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Identification and Quantification of mangrove forest by using Quickbird and Landsat satellite imagery.

A case study of mangroves forest Sandspit, Karachi.

A study conducted by GIS Lab. WWF-Pakistan January !!"

TABLE OF CONTENT:
1. INTRODUCTION......................................................................................................................................3 1.1. MANGROVE FORESTS.............................................................................................................................3 1.2. PURPOSE OF STUDY................................................................................................................................4 2. STUDY AREA............................................................................................................................................4 2.1. VEGETATION..........................................................................................................................................4 2.2. CLIMATE AND GEOLOGY........................................................................................................................4 2.3. FAUNA....................................................................................................................................................4 3. MATERIALS AND METHODS...............................................................................................................5 3.1. SATELLITE DATA....................................................................................................................................5 3.2. GROUND TRUTH DATA..........................................................................................................................7 3.3. DATA PREPARATION............................................................................................................................11 3.4. PREPROCESSING OF DATA....................................................................................................................12 3.5. SPECTRAL CLASSIFICATION.................................................................................................................13 4. ANALYSIS AND RESULTS:..................................................................................................................18 4.1. TABULAR REPRESENTATION OF RESULTS............................................................................................20 4.2. CONCLUSIONS......................................................................................................................................22

LIST OF FIGURES:
FIGURE 1TALL MANGROVES ON THE BANKS OF TIDAL CREEKS.............................................9 FIGURE 2HEIGHT ZONES OF MANGROVE FOREST........................................................................9 FIGURE 3ALGAE IN THE STAGNANT FIGURE 4NE ATERS.................................................................................9

RECRUITMENT !OR REGENERATION" OF MANGROVE FOREST................1#

FIGURE 5$UICKBIRD IMAGE SHO ING TALL MANGROVES ON THE BANKS OF TIDAL CREEKS HILE MEDIUM AND SHORT MANGROVES ARE VISIBLE IN THE MIDDLE %ARTS OF THE MUDFLATS....................................................................................................................1# FIGURE & SALTBUSHES AROUND THE CRAB RESEARCH %OND OF F'%AKISTAN(S ETLAND CENTER..................................................................................................................................1# FIGURE )STAGNANT ATER SHO S %RESENCE OF NE RECRUITMENT !OR REGENERATION" OF MANGROVES FOREST...................................................................................11 FIGURE 8ALGAE ARE VISIBLE IN THE FISH%ONDS......................................................................11 FIGURE 9: TRUNCATION OF $UICKBIRD DATA ON AOI.............................................................12 FIGURE 1#TRUNCATED LANDSAT DATA OF THE STUDY AREA...............................................12 FIGURE 11: SIGNATURES OF CLASSES SELECTED AS TRAINING AREAS IN $UICKBIRD SATELLITE IMAGERY.............................................................................................................................15 FIGURE 12: SIGNATURES OF SELECTED RE%RESENTATIVE LAND COVER CLASSES IN LANDSAT DATA.........................................................................................................................................1&

FIGURE 13: SCATTER%LOT OF BAND'2 AND BAND'4 OF $UICKBIRD SATELLITE DATA. 1) FIGURE 14: SCATTER%LOT OF BAND 2 AND BAND4 OF LANDSAT DATA...............................1) FIGURE 15 HISTOGRAM FOR DATA %OINTS INCLUDED IN TRAINING AREAS FOR COVER TY%ES IN $UICKBIRD DATA..................................................................................................18 FIGURE 1& HISTOGRAM FOR DATA %OINTS INCLUDED IN TRAINING AREAS FOR COVER TY%ES IN LANDSAT DATA......................................................................................................18 FIGURE 1): LANDCOVER MA% OF STUDY AREA* %RE%ARED FROM $UICKBIRD DATA AND RE%RESENTATIVE LANDCOVER CLASSES............................................................................19 FIGURE 18LANDCOVER MA% DERIVED FROM LANDSAT DATA AND RE%RESENTATIVE LAND COVER CLASSES...........................................................................................................................2#

List of Tables:
TABLE 1DATA S%ECIFICATION OF $UICK BIRD SATELLITE !DIGITAL GLOBE"..................5 TABLE 2DETAILS OF THE ETM+ S%ECTRAL BANDS.......................................................................) TABLE 3 AREAS OF LANDCOVER CLASSES IN $UICKBIRD AND LANDSAT SATELLITE DATA.............................................................................................................................................................21

1. Introduction
1.1. Mangrove forests Mangrove forest is an integral part of inter-tidal zone of the coastal environment extending throughout the tropics and subtropics of the world (Giri and Delsol, 199 !" #he term mangrove forest doesn$t impl% wood% plants alone but includes other flora and fauna which utilize a coastal, saline, depositional environment, involving a variet% of coastal landforms, with t%picall% anaerobic soil (&shraf et al, '(()!" #here is a wide spectrum of economic and ecological utilit% of mangrove forests" #hese are used in the form of basic forest products such as firewood, charcoal, and as fodder for grazing and browsing of livestoc*" #hese forests are also serving as breeding and swamping grounds for important fish and shellfish, wildlife habitat, shoreline stabilization and protection against erosion" +ecause of the natural and anthropogenic threats to ,ndus delta, the extent of mangrove forests has significantl% been reduced over the last two decades"

1. . !ur"ose of Stud# ,n -a*istan remote-sensing data has been significantl% used for the .uantification and management of mangroves forest for the last thirt% %ears" +ut the actual mangrove extent is alwa%s debatable due to the use of different satellite imager% and image processing techni.ues #he focus of the current stud% is to estimate the current state of the forest in consultanc% area b% using the high and low resolution satellite data"

. Stud# $rea
#he stud% area is in the west of /i%ari river and extends from 001 21$ to 001 22$ longitude and from ')1 2($ to ')1 2 $ parallels and comprises over an area of 10'' ha (or 1"0' s." *m!" ,t is part of 3,ndus Delta 4coregion$ and pla%s a vital role in the natural ecos%stem and is declared as Green #urtle 5anctuar% b% the Govt" of 5indh" .1. %egetation Main vegetation t%pes existing in the consultanc% area are as follows6 Mangroves Mixed terrestrial vegetation (mainl% Prosipus sp. and others! Marine algae (whose phenolog% is season dependent # Climate and Geology #he climate of the island is t%pical arid subtropical with a mean annual rainfall of 1(( to '((mm" 7elative humidit% during summer months is over 829" #he temperatures are moderate with a sea breeze blowing throughout the summer" #he mean maximum temperatures of the hottest month recorded for the coastal areas are between '11: to '21: while the mean minimum of the coldest month lie between 9"21: to 1;1: with no frost% conditions" #he underl%ing roc*s in the island are mostl% of marine origin, highl% folded, faulted and fissured ever%where" #he% consist mainl% of limestone and cla%"

2.2.

2.3. Fauna #he area is part of 3,ndus Delta 4coregion$ and pla%s a vital role in the natural ecos%stem and is declared as Green #urtle 5anctuar% b% the Govt" of 5indh" #he beach is an important nesting site for an endangered species of green turtle" #he cree*s and mudflats are important areas for wintering, passage and summering shorebirds in -a*istan" &bout 2(,((( water birds such as waders, pelicans, flamingos, egrets and herons, gulls and

terns are observed in mid-winters" 7aptors li*e <spre% ( Pandion haliaetus!, 5hi*ra (Accipiterv badius!, +uzzard (buteo buteo!, 4agles (Aquila spp!, +rahmin% =ite (Haliaster indus!, besides passerines, are observed in the area" &ccording to local fisherman, there are 1' *inds of edible fish that the% catch from the area" :rabs are also found in the area and are trapped b% the people coming from other areas of the cit% for commercial sale

&. Materials and Met'ods


&.1. Satellite (ata #wo satellite images are used in this research for the area estimation of mangroves forest extent in the stud% area" #he characteristics of satellite images are discussed briefl%"

&.1.1. )uic*bird Satellite >uic*bird data, ac.uired on '8th &pril '(( with tide value '"(m was used in this stud%" Digital Globe ,nc successfull% launched the >uic*bird satellite on the +oeing Delta ll" launch vehicle on <ctober 1;, '((1" #he >uic* bird satellite orbits in a sun-s%nchronous orbit with orbital inclination of 9;1 , completes it3s one orbit in ever% 9 ") minutes at an altitude of approximatel% )2( *ilometers" ,ts descending nodal crossing time is 1(6 ( am" #he >uic*bird satellite collects both multi-spectral and panchromatic imager% concurrentl%, and 8(cm pan-sharpened composite products in natural or infrared colors are offered" &c.uire high-.ualit% satellite imager% for map creation, change detection, and image anal%sis"
S"ectral +and -anchromatic +and +and-1 (+lue! +and-' (Green! +and- (7ed! +and-) (near ,nfrared! S"ectral Range (")2-("9(m (")2-("2'm ("2'-("0(m ("0 -("09m ("80-("9(m

T,-./ 1Data specification of >uic* bird 5atellite (Digital Globe!"

&.1. . L$,(S$T-. satellite /andsat 8 was launched on 2 th &pril, 1999" #he launch was a success and currentl% the suppl% of data is ongoing" /andsat 8 is fitted with an 4nhanced #hematic Mapper plus (4#M?! sensor" #he data used in this stud% was ac.uired on (0th <ctober '((1" #he /andsat 8 satellite was launched into a 8(2 *m high orbit" 4ach orbit ta*es approximatel% 99 minutes with @ust over 1)"2 orbits completed each da%" #his orbit result in a 10-da% repeat c%cle, meaning a single location on the earthAs surface can be imaged ever% 10 da%s" /andsat 8 4#M? imager% loo*s much the same as previous /andsat #M data as the% both have a spatial resolution of (m" & full scene ma*es up 1;2 *m s.uare therefore this medium resolution sensor covers a large surface area" &s mentioned, #M and 4#M? imager% loo*s ver% similar in that the% both have a (m pixel size, /andsat 4#M? imager% however has an extra panchromatic band which is able to produce panchromatic images at 12m resolution" #his allows panchromatic-sharpened multispectral images (panchromatic and multispectral merged imager% with 8 band spectral resolution and 12m spatial resolution! to be created without rectif%ing the imager% to one another" #his is because the panchromatic and multispectral imager% will automaticall% be registered as the same sensor has scanned them both" #he /andsat 4#M? imager% also has an enhanced thermal band" #he 4#M? sensor ac.uires imager% ranging from the visible part of the spectrum to the mid-infrared part of the spectrum" 7adiometricall%, the 4#M? sensor has a .uantization range of '20 digital numbers (; bits! which permits observation of small changes in radiometric magnitudes in a given band and sensitivit% to changes in relationships between bands"
S"ectral +ands 1 ' (")2(-("212 ("2'2-("0(2 ("0 (-("09( ) 2 ("82(-("9(( 1"22-1"82 S"ectral range /012 ( ( ( ( ( S"atial resolution /12

S"ectral +ands 0 8 -an

S"ectral range /012 1(")(-1'"2( '"(9-'" 2 ("2'(-("9(( 0( ( 12

S"atial resolution /12

T,-./ 2Details of the 4#M? spectral bands

#he .ualit% of satellite data of the coastal areas depends on the tide height" Bigh tide value ma% hamper the abilit% to identif% various low densit% and small size features in the satellite image, which submerged due to high tide" =eeping in view these considerations, both satellite images that were ac.uired for the area estimation of mangroves forests were captured on same tide height '"( meters"

&. . Ground Trut' (ata


Ground #ruth data is used as ancillar% data" #he field visit was conducted during the period of (; to 1 March '(()" Cield visit was arranged with the co-operation of DDC--a*istan$s Detlands :entre =arachi, through boat and land vehicles" /and vehicles were used to observe the mangroves along the coastline, fishponds and saltpans that were easil% accessible b% the road" Dhere as the observations of mangroves along narrow cree*s and around the peripheries of mud flats were made possible b% boat" &-' size field maps of >uic*bird satellite data (C:: of band ) '! at 162((( and 16'2(( scale, with E#M )' zone measure grid of 2(( meters on it, were used during the ground truthing" ,n order to observe and record the ground observations Digital 7ange Cinder, G-5 and Digital :amera were also used during this visit to accuratel% measure distances on ground and to record field observations respectivel%" &. .1. !ur"ose of Ground Trut'ing ,n high-resolution satellite imager% (using Calse :olor :omposite with band combination of bands ), , and ' as 7G+! some tonal abnormalities were observed, that could result in over estimation of the mangroves area" #he main purpose of the ground visit was to correlate these reflectance abnormalities with representative landcover classes" &lso it helped in locating such pure patches of mangroves (#all, Medium, 5mall, and 7egeneration! and other

land-cover features as training sites to conduct supervised classification" &. . . Ground Trut'ing Observations a! #allest mangroves were present along the ban*s of tidal cree*s (see figure 1 F 2!" b! &s the slopeGdistance increases awa% from the channel the height of the mangroves reduces in proportion (see figure 2!" c! Mangroves were dense along the channels due to proper flushing of the salts and become sparser as distance from the ban* of the cree* increases due to less availabilit%Gpoor drainage of waterGstagnant water over the mudflats" d! #he observed height of the mangroves ranges from 12 to '( feet along the cree*s and at the outer peripheries of the mudflats and 2 to 8 feet as we proceed from the outer peripher% to inner of the mudflats" Houng mangrove stands were ' to feet in height (see figure '!" e! 7egeneration was observed in swamp%Gpoorl%-drained areas and at some places densit% of regeneration was .uite high (see figure 8 F )!" f! Cloating &lgae were observed at the fishponds and around the abandoned saltpans" Dhile some of the &lgae were also observed along the outer slopes of the mudflats (see figure and ;!" g! #wo different t%pes of Green &lgae were observed, thread li*e and sheet li*e" h! -atches of dead algae were observed on the mud and water (rarel%! that give greenish blac* tinge in the image" i! Esing C:: as ) ' in 7G+, a maroonGblac*ish tinge on the image along the road was observed as the mix reflectance of mud and dead algae @! 5altbushes on the ground as well as in the image were referenced at the higherGinner parts of the mudflats where the access of water was limited" *! Avicennia marina was observed as a dominating species of mangroves in the 5andspit area" l! Deep and loose mudflats don$t provide a ver% stable substrate for mangroves plantation

&. .&. Ground Trut'ing !'otogra"'s3%isual inter"retation I1ages

F0123/ 1#all Mangroves on the ban*s of tidal cree*s"

F0123/ 24eig't 5ones of 1angrove forest.

Fig !" 3&lgae in the stagnant waters"

F0123/ 4Iew recruitment (or regeneration! of mangrove forest"

F0123/ 5>uic*bird image showing tall mangroves on the ban*s of tidal cree*s while medium and short mangroves are visible in the middle parts of the mudflats"

F0123/ & 5altbushes around the crab research pond of DDC--a*istan$s Detland :enter"

F0123/ )5tagnant water shows presence of new recruitment (or regeneration! of mangroves forest"

F0123/ 8&lgae are visible in the fishponds"

&.&.

(ata !re"aration
&.&.1. I1age i1"ort 5atellite ,mages with Geo-#if format were imported into the ,mage processing software 47D&5 ,M&G,I4 ;"8 using the import utilit% into ,magine format" &.&. . Truncation of Stud# area #he stud% area was truncated at the &rea of ,nterest (&<,! that is 5andspit area, using the subset utilit% of 47D&5 ,magine ;"8" #his process is shown in the following figure.

Cigure 96 #runcation of >uic*bird data on &<,

5imilarl% subset image of /andsat was extracted using the same defined &<, la%er

Cigure 1(#runcated /andsat data of the stud% area

&.6. !re"rocessing of (ata


&.6.1. Geo-Referencing of Satellite (ata 5atellite data were geo referenced when ac.uired from Digital Globe and E5G5" Cor the accurate area estimations and demarcation of different boundaries satellite data was re-pro@ected into E#M co-ordinate s%stem with the reference E#M Grid )', Datum DG5-;) and 5pheroid DG5-;)" Cor this purpose ' nd order pol%nomial was used so as to incorporate the planimetric details in the image" &.6. . Satellite I1age En'ance1ent ,mage enhancement is the techni.ue b% which the low contrast of satellite image is improved to ma*e it in a more interpretable form"

35tandard Deviation 5tretch$ algorithm was applied to improve the image contrast before the selection of training stages within the data" 5tandard Deviation stretch is the image contrast enhancement algorithm, which is used to enhance the spectral behavior of the satellite imageries" #he magnitude of the enhancement depends on the standard deviation value defined b% the anal%st" ,n this stud%, the standard deviation interval value between -' to ?' standard deviations from the mean of the existing pixel values was used" #his stretched the values to the complete range of output screen values" &.7. S"ectral 8lassification Multispectral classification is the process of sorting pixels into a finite number of individual classes, or categories of data, based on their data file values" ,f a pixel satisfies a certain set of criteria, the pixel is assigned to the class that corresponds to that criterion (5chradar and -ounc%, 1998!" Mainl% there are two different techni.ues for the spectral classification of satellite imager%, depending upon the availabilit% of the prior *nowledge about the area" #hese techni.ues include6 5upervised classification En-supervised classification Su"ervised 8lassification ,n supervised classification a small area, called training site, which is representative of each terrain categor% or class on the image is defined b% the anal%st" 5pectral values for each pixel in a training site are used to define decision space for each class (Clo%d, 1990! &ccurac% of supervised classification depends on a! &pproach of anal%st to define classes and capabilit% to catch small variations in reflectance values of features b! =nowledge of area and classes under consideration" c! &ssociation between features is also useful in interpretation of satellite imager% #all and dense mangroves are along the tidal channel, 5altbushes are on the drier areas, algae is associated with moisture content etc" &.7.1. Training Stage & training area or training site is the sample of earth$s surface feature recognizable on the satellite image with *nown information and confidence, on the basis of which the image is to be classified using ground truth data, 5pectral 5ignatures, 5catter -lot or maps

5eed -ixel generation techni.ue is used in this stud% for the definition of training areas on >uic*bird, #erra and /andsat 5atellite data" <nce a seed pixel was chosen of a *nown class, it was grown in region carr%ing man% pixels of closel% related spectral characteristics based on spectral euclidean distance" #he grown region is called training site and the number of pixels selected depends upon homogeneit% between seed pixel, neighbouring pixels and 4uclidean distance" 98, ' and ') training areas were selected for >uic*bird, &5#47 and /andsat satellite data respectivel%"

&.7. . %isual Inter"retation: Different Calse :olor :omposites (C::! can be used for the interpretation of satellite data" Cor the mapping and anal%sis of various /and cover t%pes specificall% mangrove forests C:: as ), , ' as seen in 7ed, Green, +lue (7G+! was preferred due to having maximum information for vegetative classes in band ) of Iear ,nfrared and band-' in visible part of electromagnetic spectrum" 5election and decision of seed pixel was based on visual interpretation, and ground truth data" <n the basis of tone, texture colour and association following training areas could be defined and identified" #all mangroves were in bright red tone with coarser texture" :oarser texture was due to the shadowing effect" &ssociation with tidal cree*s and the outer peripheries were also helpful in identification of this landcover feature" <n the other hand medium and small mangroves were in a bit lighter tone and had smoother texture" -in* patches were earl% stages of mangroves showing regeneration and new recruitment" Dhite areas were areas of maximum reflectance i"e" settlements and saltpans" 5hapes and sizes of the features also helped in identif%ing these features :lear water channels, due to maximum absorption of electromagnetic radiation in ,nfrared portion of the spectrum, were blac*ish in color" 5hallow water appeared gra% due to medium or relativel% higher reflection because of sediments" 7eddish brown color was a mix reflectance of dead algae and mud" Green patches on fishponds were algae on water"

+rownish gra% small patches on water were representatives of sludge (or dead algae!, which was confirmed after the field visit" &.7.&. S"ectral Signature 5pectral signatures are measurements of the percentage of solar reflectance as a function of wavelength (electromagnetic spectrum!" Mangroves show a reflectance pea* in infrared potion of spectrum of band ) in >uic*bird and /andsat satellite imager%" Different classes of mangroves are following the same spectral pattern of vegetation but percentage reflectance varies with tree height" 5altpans and settlements are l%ing high in signature mean plot due to maximum reflectance of electromagnetic radiation" Due to the presence of algae the reflectance pattern of water changes significantl%" &lgae contain chloroph%ll and it tends to reflect the radiation in infrared portion of spectrum"
Collowing are the selected spectral signatures of the representative land cover classes in >uic*bird and /andsat satellite data"

Cigure 116 5ignatures of classes selected as training areas in >uic*bird satellite imager%"

Cigure 1'6 5ignatures of selected representative land cover classes in /andsat data"

&.7.6. Scatter"lot3Feature S"ace $nal#sis Ceature space image has a similar raster file structure as an 47D&5 ,magine file except that instead of raster satellite image pixels it represents the plot of two bands, which is often called a scatter plot" 5catter plot is a graph, usuall% in two dimensions, in which data file values of one band are plotted against the data file values of another band" ,t is also called as scattergram" Different colours in scatterplot represent densities of pixels in image" #he brighter tones represent a high densit% and dar* tones represent a low densit% (5chradar and -ounc%, 1998!" Ceature spaces can be developed with a number of band combinations, provided with the number of bands available in a satellite image" Cor example six combinations of bands in >uic*bird satellite data could be used to create feature spaces but the selection of feature space to be used entirel% depends upon the land cover classes to be defined" ,n the case of >uic*bird and /andsat satellite data feature space between band- ' and band- ) were preferred" #he choice was due to the fact that vegetation has maximum reflection in the green band (in visible part of electromagnetic spectrum! and has reflectance pea* in the near infrared region of the spectrum" ,n the scatter plot of band ' and band ) the red loop represents the maximum occurrence of pixels in an image"

Cigure 1 6 5catterplot of band-' and band-) of >uic*bird satellite data

Cigure 1)6 5catterplot of band ' and band) of /andsat data

1.1.1. 4istogra1 of Training Sites Bistogram is a useful graphical representation of the information content of a remotel% sensed image" ,ndividual bands of remotel% sensed data are t%picall% .uantized (digitall% recorded! with brightness values recorded in various levels of gre% defined b% the formula 'n where JnK defines the number of bits"
Collowing are the histograms of the training sites defined in >uic*bird and /andsat satellites data in different bands" #hese histograms show the distribution of various classes existing in the image in terms of their fre.uenc% of occurrence and digital numbers"

F0123/ 15 Bistogram for data points included ,n training areas for cover t%pes in >uic*bird data"

F0123/ 1& Bistogram for data points included ,n training areas for cover t%pes in /andsat data

6. $nal#sis and Results:


+% using the supervised classification utilit% of 47D&5 ,M&G,I4 ;"8 each pixel in image data set was characteristicall% categorized into a thematic land cover class that it closel% resembled according to statistical rules defined for the spectral classification scheme" Maximum /i*elihood was the classification algorithm used for thematic mapping of satellite imager%" " 98and ') different classes were finall% lumped together and re-coded in 1 and 9 classes using 47D&5 ,M&G,I4 ;"8 for >uic*bird and /andsat data respectivel% <utput landcover maps are shown below along with landcover representative classes (areas in hectares!

Cigure 186 /andcover map of stud% area, prepared from >uic*bird data and representative landcover classes

Cigure 1;/andcover map derived from /andsat data and representative land cover classes

4.1.Tabular Representation of Results Land cover 8lasses #all Mangroves Medium Mangroves 5mall Mangroves 7egeneration Sub-Total for Mangroves 5alt +ushes Cloating &lgae &lgae on mud ;"28 1 1"( )'";' )uic*bird /4a2 28")2 1'2"9 1;(";9 2" 2 &.9 L$,(S$T /4a2 ;8"; '10")1 11 "0; 61..:

Land cover 8lasses 5ludgeGwet soil Dater 5ettlements 5alt pans Mudflats /and soil

)uic*bird /4a2 11"1; 0)"() )2";0 '2"01 1)9"2' )))"00

L$,(S$T /4a2 00"11 8;"91 119" 2 110"20 122" 9 9;"()

T,-./ 3 &reas of /andcover classes in >uic*bird and /andsat satellite data"

#he results reveal that accurac% of classification is governed b% spatial resolution" Bigh-resolution satellite imager% allowed selection of training areas with a high level of confidence and hence resulted in a landcover map with maximum accurac%" 7esulted landcover map has maximum number (1 ! of landcover classes" Mixed reflectance of landcover features in a relativel% big pixel size in /andsat satellite data caused increase in mangrove extent and hence effecting the results" #he mangrove vegetation shows a uniform trend of increase in area from landcover maps derived from high to low resolution satellite data" /andsat is unable to detect new recruitment and %oung mangrove strands (which are ver% sparse in respect of vegetation biomass and generall% exists in swamp% mudflats! due to the coarser resolution" #all mangroves are l%ing along the peripheries of the cree*s and mudflats and are ver% distinguishabl% defined on >uic*bird satellite imager% representing an area of 28")2 hectares" <n the other hand, /andsat image pic*s the minimum of tall mangroves because of its coarser resolution" -articularl% in narrow cree*s these tall mangroves along the peripheries might have been misclassified as water class and hence reducing the extent of tall mangroves" &s medium mangroves exist relativel% farther from the outer peripheries of the mudflats and cree*s and could be distinctivel% identified because of their low shadows and relativel% smooth canopies b% the >uic*bird satellite data" Dhile /andsat data pic*s the highest extent of area as medium mangroves b% including tall and some portion of small mangroves in it" Due to its coarser resolution it was not possible to differentiate exactl% between different heights of mangrove stands using /andsat" Esing >uic*bird data, small mangroves were identified on the basis of both their spectral reflectance as well as their association with the mudflats and cree*s because mostl% it was seen through the ground visit that farther from the peripher% and into the mudflats height of mangroves were graduall% and proportionall% decreased" Dhereas reduction in extent of mangroves in /andsat thematic map is the result of coarser resolution

of satellite imager% as medium and small mangroves were not easil% differentiable and resulted in a shift in both" 4#M? sensors was unable to decipher the reflectance of salt bush as its scattered patches are smaller as compared to their pixel resolution thus failed to separate a ver% important vegetation component into a separate landcover class" #wo categories of marine algae are classified on the /andcover map derived from >uic*bird satellite data i"e"L floating algae and algae on mud covering an area of 18 ";2 ha" <ccurrence of &lgae is a seasonal phenomenon and it dies off during winter season" +ecause of this reason, /andsat ma% fail in identif%ing an% form of &lgae" 6. . 8onclusions Bigh-resolution data identifies mangrove forest zones in terms of its height and helps in determining better control over classif%ing mangrove canop% cover" >uic*bird data shows better control in identif%ing slat bush as a separate landcover class and thus helped in preparing an accurate landcover map of the bac*waters of 5andspit region" ,t is observed that >uic*bird data can be used as Ground truth information for classif%ing low resolution datasets li*e /andsat and helps in improving accurac% of landcover classes derived from low resolution satellite imageries" References: &shraf, 5alman ('(()!" Mapping change in mangrove forest extent in a selected part of ,ndus deltaL identif%ing management and protection gaps using /andsat data (pp6 29-02! in Corever ,ndus, -roceedings of ,ndus Delta 4coregion Dor*shop b% &hmad, 4@az et al (4ds"!, DDC-a*istan" Clo%d, C 5abin",(1990! ,7emote 5ensing -rinciples and ,nterpretation, D"B Creeman and compan%, Iew Hor*" Giri, :"-" and Delsol, M"-" (199 !" Mangrove forest cover mapping in -hangnga +a%, #hailandL using 5-<# B7N and M475 -1 Data in :on@unction with G,5" -resented at ,nternational 5eminar for 7emote 5ensing on :oastal Oone and :oral 7eef &pplications at &sian ,nstitute of #echnolog%, +ang*o*, '2 th <ctober 199 - 1st Iovember 199 " Mensen, Mohn (1990!" ,ntroductor% digital image processing, -rentice Ball, E5&

>ureshi, M"#" 19;2" Dor*ing plan of mangrove forests (coastal forests! from 19;2-;0 to '(()-(2" 5indh Corest Department, Government of 5indh" >ureshi, M"#" 1990" 7estoration of Mangroves in -a*istan (pp6 1'01)'! in 7estoration of Mangrove 4cos%stems b% :olin Cield (4d"!, #he ,nternational #ropical #imber <rganization (,##<! and ,nternational 5ociet% for Mangrove 4cos%stems (,5M4!" <*inawa, Mapan" DDC, '(('" Mangrove conservation at 5andspit, -a*istan through promotion of sustainable livelihood (Mul% '((' to Mune '(()!, DDC-a*istan" Selected Lin*s: &ster, http6GGasterweb"@pl"nasa"gov Digital Globe, http6GGwww"digitalglobe"com