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Company being established as BUNGE FOUNDS BUNGE & CO.

IN AMSTERDAM in 1818, The Netherlands, as an import/export trading firm, Bunge will maintain a prominent role in world grain markets. My Project is the study of working capital management. The study was conducted at the office of Bunge India Pvt. Ltd., Patiala - Chandigarh Road, Rajpura Punjab - 140 401. The project was of 2 months duration. During the project I interviewed the executives & staff to collect the data, & also made use of company records & annual reports. The data collected were then compiled, tabulated and analyzed.

Working Capital Management is a very important facet of f nancial management due to: Investments in current assets represent a substantial portion of total investment. Investment in current assets & the level of current liabilities have to be geared quickly to change sales.

Some the points to be studied under this topic are: How much cash should a firm hold? What should be the firms credit policy? How to & when to pay the creditors of the firm? How much to invest in inventories?

1) To identify the financial strengths & weakness of the company. 2) Through the net profit ratio & other profitability ratio, understand the profitability of the company. 3) Evaluating company s performance relating to financial statement analysis. 4) To know the liquidity position of the company with the help of current ratio. 5) To find out the utility of financial ratio in credit analysis & determinigthe financial capacity of the firm.

Introduction:

Bunge is a leading agribusiness and food company with integrated operations that circle the globe, stretching from the farm field to the retail shelf.

originating oilseeds and grains from the world's primary growing regions and transporting them to customers worldwide;

crushing oilseeds to make meal for the livestock industry and oil for the food processing, food service and biofuel industries;

producing bottled oils, mayonnaise, margarines and other food products for consumers; crushing sugarcane to make sugar, ethanol and electricity; milling wheat and corn for food processors, bakeries, brewers and other commercial customers; and

selling fertilizer to farmers.

HISTORY

BUNGE LIMITED HISTORY


Company being established as BUNGE FOUNDS BUNGE & CO. IN AMSTERDAM in 1818, The Netherlands, as an import/export trading firm, Bunge will maintain a prominent role in world grain markets. In 1935 , Bunge builds it first major grain handling facility in Midway, MN, and becomes an originator of grain in NORTH AMERICA. In 1967 , Bunge expands at Destrehan by building its first US Soybean processing plant. In 2007, Bunge purchases its first sugarcane mill in brazil and forms a fertilizer joint venture in Morocco.

BUNGE INDIA LIMITED HISTORY


IN 23 June 2003, US-based agribusiness and food company Bunge has announced that it has signed a memorandum of understanding with Hindustan Lever to acquire the Indian consumer goods firms edible oils and fats businesses based in Bangalore, India. In 22 Sep. 2003, US agribusiness giant Bunge has announced that its Indian subsidiary, Gee Pee Ceval Proteins and Investment, has acquired the India-based assets of Prestige Foods. In 15 Oct. 2004, US agribusiness Bunge is to invest between US$100m and $200m in India over the next five years, its Indian subsidiary has said. In 21 Dec. 2011, US agribusiness giant Bunge is set to buy the edible oils and fats business of India's Amrit Banaspati.

CORE VALUES

Bunge's five core values reflect who workers are and what they do. They ensure the effectiveness of integrated and decentralized approach and help us achieve purpose of improving the global agribusiness and food chain.

Integrity
Honesty and fairness guide every action.

Teamwork
value individual excellence and work as a team for the benefit of Bunge and stakeholders.

Citizenship
contribute to the development of individuals and the social and economic fabric of communities, and act as stewards of the environment.

Entrepreneurship
prize individual initiative to meet opportunities and deliver results.

Openness and Trust


open to other ideas and opinions, and trust its colleagues.

STRATEGY

Company strategy capitalizes on the fundamentals that drive its industry. It is strengthening its core businesses in key origin and destination markets, expanding into adjacent growth businesses where it can leverage its strengths, and focusingon operational excellence.

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HEALTH & NUTRITION


BALANCED DIET BODY MASS INDEX (BMI) TYPES OF FATS

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HEALTHY EATING TIPS

BALANCED DIET A balanced diet contains carbohydrates, proteins, fat, vitamins, mineral salts and fibre in the right proportions. A diet that lacks in one or the other of these ingredients creates imbalances in the body. Sometimes these imbalances can create serious ailments. Carbohydrates Proteins Fats Vitamins Minerals Fibre The bottom line on oil

Clearly theres good and bad. Therefore, its best to eat cautiously and strike a balance. According to the National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad, the upper limit of fat in the diet should not exceed 25-30% of your calories. BODY MASS INDEX (BMI) Body Mass Index (BMI) is a formula used to express body weight in relation to height. BMI equals weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared. Your Height Your Weight Calculate your BMI (In Centimetres) = BMI (In Kilograms)

A body mass index of less than 25 is considered normal and one of over 30 implies obesity. Underweight = <18.5 Normal weight = 18.5-24.9

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Overweight = 25-29.9 Obesity = BMI of 30 or greater TYPES OF FATS What do we understand by fat and what are the various types commonly known?

Fats & Oils Fats and oils belong to a group of substances called lipids, and have common molecular structure with the same benefits or disadvantages. The only difference is that fats are solid at room temperature and oils are liquid. Depending on the changing bonds they are categorised as Saturated Fats Mono Unsaturated Fats Unsaturated Fats Trans Fats Polyunsaturated Fats

HEALTHY EATING TIPS AVOID EXCESSIVE REUSE OF OILS When oils are reused again and again several times they become carcinogenic. This simply means bidding farewell to those potato and banana chips which we generally pick up from the corner.

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PRODUCTS

LIFESTYLE PRODUCTS PREMIUM PRODUCTS CONSUMER PRODUCTS

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GINNI NUTRI DELIGHT NUGGETS

MERRILITE

MERRIGOLD TABLE MARGARINE

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REFINED GROUNDNUT OIL

KACHI GHANI MUSTARD OIL

REFINED RICEBRAN OIL

GINNI REFINED GOLD COTTONSEED REFINED OIL SUNFLOWER OIL

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REFINED PALM OIL

GAGAN VANASPATI

GAGAN GOLD VANASPATI

REFINED SOYABEAN OIL

BANSARI PURE MUSTARD OIL

GINNI PLUS REFINED OIL

Business Overview

Bunge is a leading global agribusiness and food company with operations on six continents and a diverse portfolio of products ranging from bottled vegetable oils to electricity. Bunge operates in four business segments: agribusiness, sugar & bioenergy, food & ingredients and fertilizer.

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Agribusiness

In agribusiness, the world is Bunge's market - seven billion people and counting.

Bunge's agribusiness operations:


purchase grains and oilseeds from farmers store, transport and sell raw commodities to end customers in domestic and export markets

process oilseeds into protein meals and crude vegetable oil for sale to livestock producers, feedmillers, food processors, the biofuels industry and other customers

provide financial services, risk management and logistics services to end customers execute risk management strategies for Bunge

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Sugar & Bioenergy

Bunge entered the global sugar market as a trader in 2006, and has since built a strong position as a producer and marketer of sugar and ethanol.

The mills are located close to main domestic markets in Brazil and have access to export logistics systems, positioning Bunge to capture increasing demand for sugar and sugarcane ethanol in Brazil and beyond.

Bunge also produces oilseed-based biodiesel at joint venture facilities in the Americas and Europe, and has investments in a small number of corn ethanol plants in the United States.

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Food & Ingredients

Food & Ingredients is comprised of two businesses - edible oils and milling - with operations in North and South America, Europe and Asia. The edible oils business produces specialty oils and fats, margarines, mayonnaise, shortenings and whipped toppings for sale in foodservice, food processor and retail markets. The milling business creates milled wheat, corn and rice products for food processors, bakeries, brewers, snack food producers and other customers. Integration is very important to our food products business. By sourcing oilseeds and grains from our agribusiness unit, and by utilizing the same

logistics systems, we improve efficiency.

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Fertilizer

Fertilizer is a strategic part of our business, with strong commercial and logistics linkages to our agribusiness operations.

Bunge sells blended NPK (nitrogen, phosphate and potassium) fertilizer formulas, mixed nutrients and liquid fertilizer products to farmers and distributors in North and South America.

In Brazil, we operate blending and distribution facilities, as well as a port terminal. In Argentina, we have phosphate and nitrogen production, as well as blending and distribution operations. In the U.S., we are developing a wholesale business that leverages our established agribusiness network and logistics expertise.

In Morocco, one of the world's largest suppliers of phosphates, we participate in a joint venture that produces intermediate phosphate products for export to South America.

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Locations: Regions Overview

Bunge serves local markets in a host of different countries and facilitates international trade by linking areas of agricultural production and consumption. Through its hundreds of facilities and thousands of dedicated employees, Bunge is an integral part of agribusiness and food markets on six continents.

Locations: North America

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North America- North America is a major agricultural exporter and a significant market for agricultural commodities, food, fertilizer and biofuels products. In North America, Bunge has agribusiness, food & ingredients and fertilizer operations, as well as investments in bioenergy.

Locations: South America

South America- Due to its abundant land, rain and skilled agricultural sector, South America is fast becoming the world's leading agricultural exporter. In South America, Bunge operates the full spectrum of its businesses: agribusiness, sugar & bioenergy, food & ingredients and fertilizer.

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Locations: Europe

Europe- Europe is a major importer and consumer of oilseeds and related products. It is also a large and growing market for commercial and consumer food products, as well as biofuels. Eastern Europe is one of the world's most significant and fastest-growing exporters of wheat and other grains. Bunge has built a substantial business in Europe in the past decade. Today our agribusiness and food & ingredients operations stretch from Portugal to Russia, and Bulgaria to Finland.

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Locations: Asia Pacific

Asia Pacific- With growing economies and expanding per capita income, Asia is a driver of global growth in demand for agricultural commodities and food products. Bunge is a major importer of commodities to Asia and trusted partner to customers and communities on the ground. We are committed to being a productive part of the dialogue on food security in the region and to providing solutions for customers.

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Locations: Africa & Middle East

Africa & Middle East- The Middle East and North Africa are two of the fastest growing regions for grain imports in the world, and Sub-Saharan Africa presents unique opportunities for growth in agricultural production, exports and domestic consumption.

Bunge has long been a leading supplier of grains, edible oils and other products to the Middle East and North Africa. In 2011 we signed an agreement to form a joint venture in South Africa, which will be our first entry into Sub-Saharan Africa's grain and oilseed trade.

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Locations: Caribbean

Caribbean- The Caribbean is a small but growing market for agricultural commodities. Bunge Latin America serves the Caribbean from shipping points in North and South America, offering customers access to commodities like vegetable oils, corn, wheat, soybeans and soybean meal year-round.

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PERFORMANCE GRAPH

Comparison of 5 Year Cumulative Total Return Assumes Initial Investment of $100 December 2011

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News
Bunge India has announced the acquisition of the edible oils and fats business of Amrit Banaspati. The acquisition includes a manufacturing facility in the state of Punjab, rights to consumer brands and trademarks including Amrit, Gagan and Ginni and a strong distribution network. Amrit Banaspati employees engaged in the edible oils and fats business will move to Bunge once the transaction is complete. Bunge plans to build on the strong heritage of the brands it is acquiring, and expand its distribution reach and manufacturing base in India.

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Vision And Mission


The company aims at successfully meeting the varied needs of the Indian consumers. The Company has continuously Endeavored to bring new products to the Indian Consumer the Company stayed close to its roots nature and it has been a platform for its success for several years. Mission Statement The mission statement of Bunge India Pvt Ltd. Rajpura is To produce and sell goods and service to achieve the highest return on sales in the Industry to total satisfaction of customers , employees and Share holders in that order.

Quality Rajpura Branch of Bunge India Pvt Ltd ltd has a good Quality control system together with Research and Development which is comparable to its best in the Industry. It is to the Credit of its good Quality Control system and efficient R and D Department, that Bunge India Pvt Ltd, Rajpura has been honoured and awarded .The American International Quality Certificate And Gold Medal.

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INTRODUCTION
In the organizational setting the word Motivation is used to describe the drive that impels an individual to work. A truly motivated person is one who wants to work .Both employees and employers are interested in understanding motivation if employees know what strengthens and what weakens their motivation, they can often perform more effectively to find more satisfaction in their job. Employers want to know what motivates their employees so that they can get them to work harder. When people speak of motivation or ask about the motives of person, they are really asking Why the person acts, or why the person acts the way he does .The concept of motivation implies that people choose the path of action they follow. When behavioral scientists use the word motivation, they think of its something steaming from within the person technically, the term motivation has its origin in the Latin word mover which means to move. Thus the word motivation stands for movement. One can get a donkey to move by using a carrot or a stick; with people one can use incentives, or threats or reprimands. However, these only have a limited effect. These work for a while and then need to be repeated, increased or reinforced to secure further movement. If a manager truly understands his subordinates motivation, he can channel t heir inner state towards command goals, i.e., goals, shared by both the individual and the organization. It is a well known fact that human being have great potential but they do not use it fully , when motivation is absent .Motivation factor are those which make people give more than a fair days work and that is usually only about sixty-five percent of a persons capacity .Obviously , every manager should be releasing hundred percent of an individuals to maximize performance for achieving organizational goals and at the same to enable the individual to develop
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his potential and gain satisfaction. Thus every manager should have both interest and concern about how to enable people to perform task willingly and to the best of their ability. At one time, employees were considered just another input into the production of goods and services. What perhaps changed this way of thinking about employees was research, referred to as the Hawthorne Studies, conducted by Elton Mayo from 1924 to 1932 (Dickson, 1973). This study found employees are not motivated solely by money and employee behavior is linked to their attitudes (Dickson, 1973). The Hawthorne Studies began the human relations approach to management, whereby the needs and motivation of employees become the primary focus of managers (Bedeian, 1993).

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MOTIVATION THEORIES
Understanding what motivated employees and how they were motivated was the focus of many researchers following the publication of the Hawthorne Study results (Terpstra, 1979). Five major approaches that have led to our understanding of motivation are Maslow's need-hierarchy theory, Herzberg's two- factor theory, Vroom's expectancy theory, Adams' equity theory, and Skinner's reinforcement theory. According to Maslow, employees have five levels of needs (Maslow, 1943): physiological, safety, social, ego, and self- actualizing. Maslow argued that lower level needs had to be satisfied before the next higher level need would motivate employees. Herzberg's work categorized motivation into two factors: motivators and hygienes (Herzberg, Mausner, & Snyderman, 1959). Motivator or intrinsic factors, such as achievement and recognition, produce job satisfaction. Hygiene or extrinsic factors, such as pay and job security, produce job dissatisfaction. Vroom's theory is based on the belief that employee effort will lead to performance and performance will lead to rewards (Vroom, 1964). Rewards may be either positive or negative. The more positive the reward the more likely the employee will be highly motivated. Conversely, the more negative the reward the less likely the employee will be motivated. Adams' theory states that employees strive for equity between themselves and other workers. Equity is achieved when the ratio of employee outcomes over inputs is equal to other employee outcomes over inputs (Adams, 1965).

WHAT IS MOTIVATION?
A basic principle is that the performance of an individual depends on his or her ability backed by motivation. Stated algebraically the principle is:
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Performance =f (ability motivation) Ability refers to the skill and competence of the person to complete a given task. However, ability alone is not enough. The persons desire to accomplish the task is also necessary. Organizations become successful when employees have abilities and desire to accomplish given task. Motivation in simple terms may be understood as the set of forces that cause people to behave in certain ways. Reassess needs deficiencies Receives either rewards or punishment Performs Engages in goal directed behavior Searches for ways to satisfy needs Identifies needs

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FRAMEWORK OF MOTIVATION
The framework comprises steps. 1. Motivation process begins with the individuals needs. Needs are telt deprivations which the individual experiences at a given time and act as energizers. These needs may be psychological (e.g., the needs for recognition), physiological (e.g., the needs for water, air or foods) or social (e.g., the needs for friendship). 2. Motivation is goal directed. 3. A goal is a specific result that the individual wants to achieve .An employees goal are often driving forces and accomplishing those goals can significantly reduce needs. 4. Promotions and raises are two of the ways that organizations seek to maintain desirable behavior. 5. They are signals to employees that their needs for advancement and recognition and their behaviors are appropriate.

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DEFINITIONS
Some definitions on motivation: how behavior gets started is energized, is sustained, is directed, is stopped, and what kind of subjective reaction is present in the organism while all this is going on jones, 1955). the term motivation refers to a process governing choices made by person or lower organisms among alternative forms of voluntary activity motivation is the result of process, internal or external to the individual that arouse enthusiasm and persistence to pursue a certain course of action. motivation is a process that starts with a physiological or psychological deficiency or need that activates behavior or a drive that aimed at a goal or an incentive Obviously, the first definition covers all stages shown in the motivation model.

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THE ROLE OF MOTIVATION:


Why do we need motivated employees? The answer is survival (Smith, 1994). Motivated employees are needed in our rapidly changing workplaces. Motivated employees help organizations survive. Motivated employees are more productive. To be effective, managers need to understand what motivates employees within the context of the roles they perform. Of all the functions a manager performs, motivating employees is arguably the most complex. This is due, in part, to the fact that what motivates employees changes constantly (Bowen & Radhakrishna, 1991). For example, research suggests that as employees' income increases, money becomes less of a motivator (Kovach, 1987). Also, as employees get older, interesting work becomes more of a motivator.

IMPORTANCE OF MOTIVATION:
Probably, no concept of HRM receives as much attention of academicians, researchers and practicing managers motivation. The increased attention towards motivation is justified by several reasons 1. Motivated employees are always looking for better ways to do a job. This statement can apply to corporate strategists and to production workers. It is the responsibility of managers to make employees look for better ways of doing their jobs. 2. A motivated employee generally is more quality oriented. This is true whether we are talking about a top manager spending extra time on data gathering and analysis for a report or a clerk taking extra care when filing important document.

3. Highly motivated worker are more productive than apathetic worker .The high productivity of Japanese worker and the fever worker are needed to produce an

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automobile in Japan than elsewhere is well known. An appreciation of the nature of motivation is highly useful manager. 4. Every organization requires human resources in addition to financial and physical resources for it to function .Three behavioral dimensions of HR are significant to organizations (i) people must be attracted not only to join the organizations but also to remain it (ii) people must perform he tasks for which they are hired and must do so in a dependable manner and (iii) people must go beyond this dependable role per performance and engage in some form of creative, spontantaneous, and innovative behavior at work. 5. Motivation as a concept represents a highly complex phenomenon that affects. and is affected by .a multitude of factors in the organizational milieu .an understanding of the topic of motivation is thus essential in order to comprehend more fully the effects of variations in other reaction as they relate to the performance, satisfaction, and so forth . 6. Why increasing attention is paid towards motivation can be found in the present and future technology required for production, as technology increases in complexity, machines tend to become necessary, yet insufficient, vehicles of effective and efficient operation .Consider the example of the highly technologybased space programmed in our country.

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PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to describe the importance of certain factors in motivating employees at the Piketon Research and Extension Center and Enterprise Center. Specifically, the study sought to describe the ranked importance of the following ten motivating factors: (a) job security, (b) sympathetic help with personal problems, (c) personal loyalty to employees, (d) interesting work, (e) good working conditions, (f) tactful discipline, (g) good wages, (h) promotions and growth in the organization, (i) feeling of being in on things, and (j) full appreciation of work done. A secondary purpose of the study was to compare the results of this study with the study results from other populations.

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MOTIVATIONAL CHALLENGES
The framework of motivation indicates that motivation is a simple process. But in reality the task is more daunting One reason why motivation is a difficult task is that the workforce is changing. Employees join organizations with different needs and expectations. Their values, beliefs, background, lifestyles, perceptions and attitudes are different. Not many organizations have understood these and not many HR experts are clear about the ways of motivating such diverse workforce.

Motivating employees is also more challenging at a time when firms have dramatically changed the jobs that employees perform, reduced layers of hierarchy, and jetusoned large numbers of employees in the name of rightsizing or down-sizing .These actions have considerably damaged the level of trust and commitment necessary for employee to put in efforts above minimum requirements some organization have resorted to hire and fire and pay for- performance strategies almost giving up motivational efforts. Such strategies may have some effects (both positive and negative) but fail to make and individual overreach him or her

Third, motives can only be inferred, but not seen. The dynamic nature of needs offend poses challenge to any manager in motivating his or her subordinate. An employee, at any given time, has a various needs, desire, and expectations. Employees who put in extra hours at work to fulfill their needs or accomplishment may find that these extra hours conflict directly with needs for affiliation and their desire to be with their families
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However, there is no shortage of models, strategies, and tactics for motivating employees. As a result, firms constantly experiment with next motivational programmed and practice. Work Motivation Craig Pinder echoing the basic definition of motivation, define it as follows: Work motivation is a set of energetic force that originate both within as well as beyond and individuals being, to initiate work related behavior, and to determine its form, direction, intensity, and duration.

While general motivation is concerned with effort towards any goal, Stephen Robbins narrow the focus to organizational goals in order to reflect singular interest in work related behavior the effort element is a measure of intensity. The need means some internal state that makes certain outcomes appear attractive. And unsatisfied need creates tension that stimulates drives within the individual. This drives general a search behavior to find particular goals, if attend, will satisfied the needs and lead to the reduction of tension

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MECHANISM OF MOTIVATION
Thus, the key to understanding motivation lies in the meaning of, and relationship between needs, drives and goals, Needs: Needs are created whenever there is a physiological or psychological imbalance For example: A need exists when cells in the body are deprived of food and water or when the personality is deprived of other people who serve friends or companions. Although psychological may be based on a deficiency, sometimes they are not. For instant, and individuals with a strong need to get ahead may have a history of consistent success Drives: Drives (Or motives) are set up to alleviate needs. Psychological needs can be simply defined as a deficiency with direction. Physiological or psychological drives are action oriented and provide energizing thrust towards reaching an incentive or goals. They are at the very heart of the motivational process. The needs for food and water are translated into hunger and thrust drives, and the need for friend becomes a drives affiliation. Thus, a drive is a psychological state which moves an individuals satisfying a needs Goals: At the end of the motivational cycle is the goal or incentive. It is anything that wills that will alleviate a need and reduce a drive. Thus, attaining a goal will tend to restore physiological or psychological balance and will reduce or cut off the drive. Eating food, drinking water and obtaining friends will tend to restore the balance and reduce the corresponding drives food, water and friends are the incentive are the goals in this example

Conceptual clarification: (motives, motivation and motivating)


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The terms motives, motivation and motivating which are derived from the Latin word Mover (to move) are important concept which have distinct connotation. In order to steer the energies of the employees towards organizational goals accomplishment, it is essential to grasp the meaning and significance of this concept and also to learn how to apply them intelligently

Motives: Motive is defined as a inner state that energizes, activates (Or moves) and directs (or channels) the behavior of individuals towards certain goals the strong motives or needs are fulfill. In order to minimize the restlessness, and keep it under control, the individual is propelled into action. Thus motive induce individual to channel their behavior towards such type of actions as would reduce their state of restlessness are inner disequilibrium. Thus motives can be thought of as drives that energize people to action.

Motivation: while motives are energizers of action, motivation is the actual action that is work behavior itself. For instance, when a employee work hard, his level of motivation may be consider as low. Thus, the level of motivation of employee is judged by his actual work behavior

Motivating: Motivating it is the term that implies that one person induces another to engage in action or work. Behavior by ensuring that a channel to direct the motive of the individuals become available and accessible to the individual. Managers play a significant role in channeling the strong motive in a direction that he satisfying to both the organization and the employees. Additionally, managers are also responsible for awakening or activating latent motives in individuals- that is the needs that are less strong and somewhat dormant and harness them in a manner that would be functional for the organization.
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Classification of Motives: Primary motives are unlearned and physiologically based. Common primary motives include hunger, thirst, sleep, avoidance of pain, sex and maternal concern .The general motives are also unlearned but are not physiologically based. Competence, curiosity, manipulation, activity, and affection are examples of general motives.

Secondary motives are products of learning. The needs for power, achievement, affiliation, security and status are major motivating forces in human behavior at work. Behavioral science especially industrial. Psychology motives is concerned with understanding an individuals through his motives .It studies the individuals socio-psychological motives at great length in order to be successful in understanding why man behaves the way he does.

Socio-psychological motives are neither inborn to him nor are they related directly to his survival .These motives originate from the training which he acquires from different social organizations to which he belongs. Socio-psychological motives, unlike physiological motives, are largely vary from culture to culture .They may be divided into affiliative and egoistic motives. Affiliative motives deal with belongingness, friendship or affection with people. Egoistic motives relate to a position over people rather than with people. Power, status, prestige or esteem fall under egoistic motives. Socio-psychological motives include acquisitiveness, security, status, autonomy, affiliation, achievement, dependence, aggression, power and nurturance.

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The complexity of motivation: Human motivation is highly complex. Human behavior is multi-motivational. Several motives are simultaneously at work when the individual behaves; and several times the individual himself is unaware of his motives. Therefore, motivational analysis if behavior is difficult. Another fact is that the same motive may give rise to various motives may lead to the same type of behavior in different individuals. Thus, there can be several other ways of behaving to achieve these one and all these different forms of behavior may lead to the same amount of success by achieving the same end. The converse is also true. Different motives may sometimes result in one form of behavior. To complicate matters further, people often do things without being aware of the basic motive or motives involved. Giving good reasons rather than real reasons for behavior is known as rationalization Ex. Sublimation, projection, identification, and compensation are a few forms of behavior in which the real motive is unknown to the individual. Whether motives are consciously present or are unconscious, many of them act upon the individual simultaneously .As a result, the individual may face conflict some of the time .An employee who wants to tell the boss off but also wants to keep his job is in conflict. An employer who must decide whether to sell an oversupply of a commodity at a loss or hold it a little long, is likewise in conflict.

There are various difficulties in inferring motives from behavior as we have seen thus far: Similar motives may be manifested through different behaviors Different motives may be expressed through similar behavior Motives may appear in disguised form Any single act of behavior may express several motives
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Expression of motives differ from culture to culture and from person to person within a culture Motives vary in strength not only from one individual to another but within the same individual at different times. Since it is difficult to know all there is to be known about the various motives that operate both within the individual and from outside, it is difficult to predict behavior

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MOTIVATION AND BEHAVIOR


Systematic understanding of human behavior essentially involves the ability to determine the why of past behavior but also to predict, to change, and even to control as far as possible future behavior. Behavior is basically goal-oriented .that means the behavior of an individual is generally motivated by a desire to attain some goal. The specific goal is not always consciously known by the individual .Sometimes an individual may wonder, Why did I do that? or Why did I fail to do that? the reason for behavior is not always apparent to the conscious mind .individuals are not always aware of everything they want . The basic unit of behavior is an activity. In fact, all behavior is a series of activities .individual have preference for certain activities, they change activities, and they change activities accordingly. It is important for a manager to understand, predict, and even control the activities that an individual may perform at a given moment. To predict the behavior, manager must know which motives or needs of people evoke a certain action at a particular time. Motives: Every individual carries a set of inner motivations and drives that influence the way he behaves much more radically than he realizes .Individuals differ not only in their ability to do but also in their will to do, or motivation. Motives are sometimes defined as needs, wants, drives, or impulses within the individual .Motives are the whys of behavior .they arouse and maintain activity and determine a general direction of the behavior of an individual. In essence, motives or needs are the mainsprings of action. When we use these two terms interchangeably- motives and needs-we refer something within an individual that prompts that person to action.

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Goals: Goals are outside an individual .Goals are something referred to as hoped for rewards towards which motives are directed Psychologists use the term incentives for these goals. Incentives include tangible financial rewards such as increased pay and also the managers who are successful in motivating employees are often providing an environment in which appropriate goals are available for needs satisfaction.

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EASY WAYS TO MOTIVATE YOUR EMPLOYEES


Set Goals Its important to help your employees set goals for themselves. These can include both long-term and short-term goals and they can be both work-related and personal in nature. Often, goals are set on a weekly, monthly, quarterly, or even yearly basis. Many companies use performance management systems, which get every employee on the same page, regardless of his or her position. If they understand the relationship between their specific job and the companys success, theyll often approach their work with a sense of belonging. Frequently, that sense is all it takes to get that individual to finish a given task. And, of course, rewarding your employees for achieving their goals goes a long way toward creating a consistently motivated workforce. Encourage Creative Thinking Successful companies promote an environment in which creative thinking by the employees is allowed, if not encouraged. If youve been successful in explaining your companys overall objectives in detail, employees will often come up with their own creative strategies for achieving these goals. In the case of the sales force that I help manage, I usually tell them the successful tactics that I used while making sales but I also add that theres no one correct way. Everyone has a unique personality that might translate into an effective method of making sales. The challenge of figuring out an effective method on their own can be liberating and much more fulfilling. Plus, employees are more apt to listen to future advice if you let them figure out that you are right on their own. Devise a System of Teamwork and Trust Employees are never going to produce the way you expect them to if they think you dont care about them. Start off by learning about your employees personal lives. This will give you insights into how to deal with them in certain situations.
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Your relationship with your workers should seem like one between partners as opposed to one between employee and boss. Also, spread specific assignments around among your workers. By giving employees special tasks, you make them feel more important. When your employees feel like they are being trusted with added responsibilities, they are motivated to work even harder so they wont let the company down. Foster an Environment of Fun Studies have shown that employees are more dependable and productive when they think their workplace is a fun place to come to every day. Ive found that one of the most effective methods of doing this is simply engaging my sales reps in conversations about topics that we both find interesting. Its not necessary to talk to them all day long, but a few minutes here and there throughout the day can work wonders. Little talks like these allow the employee to see you as a regular person, and when your employees like you as a person, they are more likely to listen to you when you need them to get something done. REWARDS People join organizations expecting rewards. Firms distribute money and other benefit in exchange for the employees availability, competence and behaviors.

The following diagram identifies four types of rewards: membership and seniority, job status, competency and performance. Membership and Seniority-based Rewards Benefit an employee receives depends on the firm which he or she joins. An MBA taking up a job in Wipro or Infosys gets more benefits than boy or girl who joins a state government undertaking.

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In the same firm, a senior employee receives more benefits than employee .Advancement , pay raises, retirement benefits and perquisites depend on seniority of an employee. Membership& Seniority Task Performance Job Status Competency Organizational Rewards Types of organizational rewards There are advantages and limitations associated with membership and seniority based reward .Membership based reward attract job applicants but the problem is such reward may not directly motivate job performance .Seniority based rewards tend to reduce turnover but may fail to motivate achievers to perform better. Another problem with is that they discourage poor performers form leaving the film voluntarily because alternative jobs are simply not available to them. Performance-based Rewards The trend that is emerging recently is to link pay to performance rather than to seniority or membership. Firms in N.America, Europe and Asia are paying their employees more for performance than ever before. For instance, in a recent survey of 210 large firms in Tokyo, Japan, 24 per cent awarded pay increases on the basis of performance than seniority. Performance-based rewards are many, but the most common among them are:

Team rewards are common where firms rely in teams to get work done. Some teams are rewarded with special bonuses or gifts if they collectively achieve
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specific goals. A gain sharing plan is a type of team reward that motivates team members to reduce costs and increase labor efficiency in their work process. Gain sharing plans use a predetermined formula and calculated cost savings and pay bonus to all team members. Typically, the company shatters the cost savings with employees.

Individual rewards are quite common in organizations. The most common is the piece rate which links pay to the units produced by an employee. Commissions are paid to sales people on the actual sales shown by them. Merit pay is based on the individuals performance. This is gradually replaced by retainable bonuses for accomplishing specific tasks or for achieving certain goals. Although these bonuses are often determined from team or organizational performance, they may also result from satisfactory completion of individual goals. Are rewards, particularly monetary rewards, reality motivators? Put in another way, does money motivate employees? The answer is yes and no. Money is understood to be powerful motivator for more than one reason. In the first place, money is fundamental for completion of task. Work, unless it is voluntary or play involves a contract between two parties guaranteed by the payment of money. The employee takes pay as the reward for his or her work and the employer views it as the price for using the services of the employee. Second, as a medium of exchange, money is the vehicle by which employee can buy numerous need satisfying goods and services they desire. Third, money is one of the hygiene factors, and improving maintenance factors is the first step in effort directed towards motivation. Fourth, money also p erforms the function of a score card by which employees assess the value that the organization place on their services and by which employees can compare their values to others. Fifth, reinforcement and expectancy theories attest to the value of money as a motivator.
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In the former, if pay is contingent upon performance, it will encourage workers to high levels of effort, Consistent with the expectancy theory, money will motivate to the extent that it is seen as being able to satisfy an individuals pers onal goals and is perceived as being dependent upon performance criteria. Sixth, money acts as punctuation in ones life. It is an attention-getting and effectproducing mechanism Money has, therefore, tremendous importance in influencing employee behavior. Seventh, money is easily vulnerable for manipulation. Other factors like satisfaction, responsibility, a challenging job and the like are nebulous. Payments and the plans with which they are linked are manipulatable. Finally, money will be a powerful motivator for a person who is tense and anxious about lack of money. Many worries and concerns are financially based. It is relaxing to receive sufficient money to clear the outstanding bills and past debts which have been causing tension. But behavioral scientists think otherwise. They downgrade money as a motivator. They prefer, instead, other techniques such as challenging jobs, goals, participation in decision of behavioral scientists to money as a motivator is understandable for at least six reasons. First, money is not important to all people. High achievers, for example, are intrinsically motivated. Money has little impact on such people. Second, people fail to see a direct linkage between monetary and performance. In these days of unionization, protective legislation, seniority based promotion, and the coast of living indexation, pay raises do not depend on performance. Third, for money to motivate the difference in pay increase between a high performer and an average performer must be significant. In practice it rarely is. Fourth, management must have the discretion to reward high performers with more money. This is not possible, thanks to strong unionization. Fifth, relationships among employees are often ruptured because of the scramble for monetary rewards. Finally, financial
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incentives discourage risk-taking propensity of people. Whenever people are encouraged to think about what they will get for performing a task, they become less inclined to take risk or explore possibilities. The conclusion is that money can motivate some people under some conditions. Put it another way money cannot motivate all people under all circumstances. Studies too attest to the same assertion. Motivating Employees without Money The employees who work for your company are naturally motivated. All you need to do is to utilize their natural ability, which you can do without spending a time. That's right! No money. In fact, money can actually decrease an employee's motivation and performance. The first step in utilizing your employees' natural abilities is to eliminate your organization's negative practices that zap away their natural motivation. The second step your organization can take is to develop true motivators which can spark all your employees into being motivated. By decreasing negative zapping demotivators and by adding true motivators, you will tap into your employees' natural motivation. Your employees' natural motivation relies on the fact that all people have human desires for affiliation, achievement, and for control and power over their work. In addition, they have desires for ownership, competence, recognition, and meaning in their work. The following is a list of ten motivation zapping organizational behaviors that will demotivate your employees. Create an atmosphere full of company politics. Develop unclear expectations regarding your employees' performance. Create a lot of unnecessary rules for employees to follow. Plan unproductive meetings for employees to attend. Promote internal competition between employees. Withhold information critical for employees to perform their work.
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Provide criticism instead of constructive feedback. Tolerate poor performance so your high performing employees feel taken advantage of. Treat employees unfairly. Underutilize the capability of your employees. The following are examples of true motivators that will help your employees tap into their natural ability to be motivated. Remember; implement these true motivators without spending money. Instead of focusing on money, focus on how you can make some changes within your organization. If your employees do routine work add some fun and variety to their routine. Provide employees with input and choice in how they do their work. Encourage responsibility and leadership opportunities within your company. Promote social interaction and teamwork between employees. Tolerate learning errors by avoiding harsh criticism. Promote job ownership. Develop goals and challenges for all employees. Provide lots of encouragement. Make appreciation part of your repertoire. Develop measurement that shows performance increase. By eliminating demotivators and adding in no cost motivators you are tapping into your employees' natural human desires to perform at their maximum level of motivation and productivity. The following are the human desires that you are tapping into. Desire for activity Desire for ownership Desire for power Desire for affiliation
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Desire for competence Desire for achievement Desire for recognition Desire for meaning That's it! Remember; don't work to change one individual at a time. Work to change your organization to decrease the demotivators and thereby increase your employees natural ability to self motivates themselves. Employee motivation Principles of improving employee motivation and empowerment Employee motivation questionnaires or surveys Staff surveys are usually very helpful in establishing whether staff in your company is motivated and therefore performing to best effect. Aside from the information that questionnaires reveal, the process of involving and consulting with staff is hugely beneficial and motivational in its own right, (see the 'Hawthorne Effect'). Whilst your survey will be unique to your company, your staff issues, your industry and culture, some useful generic guidelines apply to most situations. Although not exhaustive, the following ten points may help you cover the relevant subject areas and help towards establishing facts rather than making assumptions about motivation when designing your own questionnaires on employee motivation.

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EMPOWERMENT
Empowerment is one of concepts discussed much in HRM. Empowerment is what young job aspirants are looking for in organizations. More than monetary rewards, it is the feeling that employee owns the job that motivates him or her nowadays. Empowerment may be understood as a process of enhancing feelings of self .efficacy among organizational members through the identification of conditions that foster powerlessness and through their removal by both formal organizational practices and informal techniques of providing efficacy information Empower employees are energetic and passionate. They aspire to do better job because they get personally rewarded for doing job.

Empowerment consist five stages. The first stage involves identifying .The conditions existing in the organizations that lead to feelings of powerlessness on the part of organizational members. These conditions manifest through poor communication, centralized resources, and authoritarian styles of leadership, low incentive value rewards, low task variety and unrealistic performance goals.

Diagnosis being completed as suggested above, the next stage is to introduce empowerment strategies and techniques. Use of participative management implementing merit-Pay systems and job enrichment are example of possible empowerment practices.

The use of the programmes (stated above) is designed to accomplish two objectives in the third stage. One is simply to remove the conditions identified in the first stage as contributing to powerlessness. The second, and more important, is to provide self-efficacy information to subordinate. Self-efficacy describes a belief in ones effectiveness. Individuals high in self-efficacy information to
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subordinates. Self-efficacy describes a belief in ones effectiveness. Individuals high in self-efficacy tend to be confident and self-assured and feel they are likely to be successful in whatever Endeavours they undertake.

Receiving such information result in feeling of empowerment in the fourth stage .This is because increasing self-efficacy straightens effort performance expectancies. Finally, the enhanced empowerment feelings from stage four are translated into performance in the fifth and final stage. These behavioral consequences of empowerment include increased activity directed towards task accomplishment. Empowerment result in performance Empowerment is facilitated by a combination of factors including values, leadership, job structure and reward systems. Empowerment occurs when power of decision making and authority to share resources go to employees who then experiences a sense of ownership and control over jobs. Empowered employees know that know that their jobs belong to them. Given a say on how things are done, employees feel more responsible. When they feel responsible, they show more initiative in their work, get more done and enjoy the work more. Empowerment demands team formation. Teams, thus formed, are called selfdirected or simply empowered teams. Wipro Corporation has nearly 30 such teams and Titan, ABB, Tata information Systems too have their own empowered teams. The 60,000 tones per annum polyester filament yarn plant of Reliance at Hazira went on stream within 14 months mainly because its technical teams were empowered to make critical decisions at the worksite. Information sharing is another building block of empowerment. Employees need to be informed about the business and demonstrate how their work fits in. One of the
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most important measures of job satisfaction is whether employees find meaning in their work-if they know what they are working towards and understand how their work affects other employees and the organization as a whole.

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10 MANAGEMENT MOTIVATION EXAMPLES


to illustrate that there are better ways to motivate employees Blaire Palmer's experience has enabled her to work with a wide range of individuals and groups from a variety of backgrounds. Some of these people are highly motivated themselves, but struggle to extend this state of mind to the people they manage. Other people are at the receiving end of KITA motivation strategies that (obviously) aren't working on them. These people know they 'should' be more engaged with their work. Sometimes they fake it for a few months but it's not sustainable. In this paper Blaire identifies some common assumptions about motivation and presents some new paradigms that can help motivate more effectively. By adding these coaching tools and motivation principles to your capabilities you should find the job of leading those around you, and/or helping others to do the same, more of a joyful and rewarding activity. Instead of spending all your time and energy pushing and cajoling (in the belief that your people's motivation must come from you) you will be able to focus on leading your team, and enabling them to achieve their full potential - themselves. Ultimately, motivation must come from within each person. No leader is ever the single and continuing source of motivation for a person. While the leader's encouragement, support, inspiration, and example will at times motivate followers, the leader's greatest role in motivating is to recognize people for who they are, and to help them find their own way forward by making best use of their own strengths and abilities. In this way, achievement, development, and recognition will all come quite naturally to the person, and it is these things which are the true fuels of personal motivation. By necessity these case studies initially include some negative references and examples, which I would urge you to see for what they are. How not to do things,
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and negative references, don't normally represent a great platform for learning and development. In life it's so important always to try to accentuate the positive - to encourage positive visualisation - so, see the negatives for what they are; silly daft old ways that fail, and focus on the the positives in each of these examples. There are very many. Motivation example 1 - 'everyone is like me' One of the most common assumptions we make is that the individuals who work for us are motivated by the same factors as us. Perhaps you are motivated by loyalty to the company, enjoying a challenge, proving yourself to others or making money. One great pitfall is to try to motivate others by focusing on what motivates you. Marie, a director in her company, was being coached. She was a perfectionist. Every day she pushed herself to succeed and was rewarded with recognition from her peers. But she was unable to get the same standard of work from her team members. In the first few weeks of her coaching she would say, "If only people realized how important it was to put in 110% and how good it felt to get the acknowledgment, then they would start to feel more motivated". But it wasn't working. Instead people were starting to become resentful towards Marie's approach. Acknowledgment was a prime motivator for Marie so to help her consider some other options, she was helped to brainstorm what else might motivate people in their work. Marie's list grew: 'learning new skills', 'accomplishing a goal as part of a team', 'creativity', 'achieving work-life balance', 'financial rewards' and 'the adrenaline rush of working to tight deadlines'. Marie began to see that perhaps her team were indeed motivated - it was simply that the team members were motivated in a different ways to her own.

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If the leader can tap into and support the team members' own motivations then the leader begins to help people to realize their full potential. Motivation example 2 - 'no-one is like me' Since the 1980's, research has shown that although we know that we are motivated by meaningful and satisfying work (which is supported by Herzberg's timeless theory on the subject, and virtually all sensible research ever since), we assume others are motivated mainly by financial rewards. Chip Heath, associate professor at Stanford University carried out research that found most people believe that others are motivated by 'extrinsic rewards', such as pay or job security, rather than 'intrinsic motivators', like a desire to learn new skills or to contribute to an organization. Numerous surveys show that most people are motivated by intrinsic factors, and in this respect we are mostly all the same. Despite this, while many leaders recognize that their own motivation is driven by factors that have nothing to do with money, they make the mistake of assuming that their people are somehow different, and that money is central to their motivation. If leaders assume that their team members only care about their pay packet, or their car, or their monthly bonus, this inevitably produces a faulty and unsustainable motivational approach. Leaders must recognize that people are different only in so far as the different particular 'intrinsic' factor(s) which motivate each person, but in so far as we are all motivated by 'intrinsic' factors, we are all the same.

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
1.

Focus And Objectives of project


Focus of my study is to highlight the significance of human Resource with

following objectives:(a) Human beings are complex in nature with potential to grow This resource is creative and has the ability to contribute in further in the cause of human lives. (b) The organization require to demonstrate due concern to Recruit & select

required talent for the organizational progress.

2.

Approach or Methodology
I was briefed by very guide Shri R.K. Kalia G.M. (HR & Adm) He

highlighted salient aspects of human Resource management & importance of proper Recruitment & selection of employees for overall growth of the organization. He concerned numerous aspects related to recruitment & selection like the importance, policy, manpower planning, process, objectives & various options available to recruit the requisite talent.

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Research Design
The Research design is the blue print for the fulfillment of objectives and answering questions. It is frame-work which determines the course of action towards the collection and analysis of required data. It is a master plan specifying the method and procedures for collecting and analyzing the method information. Descriptive Research is used in this study, as the main aim is to describe characteristics of the phenomenon or a situation.

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Data Collection
The Sources of data includes :1. Primary Data Sources. 2. Secondary Data Sources. Primary Data Sources :- Primary Data has been Collect directly from sample respondents through questionnaires with the help of interview. Secondary Data Sources:- Secondary data sources are those which has already been used and kept as records like website of company, manuals reports etc. Sample Design:- Sample design is definite plan determines before any data is actually obtained for a sample from a given population. Target Population Sample Unit Sampling Technique Sample size : : : : Employers Individual Convenient sampling 50 respondent

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Limitations of the Study


Various limitations of the study are:(a) (b) Various Parameters used in the project may not be 100% realistic. The sample size taken over a limited period may have a margin of error. (c) Time constraint in the project.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY
DESSLER G. and V ARKKEY B., 2008. Human Resource Management. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. Ltd., pp. 15-19. GOYAL D.P., 2008. Management Information System - Text and Cases. New Delhi: Bindra Publishers, pp. 209-229. http://www.citehr.com http://www.citeman.com http://www.hrguru.com ,. http://www.hrms.com http://www.oracle.com http://www.people-trak.com http://www.sap.com http://www.wikipedia.org JINDAL A., 2003. Management Information System. New Delhi: Kalyani Publishers, pp. 233-251. KOTHARI C.R., 2004. Research Methodology. New Delhi: New Age International Publishers.

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