Welcome to the Museum of The Cold War [1961-1970




Back Wall Artifact

Museum Entrance



Curator’s Offices

Amber Higgins Curator’s Office
Amber Higgins is in 10th grade and has a car named Carl because she’s cool like that. She enjoys naps and food but hates being late. Her favorite school subject is English. Place your picture here.

Throwback to when I was 3 >>>>
Contact me at [amberhggn@gmail.com]

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Note: Virtual museums were first introduced by educators at Keith Valley Middle School in Horsham, Pennsylvania. This template was designed by Dr. Christy Keeler. View the Educational Virtual Museums website for more information on this instructional technique.

[1961-1962] Room

Room 1
Artifact 2
Artifact 3

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[1963-1964] Room

Room 2
Artifact 6 Artifact 7

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[1965-1968] Room

Room 3
Artifact 10 Artifact 11

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[1969-1970] Room

Room 4
Artifact 14
Artifact 15

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John F. Kennedy becomes President
On January 20th,1961 John F. Kennedy becomes the 35th President of the United States. At age 43, he was the youngest to have been elected to the office, the second-youngest president, and the first person born in the 20th century to serve as president. To date, Kennedy has been the only Roman Catholic president. Events during his presidency included the Bay of Pigs Invasion, the Cuban Missile Crisis, the Space Race—by initiating Project Apollo, the building of the Berlin Wall, the African-American Civil Rights Movement, and increased U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:John_F._Kennedy, _White_House_photo_portrait,_looking_up.jpg

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Berlin Wall
The Berlin Wall was a barrier constructed by the German Democratic Republic starting on 13 August 1961, that completely cut off West Berlin from surrounding East Germany. The barrier included guard towers placed along large concrete walls, which circumscribed a wide area (later known as the "death strip") that contained anti-vehicle trenches, "fakir beds" and other defenses. The Berlin Wall was officially referred to as the "Anti-Fascist Protection Rampart by GDR authorities, implying that neighboring West Germany had not been fully de-Nazified. The West Berlin city government sometimes referred to it as the "Wall of Shame― condemning the Wall's restriction on freedom of movement. Along with the separate and much longer Inner German border (IGB), which demarcated the border between East and West Germany, it came to symbolize the "Iron Curtain" that separated Western Europe and the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War.

//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/co mmons/5/5d/Berlinermauer.jpg

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Cuban Missile Crisis
The Cuban missile crisis — known as the October Crisis or The Missile Scare in Cuba and the Caribbean Crisis in the former USSR — was a 13-day confrontation in October 1962 between the Soviet Union and Cuba on one side and the United States on the other side. The crisis is generally regarded as the moment in which the Cold War came closest to turning into a nuclear conflict and is also the first documented instance of mutual assured destruction (MAD) being discussed as a determining factor in a major international arms agreement.


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Yuri Gagarin
Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin (9 March, 1934 – 27 March, 1968) was a Soviet pilot and cosmonaut. He was the first human to journey into outer space, when his Vostok spacecraft completed an orbit of the Earth on 12 April 1961. Gagarin became an international celebrity, and was awarded many medals and titles, including Hero of the Soviet Union, the nation's highest honor.

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Lee Harvey Oswald
Lee Harvey Oswald (October 18, 1939 – November 24, 1963) was, according to five government investigations, the sniper who assassinated John F. Kenneny, the 35th President of the United States, in Dallas, Texas, on November 22, 1963. Oswald was a former U.S. Marine who defected to the Soviet Union in October 1959. He lived in the Soviet Union until June 1962, at which time he returned to the United States. Oswald was initially arrested for the murder of police officer J. D. Tippit, who was killed on a Dallas street approximately 45 minutes after President Kennedy was shot.


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Lyndon B. Johnson
After campaigning unsuccessfully for the Democratic nomination in 1960, Johnson was asked by John F. Kennedy to be his running mate for the 1960 presidential election. After their election, Johnson succeeded to the presidency following President Kennedy's assassination on November 22, 1963, completed Kennedy's term and was elected President in his own right, winning by a large margin over Barry Goldwater in the 1964 election. Johnson was greatly supported by the Democratic Party and as President, he was responsible for designing the "Great Society" legislation that included laws that upheld civil rights, public broadcasting, Medicare, Medicaid, environmental protection, aid to education, aid to the arts, urban and rural development, and his "War on Poverty."


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China’s first Atomic Bomb
The Chinese acknowledged that their nuclear program would have been impossible to complete without the Soviet help. China's first test of a nuclear device took place on October 16, 1964, at the Lop Nur test site. China's last nuclear test was on July 29, 1996. According to the Australian Geological Survey Organization in Canberra, the yield of the 1996 test was 1–5 kilotons. This was China's 22nd underground test and 45th test overall
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fe/Chinese_nucle ar_bomb_-_A2923.jpg

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Partial Test Ban Treaty
A treaty that dealt with the banning of nuclear and conventional weapons above ground was made by the Soviet Union, but wasn’t fully in place until other nations were to agree with it also. Deadlock ensued until early July 1963, when Premier Khrushchev signaled his willingness to give up on a ban that would include underground testing. In effect, this meant the Soviet Union would agree to a test ban in the atmosphere, outer space, and under water environments. This was the position that the Western Powers had long favored as an alternative to a more comprehensive (underground environment) ban. This opened an opportunity for a three-power meeting among the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union on July 15, 1963, in Moscow.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:President_Kennedy_signs_Nuclear_Te st_Ban_Treaty,_07_October_1963.jpg

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Battle of la Drang
The Battle of Ia Drang was the first major battle between regulars of the United States Army and regulars of the People's Army of Vietnam and of North Vietnam during the Vietnam War. The two-part battle took place between November 14 and November 18, 1965, at two landing zones northwest of Plei Me in the Central Highlands of South Vietnam as part of the U.S. airmobile offensive codenamed Operation Silver Bayonet.


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Six-Days War
After the 1956 Suez Crisis, there were numerous minor border clashes between Israel and its Arab neighbors, particularly Syria. On November 4, 1966, the Soviet Union vetoed a six-Power resolution inviting Syria to prevent incidents that constituted a violation of the General Armistice Agreement. Within six days, Israel had won a decisive land war. Israeli forces had taken control of the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt, the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, from Jordan, and the Golan Heights from Syria.


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Tet Offensive
The Tet Offensive was one of the largest military campaigns of the Vietnam War, launched on January 30, 1968 by forces of the Viet Cong and North Vietnamese Army against the forces of South Vietnam, the United States, and their allies. It was a campaign of surprise attacks against military and civilian commands and control centers throughout South Vietnam. The offensive was the largest military operation conducted by either side up to that point in the war.

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Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)
The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, commonly known as the NonProliferation Treaty or NPT, is an international treaty whose objective is to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, to promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and to further the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament. Opened for signature in 1968, the Treaty entered into force in 1970. The treaty recognizes five states as nuclear-weapon states: the United States, Russia, the United Kingdom, France, and China. Four other states are known or believed to possess nuclear weapons: India, Pakistan and North Korea have openly tested and declared that they possess nuclear weapons, while Israel has had a policy of opacity regarding its nuclear weapons program.

http://www2.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/nukevault/ebb253/photo 1_350.jpg

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Richard Nixon
Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974, when he became the only president to resign the office. Nixon had previously served as a Republican U.S. Representative and Senator from California and as the 36th Vice President of the United States from 1953 to 1961. Among other things, he launched initiatives to fight cancer and illegal drugs, imposed wage and price controls, enforced desegregation of Southern schools, implemented environmental reforms, and introduced legislation to reform healthcare and welfare. Though he presided over the lunar landings beginning with Apollo 11, he replaced manned space exploration with shuttle missions. He was re-elected by a landslide in 1972.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Richard_M._Nixon,_ca._ 1935_-_1982_-_NARA_-_530679.jpg

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Apollo 11
Apollo 11 was the spaceflight that landed the first humans on the Moon, Americans Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin, on July 20, 1969. Armstrong became the first to step onto the lunar surface six hours later on July 21. Armstrong spent about two and a half hours outside the spacecraft, Aldrin slightly less, and together they collected 47.5 pounds of lunar material for return to Earth. A third member of the mission, Michael Collins, piloted the command spacecraft alone in lunar orbit until Armstrong and Aldrin returned to it just under a day later for the trip back to Earth.


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Border Clashes
The Sino-Soviet border conflict was a seven-month undeclared military conflict between the Soviet Union and China at the height of the Sino-Soviet split in 1969. The most serious of these border clashes occurred in March 1969 in the vicinity of Zhenbao Island on the Ussuri River, also known as Damanskii Island in Russia. Chinese historians most commonly refer to the conflict as the Zhenbao Island incident .The conflict was finally resolved with future border demarcations.
http://www.ibiblio.org/chinesehistory/contents/03pol/c04s 05i03.jpg

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Vietnamization was a policy of the Richard Nixon administration during the Vietnam War to end the U.S.' involvement in the war and "expand, equip, and train South Vietnam's forces and assign to them an ever-increasing combat role, at the same time steadily reducing the number of U.S. combat troops". Brought on by the Viet Cong's Tet Offensive, the policy referred to U.S. combat troops specifically in the ground combat role, but did not reject combat by the U.S. Air Force, as well as the support to South Vietnam, consistent with the policies of U.S. foreign military assistance organizations. U.S. citizens' mistrust of their government that had begun after the offensive worsened with the release of news about U.S. soldiers massacring civilians at My Lai (1968), the invasion of Cambodia (1970), and the leaking of the Pentagon Papers.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Richard_M._Nixon_shaki ng_hands_with_armed_forces_in_Vietnam_-_NARA__194650.tif

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This artifact was an old propaganda magazine from the United states to make citizens second think about going into communism. The magazine promotes people to fight against communism because it brings poverty and poor living conditions. It also warns the community that communism is still an option for the united states because there are even US citizens joining communist powers secretly.

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Back Wall Artifact
This is just a sign to show the clashing countries at war during the Cold War. The two flags depicted are the American flag and the Soviet Union flag.

http://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&frm=1&source=im ages&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&docid=WSWB8CTjyHQ1QM&tbnid=zoPfjcsdM0DEM:&ved=0CAUQjRw&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.fordlibr arymuseum.gov%2Fmuseum%2Fexhibits%2FColdWar%2Fmain.htm l&ei=rshVU_fmJ4mpsATfs4HIBw&psig=AFQjCNEmtAjNgjgqKoXnU_ p-usVfijfH5w&ust=1398216468311798

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