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DESIGN OF MACHINE ELEMENTS

DESIGN OF MACHINE ELEMENTS


(Common for Mechanical and Automobile Engineering)
3 2 0 100 5
UNIT I STEADY AND VARIABLE STRESSES 9
Introduction to the design process - factor influencing machine design, selection of materials
based on mechanical properties, Fits and Tolerances, Preferred numbers !irect, "ending
and torsional stress e#uations Impact and shoc$ loading calculation of principle stresses for
%arious load combinations, eccentric loading !esign of cur%ed beams crane hoo$ and &C'
frame - Factor of safet( - theories of failure stress concentration design for %ariable loading
)oderberg, *oodman and *erber relations+
UNIT II DESIGN OF SHAFTS AND COUPLINGS 9
!esign of solid and hollo, shafts based on strength, rigidit( and critical speed !esign of $e(s
and $e( ,a(s - !esign of rigid and fle-ible couplings Introduction to gear and shoc$
absorbing couplings - design of $nuc$le .oints+
UNIT III DESIGN OF FASTNERS AND WELDED JOINTS 9
Threaded fastners - !esign of bolted .oints including eccentric loading !esign of ,elded .oints
for pressure %essels and structures - theor( of bonded .oints+ (/i%eted .oints - self stud()
UNIT IV DESIGN OF SPRINGS AND LEVERS 9
!esign of helical, leaf, disc and torsional springs under constant loads and %ar(ing loads
Concentric torsion springs - "elle%ille springs !esign of 0e%ers
UNIT V DESIGN OF BEARINGS AND FLYWHEELS 9
!esign of bearings sliding contact and rolling contact t(pes+ Cubic mean load !esign of
.ournal bearings Mc$ees e#uation 0ubrication in .ournal bearings calculation of bearing
dimensions !esign of fl(,heels in%ol%ing stresses in rim and arm+
Not! "U# o$ P S G D#%&' D(t( Boo) %# *+,%tt- %' t. U'%/+#%t0 1(,%'(t%o'2
LECTURE ! 35
TUTORIAL ! 15
TOTAL ! 40
REFERENCES
1 2orton /+0, 3!esign of Machiner(4, Tata Mc*ra,-5ill "oo$ Co, 6778+
6 9rth,ein :, 3Machine Component !esign4, ;aico Publishing Co, 677<+
< =gural A+C, 3Mechanical !esign An Integral Approach, Mc*ra,-5ill "oo$ Co, 6778+
8 )potts M+F+, )houp T+E 3!esign and Machine Elements4 Pearson Education, 6778+
STANDARDS
1 I) 176>7? Part 1? 1@A6 Terms, definitions and classification of Plain bearings Part 1?
Construction+
6 I) 176>7? Part 1? 1@A6 Terms, definitions and classification of Plain bearings Part 6? Friction
and :ear+
< I) 176>7 ? Part 1 ? 1@A6 Terms, definitions and classification of Plain bearings Part < ?
0ubrication
1
DESIGN OF MACHINE ELEMENTS
UNIT I STEADY STRESSES AND VARIABLE STRESSES
IN MACHINE MEMBERS
1. What are the vari!" #ha"e" i$ %e"i&$ #r'e""( .)AUT CBE *+1+,
a. Recognition of need b. Definition of problem
c. Synthesis d. Analysis and Optimization
e. Evaluation f. presentation
*. H- the .a'hi$e %e"i&$ .a/ 0e '1a""i2ie%(
a. Adaptive design b. Developed design
c. Ne design d. Rational design
e. Empirical design f. !ndustrial design
3. What are the t/#e" 2 1a%" that 'a$ a't $ .a'hi$e '.#$e$t"(
a. Steady load b. "ariable load
c. Shoc# load d. !mpact load
4. Di22ere$tiate 0et-ee$ re"i1ie$'e a$% t!&h$e"".
Resilience is the property of the material to absorb energy and to resist shoc# and
impact loads. $his property is essential for spring materials. $oughness is the property of
the material to resist fracture due to high impact load. $his property is desirable in parts
sub%ected to shoc# and impact loads.
5. De2i$e Cree#.
&hen a part is sub%ected to a constant stress at high temperature for a long period of
time' it ill undergo a slo and permanent deformation called creep.
6. Sh'7 re"i"ta$'e 2 "tee1 i" i$'rea"e% 0/ a%%i$& 888888888888888.
Ans( Nic#el and )hromium
9. What are the 2a'tr" a22e'ti$& "e1e'ti$ 2 .ateria1 2r .a'hi$e e1e.e$t()AUT CBE
DEC *+1+,
1. *oad applied +. ,urpose and operating conditions of the part.
-. Suitability for manufacture. .. /inimum eight and optimal size
0. Availability and cost.
:. What i" #ti.!. %e"i&$(
!n iterative nature of design' e can arrive at a design hich provides the best
possible technical conditions li#e ma1imum on the best performance of the product ith
the least cost per unit' consistent ith eight' size' strength and similar considerations.
Such a design is called Optimum design.
;. De2i$e 2a'tr 2 "a2et/.
2actor of safety 32OS4 is defined as the ratio beteen the ma1imum stress and
or#ing stress.
+
1+. De2i$e -r7i$& "tre"".
&hen designing machine parts it is desirable to #eep the stress loer than the
ma1imum or ultimate stress at hich the failure of the material ta#es place. $his is
#non as or#ing stress or design process.
11. What i" '$ta't "tre""(
!t is defined as the localized compressive stress developed at the area of contact
beteen to curved members that are in relative motion.
1*. De2i$e 0eari$& <r= 'r!"hi$& "tre"".
A localized compressive stress at the surface of contact beteen to members of
machine part that are relatively at rest is #non as bearing stress or crushing stress.
13. Li"t !t the 2a'tr" i$v1ve% i$ arrivi$& at 2a'tr 2 "a2et/.)AUT CBE DEC *++;,
1. material properties
+. nature of load
-. presence of localized stress
.. presence of initial stress
0. mode of failure
14. I%e$ti2/ the %e"i&$ 2 the 211-i$& '.#$e$t" -hether it i" a%a#tive %e"i&$ r
%eve1#e% r $e- %e"i&$.
*athe' crane' gear bo1 and Ratchet mechanism.
*athe 5 developed design
)rane 5 ne design
6ear bo1 5 adaptive design
Ratchet mechanism 5 adaptive design
15. H- the a11-a01e "tre"" i" e"ti.ate% i$ %!'ti1e a$% 0ritt1e .ateria1"(
2or ductile materials
Alloable stresses 7 yield stress 8 factor of safety
2or brittle materials
Alloable stresses 7 ultimate stress8factor of safety.
16. What are the t/#e" 2 varia01e "tre""e"(
a. completely reversed or cyclic stresses b. fluctuating stresses
c. repeated stresses d. alternating stresses
19. What are #re2erre% $!.0er"(
&hen a machine is to be made in several sizes ith different poers or capacities' it
is necessary to decide hat capabilities ill cover a certain range efficiently ith a
minimum number of sizes. $he preferred numbers are the conventionally rounded off
values derived from geometric series including the integral poers of 19 and having a
common ratio of the folloing factors.
1:. Di22ere$tiate 0et-ee$ %ire't "tre"" a$% 0e$%i$& "tre"".
Direct stress( *oad is applied a1ially' the stress distribution is uniform throughout the
cross section. :ending stress( load is applied laterally' ie4 perpendicular to the a1is.
1;. The $e!tra1 a>i" 2 a 0ea. i" "!0?e'te% t 88888888888 "tre"".
Ans( zero
-
*+. The $e!tra1 a>i" 2 a "e'ti$ i" a1-a/" #a""e" thr!&h it" 888888888888.
Ans( )entroid
*1. De2i$e #ri$'i#a1 "tre"".
$he direct stresses acting along the principal planes 3hich have no shear stress4 in a
strained material is #non as principal stresses.
**. Di22ere$tiate 0et-ee$ re#eate% "tre"" a$% rever"e% "tre"".
Repeated stress refers to a stress varying from zero to a ma1imum value of same
nature. Reversed stress or cyclic stress varies from one value of tension to the same value
of compression.
*3. State Gri22th ther/.
A crac# can propagate if the energy release rate of crac# is greater than the crac#
resistance.
*4. De2i$e 2a'tr 2 "a2et/ 2r 2ati&!e 1a%i$&.
2actor of safety for fatigue loading 7 endurance limit stress8Design stress
*5. De2i$e E$%!ra$'e 1i.it.
Endurance limit is the ma1imum value of completing reversed stress that can sustain
an infinite number 319
;
4 of cycles ithout failure.
*6. What are the 2a'tr" a22e'ti$& e$%!ra$'e "tre$&th 2 a .ateria1( )AU MAY *++:,
1. load +. surface finish -. size
.. $emperature 0. impact ;. reliability
*9. What i" S@N '!rve(
S<N curve is a diagram having fatigue stress on y a1is and number of loading cycles in 1
a1is. !t is used to find the fatigue stress value corresponding to a given number of cycles.
*:. Fr tr"i$a1 "hear "tre""A it i" 88888888 at the 'e$tri% a>i" a$% 8888888 at the
!ter "!r2a'e.
Ans( zero' ma1imum.
*;. Write %-$ the 0e$%i$& eB!ati$.
$he bending e=uation is given by'
R
E
y I
M
b

&here'
/ < :ending moment acting at the given section
b

< :ending Stress


E 5 >oung?s modulus of the material of the beam
! 5 /oment of inertia of cross section about the neutral a1is.
> 5 Distance from neutral a1is to the e1treme fibre
R 5 Radius of curvature of the beam.
3+. Write the a##1i'ati$" 2 '!rve% 0ea..
1. crane hoo#es +. chain lin#s -. frames of punches
.. presses 0. planers
.
31. What i" tr"i$a1 "hear "tre""(
&hen a machine member is sub%ected to the action of to e=ual and opposite couples
acting in parallel planes 3or tor=ue or tisting moment' then the machine member is said
to be sub%ected to torsion. $he stress set up by torsion is #non as torsional shear stress.
3*. What are the a""!.#ti$" .a%e i$ tr"i$ eB!ati$(
1. $he material of the shaft is uniform throughout.
+. $he tist along the shaft is uniform.
-. $he normal cross section of the shaft' hich ere plane and circular before tist'
remain plane and circular after tist.
33. Write %-$ the tr"i$ eB!ati$.
$he torsion e=uation is given by'
1
G
R J
T

$ 5 $or=ue acting at the given section.
@ 5 ,olar moment of inertia of cross section about neutral a1is.
5 Shear stress
R 5 Radius of curvature
6 5 /odulus of rigidity of material of beam.
= 5 Angle of tist
l 5 *ength of tist
34. Write %-$ the &e$era1 e>#re""i$ 2r the 0e$%i$& "tre"" i$ a '!rve% 0ea.(
$he general e1pression for the bending stress in a curved beam is given by'

,
_

Y R
y
Ae
M
a
b

&here'

b
7 :ending stress.
/ 7 :ending moment acting at the given section about the centroidal a1is.
A 7 Area of cross section
e 7 Distance from the centroidal a1is to the neutral a1is.
> 7 Distance from the neutral a1is to the fibre under consideration.
35. What i" e''e$tri' 1a% a$% e''e$tri'it/( )AUT CBE *+1+,
An e1ternal load' hose line of action is parallel but does not coincide ith the
centroidal a1is of the machine component' is #non as an eccentric load. $he distance
beteen the centroidal a1is of the machine component and the eccentric load is called
eccentricity. 3e.g4 c<clamps' punching machines' brac#ets' offset connecting lin#s etc.
36. State %i22ere$t therie" 2 2ai1!re".
1. /a1imum principal stress theory 3or4 Ran#ines theory
+. /a1imum shear stress theory 3or4 6uest?s theory
-. /a1imum principal strain theory 3or4 Saint "anant theory
.. /a1imum distribution energy theory
0. /a1imum strain energy theory
39. State St.Va$e$t ther/ 2 2ai1!re.
0
According to this theory' failure occurs hen the ma1imum strain developed in the
machine member is e=ual to ma1imum strain at yield point in a tension test.
3:. What are the a##r#riate therie" 2 2ai1!re 2r %!'ti1e a$% 0ritt1e .ateria1"(
2or ductile materials 5 ma1imum distortion energy theory
2or brittle materials 5 ma1imum principle stress theory
3;. Ma>i.!. "hear "tre"" %eve1#e% i$ a 0ea. 2 re'tra$&!1ar "e'ti$ i" 888888888 the
avera&e "hear "tre"".
Ans( 1.0 times
4+. State .a>i.!. "hear "tre"" ther/.
According to ma1imum shear stress theory failure occurs hen the ma1imum shear
stress developed in a machine members is e=ual to the ma1imum shear stress at yield
point in a tension test.
41. E>#1ai$ rea"$" 2r !"i$& %i22ere$t therie" 2 2ai1!re".
$he problem of predicting the failure stresses for members sub%ected to bi a1ial or tri
a1ial stresses is much complicated. Aence e are using different theories of failure.
4*. De2i$e the ter. 2ati&!e.
&hen the material is sub%ected to repeated stresses' it fails at stresses belo the yield
point stresses' such type of failure is #non as fatigue.
43. De"i&$ 2 a #art "!0?e'te% t 0e$%i$& ..e$t i" %$e $ the 0a"i" 2 "a2e te$"i1e
"tre"". Wh/(
Due to bending loads' the stress is tensile at outer fibre and compressive at inner fibre.
All materials are ea# under tension than compression' hence the design of a part
sub%ected to bending moment is done on the basis of safe tensile stress.
44. Di22ere$tiate 0et-ee$ %ire't "hear "tre""e" a$% tr"i$a1 "hear "tre"".
$he induced stress due to tangential load to the specific cross section is direct shear
stress and distribution is uniform throughout.
A pure tisting moment acting on the machine member of a circular cross section
induces torsional shear stress. $his stress is zero at the centre and increases ith increase
in radius.
45. State a$/ t- .eth%" 2 "1vi$& #r01e." i$v1vi$& '.0i$e% "tea%/ r varia01e
"tre""e".
a4 6erber method b4 6oodman method c4 Soderberg method
46. De2i$e G%.a$ 1i$e.
!t is a straight line connecting the endurance limit and ultimate strength in variable
stress diagram and 6oodman line is applicable for designing of brittle materials.
49. What are Ger0er '!rve a$% S%er0er& 1i$e.
6erber curve is a parabola dran beteen endurance limit and ultimate tensile
strength. Soderberg line is a straight line connecting endurance limit and the yield
strength in variable stress diagram Soderberg line applicable for designing of ductile
materials.
;
4:. What i" "tre"" '$'e$trati$ a$% "tre"" '$'e$trati$ 2a'tr( )AUT CBE DEC *+1+
C MAY *++:,
$he irregularity in stress distribution caused by abrupt changes of form is called stress
concentration.Stress concentration factor 7 ma1imum stress at the change of cross section
8 nominal stress.
4;. What are the three i.#rta$t #i$t" -hi1e %e"i&$i$& .e.0er 2r i.#a't 1a%"(
1. ,arts for impact load should be designed to have ma1imum volume of material
stresses to highest e1isting stress.
+. Stress concentration must be eliminated.
-. !f plastic flo is tolerable and advantage is to be ta#en of its energy absorbing
potential' then ductile materials should be used.
5+. What are %i22ere$t .eth%" t re%!'e "tre"" '$'e$trati$(
1. providing fillets
+. Drilling additional holes
-. providing additional grooves
.. reducing shan# diameters in threaded fasteners.
0. drilling additional counter sun#.
51. State the %i22ere$t 2ai1!re therie" a$% the t/#e 2 .ateria1" 2r -hi'h the"e are
a##1i'a01e( )AUT CBE DEC *++;,
1. /a1imum principal theory 5brittle material.
+.Shear Stress $heory 5Ductile /aterial.
5*. De2i$e The Mr#h1&/ O2 De"i&$( )AUT CBE DEC *++;,
/orphology of design consisting of problem formulation analysis search for alternative an
evaluvation decision ta#ing and specification of the solution.
53. Stre"" I$te$"it/ Fa'tr(
S$RESS !N$ENS!$> 2A)$OR7
STRESS
NORMINAL
STRESS
MAXIMUM
54. De2i$e 2it a$% t1era$'e (
FitD
2it is the relation beteen the to matting parts in hich one is inserted in to the
other ith degree of tightness or looseness
55. -rite %-$ the 2a'tr" i$21!e$'i$& .a'hi$e %e"i&$ (
i4 cost
ii4 efficiency
iii4 strength
iv4 stiffness
v4ear resistance
vi4 dimension
B
UNIT II DESIGN OF SHAFTS AND COUELINGS
1. De2i$e "ha2t.
A shaft is a rotating machine element hich is used to transmit poer from one place
to another. Shaft is used for the transmission of tor=ue and bending moment.
*. Di22ere$tiate 0et-ee$ "ha2t a$% a>1e.
An a1le' through similar in shape to the shaft' is a stationary machine element and is
used for transmission of bending moment only. !t simply acts as a support for some
rotating body.
3. What i" "#i$%1e(
A spindle is a short shaft that imparts motion either to a cutting tool or to a or#piece.
4. What are the .ateria1" !"e% 2r "ha2t".
2or ordinary shafts 5 mild steel
2or high strength shafts 5 alloy steel such as Nic#el' Ni<)r steels 3or4 )r 5 " steels.
5. What are the t/#e" 2 "ha2t" a$% their i.#rta$'e(
1. $ransmission shafts 5 $hese shafts transmit poer beteen the source and the
machines absorbing poer. $hese shafts carry machine parts such as pulleys' gears
etc. they are sub%ected to bending in addition to tisting.
+. /achine shafts 5 these shafts form an integrated part of the machine itself. $he
cran#shaft is an e1ample of machine shaft.
6. What are vari!" t/#e" 2 "tre""e" i$%!'e% i$ the "ha2t". .)AUT CBE *+1+,
1. Shear stresses due to transmission of tor=ue.
+. :ending stresses.
-. Stresses due to combined torsional and bending loads.
9. What are "ta$%ar% "iFe" 2 tra$".i""i$ "ha2t"(
1. +0mm to ;9mm ith 0mm steps.
+. ;9mm to 119mm ith 19mm steps.
-. 119mm to 1.9mm ith 10mm steps.
.. 1.9mm to 099mm ith +9mm steps.
Standard length 5 0m' ;m and Bm.
:. O$ -hat 0a"i" the "ha2t" are %e"i&$e%.
1. :ased on rigidity and stiffness +. :ased on strength -. :ased on critical speed.
;. Di22ere$tiate the h11- "ha2t a$% "1i% "ha2t.
$he hollo shafts are used in marine or#. $hese shafts are stronger per #g of
material and they may be forged on a mandrel' thus ma#ing the material more
homogenous than a solid shaft.
1+. Give e>a.#1e" 2r "ha2t" "!0?e'te% t a>ia1 1a% i$ a%%iti$ t tr"i$ a$% 0e$%i$&
1a%".
a. propeller shafts of ships b. shafts for driving orm gears
c. main shaft of Caplan turbines.
D
11. What are the %e"ira01e #r#ertie" 2r the .ateria1" 2r "ha2t" a$% a>1e"(
a. sufficient high strength
b. a lo sensitivity to stress concentration
c. ability to ithstand heat and case hardening treatment.
d. good machinability
1*. H- the "ha2t" are %e"i&$e% -he$ it i" "!0?e'te% t t-i"ti$& ..e$t $1/(
&hen the shaft is sub%ected to tor=ue only' then it is designed based on torsion
e=uation.
13. Wh/ rtati$& "ha2t are &e$era11/ .a%e -ith 'ir'!1ar 'r"" "e'ti$(
Stress distribution pattern ill be uniform throughout the circular cross section.
14. De2i$e Tr"i$a1 "ti22$e"" 2 "ha2t.
!t is defined as the resisting strength of a shaft to torsional load.
/athematically it can be calculated by the formula.
15. I2 the "ha2t i" "!0?e'te% t tr"i$ a$% 0e$%i$& ..e$tA the "ha2t %ia.eter 'a$ 0e
%eter.i$e% 0a"e% $ the t- therie" $a.e1/ 888888888
Ans( 6uest?s theory and Ran#ine?s theory.
16. What are the -a/" 2 i.#rvi$& 1atera1 ri&i%it/ 2 "ha2t"(
1. maintaining proper bearing clearances
+. correct gear teeth alignment.
19. De2i$e 'riti'a1 "#ee% 2 a "ha2t.
Rotating shaft tends to vibrate violently in transverse direction at certain speeds
#non as critical 3or4 hirling speed. &hen the natural fre=uency of vibration is e=ual to
the speed of the shaft' resonance ill occur. Such a value of natural fre=uency is called
critical or hirling speed.
1:. State a$/ t- rea"$" 2r #re2erri$& h11- "ha2t ver "1i% "ha2t.
1. for some eight of shaft' hollo shaft can transmit 1.0 times the tor=ue transmitted
by solid shaft.
+. for a particular poer transmission hollo shaft re=uires minimum eight.
1;. What i" '1!.$ 2a'tr(
!f a long shaft sub%ected to a1ial load 3compressive load4 in addition to torsion and
bending' a factor must be introduced to ta#e the column effect into account.
*+. What i" 7e/(
Cey is an element hich is used to connect to machine parts for preventing relative
motion of rotation ith respect to each other.
*1. Na.e the "tre""e" i$%!'e% i$ a ta#er 7e/.
1. shear stress +. crushing stress
**. Na.e the t/#e" 2 7e/".
1. saddle #ey +. tangent #ey
-. sun# #ey .. round #ey and taper pin
*3. H- "!$7 7e/" are #rvi%e%(
E
Sun# #eys are provided half in the #ey ay of the shaft and half in the #ey ay of the
hub or boss of the pulley.
*4. Li"t vari!" t/#e" 2 "!$7 7e/".
1. Rectangular sun# #ey +. S=uare sun# #ey
-. ,arallel head #ey .. 6ib head #ey
0. 2eather #ey ;. oodruff #ey
*5. What i" a 7e/-a/(
Ceyay is a slot or recess in a shaft and hob of the pulley to accommodate a #ey.
*6. What i" &i0 hea% he/( What i" the a%va$ta&e"(
!n a rectangular sun# #ey ith a head at one end is #non as gib head #ey.
!t is usually provided to facilitate the removal of #ey.
*9. What i" 2eather 7e/(
A #ey attached to one member of a pair and hich permits relative a1ial movement is
#non as feather #ey. !t is a special type of parallel #ey hich transmits a turning
moment and also permits a1ial movement.
*:. What i" -%r!22 7e/( State it" a##1i'ati$.
!t is piece from a cylindrical disc having segmental cross section. A oodruff #ey is
capable of tilting in a recess milled out in the shaft by a cutter having the same curvature
as the disc from hich the #ey is made. $hey are largely used in machine tool and
automobile construction.
*;. What are a%va$ta&e" a$% %i"a%va$ta&e" 2 a -%r!22 7e/(
1. !t accommodates itself to any taper in the hub or boss of the mating piece.
+. !t is useful on tapering shaft end. !ts e1tra depth in the shaft prevents any tendency
to turn over in its #eyay.
3+. What are the t- t/#e" 2 "a%%1e 7e/"(
1. flat saddle #ey +. hollo saddle #ey
31. What are r!$% 7e/"(
$he round #eys are circular in section and fit into holes drilled partly in the shaft and
partly in the hub.
3*. What are "#1i$e"(
$he #eys are made integral ith the shaft hich fits in the #eyays broached in the
hub. Such shafts are #non as splined shafts. $hese shafts usually have four' si1' ten or
si1teen splines. $he splined shafts are relatively stronger than shafts having a single
#eyay.
33. Li"t the a%va$ta&e" 2 "#1i$e" ver 7e/".
1. Splines can be used hen both a1ial movements as ell as positive drive is to be
obtained.
+. !t is used hen the force to be transmitted is large in proportion to the size of the
shaft as in automobile transmission and sliding gear transmission.
34. What are vari!" 2r'e" a'ti$& $ a "!$7 7e/(
19
1. 2orces due to fit of the #ey in its #eyay.
+. 2orces due tor=ue transmitted by the shafts.
35. Li"t the vari!" #!r#"e" 2 "ha2t '!#1i$&"(
1. $o provide for the connection of shafts of units that is manufactured separately and
to provide for disconnection for repairs or alternations.
+. $o provide misalignment of the shafts or to introduce mechanical fle1ibility.
-. $o introduce protection against overloads.
.. $o reduce the transmission of shoc# loads from one shaft to another.
36. Li"t !t the reB!ire.e$t" 2 a "ha2t '!#1i$&(
1. !t should be easy to connect or disconnect.
+. !t should transmit the full poer of the shaft
-. !t should hold the shafts in perfect alignment.
.. !t should have no pro%ecting parts.
39. What i" ri&i% '!#1i$&( What are it" t/#e"(
!t is used to connect to shafts hich are perfectly aligned. $he types are
1. sleeve or muff coupling
+. clamp or split muff or compression couling
-. flange coupling.
3:. What i" 21e>i01e '!#1i$&( What are it" t/#e"(
2le1ible coupling is a type of coupling used to connect to shafts having both lateral
and angular misalignment.
$ypes( a4 :ushed pin type coupling
b4 Fniversal coupling
c4 Oldham?s coupling
3;. What i" a 21a$&e '!#1i$&( )AUT CBE DEC *+1+,
!t is a coupling having to seperate cast iron flanges. Each flange is mounted on the
shaft end and #eyed to it. $he faces are turned up at right angle to the a1is of the shaft.
One of the flange has a pro%ected portion and the other flange has a corresponding recess.
$his helps to bring the shafts into line and maintain alignment.
4+. What are vari!" t/#e" 2 21a$&e '!#1i$&(
1. unprotected type flange coupling
+. protected type flange coupling
-. marine type flange coupling
41. The ta#er $ a re'ta$&!1ar "!$7 7e/ i" 8888888888
Ans( 1 in 199.
4*. The "1eeve r .!22 '!#1i$& i" %e"i&$e% a" a 8888888888
Ans( hollo shaft.
43. What i" the %i22ere$'e 0et-ee$ ri&i% a$% 21e>i01e '!#1i$&(
Rigid coupling is used to connect to shafts hich are perfectly aligned.
2le1ible coupling is used to connect to shafts having both lateral and angular
misalignment.
44. Li"t a$/ t- .eth%" !"e% 2r .a$!2a't!ri$& 2 "ha2t".
11
1. cold rolling
+. hot rolling
-. turning or grinding from rough bars.
45. What i" the e22e't 2 7e/-a/ '!t i$t the "ha2t( )AUT CBE *+1+,
$he #eyay cut into the shaft reduces the load carrying capacity of the shaft. $his is
due to the stress concentration near the corners of the #eyay and reduction in the cross
sectional area of the shaft. !n other ords the torsional strength of the shaft is reduced.
46. What i" the %i22ere$'e 0et-ee$ '!#1i$& a$% a '1!t'h( )AUT CBE *++;,
A coupling is a device used to ma#e permanent or semi permanent connection here
as a clutch permits rapid connection or disconnection at ill of the operator.
49. What i" the .%e 2 2ai1!re 2 the 01t" i$ a 21a$&e '!#1i$&(
Direct shear stress failure due to tor=ue transmission.
4:. Whe$ a "1i% 21a$&e '!#1i$& i" #re2erre%(
Solid flange couplings are preferred for very large shafts or hen large torsional
moments and forces are to be transmitted such as those used for propeller shafts'.
4;. I$%i'ate -hat t/#e 2 '!#1i$& i" !"e% !$%er 211-i$& '$%iti$".
a4 shafts having collinear a1is
b4 shafts having intersecting a1es
c4 shafts having parallel a1es ith a small distance apart.
Ans(
a4 Rigid or fle1ible coupling
b4 Fniversal coupling
c4 Double slider cran# principle mechanism
5+. H- '!#1i$&" are "#e'i2ie%(
a4 Diameter of shaft
b4 Diameter of sleeve or muff
c4 *ength of sleeve or muff
d4 Outer diameter of hub
e4 Nominal diameter or bolt
f4 ,)D of bold circle
51. Di22ere$tiate 0et-ee$ a 'tter ?i$t a$% a 7$!'71e ?i$t.
)otter %oint is used to connect to rigid rods for transmitting motion ithout rotation.
$his %oint is sub%ected to a1ial forces. Cnuc#le %oint is used for connecting to rods and
transmitting a1ial force. $his %oint permits a small amount of fle1ibility.
5*. Whi'h t/#e 2 7e/ i" !"e% 2r .!$ti$& "hi2ti$& &ear" i$ &ear 0>e"(
Splines.
53. What i" 7$!'71e ?i$t(
Cnuc#le %oint is used to connect to rods hich are under the action of tensile loads.
55. I%e$ti2/ the -ea7e"t '.#$e$t -hi1e %e"i&$i$& "ha2t a$% h!0 a""e.01/.
Cey.
54. What are the vari!" .eth%" 2 2ai1!re 2 7$!'71e ?i$t(
1+
1. 2ailure of solid rod in tension
+. 2ailure of #nuc#le pin in shear
-. 2ailure of single eye or rod end in shear
.. 2ailure of single eye or rod in tension
0. 2ailure of single eye or rod end in crushing
;. 2ailure of for#ed end in tension
B. 2ailure of for#ed end in shear
D. 2ailure of for#ed end in crushing
56. I$ a "tea. e$&i$eA the va1ve r% i" '$$e'te% t a$ e''e$tri' 0/ .ea$" 2 a 88888888
Ans( Cnuc#le @oint
59. H- h11- "ha2t are "!#erir t "1i% "ha2t( )AUT CBE DEC *++;,
$he eight of hollo shaft is B0G less then solid shaft for same tor=ue transmission
5:. I" -hat "it!ati$ 21e>i01e '!#1i$& are !"e%( )AUT CBE DEC *++;,
$he fle1ible coupling is employed to tolerate lateral and angular misalignment of the
shafts.
5;. What 7i$% 2 1a%i$& i" #er.i""i01e G$!'71e Hi$t( )AUT CBE DEC *++;,
Ans( $ensile *oad
6+. De2i$e Ere2erre% N!.0er"( )AUT MAY*++:,
,referred Numbers from a general basis for standardizing and grding a series of
simulator dimension characteristics or articles
61. Wh/ a ha11- "ha2t ha" &reat "tre$&th a$% "ti22$e"" the$ "1i% "ha2t 2 eB!a1 -ei&ht(
)AU MAY *++:,
$he eight of hollo shaft is B0G less then solid shaft for same tor=ue transmission
6*. What t/#e" 2 "tre""e" are %eve1#e% i$ the 7e/ ( )AU MAY*++:,
i4 shear stress
ii4 crushing stress
63. What are the vari!" 2a'tr" i$v1ve% i$ &% "ha2t '!#1i$&( )AUT CBE DEC *+1+,
i4 !t should be easy to connect or disconnect
ii4 !t transmit full poer of the shaft
UNIT@III DESIGN OF FASTENERS AND WELDED HOITS
1. De2i$e #it'h a$% 1ea% 2 a threa%.
A1ial distance from a point on one thread to corresponding point of ne1t thread is
called pitch. *ead is the distance the scre moves in one turn.
*. What are the "tre""e" a't" $ "'re- 2a"te$i$&(
1. !nitial stresses due to screing up
+. Stresses due to e1ternal forces
-. )ombined stresses
3. Give ".e e>a.#1e" 2r te.#rar/ ?i$t" a$% #er.a$e$t ?i$t".
,ermanent %oints 5 Riveted %oints' elded %oints' bonded %oints
1-
$emporary %oints 5 $hreaded %oints' cotter %oints' #nuc#le %oints
4. Li"t the a%va$ta&e" 2 "'re-e% ?i$t".
1. highly reliable
+. convenient to assemble and disassemble
-. relatively cheap to produce due to standardization and highly efficient
manufacturing processes.
5. What are the vari!" 2r." 2 "'re- threa%"(
1. :ritish standard hitorth 3:S&4 thread +. :ritish Association thread
-. Fnified standard thread .. American national standard thread
0. S=uare thread ;. A)/E thread B. /etric thread
6. A 01t 2 M*4 > * .ea$ that 888888888.
Nominal diameter of bolt is +.mm ith pitch of +mm.
9. De2i$e #it'h %ia.eter 2 a "'re- threa%.
!t is the diameter of an imaginary cylinder on hich scre thread surface ould pass
through the thread at such points ma#e e=ual idth of thread and e=ual idth of spaces
beteen threads.
:. V threa% a$&1e i$ BSW threa% i" 888888888888.
Ans( 00
;. H- "'re- threa%" are 2r.e%(
A scre thread is formed by cutting a continuous helical groove on a cylindrical surface.
1+. What i" the %i22ere$'e 0et-ee$ a "t!% a$% a 01t(
Stud is a round bar threaded at both ends.
:olt is a cylindrical bar ith threads for nut at one end and heat at the other end.
11. E>#1ai$ -h/ "2t .ateria1 i" !"e% 2r $!t i$ #-er "'re-".
Soft bearing material used for nut ears fast and only a nut of small size needs
replacement. !t reduces the cost of replacement.
1*. What % /! .ea$ 0/ "i$&1e "tart threa%"(
&hen a nut is turned on a bolt by one full turn hich is having a single continuous
thread cut on it' it advances a1ially through a distance e=ual to pitch. Aence in a single
continuous thread 3single start thread4 the lead is e=ual to pitch.
13. Li"t ".e 1'7i$& %evi'e"
1. *oc# nut +. )astle nut -. San nut .. 6rooved nut
14. What are the i$itia1 "tre""e" i$%!'e% %!e t "'re-i$& !# 2r'e"(
1. $ensile stress due to stretching of bolt.
+. $orsional shear stress caused by frictional resistance of threads during its tightening
-. Shear stress across threads
.. )ompression or crushing stress on threads
0. :ending stress if the surfaces under the head or nut are not perfectly parallel to the bolt
a1is.
15. What i" the %e"i&$ati$ 2 "'re- threa%(
1.
a4 Size designation
/ HH HH

Nominal ,itch diameter
!f pitch is not specified it means course pitch.
b4 $olerance designation
A letter folloed by a number.
*etters used are'
A 5 Fnit thread
d < :olt thread ith alloance
h < :olt thread ithout alloance.
Number used are'
B < 2or fine grade
D < 2or normal or medium grade
E < )oarse grade.
16. What i" 01t 2 !$i2r. "tre$&th( )AUT CBE MAY *++:,
A bolt of uniform strength has e=ual strength at the thread and shan# position.
19. What are the -a/" t #r%!'e 01t" 2 !$i2r. "tre$&th(
1. Reducing shan# diameter e=ual to root diameter +. Drilling a1ial holes
1:. What are the a%va$ta&e" 2 #re1a%i$&(
1. Stops lea#ages
+. !mproves fatigue strength
1;. B/ -hat .ateria1" threa%e% 2a"te$er" are .a%e 2(
Steel is the material of hich most of the fasteners are made. 2or improving their
properties alloy steels li#e nic#el steel' Ni<)r steel' )r<" steel are preferred.
*+. De2i$e the 211-i$& ter.".
a4 /a%or diameter b4 /inor diameter
a4 /a%or diameter 5 !t is the diameter of a coa1ial cylinder that ould %ust touch the
crest of the e1ternal thread as in the case of bolt or root of an internal thread as in the
case of nut. !t is the ma1imum diameter or outside diameter or nominal diameter of
thread.
b4 /inor diameter 5 !t is the diameter of a coa1ial cylinder that ould touch the root
of an e1ternal thread and crest of an internal thread. $his is the minimum diameter of
scre also called as core diameter or root diameter of thread.
*1. I$ -hat -a/ 'ar"e threa% i" %i22ere% 2r. 2i$e threa%(
2ine and coarse threads are having same ma%or and minor diameters e1cept their pitch
values. 2ine threads are having smaller pitches than coarse threads.
**. What i" a t!r$ 0!'71e a$% -here it i" !"e%(
A turn buc#le is a type of connecting element for connecting to tie rods. !n this type
of %oint' one of tie rods is having right hand thread and the other is having left hand
thread. $hese rods are screed into the threaded hold of the turn buc#le. !t is also called
as coupler nut.
*3. State the re1ati$ 0et-ee$ #it'h a$% 1ea% 2r a "i$&1e "tart a$% %!01e "tart threa%".
10
* 7 n p
&here * 5 *ead
n 5 Number of starts
p 5 ,itch
2or single start thread' lead 7 ,itch
2or double start thread' lead 7 + ,itch
*4. What are the vari!" .eth%" 2 #reve$ti$& threa% 1"e$i$&(
1. ,roviding loc#ing devices
+. Selecting scre having large number of threads per unit length.
*5. E$!.erate the %e.erit" 2 "'re- ?i$t".
1. Stress concentration is available in threaded portions and hence loering of their life.
+. Self loosening properties and hence air tight %oints cannot be maintained unless
providing some loc#ing devices.
*6. De2i$e "e12 1'7i$& i$ #-er "'re-". )AUT CBE *++;,
!f the friction angle is greater that the heli1 angle of the poer scre' the tor=ue
re=uired loering the load ill be positive' indicating that an effort is applied to loer the
load. $his type of scre is #non as self loc#ing scre. $his efficiency of the self
loc#ing scre is less than 09G.
&E*DED @O!N$S(
*9. What are the .ai$ i$%i'ati$" 2 '.#1ete -e1% "/.01(
1. Reference line +. Arro
-. :asic eld symbol .. Dimensions
0. $ail ;. Supplementary symbol
B. 2inish symbol D. Specification
E. ,rocess
*:. What are the .ai$ t/#e" 2 -e1%i$&( )AUT CBE *+1+,
1. 2orge elding +. 2usion elding -. Electric resistance elding
*;. What are vari!" t/#e" 2 -e1%e% ?i$t"(
1. *ap 3or4 fillet %oint
a. $ransverse fillet b. ,arallel fillet c. )ircular fillet
+. :utt %oint
a. S=uare butt b. " butt c. F butt
-. )orner %oint
.. Edge %ont
0. $ %oint
3+. What are the a%va$ta&e" 2 -e1%i$&(
1. &elded %oints are higher in eight and have higher efficiency
+. &elded %oints are lea# proof
-. Economical from the point of coat of material and labours.
.. $he design can be easily and economically modified to meet the changing product
re=uirements.
0. *ess time for production.
31. State the 1i.itati$ 2 -e1%i$&.
1;
1. !t has poor vibration damping characteristics.
+. &elding results distortion of parts hich induces residual stresses.
3*. Give e>#re""i$ !"e% 2r 'a1'!1ati$& "tre$&th 2 "i$&1e a$% %!01e 2i11et a$% #ara11e1
2i11et -e1%.
2or single fillet' p 7 9.B9B sl
t
2or double fillet' p 7 1..1. sl
t
2or parallel fillet' p 7 9.B9B sl
&here s 7 &eld size
l 7 *ength of eld

t
7 $ensile stress
7 Shear stress
33. What are e''e$tri'a11/ 1a%e% -e1%e% ?i$t"I
!f the e1ternal load applied on the elded %oint is not passing through its geometric
centre then it is called as eccentrically loaded elded %oint.
34. What are "tre""e" i$%!'e% i$ e''e$tri'a11/ 1a%e% -e1%e% ?i$t(
1. Direct shear stress
+. :ending 3or4 torsional shear stress
35. What are the t/#e" 2 e''e$tri'a11/ 1a%e% -e1%e% ?i$t"(
1. &elded %oint sub%ected to moment in the plane of the eld.
+. &elded %oint sub%ected to moment in a plane normal to the plane of eld.
36. H- t 2i$% the "tre$&th 2 a -e1% havi$& '.0i$ati$ 2 "i$&1e tra$"ver"e a$%
%!01e #ara11e1 2i11et -e1%.
, 7 ,
transverse
I ,
parallel
7 9.B9B sl
1

t
I 1..1. sl
+


39. Wh/ are -e1%e% ?i$t" #re2erre% ver rivete% ?i$t"( )AUT CBE DEC *++;,
Rivetted @oints &elded @oints
1. /etal plates are to be drilled
and %oined by rivets.
+. !t may re=uire covering plates
1. Drilling or# is eliminated' plates
can be directly elded.
+. No covering plate is re=uired.
3:. What are !$'ertai$tie" t 0e '$"i%ere% i$ %e"i&$ 2 -e1%"(
1. Stress concentration +. /etallurgical change
-. Residual stresses
3;. What are the a""!.#ti$" .a%e i$ %e"i&$ 2 -e1%e% ?i$t( )AUT CBE DEC *++;,
1. !t is assumed that the tensile stress is distributed uniformly across the section of
the butt eld.
+. !t is assumed that the shear stress in a parallel fillet eld is uniformly distributed
along the entire length of the eld.
-. Stress situation in a fillet eld is complicated because of bending action of the
force.
1B
4+. What are .eth%" 2 .i$i.iFi$& -e1%i$& %i"trti$(
1. Fse of rugged %igs and fi1tures
+. !ntermittent elding
-. :ac#<step elding
.. &elding on alternate sides.
41. De2i$e the ther/ 2 0$%e% ?i$t"( )AUT CBE DEC *++;,

A rivet is a short cylindrical bar ith a head integral to it. $he cylindrical portion of the rivet
is called shan# or body and loer portion of the shan# is #non astail.$he riveted %oints are
idely used for %ointing light metals
4*. What i" .ea$t 0/ the e22i'ie$'/ 2 the rivete% ?i$t( )AUT CBE DEC *+1+,
Efficiency of the riveted %oint7 leave of pt' ps and pc8 pt ft
,7pitch of the rivets
t7thic#ness of the plate
ft7permissible tensile stress of the plate material
43. What i" 'a!17i$& a$% 2!11eri$&(
!n order to ma#e the %oints lea# proof or fluid tight in pressure vessels li#e steam
boilers' air receivers and tan#' the process #non as caul#ing.
A more satisfactory ay of ma#ing the %oints arrest is #non as fullering.
44. What i" the .ea$i$& 2 01t M*4J*( )AU MAY *++:,
A bolt of /+.J+ mean that the nominal diameter of bolt is +. mm and pitch is + mm
45. Write %-$ a%va$ta&e" a$% %i"a%va$ta&e" 2 threa%e% 2a"te$er"( )AUT CBE DEC *+1+,
A%va$ta&eD
i4 Screed %oints are highly reliable in operation
ii4 Screed %oints are convenient to assemble and dis assemble
Di"a%va$ta&e
i4 $he stress concentration in the threaded portions hich are vulnerable points
under variable load conditions
UNIT@IV DESIGN OF SERINGS
1D
1. What i" "#ri$& a$% -here it i" e.#1/e%(
A spring is an elastic body' hich distorts hen loaded and recover its original shape
hen the load is removed. !t finds applications in many places such as automobiles'
railay agons' bra#es' clutches' atches and so on.
*. B/ -hat .ateria1" "#ri$&" 'a$ .a%e(
Springs are made of oil tempered carbon steel containing 9.;G to 9.BG carbon and
9.;G to 1G manganese. ,hosper bronze' monel metal' beryllium' copper are used for
special purpose.
3. What t/#e 2 "#ri$& i" !"e% i$ Ra." 0tt. "a2et/ va1ve(
Aelical tension spring.
4. What are 2!$'ti$" 2 the "#ri$&( )AUT CBE DEC *++;,
a. $o measure forces in spring balance' meters and engine indicators.
b. $o store energy.
5. Na.e vari!" t/#e" 2 "#ri$&".
Aelical springs' Spiral springs' leaf springs and disc 3or4 :elleville spring.
6. What i" S#ri$& I$%e>(
!t is the ratio of mean pitch diameter to the diameter of the ire.
9. What are A'tive a$% I$a'tive 'i1"(
$he coils hich are free to defect under load is called active coils and the coils hich
do not ta#e part in deflection of a spring is called inactive coils.
D. Whe$ the he1i'a1 "#ri$& i" '!t i$t t- ha1ve"A the "ti22$e"" 2 the re"!1ti$& "#ri$&
-i11 0e 888888888888.
3Doubled4
;. De2i$e the ter. KS#ri$& RateL(
!t is defined as the load re=uired per unit deflection. !t is also called as stiffness of the spring.
De2i$e "!r&i$& 2 "#ri$&" )AUT CBE DEC *+1+,
$he spring material is sub%ected to higher stresses' hich may cause early fatigue
failure of springs. $his effect is called as surging of springs.
1+. H- -i11 /! 2i$% -hether the &ive$ he1i'a1 "#ri$& i" a '.#re""i$ "#ri$& r
te$"i$ "#ri$&(
$he ends of compression springs are flat hereas for tension springs' hoo#s ill be
provided at the ends. )oils ill be slightly open for compression springs to facilitates
compression hereas in tension springs the coils are very close.
11. What .ateria1 i" !"e% 2r 1ea2 "#ri$&(
,lain carbon steel having 9.EG to 1G carbon is annealed condition is normally used
for leaf springs chrome vanadium and silica manganese steels are used for the better
grade springs.
1*. What are the 2!$'ti$" a re0!$% '1i# a$% a U '1i# i$ a 1ea2 "#ri$&(
A rebound and F clips are used for holding the leaves of the springs together.
1E
13. What i" $i##i$& 2 1a.i$ate% 1ea2 "#ri$&( Di"'!"" it" r11 i$ "#ri$& %e"i&$.
,re stressing of leaf springs is obtained by a difference of radii of curvature #non as
nipping.
$he initial gap can be ad%usted so that under ma1. load conditions the stress in all the
leaves ill be same or' if desired the stress is the full length leaves may be less.
14. Fr "#ri$&" i$ "erie"A the "#ri$& rate" <"ti22$e""= a%% re'i#r'a11/ @ #rve.
&hen the springs are connected in series then total deflection produced by the spring
is e=ual to the sum of the deflections of the individual springs.
>
e=u
7 >
1
I>
+
p8=
e=u
7 3p8=
1
4 I 3=8=
+
4
18=
e=u
7 318=
1
4 I 318=
+
4
15. What are the e$% '$%iti$" 2 "#ri$&"(
a. ,lain en. b. ,lain and ground end.
c. S=uared end. d. S=uared and ground end.
16. What i" 0!'71i$& 2 "#ri$&"(
$he helical compression springs behaves li#e a column and buc#ler at a comparative
small load hen the length of the spring is move than four times the mean coil diameter.
19. Wh/ Wah1M" 2a'tr i" t 0e '$"i%ere% i$ the %e"i&$ 2 he1i'a1 '.#re""i$
"#ri$&(
&hen ire ound in the form of heli1' compressive stress is induced in the inner side
of spring and tensile stress is induced in outerside of spring. Due to this stress
concentration is produced in outerside of spring. So &ahl?s factor is to be considered in
the design of #elical compression spring.
1:. Whe$ t- '$'e$tri' "#ri$&" 2 "ti22$e"" 1++ NI.. a$% 5+ NI.. re"#e'tive1/
are "!0?e'te% t a$ a>ia1 1a% 2 95+ N. What -i11 0e the %e21e'ti$ 2 ea'h "#ri$&(
C
1
7 199 N8mm C
+
7 09 N8mm
load , 7 B09 N.
)oncentric springs' so springs are in parallel.
E=uivalent stiffness C7 C
1
I C
+
.
199 I 09 7 109 N8mm
Deflection 7 load 8 e=uivalent stiffness
7 B098109 7 0 mm.
1;. Wh/ 1ea2 "#ri$&" are .a%e i$ 1a/er" i$ "tea% 2 a "i$&1e #1ate(
*eaf springs are made in layer only for distributing the shear forces and bending
moment evenly.
*+. De2i$e "1i% 1e$&th 2 he1i'a1 "#ri$&.
&hen compressions spring is compressed until the coils come in contact ith each
other' then the spring is said to be solid and resulting length is called solid length.
*1. De2i$e 2ree 1e$&th 2 a he1i'a1 "#ri$&(
!t is the length of the spring in free or unloaded condition.
**. Wh/ the '1eara$'e i" #rvi%e% 0et-ee$ a%?a'e$t 2 a he1i'a1 "#ri$&(
$o prevent closing of the coils during service ith ma1imum or#ing load.
+9
*3. De2i$e the ter. "#ri$& "ti22$e"" <r= "#ri$& rate.
!t is defined as the load re=uired per unit defection of the spring.
*4. De2i$e #it'h 2 the "#ri$& 'i1.
,itch of the coil is defined as the a1ial distance beteen ad%acent coils uncompressed
state.
*5. What are #i$t" t 0e '$"i%ere% i$ 'h"i$& the #it'h 2 "#ri$& 'i1"(
a. !t should be such that if the spring is accidentally carelessly compressed' the
stress does not increase the yield stress in torsion.
b. Spring should not close up before ma1imum service load is reached.
*6. H- t avi% 0!'71i$& 2 "#ri$&(
!n order to avoid buc#ling of spring' it is either mounted on a central rod or located on
a tube.
*9. What are the .eth%" !"e% 2r e11i$ati$ 2 "!r&e" i$ "#ri$&"(
1. :y using friction dempers on the centre coils so that the ave propagation dies out.
+. :y using springs of high natural fre=uency.
-. :y using springs having pitch of coils near the ends different at the centre to have
different natural fre=uencies.
*:. What are %i"a%va$ta&e" i$ He1i'a1 "#ri$&" 2 $$@'ir'!1ar -ire(
a. $he =uality of material used for springs is not so good.
b. $he shape of the ire does not remain s=uare or rect angular hile forming
heli1 resulting in trapezoidal cross sections. !t reduces the energy adsorbing capacity
of the spring.
c. $he stress distribution is not favourable as for circular ires.
*;. Whe$ the '$'e$tri' "#ri$&" are #re2erre% 2r !"a&e(
a. $o obtain greater sprig force ithin a given space.
b. $o insure the operation of a mechanism in the event of failure of one of the
springs.
3+. H- eB!a1iFe% "tre"" i$ 1ea2 "#ri$& 1eave" i" a'hieve%(
1. :y ma#ing the full length of leaves of smaller thic#ness than the graduated leaves.
+. :y giving greater radius of curvature to the full length leaves than graduated leaves.
31. What i" .ea$t 0/ I$itia1 te$"i$ i$ he1i'a1 "#ri$&"(
!n tension helical springs' it is necessary to apply from +9 to -9G of the ma1imum load
before the coils begin to separate duding close coil inding.
3*. Na.e 2e- a##1i'ati$" 2 he1i'a1 tr"i$ "#ri$&".
1. Door inge springs.
+. Springs for starters in Automobiles.
-. Springs for brush holders in electric motors.
33. What are the #!r#"e" 2 '.#"ite "#ri$&"(
A concentric or composite spring is used for one of the folloing purposes.
+1
1. $o obtain greater spring force ithin a given space.
+. $o insure the operation of a mechanism in the event of failure of one of the springs.
34. What i" tr"i$ "#ri$&"(
$orsion springs may be of helical or spiral type. $he helical type may be used only in
applications here the load tends to ind up the spring and are used in various electrical
mechanisms. $he spring type is also used here the load tends to increase the number of
coils and hen made of flat strip are used in atches and cloc#s.
35. T- '$'e$tri' "#ri$&" -ith "ti22$e"" eB!a1 t 1++ NI.. a$% :+ NI..
re"#e'tive1/ -he$ "!0?e'te% t a 1a% 2 ;++ N. Fi$% %e21e'ti$.
$otal stiffness # 7 #
1
I#
+
7 199ID9 7 1D9 N8mm
Deflection 7 force8#
7 E9981D9 7 0 mm.
-;. The he1i'a1 "#ri$& rate 1+ NI.. i" .!$te% $ t# 2 a$ther "#ri$&" 2 rate :
NI... Fi$% the 2r'e reB!ire% t &ive %e21e'ti$ 2 45 ...
Since the springs are arranged in series total stiffness.
mm N k
k
k k
k k
k
k k
k k
k
k k k
8 .. . .
19 D
19 D
1
1 1 1
+ 1
+ 1
+ 1
+ 1
+ 1

+
# 7 force8deflection
force 7 # deflection
7 ...0 .0 7 +99 N.
39. H- the "ti22$e"" 2 a "#ri$& 'a$ 0e i$'rea"e%(
$he stiffness of a spring can be increased by decreasing the number of turns.
3:. What t/#e" 2 "tre""e" are i$'1!%e% i$ the -ire" 2 he1i'a1 '.#re""i$ "#ri$&
a$% tr"i$a1 "#ri$&(
)ompressive or tensile stresses in helical compression spring and
:othe tensile and compressive stresses in case of torsional spring due to bending.
3;. What are the "tre""e" i$%!'e% i$ he1i'a1 "#ri$&" 2 'ir'!1ar -ire.
!n addition to torsional shear stress' Direct shear stress due to load and stress due to
curvature ire are induced.
4+. H- '$'e$tri' "#ri$&" are 0tai$e%(
$o or more springs are %oined to form a nest.
++
41. Write the a%va$ta&e 2 1ea2 "#ri$& ver he1i'a1 "#ri$&"(
*eaf springs are made out of flat plates. $he advantage of leaf spring over helical
spring is that the end of the spring may be guided along a definite path as it deflects to act
as a structural member in addition to energy absorbing device.
4*. Write %-$ the 2r.!1a 2r .a>i.!. "tre"" a$% %e21e'ti$ 2 a 'a$ti1ever
"#ri$&.
/a1imum stress 7 ;,*8bt
+
deflection 7 ;,*
-
8Ebt
-
43. De2i$e 'a.0er.
!t is the vertical distance beteen centre of the eye to the ma1imum deflection in main
or master leaf in leaf spring.
44. Na.e the "#ri$& !"e% i$ &ra.#h$e".
2lat spiral springs.
.0. 8888888888 "#ri$&" are !"e% i$ a##1i'ati$" -here hi&h "#ri$& rate" a$%
'.#a't "#ri$& !$it" are reB!ire%.
Disc 3or4 :elleville.
46. Wh/ 2!11 1e$&th 1eave are !"e% i$ a!t.0i1e(
$his is desirable in automobile springs in hich full length leave are designed or
loer stress be cause full length leaves carry addition loads caused by the saying and
tisting.
49. What 2a'tr "h!1% 0e '$"i%ere% 2r the %e"i&$ 2 "#ri$&"(
1. Deflection criterion +. /aterial strength properties
-. Service environment .. Desired life 0. /anufacturing cost etc.
4:. H- the 1a% i" .a%e t a't '$'e$tri' -ith "#ri$& a>i" i$ he1i'a1 "#ri$&".
:y ma#ing the to ends of spring as s=uared and ground ends' the load can be made
to act' concentric ith spring a1is.
4;. De2i$e 1ever.
A lever is a rigid rod or bar capable of turning about a fi1ed point called fulcrum. !t is
used as a machine to lift a load by the application of a small effort.
De2i$e .e'ha$i'a1 a%va$ta&e 2 a 1ever. )AUT CBE DEC *+1+,
5+.
!t is the ratio of load lifted to the effort applied.
51. Na.e the t/#e" 2 1ever".
+-
1. 2irst type of levers. +. Second type of levers. -. $hird type of levers.
/.A. 3/echanical K 1 K 1 L1
Advantage4
2 fulcrum & load , Effort
5*. What are the 2r'e" a'ti$& $ a 1ever(
1. load 3&4 +.Effort 3,4 -.Reaction at the fulcrum 3R
2
4
53. Na.e 2 the e>a.#1e 2 1ever".
2irst type
1. :ell cran# lever used in railay signals
+. Roc#er arum in !) Engines.
-. Aandle of a hand pump.
.. Aandheel of punching prors.
0. 2oot lever.
Second type < *evers of laded safety valves.
$hird type < treadle of seing machine.
54. Li"t the 0a"i" $ -hi'h the %e"i&$ 2 #!i r r'7er ar. 2 a$ IC E$&i$e i" .a%e(.
:earing' Shearing and :ending failure.

55. De2i$e Re"i1ie$'e O2 a S#ri$& ( )AUT CBE DEC *++;,
!t is the amount of energy absorbed by the spring per unit deflection.
56. Where are 0e11ievi11e "#ri$& !"e% ( )AUT CBE DEC *+1+,
!t is the amount of energy absorbed by the spring per unit deflection.
59. Wh/ are "#ri$&" !"e% i$ the .a'hi$e"( )AUT CBE DEC *+1+,
a. Spring are used to absorb shoc# and vibrations of the machine
b. !t is used here high spring rate and compact spring units are re=uired
5:. De2i$e Re"i1ie$'e O2 a S#ri$& ( )AUT CBE DEC *++;,
!t is the amount of energy absorbed by the spring per unit deflection.
5;. De2i$e 2ree 1e$th 2 a "#ri$& ( )AUT CBE DEC *++;,
!t is lenth of spring is the free or unloading condition
6+. What i" the 2!$'ti$ 2 a "#i$& ( )AUT CBE DEC *++;,
$he spring absorbs shoc# and vibration
61. State a$/ t- i.#rta$t a##1i'ati$" 2 1ea2 "#ri$& ( )AUT CBE DEC *++;,
$he leaf spring are commonly used used in automobile
+.
F

P W W W
P P
F

First type Second type Third type


6*. State the 211-i$& ( )AU MAY *++:,
i= Levera&e N
arm
load
of
Lenth
arm
effort
of
Length
ii= 1a% $ the 1ever N magnitude of load applied on the lever


UNIT V DESIGN OF BEARINGS C FLYWHEELS
De"i&$ 2 Beari$&
1. What i" a 0eari$&(
:earing is a machine member' used to support the a1les and poer transmitting
shafts' directs the motion of shafts and also reduce friction beteen contact surfaces'
hile carrying the load.
*. C1a""i2/ the 0eari$&". )AUT CBE DEC *+1+,
a. :ased on nature of contact beteen bearing surfaces.
1. Sliding contact bearing.
+. Rolling contact 3or4 Antifriction bearing.
b. :ased on load applied.
1. Radial bearing 3)ircumferentially loaded4
+. $hrust bearing 3A1ially loaded4
3. What are the t/#e" 2 "1i%i$& '$ta't 0eari$&".
1. Mero film bearing.
+. $hin film bearing.
-. $hic# film 3or4 Aydrodynamic bearing.
.. E1ternally pressurized 3or4 Aydrostatic bearing.
0. ,ivot bearing.
;. )ollar bearing.
4. What are the 0eari$& .ateria1" . )AUT CBE DEC *+1+,
Aluminium alloy' )opper alloy' :abbit' )ast !ron Steel' Silver etc.
+0
5. What i" 0a00it(
:abbit is the alloy of tin' lead' copper and antimony.
$ypes
$in based babbit < $in E9G' copper 5 ..0G
Antimony 0G' lead < 9.0G
*ead based babbit 5 *ead D.G' tin 5 ;G
copper 5 9.0G' Antimony E.0G.
6. Give the '.#a""i$ 2 &!$ .eta1 C #h"#hr 0r$Fe.
6un metal 5 copper DDG' $in 5 19G Minc +G
,hosphor bronze 5 copper D9G' $in 19G *ead EG phosphorus 1G.
9. Li"t the %e"ira01e #r#ertie" 2 1ear$i$& .ateria1".
1. Aigh compressive strength +. Sufficient fatigue strength
-. )onformability .. Embeddability
0. :ondability ;. )orrosion resistance
B. $hermal )onductivity D. $hermal E1pansion
:. De2i$e the ter." C$2r.a0i1it/ a$% E.0e%%a0i1it/.
)omformability is the ability of the bearing material to accommodate shaft
deflections and bearing in accuracies by plastic deformation ithout e1cessive ear and
heating. Embeddability is the ability of the bearing material to accommodate small
particles of dust' grit etc' ithout scoring the material of the %ournal.
;. What i" .ea$t 0/ ?!r$a1 0eari$&(
A sliding contact bearing that supports load in a radial direction and there is sliding
action along the circumference of circle is called as circle %ournal bearing. !t consists of
to parts. 1. Shaft. +. Sleeve 3or4 :earing.
1+. Di22ere$tiate 0et-ee$ 2!11 ?!r$a1 0eari$& a$% #artia1 ?!r$a1 0eari$&.
!n full %ournal bearing' the Shaft 3%ournal4 is fully covered by bearing here as in
partial %ournal bearing' the shaft is partly covered by the bearing.
11. De2i$e 2i11e% 0eari$&.
&hen a partial %ournal bearing has no clearance ie.' the diameter of %ournal and
bearing are e=ual' then the bearings is called fitted bearing.
1*. Di22ere$tiate 0et-ee$ thi$ 2i1. a$% thi'7 2i1. 0eari$&".
$hic# film bearing $hin film bearing
1. &or#ing surfaces are completely &or#ing surfaces are having
separated from each other by lubricant. partially contact each other
atleast part of time.
+. Also called as hydrodynamic Also called as boundary
lubricated bearings. lubricated bearing.
13. What i" H/%r "tati' 0eari$&(
:earings hich can support steady loads ithout any relative motion beteen the
%ournal and the bearing is called as hydro static 3or4 e1ternally pressurized lubricated
bearing. $his is achieved by forcing e1ternally pressurized lubricant beteen the
members.
+;
14. What are the a""!.#ti$" .a%e i$ the ther/ 2 h/%r%/$a.i' 1!0ri'ate%
0eari$&".
1. $he lubricant obeys Neton?s la of viscous flo.
+. $he pressure is assumed to be constant through out the film thic#ness.
-. $he lubricant is assumed to be incompressible.
.. $he viscosity is assumed to be constant throughout the film.
0. $he flo in one dimensional ie.' side lea#age is neglected.
15. What are the i.#rta$t 2a'tr" t 0e '$"i%ere% 2r the 2r.ati$ 2 thi'7 i1
2i1. i$ h/%r%/$a.i' 0eari$&(
1. A continuous supply of oil.
+. A relative motion beteen the to surfaces in a direction appro1imately tangential is
the surfaces.
-. $he ability of one of the surfaces to ta#e up a small inclination to the other surface in
the direction of the relative motion.
.. the line of action of resultant oil pressure must coincide ith the line of action of the
e1ternal load beteen the surfaces.
16. What i" the #re2erre% a$&1e 2 '$ta't 2r #artia1 ?!r$a1 0eari$&(
1+9.
19. What i" 1!0ri'a$t a$% -h/ i" it e.#1/e%(
*ubricants are used in bearings to reduce friction beteen the rubbing surfaces and to
carry aay the heat generated by friction. !t also protects the bearing against corrosion.
1:. S#e'i2/ the t/#e" 2 1!0ri'a$t -ith e>a.#1e. )AUT CBE DEC *++;,
1. *i=uid lubricants < /ineral and synthetic oils.
+. Semisolid lubricants < 6rease ' -. Solid lubricants < 6raphite
1;. What are the %e"ira01e #r#ertie" 2 1!0ri'a$t(
"iscosity' Oiliness' Density' "iscosity inde1' 2lash point' 2ire point' ,oer point 3or4
2reezing point.
*+. De2i$e vi"'"it/ a$% Vi"'"it/ I$%e>.
viscosity is the property of fluid hich resists the flo of one layer of fluid from its
ad%acent layer.!t is defined as force re=uired to resists the layer of unit area running ith unit
velocity relative ith its ad%acent layer' hen these to layers are separated by unit distance.
"iscosity !nde1 is the term used to denote the degree of variation of viscosity ith
temperature.
*1. What -i11 ha##e$ i2 the ve1'it/ 2 1!0ri'a$t i" ver/ 1-(
!f the viscosity is very lo' then it ill not separate the relative rotating members' and
hence metal to metal contact ill occur hich results ear of contacting members.
**. What are the .ateria1" 2r $$ .eta11i' heari$&(
)arbon<graphite' rubber' ood and plastics.
*3. What i" "a/ 01t !$iver"a1 "e'$%(
$he viscosity of the lubricant is measured #ey say bolt viscometer. !f determines the
time re=uired for a standard volume of oil at a certain temperature to flo under a certain
+B
head through a tube of standard diameter and length. $he time so determined in seconds
is the say bolt universal viscosity.
*4. Li"t the ter." !"e% i$ ?!r$a1 0eari$&.
Diametral clearance' clearance ratio' Eccentricity' /inimum oil film thic#ness'
Attitude 3or4 eccentricity ratio.
*5. De2i$e Dia.etra1 '1eara$'e a$% Dia.etra1 '1eara$'e rati.
Diametral clearance is the difference beteen diameters of bearing and %ournal.
Diametral clearance ratio is the ratio of diametral clearance to the diameter of the %ournal.
*6. De2i$e e''e$tri'it/ a$% attit!%e.
Eccentricity is the radial distance beteen centre of the bearing and the displaced
centre of bearing under load.
Attitude 3or4 eccentricity ratio is the ratio of the eccentricity to the radial clearance.
*9. What i" .i$i.!. i1 2i1. thi'7$e""(
!t is the minimum distance beteen the bearing and the %ournal under complete
lubrication condition.
*:. What i" 1$& a$% "hrt 0eari$&.
!t the ratio of length to diameter of %ournal is less than 1' then it is short bearing' on
the other hand' if l8d is greater than 1 then the bearing is #non as long bearing.
*;. What i" .ea$t 0/ "B!are 0eari$&(
&hen the length of the %ournal 3l4 is e=ual to the diameter of the %ournal 3d4' then the
bearing is called s=uare bearing.
3+. E>#a$% the 211-i$&D SAEA AFBMA a$% SGF.
SAE < Society of Automotive Engineers
A2:/A < Anti 2riction :earing /anufacturing Association
SC2 < SCE2CO
31. De2i$e 0eari$& 'hara'teri"ti' $!.0er.
$he term MN8, is called as bearing characteristic number. &here'
M 7 Absolute viscosity
N 7 Speed of %ournal
, 7 :earing pressure.
3*. De2i$e Beari$& .%!1!".
$he value of co<efficient of friction varies ith the variation of bearing characteristic
number 3MN8,4. $he value 3MN8,4 for hich the value of is minimum is identified as
bearing modulus.
33. H- 1!0ri'a$t i1 i" %e"i&$ate%(
SAE folloed by grade number.
34. De2i$e S!..er2ie1% $!.0er.
!t is the dimensionless parameter used is design of %ournal bearing.
S 7 3MN8,4 3D8)4
+

+D
-0. Write the 2r.!1a !"e% t 'a1'!1ate the a.!$t 2 heat &e$erate% a$% heat
%i""i#ate% i$ ?!r$a1 0eari$&.
Aeat generated
Ag 7 &"
Aeat dissipated
Ad 7 33tI1D4
+
*D4 8 C
36. De2i$e 7i$e.ati' vi"'"it/
Cinematic viscosity 7 3Absolute viscosity 8 Density4
39. What i" 'riti'a1 #re""!re 2 the ?!r$a1 0eari$&(
$he pressure at hich the oil film brea#s don so that metal to metal contact begins'
is #non as critical pressure or minimum operating pressure of the bearing.
3:. What i" the $at!re 2 '$ta't i$v1ve% i$ 0eari$& e1e.e$t(
Rolling.
3;. De2i$e A$ti 2ri'ti$ 0eari$&.
$he contact beteen the bearing surfaces is rolling and it has a very lo friction' then
the bearing is called as rolling contact bearing 3or4 Anti friction bearing.
4+. Na.e a 2e- a##1i'ati$" 2 r11i$& C$ta't 0eari$&.
Automobiles' Agricultural machineries' 2ans' /otors' /achine tools etc.
41. S#e'i2/ the .ateria1" 0/ -hi'h the r11i$& '$ta't 0eari$&" are .a%e.
Aigh carbon chromium steel.
4*. What are the t/#e" 2 r11i$& '$ta't 0eari$&".
i. :ased on type of rolling element.
a. :all bearing b. Roller bearing.
ii. :ased on load to be carried.
a. Radial bearing. b. Angular contact bearing c. $hrust bearing.
43. What are the '.#$e$t" 2 r11i$& '$ta't 0eari$&"(
1. Outer race +. !nner race -. Rolling element .. )age or Seperator
44. Na.e vari!" 0a11 0eari$&".
1. Deep groove ball bearing +. Self aligning bearing -. Angular contact bearing
.. 2illing notch bearing 0. Double ro bearing.
45. What are the t/#e" 2 r11er 0eari$&"(
1. )ylindrical roller bearing +. Spherical roller bearing
-. Needle roller bearing .. $apered roller bearing
46. Li"t the 2a'tr" "h!1% 0e '$"i%ere% -he$ "e1e'ti$& r11er 0eari$&.
1. Space availability +. $ype and amount of load
-. Speed .. Alignment 0. Environmental conditions.
+E
49. E$!.erate the a%va$ta&e" 2 r11i$& '$ta't 0eari$& ver "1i%i$& '$ta't
0eari$&.
1. *o starting and running friction e1cept at very high speeds.
+. Ability to ithstand momentary shoc# loads.
-. Accuracy of shaft alignment.
.. *o cost of maintenance as no lubrication is re=uired hile in service.
0. Small overall dimensions.
;. Reliability of service.
B. )leanliness
D. Easy to mount and erect.
4:. Li"t the %i"a%va$ta&e" 2 r11i$& '$ta't 0eari$&.
1. /ore noisy at very high speeds. +. *o resistance to shoc# loading.
-. /ore initial cost. .. Design of bearing housing complicated.
..
4;. What i" $.i$a1 1i2e a$% avera&e 1i2e 2 r11i$& '$ta't 0eari$&(
$he nominal life of rolling contact bearing is defined as the number of revolutions
hich the bearing is capable of enduring before the first evidence of fatigue' that is
developed in the bearing material of either rings or rolling element. $he average life of
bearing is defined as the summation of all bearing lives in a series of life tests and is
divided by the number of life tests. Fsually this average life is appro1imately e=ual to
five times the nominal life.
5+. I$%i'ate the i$21!e$'e 2 #erati$& te.#erat!re $ r11i$& 0eari$& .ateria1".
At elevated temperatures' the hardness of the bearing materials is reduced and thus
their dynamic load carrying capacity is also reduced.
51. De2i$e 0a"i' "tati' 1a% rati$&.
$he basic static load rating is defined as the static radial load or a1ial load hich
corresponds to a total permanent deformation of the ball and race' at the most heavily
stressed contact e=ual to 9.9991 times the ball diameter.
5*. De2i$e EB!iva1e$t 1a%.
E=uivalent load is defined as that constant stationary radial or a1ial load hich' if
applied to a bearing ith rotating inner ring and stationary outer ring' ould give the
same life as that hich the bearing ill attain under the actual condition of load and
rotation.
, 7 3N 2
r
I > 2
a
4 S , 7 E=uivalent load
N 7 Radial load factor > 7 A1ial load factor
2
r
7 Radial load 2
a
7 A1ial load
S 7 Service factor
53. De2i$e %/$a.i' 1a% rati$&.
!t is defined as the constant stationary radial load or constant a1ial load hich a group
of apparently identical bearing ith stationary outer ring can endure for a rating life of
one million revolutions ith only 19G of failure.
54. H- are r11i$& 0eari$&" %e"i&$ate%(
According to A2:/A O !SO
5 :) 5
-9
:ore dia $ype of bearing $ype of duty
According to SC2
SC2 H H H H
*ast to digits N 0 7 bore diameter.
55. What are .%e" 2 2ai1!re 2 r11i$& '$ta't 0eari$&"(
1. 2atigue pitting or spalling of contact surfaces
+. Abrasive ear of rubbing surfaces
-. !ndenting of or#ing surfaces
.. Scoring of or#ing surfaces
0. :rea#don of retainers.
56. Na.e the a""e.01/ .eth%" 2 r11i$& e1e.e$t" i$ the 0eari$&".
1. Eccentric displacement method
+. 2illing notch method
59. Li"t the 2a'tr" '$tri0!ti$& t 2ri'ti$ i$ r11i$& '$ta't 0eari$&.
1. Rolling resistance
+. Sliding beteen rolling elements O race
-. Sliding beteen rolling elements O cage
.. Sliding beteen rolling elements O guide flanges in roller bearings
0. *osses due to churning of lubricant.
5:. Write %-$ the 2r.!1a 2r 'a1'!1ati$& the re1ia0i1it/ 2 0eari$&.
b
p
p
L
L
1
19
19
1
ln
1
ln
1
1
1
1
]
1

,
_

,
_

5;. What are the t- t/#e" 2 Ta#er r11er 0eari$&"(


1. Single ro taper roller bearing. +. Double ro taper roller bearing.
6+. What i" '!0i' .ea$ 1a%(
!f bearings are sub%ected to variable load ith time' in stead of e=uivalent load cubic
mean load is to be considered for the design.
cubic mean load
1
1
]
1

+ + +

n
n n n

m
...
-
-
- +
-
+ 1
-
1
&here'
2
1
' 2
+
' P are loads.
n1' n+' P are corresponding revolutions.
61. State the .erit" 2 h/%r"tati' 0eari$&( )AUT CBE DEC *++;,
$he hydrostatic bearing steady loads ithout any relative motion beteen the %ournal
and the bearing
-1
6*. Na.e the t/#e 2 1!0ri'a$t !"e% i$ ?!r$a1 0eari$&( )AUT CBE DEC *++;,
a. 6raphite
b. 6rease
c. /ineral oil and synthetic oil
63. What i" the a%va$ta&e 2 Te21$ -hi'h i" !"e% 2r 0eari$& ( )AU MAY *++:,
i4 !t has loer co efficient of friction
ii4 !t can be used at high temperature
iii4 !t is practically chemically inert
iv4 !t is dimensionally stable
64. H- % /! e1i.i$ate the "!r&e i$ "#ri$& ( )AU MAY *++:,
i= Fse spring of high natural fre=uency
ii= :y using friction dampers on the centre coil so that the ave preparation die
out

65. What i" the a##1i'ati$ 2 thr!"t 0eari$&( )AUT CBE DEC *+1+,
!t is mainly used in turbines and propeller shafts
F1/-hee1"
1. What i" the 2!$'ti$ 2 a 21/-hee1( )AUT CBE MAY *++:,
A flyheel is a machine member serves a reservoir hich stores energy during the
period hen the supply of energy is more than the re=uirement and releases it during the
period hen the re=uirement of energy is more than the supply.
*. De2i$e the ter. F1/-hee1 e22e't.
$he mass moment of !nertia re=uired for the flyheel is termed as flyheel effect.
3. De2i$e '@e22i'ie$t 2 21!'t!ati$ 2 "#ee% i$ a 21/-hee1.
$he ratio of ma1imum fluctuation of speed to the minimum speed is called
co<efficient of fluctuation of speed.
4. The re'i#r'a1 2 the '@e22i'ie$t 2 21!'t!ati$ 2 "#ee% i" ter.e% a" 888888888.
)o<efficient of steadiness.
5. De2i$e '@e22i'ie$t 2 21!'t!ati$ 2 e$er&/ i$ a 21/-hee1. )AUT CBE DEC *+1+,
!t is the ratio of fluctuation of energy to the or# done per cycle.
6. The !"!a1 'r"" "e'ti$ 2 ar." 2 21/-hee1 i" 88888888888.
Elliptical.
9. What are the t/#e" 2 "tre""e" i$%!'e% i$ a 21/-hee1 ri.(
1. $ensile stress due to centrifugal force.
-+
+. $ensile bending stress caused by the restraint of the arms.
-. $he shrin#age stresses due to une=ual rate of cooling of casting.
:. De2i$e 21!'t!ati$ 2 e$er&/ a$% .a>i.!. 21!'t!ati$ 2 e$er&/.
2luctuation of energy is the variation of energy above and belo the mean resisting
tor=ue line a cran# effort diagram.
/a1imum fluctuation of energy.
DE 7 /a1imum energy 5 /inimum energy.
;. Whi'h i" the 1i.iti$& 2a'tr i$ the %e"i&$ 2 21/-hee1(
)o<efficient of fluctuation of speed.
19. Wh/ .a"" ..e$t 2 I$ertia 2 h!0 a$% ar." i$ a 21/-hee1 are $e&1e'te% -hi1e
%e"i&$i$&(
$his is due to the fact that ma%or portion of eight of flyheel is in the rim and a
small portion is in the hub and arms. Also hub and arms are nearer to the a1is of rotation'
therefore mass moment of !nertia of hub and arms is very small and neglected.
11. Wh/ the .ea$ ra%i!" 2 21/-hee1 ri. i" ta7e$ a" ra%i!" 2 &/rati$ -hi1e
%e"i&$i$&(
Since the thic#ness of rim is very small as compared to the diameter of rim' the mean
radius of the flyheel rim may be ta#en as radius of gyration.
1*. What i" the %i22ere$'e 0et-ee$ 21/-hee1 a$% &ver$r(
$he function of the governor is to #eep the speed of the cran#shaft constant over long
period hen the load varies' here as a flyheels action is continuous and tends to #eep
the speed ithin the re=uired limits from revolution to revolution.
13. Write the eB!ati$ 2r e$er&/ "tre% i$ a 21/-hee1.
E 7 ! 19
+
)
s
7 /C
+
&
+
)
s
7 Q ! 3&
1
I &
+
4 3&
1
5 &
+
4
E 7 ! & 3&
1
5 &
+
4
14. What are the "tre""e" i$%!'e% i$ 21/-hee1 ar."( )AUT CBE DEC *++;,
1. $ensile stress due to centrifugal force.
+. :ending stress due to $or=ue.
-. Stress due to belt tension.
.. Specify the types of flyheel.
1. Solid piece flyheel.
a. &eb type b. Rim and hub type.
+. Split heel
a. Rim and hub type only
15. What are .ateria1" 2r 21/-hee1(
)ast !ron and cost steel.

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4:. What i" "tre"" '$'e$trati$ a$% "tre"" '$'e$trati$ 2a'tr( )AUT CBE DEC *+1+
C MAY *++:,
$he irregularity in stress distribution caused by abrupt changes of form is called stress
concentration.Stress concentration factor 7 ma1imum stress at the change of cross section
8 nominal stress.
16. What i" the 2!$'ti$ 2 a 21/-hee1( )AUT CBE MAY *++:,
A flyheel is a machine member serves a reservoir hich stores energy during the
period hen the supply of energy is more than the re=uirement and releases it during the
period hen the re=uirement of energy is more than the supply.
-.