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# Sam Hardy Fall/Winter 2013

Sam Hardy Fall/Winter 2013 Lesson #1 Objective: Use the properties of similarity transformations to establish the AA criterion for two triangles to be similar. Requirements Satisfied: (Hands on)

Restatement of Objective:
Use the properties of similarity transformations to establish the AA criterion for two triangles to be similar.

Standards:
Follows the following standards: 1) CCSS.Math.Content.HSG-SRT.A.3 Use the properties of similarity transformations to establish the AA criterion for two triangles to be similar. 2) CCSS.Math.Content.HSG-SRT.B.5 Use congruence and similarity criteria for triangles to solve problems and to prove relationships in geometric figures.

References:
1) Larson, Ron, Laurie Boswell, Timothy D. Kanold, and Lee Stiff. Geometry. Evanston, IL: McDougal LIttell, 2007. Print. 2) Leff, Lawrence S. Barron's E-Z Geometry. Hauppauge, NY: Barron's Educational Series, 2009. Print. 3) "Mathematics High School: Geometry Similarity, Right Triangles, & Trigonometry."Common Core State Standards Initiative. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Oct. 2013. 4) "Geometry." Khan Academy. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Oct. 2013. <https://www.khanacademy.org/math/geometry/similarity>. 5) "Similar." Similar. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Oct. 2013. <http://www.mathsisfun.com/geometry/similar.html>.

Prerequisites:
1) Understand triangle relationships, such as SSS, SAS, etc. 2) Know the different transformations of images. 3) Know what Similar Polygons are. 4) Know what Scale Factoring is.

Definitions:
Postulate 22: If two angles of one triangle are congruent to two angles of another triangle, then the two triangles are similar.

Resources:
1) Paper 2) Pencil 3) Graph Paper (if needed) 4) Calculator (if needed) 5) Manipulative triangles

Introduction:
Students have been working with congruent and similar triangles, using the definitions of similar polygons, which is: two polygons are similar polygons if corresponding angles are congruent and corresponding side lengths are proportional, and the definition of scale factor, which is: for any given polygon, the ratios will be equivalent, then this is not a similar polygon. and if these ratios arent

Body:
Lets start with a warm up to go over what was learned last time:

1) a. Write down: b. Substitute the values in: c. Simplify: d. (Ask students) Are these Similar Triangles? (Answer: Yes)

2) a. Write down: b. Substitute values in: c. Simplify: d. (Ask students) Are these Similar Triangles? (Answer: Yes)

3) a. Write down: b. Substitute values in: c. Simplify: d. (Ask students) Are these Similar Triangles? (Answer: No) Now lets start crossing what weve learned with some things from todays lesson:

4) a. Write down: b. Substitute values in: c. Separate to solve: d. Cross Multiply: e. Solve: and and and

## 5) (Students Solve, guided practice) a. What do we write down first? ( ) ) and

b. What do we do next? (Substitute values in) What will this give us? ( c. How will we solve this? (Separate to solve) How should I separate it? ( ) d. What do I do next? (Cross Multiply) And this will give me? ( ) e. What are the answers for x and y? (Solve: and ) and

(To students) Now that weve reestablished what similar polygons and scale factor are, lets start with todays lesson. Open your books to Chapter 6 Section 4. Today well be establishing AA criterion for similar triangles. First, we'll be learning about Postulate 22. Can anyone tell me what Postulate 22 is? (If no answer forthcoming, ask Dominic) (Postulate 22: If two angles of one triangle are congruent to two angles of another triangle, then the two triangles are similar.) Lets get out our Manipulatives and draw the shapes that I make. Use the small triangle and the big triangle. (This will allow them to see on their own how the similar shapes work. It should help establish that it doesnt matter what the triangles size is, only angles and side proportionality matter.)

## 1) a. Triangles have same measurements, so they are similar.

2) a. ( Ask students) Are these triangles similar? How do you know? (Triangles have same measurements, so they are similar.)

3) a. With one known angle equal in both triangles, are they similar? b. Solve for missing side c. Angle C = 60, Angle D = 40 d. In this case, yes the triangles are similar e. (Change 60 to 50 to show that one angle doesnt mean that triangles are similar.)

4) a. (Ask students) Are these triangles similar? b. Not enough information given to assume they are.

5) a. (Ask students) Are these triangles similar? How do you know? b. (Change 20 to 30 and 70 to 60) How about now? c. (Change 30 to 45 and 60 to 50) How about now?

## If time allows, do the following question:

7) a. (Ask students) Are these triangles similar? (No, but go with flow on this question. Let them work out why they cant assume these triangles are similar.)

Closure:
As weve seen, we now know how to prove triangle similarity using AA criterion. Homework will include 4-28 even, 32, and 34 on page 384.

Writing Prompt:
Can you assume that corresponding sides and corresponding angles of any two similar triangles are congruent? Explain.

Sam Hardy Fall/Winter 2013 Lesson #2 Objective: Prove Theorems about triangles. Theorems include: a line parallel to one side of a triangle divides the other two proportionally, and conversely. Requirements Satisfied: (Technology)

Restatement of Objective:
Use the properties of similarity transformations to establish the AA criterion for two triangles to be similar.

Standards:
Follows the following standards:
1) 2)

CCSS.Math.Content.HSG-SRT.B.4 Prove theorems about triangles. CCSS.Math.Content.HSG-SRT.B.5 Use congruence and similarity criteria for triangles to solve problems and to prove relationships in geometric figures.

References:
1) Larson, Ron, Laurie Boswell, Timothy D. Kanold, and Lee Stiff. Geometry. Evanston, IL: McDougal LIttell, 2007. Print. 2) Leff, Lawrence S. Barron's E-Z Geometry. Hauppauge, NY: Barron's Educational Series, 2009. Print. 3) "Mathematics High School: Geometry Similarity, Right Triangles, & Trigonometry."Common Core State Standards Initiative. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Oct. 2013.

## 4) "Transversals." Transversals. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Oct. 2013.

<http://www.mathsisfun.com/geometry/transversal.html>. 5) "Transversals." Transversals. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Oct. 2013. <http://www.mathsisfun.com/geometry/transversal.html>.

Prerequisites:
1) Understand similar polygons 2) Understand scale factor 3) Understand Postulate 22

Definitions:
Ray: Consists of the endpoint A and all points on the line AB that lie on the same side of A as B. Theorem 6.4: If a line parallel to one side of a triangle intersects the other two sides, then it divides the two sides proportionally. Theorem 6.5: If a line divides two sides of a triangle proportionally, then it is parallel to the third side. Theorem 6.6: If three parallel lines intersect two transversals, then they divide the transversals proportionally. Theorem 6.7: If a ray bisects an angle of a triangle, then it divides the opposite side into segments whose lengths are proportional to the lengths of the other two sides. Transversal: a line that intersects two or more coplanar lines at different points.

Resources:
1) Paper 2) Pencil 3) Graph Paper (if needed) 4) Calculator (if needed) 5) Geogebra

Introduction:

1) a. ( Ask students) Are these triangles similar? How do you know? (Triangles have same measurements, so they are similar.)

2) a. With one known angle equal in both triangles, are they similar? b. Solve for missing side c. Angle C = 60, Angle D = 40 d. In this case, yes the triangles are similar e. (Change 60 to 50 to show that one angle doesnt mean that triangles are similar.)

## 3) a. (Ask students) Are these triangles similar?

b. Not enough information given to assume they are. Students have been learning about triangle similarity, and its time to take that a step further. Now students shall be working with more proportion based on Triangle Porportionality Theorems. First off, we need to learn Theorem 6.4 and 6.5 which can be found on page 397 in chapter 6 Section 6. Theorem 6.4 is: if a line parallel to one side of a triangle intersects the other two sides, then it divides the two sides proportionally. Theorem 6.5 is: If a line divides two sides of a triangle proportionally, then it is parallel to the third side. This drawing sums them up:

## Theorem 6.4: If Theorem 6.5: If

, then , then

. .

Body:
Lets start by finding the length of a segment. Have students get on geogebra and draw the shapes and lines. Have them put the same numbers in and enter formulas to solve for the last side. Given , , , and , find the length of .

Start by writing our Proportionality Theorem: 1. 2. Substitute our numbers in: a. 3. Cross Multiply: a. b. 4. Answer is: a.

## Another example: Given , , , and , is ?

1. 2. We can cross multiply or simplify. (See what the students notice first): a. b. . Yes, . Yes, . .

(Ask students) Based on these two theorems, can we safely assume the opposite is true? Can we assume that if lines are not parallel then the proportion isnt true? Can we assume that if the proportion isnt true, then the lines arent parallel? Yes, we may assume so. If the lines arent parallel, then there is no proportion.

Given

, and

## 1. 2. 3. Is ? No. Why? Because .

Now its time to look at the next theorems. Theorem 6.6 is: if three parallel lines intersect two transversals, then they divide the transversals proportionally. Theorem 6.7 is: if a ray bisects an angle of a triangle, then it divides the opposite side into segments whose lengths are proportional to the lengths of the other two sides. They can be represented by the following images consecutively:

## Some more examples:

Given: Angle E, Angle G, and Angle F are all congruent. yards. Find the distance .

yards,

yards, and

1. Because Corresponding Angles are congruent, we know that lines , parallel. Use Theorem 6.6 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Next example (If time allows):

, and

are

## Given: Angle ABD 1. Because Then 2. 3. 4. 5.

Angle DBC. Use information given to solve for the length of is an angle bisector of angel QPS, you can apply Theorem 6.7. Let .

. .

6. 7. 8. Check for understanding. If students still dont understand, or if time allows, provide a few more examples. Stick with the parts students had the most trouble understanding. Make up some numbers to go with a graph. Change up the graphs a bit to show direction doesnt matter).

Closure:
Now that we have an idea of how to work the problems, lets clarify, what was Theorem 6.4? What was Theorem 6.5? What is the relation between those two theorems? What is Theorem 6.6? What is Theorem 6.7? Homework will be: Page 400 3-16, and 22

Writing Prompt:
Compare the Midsegment Theorem (see page 295) and the Triangle Proportionality Theorem. How are they related?

Sam Hardy Fall/Winter 2013 Lesson #3 Objective: Use proportions to identify Similar Polygons Requirements Satisfied: None

Restatement of Objective:
Use proportions to identify Similar Polygons.

Standards:
Follows the following standards: 1) CCSS.Math.Content.HSG-SRT.A.2 Given two figures, use the definition of similarity in terms of similarity transformations to decide if they are similar; explain using similarity transformations the meaning of similarity for triangles as the equality of all corresponding pairs of angles and the proportionality of all corresponding pairs of sides.

References:
6) Larson, Ron, Laurie Boswell, Timothy D. Kanold, and Lee Stiff. Geometry. Evanston, IL: McDougal LIttell, 2007. Print. 7) Leff, Lawrence S. Barron's E-Z Geometry. Hauppauge, NY: Barron's Educational Series, 2009. Print. 8) "Mathematics High School: Geometry Similarity, Right Triangles, & Trigonometry."Common Core State Standards Initiative. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Oct. 2013. 9) "Geometry." Khan Academy. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Oct. 2013. <https://www.khanacademy.org/math/geometry/similarity>. 10) "Similar." Similar. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Oct. 2013. <http://www.mathsisfun.com/geometry/similar.html>.

Prerequisites:
4) Understand triangle relationships, such as SSS, SAS, etc. 5) Know the different transformations of images.

Definitions:
Similar Polygons: Two polygons are similar polygons if corresponding angles are congruent and corresponding side lengths are proportional. Scale Factor: If two polygons are similar, then the ratio of lengths of two corresponding sides is called the scale factor.

Resources:
6) Paper 7) Pencil 8) Graph Paper (if needed) 9) Calculator (if needed)

Introduction:
Warm up practice: Complete the following practice problems (Write them on the board. Give students 5 minutes after youve finished writing them check their answers to make sure they understood): 1) If , then a. Answer: 2) If , then a. Answer: 3) If , then a. Answer: 4) If , then a. Answer: Students have been working with congruent triangles and proportionality, now it is time to work with similar triangles. The first thing that we must acknowledge is that triangles, as well as all polygons, can be proportional to each other. This leads into Similar Polygons which can be defined as: Two polygons are similar polygons if corresponding angles are congruent and corresponding side lengths are proportional. The key to finding this proportion is using ratios, and for any given polygon, the ratios will be . If these ratios arent equivalent, then

## this is not a similar polygon. This is known as the scale factor.

Body:
1) Well answer the following questions: a. What are the pairs of congruent angles? b. Are the ratios of corresponding side lengths equal? c. Write the ratios of the corresponding side lengths in a statement of proportionality.

## Answers: a. b. c. Because the ratios in part b are equal,

2) Finding the scale factor: Determine whether the polygons are similar. If they are, write a similarity statement and find the scale factor of GHIJ to KLMN. *NOTE TO SELF: REMEMBER TO DRAW .

Step 1: Identify pairs of congruent angles. (See if students can do it) a. b. Are corresponding angles congruent? Corresponding angles are congruent. Step 2: Show that the corresponding side lengths are proportional. a. b. The ratios are equal, so the corresponding side lengths are proportional. Since , the scale factor of GHIJ to KLMN is .

3) Using Similar Polygons (Make sure to check triangle sizes before adding numbers)

In the diagram,

## . Find the value of x.

(Ask students) What proportion can we set up from this equation? a. or (There are other combinations too)

In the diagram,

## . Find the altitude of

(Ask students) What should we do first? a. Find the scale factor b. Because the ratio of the lengths of the altitudes in similar triangles is equal to the scale factor, we can write the following proportion: a. b. (Ask students) Can we substitute any values in? a. c. What should we do next? (Cross Multiply) a. d. Now what do we do? (Simplify) a. The altitude of is 15.

(If time, do the following problem) 5) (Introduce the problem, then have the students work on their own to solve it. Give them 5 to 10 minutes, based on their work ethic.) A town is building a new swimming pool. An Olympic pool is rectangular with a length of 50 meters and the width 25 meters. The new pool will be similar in shape, but only 40 meters long. a. Find the scale factor of the new pool to an Olympic pool. b. Find the perimeter of an Olympic pool and the new pool.

## Answers: a. Scale factor is . b. a. b. The perimeter is 120 meters

Conclusion:
As weve seen, we now know how to solve both similar triangles based on scale and angle. Scale can be expanded to work with any polygon, just adding another equality to the equation. Homework will include 4-26 even on page 376.

Writing Prompt:
If two polygons are congruent, must they be similar? If two polygons are similar, must they be congruent? Explain.