesystemwithsubcooling.Thesubcoolinginfluence
is plotted on the Ph diagram in the following plot. The influence of varying mass flow rate of
refrigerantonheattransferinheatexchangersisnottakenintoconsideration,constanttemperature
differenceshasbeenusedintheheatexchangers.
42

Figure416:Phdiagramofthesubcoolinginfluenceonsystemperformance
Theinfluenceonsystemperformanceperdegreeofsubcoolingisplottedinthefollowingfigure.

Figure417:InfluenceofsubcoolingonsystemCOPanddesuperheatercapacity
Accordingly, in order to recover certain heat from the system with subcooling, it has to operate at
higherpressurethanwithoutsubcooling.Forthecaseofrecovering55kWfromthedesuperheater,
the system with subcooling (5C condenser/gas cooler exit temperature) operates at higher
dischargepressurethanwithoutsubcoolingbutstillwithhigherCOPduetothepositiveinfluenceof
subcooling.
43

Figure418:Phdiagramofthesubcoolinginfluenceonsystemperformance,operatingthesystemstoprovide
55kWheatfromthedesuperheater
The positive influence on system performance is more prominent at certain higher heating
demand/higherdischargepressurerange.Thisisduetotheoperationbeingneartheflatorsemiflat
isothermwherethesystemcanrejectmostofitsheatinthedesuperheater.Forthecasepresented
inthefollowingplottheCOPofthesystemwithsubcoolingis2,8comparedto2,1forthecasewhen
gascoolerisnotinoperation.

Figure419:Phdiagramofthesubcoolinginfluenceonsystemperformance,operatingthesystemstoprovide
115kWheatfromthedesuperheater
The influence of heat demand on the system COP can be seen in the following plot, in this plot the
systemiswithoutsubcoolinginthegascoolerintheheatrecoverymode.Thesystemiscontrolled
toprovidetheheatingdemand.
44

Figure420:COPofthemediumtemperatureunitintheboostersystemasafunctionofheatdemands.The
caseisforthesystemwithoutsubcoolinginthegascooler.
ThefurthersubcoolinginthegascoolerwillhavethepositiveinfluenceonthesystemCOPuptoa
point where the heating demand will be high and the system will have to operate at elevated
dischargepressurelevelsbecausepartofthecapacityisrejectedinthegascooler.Therefore,thegas
coolerhastobebypassedinordertohavealltheheatrecoveredinthedesuperheater.Figure421
isaplotofthesystemsmediumtemperatureCOPforthecaseswithandwithoutsubcoolinginthe
gascooler.

Figure421:COPofthemediumtemperatureunitintheboostersystemasafunctionofheatdemands.The
casesareforsystemswithandwithoutsubcoolinginthegascooler.
45

Therefore,thesystemhastobecontrolledbyrunningthegascooleruptoacertainheatingdemand
levelandthenthegascoolerisbypassedotherwisethesystemwillsufferinaCOPlossasobserved
intheabovefigure.ApropercontrolofthesystemwillresultintheCOPpresentedinthefollowing
figure.

Figure422:COPofthemediumtemperatureunitintheboostersystemasafunctionofheatdemands.The
systemiscontrolledforsubcoolinginthegascoolerandthenbypassedathighheatingdemand.
TheenergyconsumptionoftherefrigerationsystemwhencontrolledtoproducetheCOPsinFigure
422ispresentedinthefollowingfigure.
46

Figure423:Energyconsumptionoftherefrigerationsystematdifferentambienttemperatures.Forheating
systemreturntemperatureof20Cand30Candfor30Cwithsubcoolinginthegascooler.
The heating COP of the systems isthencalculated andis presented in thefollowingplot. One more
systemhasbeenaddedtothecomparison,itisthesystemwithheatpumpatsubcooling(HPSC).

Figure424:HeatingCOPofboostersystemwithheatrecoveryfromdesuperheater.Forheatingsystemreturn
temperatureof20Cand30C.
47

ItcanbeobservedintheplotthatthesystemwithheatpumpatsubcoolinghashigherheatingCOP
than using a separate conventional heat pump system. However, using the subcooling in the gas
coolerhashighheatingCOPforambienttemperatureshigherthanabout15C(heatingdemandof
about150kW).
The curves trends in the plot suggest that the system with heat recovery at the desuperheater will
haverelativelylowenergyconsumptionwhentheheatingdemandisrathermoderate.Subcoolingin
gas cooler is essential to improve the system performance in heat recovery mode, controlling the
capacity/operationofthegascoolercouldbeagoodwaytocontrolhowmuchheatcanberejected
inthesystem.
4.6 Annualenergyconsumptioncalculations
Afterdevelopingthesystemperformanceinfloatingcondensingandheatrecoverymodetheannual
energy consumptionforanaveragesizesupermarketinSwedenin the climateofStockholmareais
calculatedandpresentedinthefollowingfigure.

Figure425:Annualenergyconsumptionofdifferentsystemsolutionforrefrigerationandheatrecoveryfora
SwedishaveragesizesupermarketinStockholmclimateconditions.
Additionalsystemsthatneedtobepointedoutaretheoneswithseparatesystemsforrefrigeration
andheating.Therefrigerationsysteminthiscaseisoperatinginfloatingcondensingandtheheating
isprovidedeitherbyaseparateheatpumpsystemordistrictheating.Thedistrictheatingsystemhas
beenassumedtobeequivalenttoaheatpumpwithaCOPof1,8basedontheratioofthepricesof
heatingandelectricity(STEM,2009).
ThesystemthatisdenotedasTR1alternativeispresentedinthefollowingschematic.Itisaparallel
system that has mechanical subcooling, desuperheater heat recovery and heat pump at the sub
48

cooling of the medium temperature unit. The condensing pressure is allowed to float with the
ambientreachingtheminimumvalueof10C.

Figure426:SchematicdiagramofTR1alternativesystem
AscanbeobservedinFigure425,thesystemswithheatrecoveryfromdesuperheatandwithheat
pump connected to the subcooling has comparable energy consumption to having a separate heat
pump system to provide the necessary heat. The system TR1 Alternative has the lowest energy
consumption among all the compared systems. It can be observed that almost all alternatives have
lower energy consumption (energy cost) than providing the necessary heat via the district heating
system.
4.7 Conclusions
Modelling is an important part of this study because of the difficulty to compare systems in field
measurements. Systems in real installations have different settings, operating conditions, capacities
and requirements. It is more challenging when the comparison is for the simultaneous heating and
cooling, which adds more variables to the systems under investigation. Also in the computer
simulationmodelsitispossibletocomparesystemsthatdonotexistinrealinstallationsusinginput
variablesfromexistingsystems.
Calculation models for several refrigeration and heat recovery solutions have been built. The COPs
of the different systems have been compared in floating condensing and heat recovery modes and
theannualenergyconsumptionforthesystemshavebeencalculatedfortheclimateofStockholm.
Atechniqueusedtorecoverheatinconventionalsystemsistoelevatethecondensingpressuretoan
acceptableheatrejectiontemperaturetorecoverheatfromtherefrigerationsystem.Whenapplying
the same technique on CO2 transcritical system solutions the COP in heat recovery mode is much
lower than conventional systems because of the loss of COP in case of CO2 when operating at high
dischargepressures.
Whenconnectingaheatpumptotherefrigerationsysteminacascadearrangementtheefficiencyof
the CO2 medium temperature units are slightly higher than conventional system in the same
arrangement; however, the CO2 low temperature units have lower COP than conventional. The
annual energy consumption of both systems is comparable, slightly lower for the conventional
system.
49

When connecting the heat pump at the subcooling side of the CO2 refrigeration system and
recovering heat from the desuperheater, the resulting heating COP of the system is higher than
usingaseparateheatpumpsystem,especiallyatlowheatingdemand.
RecoveringheatfromthedesuperheateroftherefrigerationsystemresultsinhighheatingCOPfor
moderate heating demands compared to conventional heat pump. Proper control of the system
must be applied by running the gas cooler for further cooling of CO2 after the desuperheater then
thegascoolermustbebypassedwhentheheatingdemandreacheshighvalues.
Thesystemswiththelowestenergyconsumptioninprovidingtherequiredcoolingandheatinginan
averagesizesupermarketarethesystemswithrecoveringheatfromthedesuperheater,heatpump
at the subcooling side, and what has been defined as TR1 alternative. The systems have similar or
lowerenergyconsumptionthanarefrigerationsystemrunninginfloatingcondensingwithaseparate
heatpumptoprovidetherequiredheatingdemand.
The system with recovering heat from the desuperheater may have the lowest installation cost
becauseoftheabsenceoftheseparateheatpumpsystem.Theboostersystemhasacostadvantage
over the parallel solution due to the need to have a single control system package/unit for the
boostersystemwhiletwoareneededfortheparallelsystemsolution.
50

5 ExperimentalmeasurementsofCO
2
heatpumptestrig

5.1 SystemLayout
Division of applied thermodynamics at Energy department KTH has a prototype of CO
2
heat pump,
this is vapour compression cycle based water to water heat pump with nominal heating capacity of
30kW.Theschematicdiagramofthesystemisshowninthefollowingplot,

Figure51:SchematicsoftheheatpumpatKTH
Thefourmaincomponentsarethecompressor,gascooler,expansiondeviceandevaporator.
All the heat exchangers (evaporator, gas cooler, internal heat exchanger etc) utilized in this
prototype are of plate heat exchangers. As illustrated in the above diagram HEx 1, HEx 2 and HEx 3
are the plate type gas coolers and are placed in series configuration. Heat exchanger 1 and 3 are
dedicated for tap water heating (high temperature application), while heat exchanger 2 is reserved
for the space/floor heating application. With the manipulation of valves any of the heat exchanger
canbebypassed,sothesystemcanbeoperatedinvariousmodes.Internalheatexchangerislocated
betweenthegascoolerandtheexpansionvalve.Liquidreceiverisplacedaftertheevaporatoronthe
low pressureside. Test rig is equipped with semihermetic compressor from Dorin having 5.4 m
3
/hr
sweptvolumeat1450rpm.CoriolistypeflowmeterisusedforCO
2
massflowmeasurementwhileon
the water side Brunata energy meters are adopted. Temperature measurement was done with Pt
1000elementfromDanfoss.
5.2 Workingprinciple
Afterthecompressor,CO
2
passesthroughtheoilseparatorwherethelubricantoilisremovedfrom
CO
2
andthenitflowsthroughthegascoolers,inthegascoolerportionheatistransferredfromCO
2

to the city water by virtue of the temperature difference. The CO


2
then flows through the internal
heat exchanger, mass flow meter and expansion valve in its way to the evaporator. Hot water from
the hot water tank is used as heating load for the evaporator. After the evaporator CO
2
passes
throughthereceivertothecompressorandinthiswaycompletesthecycle.
51

5.3 Methodology
Heatpumpwasoperatedtoheatupthewater(toasettemperature)forspace/floorheatingandtap
water heating application, system was operated at fixed evaporation temperature and gas cooler
sidepressurewasvariedbychangingthecompressorspeed(from10501800RPM)andadjustment
ofexpansionvalve.Readingfortemperatures,flowrate,pressuresweretakenwhenthesystemget
stable.TheseparameterswerethenusedinEngineeringEquationSolver(EES)toevaluatetheoverall
systemperformance(COP,Heatingcapacity,massflow,etc).
DirectandIndirectmassflowmeasurement
The CO
2
mass flow was checked with CFlow coriolis mass flow meter (KCM 600) with accuracy of
1%. Density of the CO
2
changes a lot depending upon the gas cooler side pressure and CO
2

temperatureatgascooleroutlet.Figure52showsthevariatonofCO
2
sdensitywiththevariationof
gas cooler outlet temperature at different gas cooler outlet pressures. The red rectangle shows the
regionwheretheflowwasmeasured(thetemperatureofCO
2
atgascooleroutlet,wherethecoriolis
massflowmeterwaslocated).SharpvariationsinthermophysicalpropertiesofCO
2
(especiallyclose
to critical point) suggest to double check the accuracy of the flow meter with indirect methods.
Therefore, the measured CO
2
mass flow was counter was checked with other means in the current
studyaswell,namely:

Figure52VariationindensityofCO
2
withgascoolerpressureandgascooleroutlettemperature
Heat exchanger energy balance method
CO
2
mass flow rate from the compressor manufacturers data
52

HEx 1 HEx 2 HEx 3
IHEx
Evaporator
Expansion
valve
R
e
c
i
e
v
e
r
C
o
m
p
r
e
s
s
o
r
HW
Water Heater
City water
CO2
HW
1
2 4 6 5 3
a
b
c
d
Tout
Tin
7 8

Figure53Schematicsofheatpumpwithlabels
Massflowfrommeterreading
CO
2
mass flow can directly be read from the CType coriolis mass flow meter, mounted before the
expansionvalve.
Massflowfromenergybalance
Energy balance on the gas cooler side is utilized to calculate the CO
2
mass flow indirectly and the
followingexpressionswereadopted:
2
Heat lost by CO Heat gained by water =
m
C0
2
cncg buIuncc
(b
C0
2
) = m Cp
wutc
(I
wutc
)
m
C0
2
cncg buIuncc
=
m Cp
wutc
(I
wutc
)
(b
C0
2
)

Massflowfromcompressordata
Compressormanufacturerprovideduswiththeinformationofsweptvolumeofthecompressorand
withtheinformationoftemperatureandpressuresofCO
2
atthecompressorsuction,massflowcan
beindirectlycalculatedasfollows;
m
C0
2
compcsso
= p
oIumctc
I

s
p
n

53

2



volumetric
s
in
volumetric efficiency of compressor
V swept volume flow rate of the compressor
density of co at compressor inlet

=
=
=

The volumetric efficiency of the employed compressor can be obtained by manufacture data fitting
asshowninthefollowingdiagram.

Figure54Compressordatafittingforvolumetricefficiency
2
0.0081* 0.1593* 1.1243
volumetric
PR PR = +
where PR pressure ratio across the compressor =
Furthermore based on the different mass flows that were found according to above mentioned
methods,differentCOPscanbecalculatedaccordinglybyusingfollowingexpressions.
2 2
2 2
Re




* *( )
*( )
*( )
water water water
Direct ading
CO Energy Balance CO
Energy Balance
CO Compressor Data CO
Compressor Data
m Cp T
COP
W
m h
COP
W
m h
COP
W

y=0.0081PR
2
0.1593PR+1.1243
R=0.9776
0
0,2
0,4
0,6
0,8
1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6

v
o
l
u
m
e
t
r
i
c
Pressureratio
54

5.4 Testingresults
5.4.1 Operatingconditions
Heat pump was operated to heat up the city water from 13
o
C to 60
o
C at an evaporation
temperatureof0
o
C,theCO
2
temperatureatthegascooleroutletwasmaintainedatabout33
o
C.
With CO
2
as working medium the system operating characteristics (COP etc) varies a lot with the
variationofCO
2
temperatureatgascooleroutlet,keepingthisinmindsystemwasoperatedinsucha
waytohavethistemperatureonaveragetobe33
o
C.Waterinletandoutlettemperaturetothegas
coolerwerefixed(citywaterisusedasheatsink),CO
2
outlettemperaturewasmaintainedwiththe
manipulationofwaterflowrateinthegascooler.
5.4.2 Overallsystemperformance
Figure 55 shows the variation of CO
2
mass flow rate with the variation of the gas cooler pressure,
the results shows a good agreement between the direct (from corilois meter) and indirect (from
energybalanceandcompressordata)reading.

Figure55VariationofCO
2
massflowratepluswaterandCO
2
temperatureswithgascoolerpressure
Figure 56 shows the variation of flow rates (for water and CO
2
) with the gas cooler side pressure.
With the increase in the gas cooler side pressure (with compressor speed regulation) CO
2

temperature also increases, so temperature lift and flow rate increases on the CO
2
side. With fixed
waterinletandoutlettemperaturesacrossthegascooler,waterflowhastobeincreasedtomakeup
thebalance.
55

Figure56VariationofwaterandCO
2
flowrateswithgascoolersidepressure
Approachtemperature(differenceinCO
2
andwatertemperaturesatgascoolerinlet)isanimportant
parameter, the high temperature glide in the gas cooler helps in achieving low approach value
(Neks,2000).WiththeprototypeatKTHtheapproachtemperaturewasintherangefrom1525
o
C
(thereasonforthishighapproachtemperatureisthatthe3
rd
heatexchangerisbitundersized)and
itsvariationisshowninFigure57withgascoolersidepressure.

Figure57Variationofapproachtemperaturewithgascoolerpressure
Figure58showshowtheheatingcapacityandthecompressorpowervarywiththevariationofgas
coolersidepressureatconstantevaporationpressure.Asitisclearfromtheresultsheatingcapacity
initiallyincreaseswiththeincreaseingascoolersidepressureandeventuallyreachestoamaximum
value, once this maximum point is crossed, the further increase in pressure no longer adds in the
heatingcapacity.
56

Figure58Variationofheatingcapacityandcompressionwork
Theeffectivenessofthegascooleriscalculatedfromtheratiobetweentheactualenthalpydropof
the CO
2
and the maximum possible enthalpy drop. Evaporation temperature was maintained to be
about 0
o
Cand gas cooler pressure was varied with the variation in the compressorspeed and with
thesettingofexpansionvalve.Figure59showsthevariationofthegascoolereffectivenesswiththe
variationingascoolerpressure.Thefollowingexpressionwasusedforthecalculation,
0os coolcr cccti:cncss =
h
1
-h
6
h
1-
h
6
wctcr in
(Leighthon,2010)
Whereh
6
waterin
istheenthalpyofCO
2
withwaterinlettemperature.

Figure59Gascoolereffectivenessv/sgascoolersidepressure
Figure 510 shows the trend for the COP with the variation of gas cooler side pressure at constant
evaporation temperautre (0C). COP incresases initially with the gas cooler sider pressure and
reachesamaximumvalueandthendecreasesagain.
57

Figure510VariationofCOPwiththegascoolersidepressure
5.4.3 Resultsforthecompressorpart
Flowschemeandenergylossesassociatedwithcompressionprocess
CO
2
enters the compressor from the suction side and first flows through the motor portion (cools
downthemotor,refrigerantabsorbsheat),afterflowingthroughthemotorCO
2
passesthroughthe
compressorandgetcompressed.Afterthecompressor,oilseparatorremovesthelubricantoilfrom
CO
2
,thisoiliscooleddownbytheoilcooler,whichiscooledbywater,andusedagain.

Figure511FlowSchemeinsemihermeticcompressorfortranscriticaloperation(FornasieriE,2010).
During its flow through the motor CO
2
gains some heat (by cooling the motor) and this energy is
recoveredbyCO
2
.Duringcompressionlubricantoilgetsheatedupsoitiscooledandfedbacktothe
compressor,associatedthermallossesforthisprocessaretermedasoilcoolerlossesinthecurrent
study. Furthermore, there is also a heat loss from compressor case to the surroundings as well and
thesetwoaretheoveralllossesassociatedwiththecompressionprocess.
Theenergybalanceacrossthecompressorcanbeexpressedinthefollowingequationaccordingly.
Electricityconsumedbycompressor=Energyusedintherealcompressionwork+Oilcoolerlosses+
Heat losses from the compressor body + Energy gained by CO
2
in the motor (Snchez, Torrella,
Cabello,&Llopis,2009)

58

Isentropicefficiencyofcompressor
Theisentropicefficiencyofthecompressoriscalculatedwithfollowingexpression,
p
s
=
b
C0
2
Out is
- b
C0
2
In mid
b
C0
2
Out
- b
C0
2
In mid

Where,
b
C0
2
Out is
=IsentropicenthalpyofCO
2
attheexitofcompressor.
b
C0
2
In mid
=EnthalpyofCO
2
atmidposition(atcompressorsuctionaftermotorportion).
b
C0
2
Out

=ActualenthalpyofCO
2
attheexitofcompressor.

Figure 512 shows the variation of volumetric and isentropic efficiencies against the gas cooler
pressure. The results show that volumetric efficiency decreases with the increase in gas cooler
pressure while isentropic efficiency shows almost no variation with gas cooler side pressure. High
isentropicefficiencymaybeduetolowpressureratioandcompactsizeofcompressor,whichlimits
theheattransferbetweenthedeliveredandtheinductedfluid(LucaCecchinato,2005).

Figure512Volumetricandisentropicefficiencieswithgascoolerpressure

Figure513Compressorpowerconsumption
Figure513showsthevariationinthecompressorworkwiththegascoolersidepressureswhile.The
pressure of the CO
2
on the gas cooler side was regulated by varying the compressor speed and
adjustmentinexpansionvalve,thehighestvaluewasobtainedatmaximumspeedof1800RPM.
59

Heatlossesintheoilcooler
Energylostbyoil=Energygainedbycoolingwater

Figure514Oilcoolerwaterflowrateandtemperaturesv/sgascoolersidepressure
Water flow rate in the oil cooler along with the tmeperatures are shown in Figure 514, while the
energy losses in the oil cooler are shown in Figure 515. Energy losses are represneted in terms of
energyvalue(inkW)andasapercentageoftotalelectricpowerconsumptionofthecompressor.

Figure515Oilcoolerlosseswithgascoolersidepressures
EnergygainbyCO
2
inthemotorportion
TemperaturesensorsmeasurestemperatureofCO
2
atmotorinletandafterthemotorportion,while
mass flow meter provides readings for the flow rate of CO
2
. Energy gained by the refrigerant in the
motorportion(coolingthemotorwinding)wascalculatedbyusingthefollowingexpression,

Where, =EnthalpyofCO
2
afterthemotorportion.
=EnthalpyofCO
2
atentrytothemotor.
60

Figure516EnergygainedbyCO
2
inthemotorportionv/sgascoolersidepressure
Thecomputersimulationmodelandtheheatexchangerperformanceevaluation
Inparallelwiththeexperimentalwork,acomputermodelofthetestrigisalsobuiltinEESfor
AnalyzingtheCO
2
heatpumpsperformance
Evaluatingtheheatexchangerperformance
Discussingsystemdesignissues
Evaluatingcompressorperformances
Theoperatingwindowofthecomputermodelisshowninfigure518.

Figure517operatingwindowofEEScomputermodel
61

As shown in the figure above, the testing results from the experimental work on the test rig are
adopted as inputs to the computer model. The heat exchanger performance, heat balance and the
thermodynamic performance of the heat pumps are then calculated. Furthermore the temperature
profileofthewaterheatingprocessinthegascoolersidewillbeplottedaccordinglyinaThdiagram
foreverytestingconditionasshowninfigure519.Heatexchanger1and3arefortapwaterheating
application and have the same water flow rate while 2
nd
heat exchanger has a different water flow
rateandisreservedforspaceheatingapplication.

Figure518:Thdiagramofonetestingcondition
The thermophysical properties of supercritical carbon dioxide heat pump and its
heatexchangersUAvaluecalculation.
The thermophysical properties of supercritical carbon dioxide will have sharp variations near its
critical point, which is also the working region of heat pumps heat recovering process for water
heating. Therefore, the thermophysical properties of supercritical carbon dioxide needs to be
carefullyexaminedwhenanalyzingtheperformanceofheatexchangersintheheatrecoveryprocess
ofaCO
2
heatpump,duetoitssignificantinfluenceonthebehaviourofboththegascoolerandthe
internalheatexchanger(IHX)intheheattransferprocess.
The specific heat (Cp), which is the main factor that influences the supercritical carbon dioxides
temperature profileinheatpumpsgascoolersandIHX,isplottedasafunctionofthetemperature
fordifferentpressuresinthefollowingfigure.
62

Figure519:Specificheatofsupercriticalcarbondioxidevs.temperatureatdifferentpressures
It can be noticed from the figure that the specific heat of the supercritical carbon dioxide changes
dramaticallywithapeakvalue,whenthepressuregetsclosetothecriticalpressure.Furthermore,it
mayalsobenoticedthatthetemperaturecorrespondingtothepeakspecificheatvalueisincreasing
withincreasingpressure.
The specific heat of the water is almost constant, compared to the specific heat changing of
supercriticalcarbondioxidenearitscriticalpoint.Duetothevariationinspecificheats,theshapeof
the temperature profiles in the heat exchangers will be greatly influenced. It may also cause
pinching
1
intheheatexchanger.Therefore,thiseffectshouldbecarefullyexaminedwhenevaluating
the heat exchangersofcarbondioxide heatpumps. Furthermore,thetraditionalLMTDmethodand
NTUmethodmaynotapplicableforheatexchangerdimensioning.
Inthecomputermodel,thegascoolerisdividedintoseveralsmallsectionsandthethermodynamic
propertyofCO
2
foreverysectionisassumedtobeconstant.TheLMTDmethodisthereforeapplied
for every small section of heat exchangers, we know the water and CO
2
inlet temperatures and to
start with we have to assume temperature change for water (across the small section) which then
helpouttofindtemperatureforCO
2
attheoutletandsimilarprocedureisrepeatedforallthesmall
sections.FinaltemperatureofCO
2
atthegascooleroutletwilltellwhethertheinitialassumptionwas
correct,ifitisnotthecasethenwholeprocedureneedstoberepeatedwithsomenewassumption
forthetemperaturechange.WiththeinformationofallthetemperaturestheLMTDmethodisused
to calculate the UA value for each small section, the total UA value of the whole heat exchanger is
thentheintegratedresultoftheresultsofallthesmallsections.
Figure521showsthechangeofcalculatedUAvalueagainstthenumberofdividedsectionsofheat
exchangers for one testing condition. It can be noticed from the figure that calculated UA value is

1
Pinching is the minimum temperature difference inside a heat exchanger , which limited the heat exchanger
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Temperature (C)
C
P
(
k
J
/
k
g

K
)
P=7.4 Mpa
P=7.5 Mpa
P=8.0 Mpa
P=9.0 Mpa
P=10.0 Mpa
P=11.0 Mpa
P=12.0 Mpa
63

changingwiththeincreaseofnumberofcalculatedheatexchangersectionuntilthedivisionofheat
exchanger calculated section reaches a certain number (i.e. when the thermophysical values of
supercriticalCO
2
canbeassumedtobeconstant).

Figure520:calculatedheatexchangerUAvaluesvs.numberofdividedheatexchangersections
5.4.4 UAvaluewiththeflowrate
In order to have a look in the heat exchange process in the gas cooler and see how the two fluids
(waterandCO
2
)arebehaving,theUAvalueisplottedagainstthefluidflowrate.LiketheWilsonplot
method,fluidflowononeside(CO
2
orwater)waskeptconstant,whiletheotherflowwasvariedto
seetheeffectonUAvalue.However,aswedonotknowtheareaoftheheatexchangerssoitisnot
possibletocalculatetheheattransfercoefficients.
We know the temperatures on both ends of the heat exchanger so we can calculate the LMTD, we
knowtheheatingcapacityoftheheatexchangerwhichhelpsinthecalculationoftheUAvalue.The
UAvalueiscalculatedbyfollowingexpression,
m
Q
UA

=
1 2
1
2
ln
m
T T
T
T

k
W
/
K

64

Figure521:UAv/swatervolumeflowrate
Figure521Error!Referencesourcenotfound.showsthevariationintheUAvaluewithvariationin
thewaterflowrate,thescatterisdrawnforvariouscompressorspeedsandwaterflowwasvariedin
eachindividualsetwhileCO
2
flowratewasheldasconstant.

Figure522:UAvaluev/sCO
2
massflowrate
Figure522showsthevariationofUAvaluewiththevariationoftheCO
2
massflowrate,thescatter
showsagoodlineartrendbetweenthetwoplottedparameters.
5.5 Comparisonwithotherstudies
Different researchers evaluated CO
2
heat pump performance in various modes and with different
arrangement of the components; however the main objectives were to optimize the system
performance for tap water heating and space heating application. Most of the previous studies
utilizedcounterflowtypetubeintubetypeheatexchangersorshellandtubetypeheatexchangers
for gas cooler and evaporator. Different researchers used different operating conditions, different
system layouts and operating conditions makes the comparison task really difficult. Following case
studiesareusedfortheperformancecomparisonofKTHheatpump.
65

5.5.1 Casestudy1
Title: A carbon dioxide domestic hot water heat pump with double wall plate heat exchanger gas
cooler(FornasieriE,2010).
Objectiveofthestudy
Heat pump system was operated to test the heat exchanger performance and overall system
performance.
Componentdetails
Semihermetic piston type compressor with swept volume of 4.3 m
3
/hr.
Double wall plate heat exchanger used as gas cooler.
Plate type heat exchanger was used as evaporator.
Liquid receiver placed after the evaporator.
Electronic expansion valve controlled with stepper motor was used as expansion device.
Results
Forheatingupwaterfrom14.7
o
Cto60
o
Catevaporationtemperatureof1.8
o
Candwithgascooler
outlet temperature (for CO2) of 22.4
o
C the COP was quoted as 3.8. The heating capacity of the
systemwas20.6kW.
Figure5showsthevariationofUAvaluewith thevariationofCO
2
massflowwhile water flowwas
keptconstant.

Figure524:UAvaluev/sCO2massflowrate(FornasieriE,2010).
5.5.2 CaseStudy2
ResidentialCO2heatpumpsystemforcombinedspaceheatingandhotwaterheating(Stene,2005).
Goal:performanceinvestigationforspaceheatingandtapwaterheatingapplication.
Systemcapacity6.5kW.

66

Figure523Schematicdiagramoftheprototype
Componentsdetail
Compressor Hermetic two-stage rolling piston
Lubricantpolyalkylene glycol (PAG)
Evaporator Counter-flow single-pass tube-in-tube HXstainless steel
Tripartite gas cooler Counter-flow single-pass tube-in-tube HXstainless steel
Suction gas heat exchanger Counter-flow single-pass tube-in-tube HXstainless steel

Results
The system was tested for only space heating, only district water heating and for the combined
application of space heating and hot water heating cases. In the combined mode the evaporation
temperature was 5 oC, tap water was heated from 6.5 to 60
o
C and with various percentage of
districtheatingcapacityratios.Theresultswithvarioussettingsforhotwatertemperaturesandwith
different space heating temperature ranges are summarized in the figure below. The measured
overall isentropic efficiency for the prototype rolling piston compressor ranged from about 0.52 to
0.55at6000rpm.

Figure524VariationofCOPwithhotwatertemperatureandDHWcapacityratio

67

5.5.3 CaseStudy3
CO
2
Heatpumpwaterheater:Characteristicssystemdesignandexperimentalresults(Neks,2000).
Goal:PerformanceevaluationofCO
2
heatpumpfortapwaterheatingapplication.
Nominalheatcapacityof50kWandstudywasdoneduring1998.

Figure525Detailoftheprototypeheatpump
Componentdetails
Old sabroe compressor from 1927 (one cylinder open type reciprocating).
Co-axial tube in tube counter flow heat exchanger was used as gas cooler.
Heat exchanger and tubing was made from stainless steel.
Evaporator was a plate in shell type heat exchanger
Expansion valve was regulated pneumatically by a computer according the required
conditions.

Results

Figure526VariationofCOPwiththevariationofevaporationtemperature
Tapwaterwasheatedfrom8to60
o
Candatevaporationtemperatureof0
o
CandCOPvalueof4.3
wasachieved.COPvarieswiththeevaporationtemperatureandatevaporationtemperatureof20
o
Citwas3.
68

5.6 Conclusions
In the current study, a CO
2
heat pump with three gas coolers is built at the laboratory of Applied
Thermodynamics and Refrigeration Division at KTH. All the heat exchangers of the test rig are plate
heatexchangers.Thetestrighasanominalheatingcapacityof30kWanditisbuiltto
o Studytheheatrecoveryperformanceoftheheatpumpgascoolers
o Studythecompressorperformances
o Provide experimental data and correlations to improve the computer simulation
model
AcoriolistypemassflowmeterisusedtomeasuretheCO
2
massflow,duetothedramaticchangeof
CO
2
thermophysicalpropertiesinthetestregion,theaccuracyofdirectmassflowmeteringisdouble
checkedwithtwoindirectmethods,namelyheatexchangerheatbalanceandcompressordata.
In general, the indirect method shows a good agreement with direct method in mass flow reading.
Thegascoolereffectivenessisincreasingwithincreasinggascoolerpressure.
Atcertainevaporationtemperature,bothheatingcapacityandcompressorworkareincreasingwith
increasegascoolerpressure,therefore,theheatpumpCOPshowsanoptimumatcertaingascooler
pressureforacertainoperatingcondition.
At 0C evaporation temperature for instance, the test rig achieves an optimum heating COP of 4
(waterisheatedfrom13Cto60C).
Thecompressortestshows:
Bothvolumetricefficiencyandisentropicefficiencyofthetestedcompressor(Dorin)arearound80%,
while volumetric efficiency is decreasing with increase of gas cooler pressure and isentropic
efficiencyisapproximatelyconstant.
Oil cooler losses are increasing with increasing gas cooler pressure (compressor work), while the
percentageofoilcoolerlossesintotalcompressorpowerconsumptionisdecreasing.
In general the oil cooler losses account for about 4% of the total compressor energy consumption.
The heat gain of the refrigerant due to the compressor motor accounts for about 15% of the total
compressorenergyconsumption.
Based on the experimental data, a computer simulation model is built to calculate and further
analyzethe testrigperformance.ThesimulationresultsoftheheatexchangerUAvalueshowsthat
due to the thermophysical property change of supercritical carbon dioxide in contrast with relative
constant value of water, the traditional LMTD or eNTU method are not suitable for calculating the
heat exchanger UA value. Instead, the heat exchanger should be divided into several small sections
tointegrateitsoverallUAvalue.
Thesimulationresultsalsoshowtheimportanceofgettingrightdimensionrelationamongthethree
gascoolerstoensureagoodheatpumpperformance,thisshouldbefurtherinvestigated.
69

6 Overallconclusions
Three work packages have been fulfilled in this project: field measurements analysis, computer
simulationmodellingandexperimentalevaluation.Twosupermarketinstallationshavebeenstudied
in the field measurements work package, several combinations of refrigeration and heat recovery
arrangementshavebeentestedinthecomputersimulationmodelling,andasimplifiedsystemwith
keycomponentsandcompleteinstrumentationhavebeenbuiltandtestedinthelaboratory.
The field measurements demonstrated the performance of the system and gave better
understanding of the systems behaviour and its control. It also provided key input parameters for
the computer simulation modelling. The difficulty in estimating the heating demand in the real
installations and the difficulty in comparing real installations stressed the need to use computer
simulationmodellingtoevaluateandcomparethedifferentsystemsolutions.
The experimental evaluation tested key components and control of the CO
2
system in heat pump
mode, overall system evaluation has been also performed. The methods used to estimate the mass
flowrateinthefieldmeasurementshavebeenverified,thecompressoriskeycomponentswherean
extensive analysis have been performed. Good agreement between the actual mass flow
measurements in the test rig and the estimation from the compressor manufacturer data has been
observed.
Inthecomputersimulationmodelling,thesystemswiththelowestenergyconsumptioninproviding
the required cooling and heating in an average size supermarket are the systems with recovering
heatfromthedesuperheater,heatpumpatthesubcoolingside,andwhathasbeendefinedasTR1
alternative (parallel CO
2
system that has mechanical subcooling, desuperheater heat recovery and
heat pump at the subcooling of the medium temperature unit). The systems have similar or lower
energyconsumptionthanarefrigerationsystemrunninginfloatingcondensingwithaseparateheat
pump(withanaverageCOP)toprovidetherequiredheatingdemand.
TheCO
2
transcriticalsystemwithheatrecoveryfromthedesuperheatershowedgoodcoolingCOP
and high heating COP at moderate heating demands in an average size supermarket in Sweden. It
mayhavelowerinstallationcostthanthesystems withcomparableenergyconsumption duetothe
absence of the heat pump in the system and the need only for a single control package/unit in the
system.


70

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