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Educational Technology 2 Lesson 1: A Review of Educational Technology 1 The Educational Technology 1 (ET-1) course has truly paved the

way for the learner to become aware, appreciative and equipped to use educational technology tools ranging from traditional to modern educational media.

Truly, the foundation for a truly satisfying exposure to educational technology has been firmly laid down by the ET-1 course, starting with thorough treatment of the history of educational technology, quality education, and the roles of ET in the 21st millennium.

In ET-1, the learner was also oriented towards averting the dangers of dehumanization which technology brings into societies, such as through ideological propaganda, pornography, financial fraud, and other exploitative use of technology. Sad to say, these dangers continue to affect peoples and cultures while widening the gap between rich and poor countries.

On the application of educational technology to instruction. Educational Technology 1 showed the 4 phases of application of educational technology in teaching-and-learning, namely; (a) setting of learning objectives (b) designing specific learning experiences (c)evaluating the effectiveness of the learning experiences vis-a-vis the learning objectives, and (d) revision as needed of the whole teaching-learning process, or elements of it, for further improving future instructional activities.

Adding to the technology sophistication of the learners, Educational Technology 1 fittingly refined the distinction between educational technology and other concepts, such as instructional technology ( which is the use of technology in instruction, different from school management), audiovisual aids (or learning media to stir the senses for more effective learning).

In sum, Educational Technology 1 served:

* To orient the learner to the pervasiveness of educational technology in society.

* To lend familiarization on how educational technology can be utilized as media for the avenues teaching-learning process in the school.

* To uplift the learner to human learning through the use of learning technology.

* To impact skills in planning, designing, using and evaluating the technology-enriched teachinglearning process.

* To acquaint learners on basic aspects of community education, functions of the school media center, and finally

* To introduce the learner to what is recognized as the third revolution in education, the computer.

Lesson 2: An Overview: Educational Technology 2

Educational Technology 2 is concerned with " Integrating Technology into Teaching and Learning". Specifically this is focused on introducing, reinforcing, supplementing and extending the knowledge and skills to learners so that they can become exemplary users of educational technology. Mainly directed to student teachers, also professional teachers who may wish to update their knowledge of educational technology, it is our goal that this course can help our target learners to weave technology, with software (computer programmed learning materials) becoming a natural extension of their learning tools.

Necessarily, Educational Technology 2 will involve a deeper understanding of the computer as well as hands-on application of computer skills. But this is not say that the goal of the course is to promote computer skills. But this is not to say that the goal of the course is to promote computer skills. Rather, the course is primarily directed at enhancing teaching-and-learning through technology integration.

In essence, the course aims to infuse technology technology in the student-teachers training, helping them to adapt and meet rapid and continuing technology changes, particularly in the thriving global information and communication technology (ICT) environment.

More specifically, the course objectives are:

* To provide education in the use of technology in instruction by providing knowledge and skills on technology integration-in-instruction to learners.

* To impart learning experiences in instructional technology-supported instructional planning.

* To acquaint students on Information Technology or IT- related learning theories with the computer as a tutor.

* To learn to use and evaluate computer-based educational resources.

* To engage learners on practical technology integration issues including managing IT classrooms, use of the Internet for learning, cooperative learning through the use of information technology, etc.

* To inculcate higher-level thinking and creativity among students while providing them knowledge of IT-related learning theories.

While the course is primarily intended for the use of student-teachers, it can also be of great to use to professional teachers, school administrators, teacher educators, and in fact anyone who is interested on how Information Technology can be used to improve not only instruction but the school management program and curriculum.

It may be said, too, that the study of this course on integrating Information Technology in instruction should not be considered as a formidable task, but rather as a refreshing and exciting study given the idea that all learning should be fun.

Lesson 3: To provide confidence to educators that they are taking the right steps in adopting technology in education, it is good to know that during the last few years, progressive countries in the Asia Pacific region have formulated state policies and strategies to infuse technology in schools. The reason for this move is not difficult to understand since there is now a pervasive awareness that a nations socio-economic success in the 21st century is linked to how well it can

complete in a global information and communication technology (ICT) region. This imperative among nations has therefore given tremendous responsibilities on educators to create an educational technology environment in schools. And since it is understood that the state policies will continue to change, it is helpful to examine prevailing ICT policies and strategies of five progressive states/city, namely New Zealand, Australia, Malaysia, Singapore and Hong Kong. New Zealand 2001 ICT Goals and Strategy ( Web link for more a detailed document) http;//www.tki.org.nz.ict/ GOAL Government with the education and technology sectors, community groups, and industry evisions to support to the development of the capability of schools to use information and communication technologies in the teaching and learning and in administration. STRATEGY It forces schools to be: Improving learning outcomes for students using ICT to support the curriculum. Using ICT to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of educational administration. Developing patnerships with communities to enhance access to learning through ICT.

Focus Areas Infrastructure for increasing schools access to ICTs to enhance education. Professional development so that school managers and teachers can increase their capacities to use ICT. Initiatives An online esource center with a centrally managed website for the delivery of multimedia resources to schools. A computer recycling scheme A planning and implantation guide for schools ICT professional development schools/clusters

Australia IT initiatives (http.//www.deet.gov.au/schools/adelaide/text/htm) In the adelaide declaration and national Goals for schools, information technology is one of the eight national goals/learning areas students should achieve. Students should be confident, creative and productive users of new teachnologies, particularly ICTs, and understand the impact of these technologies on society. The plans for achieving the and national goal fo IT are left to individual states and territories with the Educational Network Australia (EdNA) as the as the coordinating and advisory body. Across the states and territories, the common features to planning, funding and implementation strategies are:

Fast local and wide area netwoks linking schools across the state and territory Substantial number of computers in schools, ensuring adequate access Continuing teacher training in the use of teachnology for instruction Technical support to each school Sufficient hardware and software Digital library resources Technology demonstrations as models for schools

Malaysia Smart School-Level Technology Project (http://www.ppk.kmp.my/smartschool/) Technology plays many roles in a Smart School from facilitating teaching-and-learning activities to assisting with school management. Fully equipting a school includes; Classrooms with multimedia, presentation facilities, e-mail, and groupware for collaborative work. Library media center with database for multimedia courseware and network access to internet Computer laboratory for teaching, readily accessible multimedia and audiovisual equipment

Multimedia development cente with tools creating multimedia materials. Computer studies as a subject Studio/theatette with control room for centralized audio-visual equipment, teleconferencing studio, audio, room, video and laser disc video room. Teachers oom with on-line acess to courseware catalogues and databases, information and resource management systems and professional networking tools, such as e-mail and gruopware. Server room equipped to handle applications, management databases and web server

Administration offers capable of managing databases of students and facilities, tracking students and teacher performance and resources, ditributing notices and other information electronically Singapore Masterplan for IT in Education (http;//www.moe.edu.sg/education/masterplan/welcome.htm) The masterplan has four key dimensions; Curriculum and assessment A balance between acquisition of factual knowledge and mastery of concepts and skills Students in more active and independent learning

Assessment to measure abilities in applying infomation

Learning resources Development of a wide range of educational software for instruction Use of relevant internet resources for teaching-and-learning Convenient and timely procurement of software materials

Teaching Development Training on purposeful use of IT for teaching Equipping each trainee teache with core skills in teaching with IT Tie-ups with institutions for higher learning and industy partners

Physical and technological infrastucture Pupil computer ratio of 2;1 Access to IT in all learning areas in the school

School-wide network, and school linkages whough wide area network (WAN), eventually connected to Singapore One ( a broadband access service for high-speedy delivey of multimedia services on island-wide basis Hong Kong Education Program Highlights (http//.www.info.gov.hk/emb/eng/prog_high/schoolprog.html) Government raise the quality of school education by promoting the use of IT in teaching and learning. The IT initiative are; On average, 40 computers for each primary school and 82 computers fo each secondary school About 85,000 IT training places for each teachers at four levels Technical support for all schools An Information Education Resource Center for all schools and teachers An IT coordinator for each of 250 schools which should have sound IT plans Computer rooms for use by students for normal school hours An It Pilot Scheme to povide schools with additional resources Review of school curiculum to incorporate IT elements

Development of appopriate software in collaboration with gvernment, the private sector, tertiary institutions and schools Exploring the feasibility of setting up an education-specific intranet

Lesson 4: Levels of integration Now to provide moe specificexamples of levels of integration.

Ms. Cruz wants to show photos in her Social Studies class, but the icture are so small. She decides to use the computer scan the photos fo a computer projection to the class( a presentation softawae package) Mr. Alonzo thinks it is tedious to do paper and pen match worksheets. He decides to use the computer to put the woksheets into a spreadsheet form. He then asked students to submit thei completed worksheet to him by email.

Result: good class presentation followed by a discussion

Result: more active student activity

Geography teacher, Mr. Sioson finds it difficult to motivate her students to learn about other countries. Her supervisor suggested an instructional simulation software in which students play detectives to solve mysteries related to Geography. Ms. Sioson use the computer-based material, also designed worksheets and question-answer sheets to find out the students experience in the learning process.

Result: an exciting group learning activity

Mr. Roxas uses a computer-bases Trigonometry softwae, projected to the class using a pojector to supplement his teacher centered class presentation.

Result: an interactive class using a software

English teacher Ms. Santos, used computerbased activities (software) which students can go through duing library time

Result: enrichment activity; recording- keeping features of softwae allows checking of progress of student learning.

Ms. Yu asks her students to find information on H-fever in the internet. Students are to create an information leaflet giving a family health tips on H-fever.

Result: creative skills employed by students

In these examples, Technology is the central instructional tool

To dish out infomation on the Asean Region, Mr. Lopez assigned newsletter computer production by group

Result: increased social skills to group wok: planning, creativity, computer skills

The Rizal school has a partner school in the US. A joint Science project allows the Phillipines and U.S schools to exchange information on indigeneous herbal plants in both countries. Video conferencing is held involving students of both schools.

Result: a more sophisticated Technologysupported project demonstrating global communication and socially relevant research.

To reflect in may need time fo teachers who are novices in technology integration to become adept technology instructional integrators. There is no need to worry since technology integration is developmental and takes a gradual route to amstery and expertise. In time, teachers can advance from basic to morecomplicated levels of technology use in instuction

Lesson 5: Obstacles to IT pedagogical practice Especially for educators living in developing or peasant economies, objections are likely to be heard such as that the use of the computer is time-consuming and expensive. Besides there is also the danger of a technology-centered classroom along the fear that computers may soon replace teachers. Virtue is in moderation and so, there is truly a need for teachers to balance their time for the preparation and application of instructional tools. Through wise technical advice, schools can also acquire the most appropriate computer hardware and software. At the same time, training should ensure that the use of ET is fitted to learning objectives. In addition, teachers should acquire computer skills for so that they can serve as models in integrating educational technology in the teaching-learning process.

Lesson 6: IT enters a New Learning Environment It is helpful to see useful models of school learning that is ideal in achieving instructional goals through preferred application of educational technology. These are the models of Meaningful Learning, Discovery learning, Generative learning and Constructivism. In these conceptual models, we shall see how effective teachers best interact with students in innovating learning activities, while integrating technology to the teaching learning process. Meaningful learning If the traditional learning environment gives stress to rote learning and simple memorization, meaningful learning gives focus to new experience that is related to what the learners already know. New experience departs from the learning of a sequence of words but gives attention to its meaning. It assumes that. Students already have some knowledge that is relevant to new learning Students are willing to perform class work to find connections between what they know and what they can learn. In the learning process, the learners are encouraged to recognize relevant personal

experiences. A reward structure is set so that the learner will have both interest and confidence, and his incentive system sets a positive environment to learning. Facts that are subsequently assimilated are subjected to the learners understanding and application. In the classr oom, handson activities are introduced so as to simulate learning in everyday living. Discovery learning Discovery learning is differentiated from reception learning in which ideas are presented directly to students in a well organized way, such as through detailed set of instructions to complete an experiment or task. To make a contrast, in discovery learning students perform tasks to uncover what to be learned. New ideas and new decisions are generated in the learning process, regardless of the need to move on or depart from organized setoff activities previously set. In discovery learning, iti s important that the students become personally engaged and not subjected by the teacher to procedures he/she is not allowed to depart from.

Generative

Learning

In generative learning we have learners who attend to learning events and generate to learning events and generate to learning events and generate meaning from this experience and draw inference s thereby creating a personal model or explanations to the new experience in the context of the existing knowledge.

Generative learning is viewed as different from the simple process of storing information. Motivation and responsibility are seen to be crucial to this domain of learning. The area of language comprehension offers examples of this type of generative learning activities, such as in writing paragraph summaries, developing answers and questions, drawing pictures, creating paragraph titles, organizing ideas/concepts, and others. In sum, generative learning gives emphasis to what can be done with a piece of information, not only on access to them. Constructivism In constructivism, the learner builds a personal understanding through appropriate learning activities and a good learning environment. The most accepted principles of constructivism are Learning consist in what a person can actively assemble for himself and not what he can received passively. The role of learning is to help the individual live/adapt to his personal world.

These two principles in turn lead to three practical implications: The learner is directly responsible for learning. He creates his personal understanding and transforms information into knowledge. The teacher plays an indirect role by modeling effective learning, assisting, facilitating, and encouraging learners. The context of meaningful learning consists in the learner connecting school activity with real life. The purpose of education is the acquisition of practical knowledge, not abstract or universal truth.

FIGURE 1- SYSTEMATIC INSTRUCTIONAL PLANNING PROCESS Following modern trends in technology-related education, schools should now foster a student-centered learning environment, wherein students are given leeway to use computer information sources in their assignments, reports and presentation in written, visual, or dramatic forms. All these suggestions show that teachers and schools can no longer avoid the integration of educational technology in instruction. Especially in the coming years, when portable and mobile computing will make computing activities easier to perform, the approaches to classroom pedagogy

must change. And with continuing change in high-speed communication, mass storage libraries, educators should be open for more drastic changes in the years ahead.

Lesson 7: IT for Higher Thinking Skills and Creativity Higher Level Learning Outcomes Complex Thinking Skills Sub-Skills Focusing defining the problem, goal/objective setting, brainstorming selection, recording of data of information associating, relating new data with old identifying idea constructs patterns deducing, classifying, relating visualizing, predicting planning formulating summarizing, abstracting setting criteria, testing idea, verifying outcome, revising

Information Gathering Remembering Analyzing Generating inducting, elaborating Organizing Imagining Designing Integration Evaluating

Process The act of proceeding; continued forward movement; procedure; progress; advance. For example: to learn is to change. Education is a process that changes the learner. Product Anything that is produced, whether as the result of generation, growth, labor, or thought, or by the operation of involuntary causes; as, the products of the season, or of the farm; the products of manufactures; the products of the brain. For example: I like to tell people that all of our products and business will go through three phases. There's vision, patience, and execution.

Lesson 8: Higher Thinking Skills through IT-Based Projects In this lesson, we shall discuss four types of IT-based projects which can effectively be used in order to engage students in activities of a higher plane of thinking. To be noted id the fact that these projects differ in the specific process and skills employed, also in the ultimate activity or platform used to communicate completed products to others. It is to be understood that these projects do not address all of the thinking skills shown previously in the Thinking Skills Framework. But these projects represent constructivist project. Key Elements of a constructivist approach: The teacher creating the learning environment.

a)

b) c)

The teacher giving students the tool The teacher facilitating learning.

Now let us see four IT-based projects conducive to develop higher thinking skills and creativity among learners. I. RESOURCE-BASED PROJECTS The teacher steps out of the traditional role of being an context expert and information provider, and instead lets the students find their own facts and information. The general flows of events in resource-based projects are: 1. The teacher determines the topic for the examination of class. 2. The teacher presents the problem to the class. 3. The students find information on the problem/questions. 4. Students organize their information in response to the problem/questions. TRADITIONAL AND RESOURCE-BASED LEARNING Traditional learning model Teacher is expert and information provides Textbook is key source of information Focus on facts Information is packaged In neat parcels The product is the be-all and end-all of learning Assessment is quantitative Resource-based learning model Teacher is a guide and facilitator Sources are varied(print, video. Internet, etc.) Focus on learning inquiry, quest, or discovery

Emphasis on process Assessment is quantitative and qualitative.

II. SIMPLE CREATIONS In developing software, creativity as an outcome should not be equated with ingenuity or high intelligence. Creating is more consonant with planning, making, assembling, designing or building. Three kinds of skills/abilities: Analyzing- distinguishing similarities and differences/ seeing the project as a problem to be solved. Synthesizing- making spontaneous connections among ideas, does generating interesting or new ideas. Promoting- selling of a new ideas to allow the public to test the ideas themselves. The five key task to develop creativity: 1. Define the task- clarify the goal of the completed project to the student.

2. Brainstorm- the students themselves will be allowed to generate their own ideas on the project. Rather than shoot down ideas, the teacher encourages ideas exchange. 3. Judge the ideas- the students themselves make an appraisal for or against any idea. Only when students are completely off check should the teacher intervene. 4. Act- the students do their work with the teacher a facilitator. 5. Adopt flexibility- the students should be allowed to shift gears and not follow an action path rigidly.

III. GUIDED HYPERMEDIA PROJECTS The production of self-made multimedia projects can be approached into different ways: 1. Instructive tools- such as in the production by students of a power point presentation of a selective topic. 2. Constructive tools- such as when students do a multi-media presentation (with text, graphs, photos, audio narration, interviews, video clips, etc. to simulate a television news show. IV. WEB-BASED PROJECTS Students can be made to create and post web pages on a given topic. But creating new pages, even single page web pages, maybe tool sophisticated and time consuming fort the average student. It should be said, however, that posting of web pages in the Internet allows the students (now the web page creator) a wider audience. They can also be linked with other related sites in the Internet. But as of now, this creativity project maybe to ambitious as a tool in the teachinglearning process.

Lesson 9: Computer as Information and communication technology In educational technology course 1 the role of computer in education was well discussed. It was pointed out that the advent of the computer is recognized as the third revolution in education. The first was the invention of the printing press; the second, the introduction of libraries and the third the invention of the computer, especially so with the advent of the microcomputer in 1975. Thus emerged computer technology in education Through the technology, educators saw the amplification of learning literacy. Much like reading, the modern student can now interact with computer messages; even respond to question or to computer commands. Again like writing, the learner can form messages using computer language or programs. Soon computer assisted instruction (CAI) was introduced using the principle of individualized learning through a positive climate that includes realism and appeal with drill exercise that uses color, music and animation. The novelty of CAI has not waned to this offered by computer-equipped private schools. But the evolving pace of innovation in todays Information Age is so dynamic that within the first decade of the 21st century, computer technology in education has matured to transform into an educative information and communication technology (ICT) in education.

THE PC

Communication media

Audiovisual media

(Internet) Email (text and video) graphics Chat rooms Blog sites presentation News services (print, video clip) player Music/movie/television room software

(Multimedia) Text, sound, chart, photos Power-point CD, VCD, DVD CDVCD, DVD player Educational (Internet) Educational

websites Softwares coursewares School registration/ records Accounting ,

FIGURE 6 USES OF THE COMPUTER AS ICT IN EDUCATION THE PERSONAL COMPUTER (PC) AS ICT Until the nineties, it was still possible to distinguish between instructional media and the educational communication media.

Instructional media consist of audio-visual aids that served to enhance and enrich the teaching-learning process. Examples are the blackboard, photo, film, and video On the other hand, educational communication media comprise the media communication to audiences including learners using the print, film radio, and television or satellite means of communication. For example, distance learning were implemented using correspondence, radio, television or the computer satellite system Close to the turn of the 21st century, however, such as distinction merged owing to the advent of the microprocessor also known as the personal computer (PC). This is due to the fact that the PC user at home, office and school has before him a tool for both audio-visual creations and media communication. To illustrate, lets examine the programs (capabilities) normally installed in an ordinary modern PC: v Microsoft Office- program for composing text, graphics, photos into letters, articles, reports etc.

v Power-point- for preparing lecture presentations

v Excel- for spreadsheet and similar graphic sheets

v Internet access

to

the

internet

v Yahoo or Google- websites; email, chat rooms, Blog sites, news service (print/video) educational software etc.

v Adobe reader- Graph/photo composition and editing

v MSN- mail/chat

messaging

v Cyber

link

power- DVD

player

v Windows

media

player- Editing

film/video

v Game

house- video

games

Lesson 10: The computer as a tutor The computer is one of the wonders of human ingenuity, even in its original design in the 1950s to carry out complicated mathematical and logical operations. With the invention of the microcomputer (now commonly referred to PCs or personal computers), the PC has become the tool for programmed instruction. Educators saw much use of the PC. It has become affordable to small business, industries and homes. They saw its potential for individualization in learning, especially as individualized learning is a problem since teachers usually with a class of forty or more learners. They therefore devised strategies to use the computer to the break the barriers to individualized instruction Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) The computer can be a tutor in effect relieving teacher of many activities in his personal role as classroom tutor. It should be made clear, however, that the computer cannot totally replace the teacher since the teacher shall continue to play the major roles of information deliverer and learning environment controller. Even with the available computer and CAI software, the teacher must; Insure that students have the needed knowledge and skills for any computer activity Decide the appropriate learning objectives

Plan the sequential and structured activities to achieve objectives Evaluate the students achievements by ways of tests the specific expected outcomes.

On the other hand, the student in CAI play their own roles as learners as they; Receive information Understand instruction for the computer activity Retain/keep in mind the information and rules for the computer activity Apply the knowledge and rules during the process of computer learning During the computer activity proper in CAI the computer too plays its roles as it: Act as a sort of tutor (the role traditional played by the teacher) Provides a learning environment Delivers learning instruction Reinforces learning through drill and practice Provides feedback Today, educators accept the fact that the computer has indeed succeeded in providing an individualized learning environment so difficult for a teacher handling whole classes. This is so, since the computer able to allow individual student to learn out their own pace, motivate learning through a challenging virtual learning environment, assist student through information needed during the learning process, evaluate student responses through immediate feedback during the learning process also give the total score to evaluate the students total performance. CAI Integrated with Lesson CAI computer learning should not stop with the drill and practice activities of students in effect, CAI work best in reinforcing learning trough repetitive exercise such that student can practice basic skills or knowledge in various subject areas. Common types of drill and practice programs include vocabulary building, math facts, and basic science, and history or geography facts. In these programs, the computer presents a question/ problem the first and the student is asked to answer the question/problem. Immediate feedback is given to the students answer. After the number of practice problems and at the end of the exercise, the students get a summary of his overall performance. The question arises: When and how can teacher integrate drill and practice programs with their lessons? The following suggestion can be made: Use drill and practice programs for basic skills and knowledge that require rapid or automatic response by students (e.g. multiplication table, letter and word recognition, identification of geometric shapes, etc.) Ensure that drill and practice activities conform to the lesson plan/curriculum. Limit drill and practice to 20-30 minutes to avoid boredom. Use drill and practice to assist students with particular weakness in basic skills. In integrating computer programs in instruction, use tutorial soft ware associated with cognitive learning. While practice exercise or learning by doing is still the heart of each tutorial, the tutorial software should be able to:

Teach new content /new information to students (in as much as CAI provides practice on old or already learned content) Provide comprehensive information on concepts in addition to practice exercise Can be effectively used for remediation, reviewing or enrichment Allow the teacher to introduce follow-up question to stimulate student learning. Permits group activity for cooperative learning

SIMULATION PROGRAMS Simulation software materials are another kind of software that is constructivist in nature. This simulation software: Teacher strategies and rules applied to real-life problems/situation Ask students to make decision on models or scenarios Allow students to manipulate elements of a model and get the experience of the effect of their decisions An example of such software is SimCity in which students are allowed to artificially manage a city environment. Decision-making involve such factors as budget, crime, education, transportation, energy resources, waste disposal, business/ industries available. (Note: soft ware may not be available on local computer shops. Still concept-learning is helpful).

INSTRUCTIONAL GAMES While relating to low level learning objectives (e.g. basic spelling or math skills), instructional computer games add the elements of competition and challenge.

An example is GeoSafari which introduces adventure activities for Geography History and Science. The program can be played by up to four players to form teams. Learning outcomes can be achieved along simple memorization of information, keyboarding skills, cooperation and social interaction, etc.

PROBLEM SOLVING SOFTWARE These are more sophisticated than the drill and practice exercises and allow students to learn and improve on their own problem solving ability. Since problems cannot be solved simply by memorizing facts, the students have to employ higher thinking skills such as logic, recognition, reflection, and strategy-making The Thinking Things 1 is an example of a problem solving software in which the team learners must help each other by observing comparing.

MULTIMEDIA ENCYCLOPEDIA AND ELECTRONIC BOOKS The Multimedia Encyclopedia can score a huge database with text, images, animation, audio and video. Students can access any desired information, search it vast contents and even download/print relevant portions of the data for their composition or presentation. An example is the eyewitness childrens encyclopedia.

Electronic books provide textual information for reading supplemented by other types of multimedia information (sounds, spoken words, pictures, animation). These are useful for learning reading, spelling and word skills. Examples are Just Grandma and Me animated storybook which offer surprises for the young learners curiosity.

Lesson 11: The Computer as the Teachers Tool In the previous lesson, we saw how the computer can act as a tutor, particularly along a behaviorist and cognitive approach to learning. But we also saw how certain computer software programs have been developed to foster higher thinking skills and creativity. In this lesson, we shall again look at the computer, but this time from another perspective, the computer as the teachers handy-tool. It can in fact support the constructivist and social constructivist paradigms of constructivist learning. Constructivist was introduced by Piaget (1981) and Bruner (1990). They gave stress to knowledge discovery of new meaning/concepts/principles in the learning process. Various strategies have been suggested to foster knowledge discovery, among these, is making students engaged in gathering unorganized information from which they can induce ideas and principles. Students are also asked to apply discovered knowledge to new situations, a process for making their knowledge applicable to real life situations. While knowledge is constructed by the individual learner in constructivism, knowledge can also be socially constructed. Social constructivism. This is an effort to show that the construction of knowledge is governed by social, historical and cultural contexts. In effect, this is to ay that the

learner who interprets knowledge has a predetermined point of view according to the social perspectives of the community or society he lives in. The psychologist Vygotsky stressed that learning is affected by social influences. He therefore suggested the interactive process in learning. The more capable adult (teacher or parent) or classmate can aid or complement what the learner sees in a given class project. In addition, Dewey sees language as a medium for social coordination and adaptation. For Dewey human learning is really human languaging that occurs when students socially share, build and agree upon meanings and knowledge.

Learning Framework

Constructivism

Social Constructivism

Assumption

Knowledge is constructed by the individual.

Knowledge is constructed within a social context.

Definition of Learning

Students build their own learning.

Students build knowledge influenced by the social context. Exchange and share from ideas, stimulates thinking.

Learning Strategies

Gather unorganized information to create new concept/principle

General Orientation

Personal discovery of knowledge.

Students discuss and discover meanings

Example

8*5-8+8+8+8+8

Two alternative job offers option 1-8 hrs/day for 6days/week Option 2-9 hrs/day for 5 days/week

FIGURE 7 SUMMARY OF THE TWO LEARNING PERSPECTIVE

The Computers Capabilities Given its present-day speed, flexibility and sophistication, the computer can provide access to information, foster creative social knowledge building, and enhance the communication of the achieved project package. Without the computer, todays learners may still be assuming the tedious task of low-level information gathering, building and new knew knowledge packaging. But this is not so, since the modern computer can help teacher-and-students to focus on more high level cognitive tasks. Based on the two learning theories, the teacher can employ the computer as a/an: As an information tool A communication tool A constructive tool As co-constructive tool A situating tool

Informative tool The computer can provide vast amounts of information in various forms, such as text, graphics, sound and video. Even multimedia encyclopedias are today available on the internet. The internet itself provides and enormous database from which user can access global information resources that includes the latest news, weather forecasts, airline schedule, sports development, entertainment news and features, as well as educational information directly useful to learners. The internet on education can be sourced for kinds of educational resources on the internet. Along the constructivist point of view, it is not enough for learners to download relevant information using the computer as an information tool. Students can use gathered information for composition or presentation projects as may be assigned by the teacher. Given the fact that the internet can serve as a channel for global communication, the computer can very well be the key tool for video teleconferencing sessions. Constructive Tool The computer itself can be used for manipulating information, visualizing ones understanding and building new knowledge. The Microsoft Word computer program itself is a desktop publishing software that allows uses to organize and present their ideas in attractive formats. Co-constructive Tools

Students can use constructive tools to work cooperatively and construct a shared understanding of new knowledge. On ways of co-constructive is the use of the electronic whiteboard where students may post notices to a shared document/whiteboard. Students may also co-edit the same document from their homes. The Computer-Supported International Learning Environments (CSILE) is an example of an integrated environment developed by the Ontario Institute for studied in Education. Within CSILE, students can enter their ideas in notes and respond to each others ideas. Manifest in the student generated database are higher level thinking processes-explaining, problem solving/finding, expertise and development, literacy improvement. Situating Tool By means of virtual reality (RS) extension systems, the computer can create 3-D images on display to give the user the feeling that are situated in a virtual environment. A flight simulation program is an example of situating tool which places the user in a simulated flying environment. Multi-User domains or Dungeons (MUDs) MUD Object Oriented (MOOs), and Multi-User Shared hallucination (MUSHs) are example of situating systems MUDs and MOOs are text-based virtual reality environments on the Internet. When users log on to a MOO environment, they may interact with the virtual reality (such as by writing on a notice board) through simple text based commands. A school-to-school or classroom-to-classroom environment is possible whereby the user can choose to talk around the campus, talk with other users who are logged to the same site. To caution users, the computer as a situating tool is news and still undergoing further research and development.

Lesson 12: Information Technology in Support of Student-Centered Learning Classroom

The Traditional Classroom It may be observed that classroom are usually arranged with neat columns and rows of student chairs, while the teacher stands in front of the classroom or sits behind his desks. This situations is necessitated by the need to maintain classroom discipline, also they allow the teachers to control classroom activities through lecture presentation and teacher-led discussion. Noticeably, however, after spending so many minutes in lesson presentation and class management, students can get restless and fidgety. Often enough, the teacher has to also mange misbehavior in class as students start to talk among themselves or simply stare away in lack attention. To prevent this situation, teachers often make students take time to work individually on worksheets can help the situation. Another option is now presented and this is adopting the idea of developing students to be independent learners with the end of making them critical and creative thinkers.

The SCL classroom John Dewey described the traditional learning process in which the teacher pours information to students learners, much like pouring water from a jug into cups. This is based on the long accepted belief that the teacher must perform his role of teaching so that learning can occur. This learning approach is generally known as direct instruction, and it has worked well for obtaining many kind of learning outcomes. The problem with the direct instruction approach to learning, however, is the fact that the worlds societies have began to change. Of course, this change may not be strongly felt in many countries in which the economy longer depends primarily on factory workers who do repetitive work without thinking on the job. The traditional classroom and direct instruction approach to learning conform to this kind of economies. In contrast, industrialized societies we find knowledge based economies in which workers depends on information that can be accessed through information and communication technologies (ICTs). Desiring to gain effectiveness, efficiency and economy in administration and instructions, schools in these developed economies have also adopted the support of ICTs. Their students have

now become active not passive learners, who can interact with other learners, demonstrating independence and self-awareness in the learning process. Generally the new school classroom environment is characterized by student individually or in group: Performing computer word processing for text or graph presentation Preparing power-point presentation Searching for information on the internet Brainstorming on ideas, problems and project plans As needed, the teacher facilitating instruction, also giving individual instruction to serve individual needs. Observably, there is departure from traditional worksheet, read-and-answer, and drill-andpractice activities. Students also no longer need to mark the test of peers since the computer has programs for test evaluation and computerized scoring of results. Given this trend in teaching-and-learning, it must be pointed out, however, that traditional classroom activities-especially in less developed countries-will continue to have a strong place in the classroom. In spite of this setback experienced in some countries, the option has now been opened for the modern teacher to shift gears to students centered learning. Lesson 13: Cooperative Learning with the Computer Singapore has set the global pace for student-centered learning with a 2:1 (2 pupils with one computer) ratio in its masterplan for IT in Education. This shows that even in other progressive countries, the 1:1 :pupil-computer ratio is still an ideal to be achieved. Reality therefore dictates that schools face the fact that each classroom, especially in public or government schools, may not be equipped with the appropriate number of computers. The creativity of the teacher will have to respond to the situation, and so cooperative learning will likely be the answer to the implementation of IT supported learning in our schools. But the situation may not be that bad since there are motivational and social benefits to cooperative learning and these can compensate for lack of hardware that educators face.

Defining cooperative learning Cooperative or collaborative learning is learning by small groups of students who work together in a common learning task. It is often also called group learning but to be truly cooperative learning, 5 elements are needed: 1. A common goal 2. Interdependence 3. Interaction 4. Individual accountability 5. Social skills Therefore not every group work is cooperative learning since students working on their work sheets physically sat around a table may be working together without these features of cooperative learning. From several studies made on cooperative learning, it is manifested that cooperative learning in its true sense is advantageous since it:

(a) Encourage active learning, while motivating students (b) Increases academic performance (c) Promotes literacy and language skills (d) Improves teacher effectiveness In addition, there are studies show that cooperative learning enhances personal and social development among students of all ages, while enhancing self-esteem and improving social relations between racially and culturally different students. Cooperative learning and the computer Researchers have made studies on the learning interaction between the student and the computer. The studies have great value since it has been a long standing fear that the computer may foster student learning in isolation that hinders the development of the students social skills. Now this mythical fear has been contradicted by the studies which show that when students work with computers in groups, they cluster and interact with each other for advice and mutual help. And given the option to work individually or in a group, the students generally wish to work together in computer-based and non-computer-based activities. Reflecting on this phenomenon, psychologists think the computer fosters this positive social behavior due to the fact that it has a display monitor just like a television set that is looked upon as something communal. Therefore researchers agree that the computer is a fairly natural learning vehicle for cooperative (at times called promotive) learning. Components of cooperative learning Educators are still wary about the computers role in cooperative learning. Thus they pose the position that the use of computers do not automatically result in cooperative learning. There therefore assign the teacher several tasks in order to ensure collaborative learning. These are: Assigning students to mixed-ability teams Establishing positive interdependence Teaching cooperative social skills Insuring individual accountability, and Helping groups process information These are in addition to assigning a common work goal in which each member of the group will realize that their group will not succeed unless everyone contributes to the groups success. It is also important for the teacher limits learning group clusters (six is the ideal number in a group) so there can be closer involvement in thinking and learning.

esson 14: The Software as an Educational Resource Whenever people think about computers, they are most likely thinking about the computer machine such as the television-like monitor screen, the keyboard to type on, the printer which produces copies of text-and-graphics material, and the computer housing called the box which contains the electronic parts and circuits (the central processing unit) that receives/ stores data

and direct computer operations. The computer machine or hardware is naturally an attentiongetter. Its more difficult to realize, however, that the computer hardware can hardly be useful without the program or system that tells what the computer machine should do. This is called software. There are two kinds of software: 1. The system software. This is the operating system that is found or bundled inside all computer machines. 2. The application software. This contains the system that commands the particular task or solves a particular problem. In turn the applications software may be: (a) A custom software that is made for specific tasks often by large corporations, or (b) A commercial software packaged for personal computers that helps with a variety of tasks such as writing papers, calculating numbers, drawing graphs, playing games, and so much more. Microsoft Windows Also referred to as program, Microsoft Windows or Windows for short is an operating environment between the user and the computer operating system. Also called a shell, it is a layer that creates the way the computer should work. Windows uses a colorful graphics interface (called GUI pronounced gooee) that can be seen on the computer screen or monitor whenever the computer is turned on. The user can work with on-screen pictures (icons) and suggestions (menus) to arrive at the desired software. Windows 95 (now improved with Windows 2003 and 2007) is software designed for Microsoft Windows. Actually, Windows is in itself a self-contained operating system which provides User convenience just click a file name to retrieve data or click from program to program as easy as changing channels in your TV screen A new look fancy borders, smooth and streamlined text fonts Information center Windows puts all communications activities (e-mail, downloads etc. in a single screen icon); adapts/configures the computer for the Internet. Plug and play configures the computer with added components, such as for sound and video. Instructional Software

Instructional software can be visited on the Internet or can be bought from software shops or dealers. The teacher through his school should decide on the best computer-based instructional (CBI) materials for the school resource collection. But beware since CBIs need much improvement, while web-based educational resources are either extremely good or what is complete garbage. In evaluating computer-based educational materials, the following can serve as guidelines:

Be extremely cautious in using CBIs and free Internet materials Dont be caught up by attractive graphics, sound, animation, pictures, video clips and music forgetting their instructional worth Teachers must evaluate these resources using sound pedagogical principles. Among design and content elements to evaluate are: the text legibility, effective use of color schemes, attractive layout and design, and easy navigation from section-to-section (such as from game to tutorial to drill-and-practice section) Clarity in the explanations and illustrations of concepts and principles Accuracy, coherence, logic of information Their being current since data/statistics continually change Relevance/effectiveness in attaining learning objectives Absence of biased materials (e.g. gender bias or racial bias)

Lesson 15: The Internet and Education The Internet ,also simply called the Net ,is the largest and far-firing network system-of-allsystem.How is everything coordinated through the Internet?This is done through a standardized protocol(or set of rules for exchanging data) called Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol(TCP/IP).To gain access to the internet,the computer must be equipped with what is called a Server which has a special software (program) that uses the Internet protocol.Originally developed and still subsidized by the United State government, the Internet connect not only commercial,industrial,scientific establishments but all other sectors including education and its libraries,campuses and computer centers. Getting around the Net The vast sea of information now in the Internet,including news and trivia,is an overwhelming challenge to those who wish to navigate it.Everyday,the Net user-population and the available information continue to grow,and new ways are continuously being developed to tour the Internet. The most attractive way to move around the Internet is called browsing.Using a program called a browser,the user can use a mouse to point and click on screen icons to surf the Internet,particularly the World Wide Web (the web), an Internet' s subset of text,images,and sounds are linked together to allow users to access data or information need. The future of the Internet seems limitless.Already its complexity has spawned and continue to spawn Net sites including new demand for services to business,industries,science,government and even homes.Many experts predict that the Internet is destined to become the centerpiece of all online communications on the planet and in some future time in the solar system using interplanetary satellite communication stations. A view of educational uses of the Internet Today,even elementary school graders in progressive countries like the United States are corresponding via e-mail with pen pals in all 50 states.They ask probing question like,"What is your state's most serious problems,"or how much does a pizza cost in your state?This educational activity prodded by their schools are paying dividends from increasing the pupil's interest in

Geography to a greater understanding of how people live in large cities and other places in the United States or the world. Educational software materials have also developed both in sophisticated and appeal.There is now a wider choice from rote arithmetic or grammar lesson to discovery and innovation projects.But the real possibility today is connecting with the world outside homes,classrooms,and Internet cafes.And today schools are gearing up to take advantage of Internet access,where they can plug into the Library of Congress,make virtual visits to famous museums in the world,write to celebrities and even send questions to heads of states.

Lesson 16: Understanding Hypermedia From the educational Technology 1 course the student has already become aware of multimedia or an audiovisual package that includes more than the instructional media(means of knowing)such as text,graphics,audio animation and video clip. Hypermedia is nothing but multimedia,but this time packaged as an educational computer software where information is presented and student activities are integrated in a virtual learning environment.Most educational IT applications are hypermedia and these include: Tutorial software packages Knowledge web pages Simulation instructional games Learning project management and others

The presentation of information-learning in hypermediais said to be sequenced in a non linear manner,meaning that the learner may follow his path of activities thus providing an environment of learner autonomy and thinking skills Characteristics of hypermedia applications There are two important features that are outstanding among other features---that characterize the hypermedia software: 1.)Learner control - This means the learner makes his own decisions on the path,flow or events of instruction.The learner has control on such aspects sequence,page content,media,feedback,etc. that he/she may encounter in the hypermedia learning program. 2.)Learner wide range of navigation routes - the learners controls the sequence and pace of his path depending on his ability and motivation.He has the option to repeat and change speed,if desired. The learner also has a wide range of navigation routes such as by working on concepts he is already familiar with. In the use of hypermedia the following instructional events will prove useful to the teacher:

Get the learner's attention Recall prior learning Inform learners of lesson objectives Introduce the software and its distinctive features Guide learning,eliciting performance Provide learning feedback Asses performance Enhance retention and learning transfer