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# Unit 2: Check List

Waves Nature of Waves: Explain what is a wave Understand what is a progressive wave Define the terms: amplitude displacement wavelength time period frequency phase difference wavefront and rays path difference

Learn and derive the wave equation linking wave speed, frequency and wavelength Understand what are transverse waves and longitudinal waves Understand the different types of wave propagation: circular, plane continuous, trains and pulse waves

Waves Wave Behaviour: Understand and define the following wave properties: reflection refraction define refractive index understand what is the normal clearly understand the calculations involving refraction of light understand the difference between absolute refractive index and relative refractive index define total internal reflection learn the conditions for total internal reflection explain how optical fibres work

diffraction learn when diffraction is maximum understand when diffraction is required describe the diffraction of light through a narrow slit define fringe and fringe width describe diffraction with electrons

polarisation (applicable only for transverse waves) understand that only transverse waves can be polarised understand that when light is reflected off from a surface it is partially polarised experiment to detect polarisation angle (how materials rotate the plane of polarisation) understand the application of polarisation e.g., for stress analysis, radio and TV signals, etc

## Unit 2: Check List

Waves Wave Behaviour (concluded): interference define superposition understand and explain the principle of superposition of waves link interference with superposition understand that interference could be constructive or destructive define and explain phase difference and path difference understand that constructive or destructive interference depends on the path difference learn the equations for path difference for constructive or destructive interference define coherence understand that the condition for interference is coherence of two or more sources of waves understand what is a diffraction grating understand interference of light waves through diffraction grating understand the effect of more slits on interference patterns understand the effect of monochromatic light on a diffraction grating learn the equation for interference and draw conclusions from understand the effect of shining white light through a diffraction grating define a stationary wave understand the condition for a stationary wave state the difference between stationary waves and progressive waves define and understand the terms nodes and antinodes learn the experiment demonstrating standing waves with microwaves and sound waves explain the terms harmonic and overtones in musical instruments such as guitars and air columns remember where nodes and antinodes form in guitar strings and air columns and

Waves Wave Applications: Understand ultrasound imaging Understand how ultrasound waves are reflected and transmitted at interfaces Understand how reflection of ultrasound is used in ultrasound scans Understand the term resolution Understand how shorter wavelengths and shorter pulses produce clearer images Understand why ultrasound is transmitted in pulses Understand what is the Doppler effect Explain how the speed of moving objects can be measured using the Doppler effect Learn the properties of the electromagnetic spectrum Learn the variation in properties of the components in the EM Spectrum Learn the effects of different radiations on the body

## Unit 2: Check List

DC Electricity Charge and Current: Define charge Understand the types of charge that exists Describe the nature of charged objects Learn the unit for charge Define an electric current Learn the equation of an electric current Learn the unit for electric current Explain the direction of conventional current flow and direction of electron flow Explain what are charge carriers conducting an electric current [ definition of charge carrier and relevant examples] Define drift velocity of charge carriers [ explanation of what causes the charge carriers to drift] Explain why drift velocity is an average velocity and stays the same in a conductor Explain how the current depends on the drift velocity using the transport equation Explain how a light bulb comes on instantly when the switch is turned even when the drift velocity of electrons is only a fraction of a millimetre per second Understand that different materials have different numbers of charge carriers and explain how they conduct using the transport equation DC Electricity Potential difference, electromotive force and power: Define potential difference with formula and units Define electromotive force with formula and units Define voltage Define electrical energy and power in terms of current and voltage with formula and units

DC Electricity Current-potential difference relationships [I/V Characteristics]: Explain how rheostat and potentiometer works Explain how current and voltage can be regulated using a rheostat or potentiometer Remember the circuit diagrams on making a rheostat or a potentiometer using a variable resistor and how they can be used to investigate I-V characteristics of conductors Show the I-V characteristics for : metallic conductor tungsten filament semiconductor diode

## Unit 2: Check List

DC Electricity Resistance and resistivity: Define resistance Define Ohms law Understand that for an Ohmic conductor the resistor is constant Define resistivity Explain how resistivity and resistance are connected by the equation Show the R-V characteristics for : metallic conductor tungsten filament semiconductor diode

Explain the effect of temperature on the resistivity of a metal using the transport equation Explain the effect of temperature on the resistivity of a tungsten filament using the transport equation Explain the effect of temperature on the resistivity of a semiconductor using the transport equation

DC Electricity Electric Circuits: Explain Kirchhoffs First law and how it relates to the law of conservation of charge Explain Kirchhoffs Second law and how it relates to the law of conservation of energy Explain internal resistance Derive the equation connecting emf., terminal p.d., resistance, internal resistance and current using the law of conservation of energy in a circuit Draw the graph of terminal voltage against current Explain why a battery runs out of charge Explain why a voltmeter is placed parallel in a circuit Explain why an ammeter is placed in series in a circuit Derive the equation of total resistance in a series circuit Derive the equation of total resistance in a parallel circuit Explain how a potential divider works Derive the equation for getting Vout from a potential divider circuit Explain what is a NTC thermistors and an LDR (light dependant resistor) Explain the applications of potential divider using thermistors and LDRs.

## Unit 2: Check List

Nature of Light Nature of Light: Understand that radiation flux is the intensity of light [amount of energy landing on a unit area in a unit time] Learn the formula for radiation flux and its unit Understand that light behaves like a wave as well as a particle Understand what is a quantisation of light Understand that photon is a quantum of light Understand what is the electron-volt Understand that photon energies are usually given in electron volts Understand that photons are released from electrons in atoms when they are excited Explain what is line spectrum, emission spectrum, continuous spectra and absorption spectra Understand that the different spectra indicate the energy levels of an atom Understand the photoelectric effect Learn why the wave theory of light cannot explain the photoelectric effect Explain how the photon model of light can explain the photoelectric effect Learn and explain the photoelectric equation Understand that the photoelectric equation is a result of the law of conservation of energy Explain and define each term of the photoelectric equation Understand how the phototube can be used to find the sopping potential Understand the wave-particle duality