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# Unit 5: Check List

Thermal Energy Heat and Temperature: Understand what is specific heat capacity Remember the equation linking energy change and specific heat capacity: Remember the units for specific heat capacity Experiment on how to measure the specific heat capacity for both solid and liquid Understand the difference between heat and temperature Understand the concept of absolute temperature scale Understand what is absolute zero How to convert Kelvin to degrees Celsius and vice versa Understand what is internal energy Understand the difference between heating and working Understand and draw graphs of substances being heated and know from the graph where change of state is occurring

Thermal Energy Gas Laws and Kinetic Theory: Understand the concept of pressure Equation of pressure for any fluid and pressure as force acting per unit area Understand Boyles Law as it links pressure with volume and remember the equation for it Remember the graphs for Boyles Law Condition for Boyles Law Understand the Pressure Law and how it connects pressure with temperature and remember the equation for it Condition for the Pressure Law Remember the graphs for the Pressure Law Know the difference between ideal gas and real gas Understand how Boyles Law and Pressure Law is combined to make the equation of state for an ideal gas Know that the equation of state is the same as the ideal gas equation Understand that the internal energy of an ideal gas is the sum of the kinetic and potential energy of the particles within it Understand the speed distribution curve for gases and how it depends on the temperature of the gas Explain what happens to the particles when the temperature increases (three points to cover) Know that the random distribution of the speed of gas particles means their kinetic energy are also randomly distributed Understand the distribution depends on temperature Equation for the kinetic energy of particles in a gas Explain why the kinetic energy is average Know that the average kinetic energy is proportional to the absolute temperature and how to derive it Understand how the kinetic energy, absolute temperature and internal temperature are linked

## Unit 5: Check List

Nuclear Physics Radioactivity: Explain what is background radiation Name the sources of background radiation Explain the cause of radioactivity Explain what are the meaning of spontaneous and random to describe the nature of radioactivity Remember the symbol, constituents, relative charge, relative mass of alpha, beta and gamma particles Remember the ionising power, speed, penetrating power of alpha, beta and gamma radiations What happens to alpha and beta particles due to their different ionising properties and how this can be used Remember the equations for alpha and beta decay Understand what is an isotope Understand what is meant by the activity of an isotope Know the formula for activity and its units Explain what is the decay constant Learn the definition for half-life Formula for half-life Graph for activity vs. Time Know the equations for decay Know the uses for radioactive isotopes

Nuclear Physics Nuclear physics: Explain the concept of binding energy Explain the concept of mass defect Understand how mass defect and binding energy are inter-related using mass energy equivalence equation Explain the significance of binding energy per nucleon Interpret the graph for binding energy per nucleon vs. mass number Explain why ultimately all unstable nuclei turn into iron nuclei Explain the process of fission and how it is initiated Explain the process of fusion and how it is initiated Explain how nuclear fission reactors work Explain the mechanism of a fusion reactor and the need for high densities of matter and high temperature to bring it about and maintain it

## Unit 5: Check List

Oscillations Simple Harmonic motion: Define simple harmonic motion (SHM) in terms of acceleration and displacement Understand there is always a restoring force pulling or pushing the object back towards the midpoint Understand the size of the restoring force depends on the displacement and the force makes the object accelerate towards the midpoint Understand that the restoring force makes the object change its potential and kinetic energy Explain the energy changes during simple harmonic motion Explain the graph of energy against displacement for an object undergoing SHM (PE + KE) Explain the graph of energy against time for an object undergoing SHM (PE + KE) Understand and explain the equations for simple harmonic motion in terms of angular frequency and time Draw the graphs for displacement, velocity and acceleration against time graphs for a body undergoing SHM Understand that the frequency and period does not depend the amplitude Know the time period and formula for a mass spring system as a simple harmonic oscillator Know the time period and formula for a simple pendulum as a simple harmonic oscillator Understand that T does not depend on the mass and amplitude of the simple pendulum

Oscillations Free, damped and forced oscillations: Define the terms: free, damped and free oscillations Define the conditions for : free, damped and free oscillations Define driving and driven system Define resonance Define the condition for resonance Understand, explain and draw the graph of amplitude against driving frequency Explain the effects of different amounts of damping: light, heavy, critical and overdamping Explain how damping affects resonance and draw the different curves of amplitude to driving frequency graphs

## Unit 5: Check List

Astrophysics and Cosmology Universal Gravitation: Understand that masses in a gravitational field experience a force of attraction Know the equation relating Newtons Law of Gravitation Understand what is a uniform gravitation field Know the equation for gravitational field strength Understand that the gravitational field strength g varies from place to place Understand how the field strength varies with distance away from a point mass Understand the similarities and differences between gravitational and electric fields Understand that energy is transferred when a mass or charge moves between equipotentials in a field

Astrophysics and Cosmology Astrophysics: Know the different methods to determine astronomical distances Define what is a parallax Understand and explain the trigonometric parallax method to measure stellar distances Understand the concept of standard candle and know what is a Cepheid variable Understand the standard candle method of measuring astronomical distances Define the AU (astronomical unit) ,the light-year and the parsec Understand how the luminosity of a star depends on its temperature and surface area given by the Stefan Boltzmann relationship Understand what is a black body Recall what is absorption spectra and how gases absorb particular wavelengths Understand how the peak wavelength gives the temperature of the star given by Wiens law Know how to interpret the Hertzprung Russell diagram Understand that the Hertzprung Russell diagram is a luminosity vs. temperature curve for stars

Astrophysics and Cosmology Cosmology: Explain the life cycle of stars Explain what is a main sequence star and know the different stages of stellar evolution Understand that main sequence stars become red giants when they run out of fuel Understand that low mass stars produce white dwarfs Understand and explain how high mass stars may have different terminal life stages Know what is a neutron star and its properties Explain how neutron stars and supernova are produced Explain how the Doppler Effect is used to find the distance of galaxies and age of the universe Understand the Hubbles Constant Use the Hubbles constant to find the age of the observable universe Understand that the expanding universe gives rise to the Big Bang theory Know the different possible outcomes of how the universe will be depending on the critical density