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MAR 2007

LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN

DESIGN EXAMPLE 5-1

Prestressed I- Beam Design Example

This example illustrates the design of a pretensioned I-Beam for a two span bridge without skew. The 130'-0" spans are supported with Mn/DOT 72" beams. Mn/DOT standard details and drawings for diaphragms (B406, B812), railings (Fig. 5-397.117), and beams (Fig. 5- 397.517) are to be used with this example. This example contains the design of a typical interior beam at the critical sections in positive flexure, shear, and deflection. The superstructure consists of six beams spaced at 9'-0" centers. A typical transverse superstructure section is provided in Figure 5.7.2.1. A framing plan is provided in Figure 5.7.2.2. The roadway section is composed of two 12' traffic lanes and two 12' shoulders. A Type F railing is provided on each side of the bridge and a 9" composite concrete deck is used. End diaphragms (B812) are used at each end of the bridge and interior diaphragms (B406) are used at the interior third points and at the pier.

Figure 5.7.2.1

MAR 2007

LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN

DESIGN EXAMPLE 5-2

Figure 5.7.2.2

MAR 2007

LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN

DESIGN EXAMPLE 5-3

A. Materials

The modulus of elasticity for high strength concrete suggested by ACI Committee 363 is used for the beam concrete. The composite deck is assumed to have a unit weight of 0.150 kcf for dead load computations and 0.145 kcf for elastic modulus computations. The beam concrete is assumed to have a unit weight of 0.155 kcf for dead load computations.

The material and geometric parameters used in the example are shown in Table 5.7.2.1:

Table 5.7.2.1 Material Properties

 Material Parameter Prestressed Beam Deck f′ ci at transfer 7 ksi --- f c at 28 days 8.0 ksi 4 ksi Concrete E ci at transfer ( 1265 ⋅ ) f′ ci + 1000 --- = 4347 ksi E c at 28 days ( 1265 ⋅ ) f′ c + 1000 = 4578 ksi ( 33,000 ⋅ 0.145 ) 1.5 = 3644 ksi ⋅ f ′ c f y for rebar 60 ksi 60 ksi f pu for strand 270 ksi --- Steel E s for rebar 29,000 ksi 29,000 ksi E p for strand 28,500 ksi --- 0.6 inch diameter Strand type 270 ksi, low relaxation ---

B. Determine

Cross-Section Properties for a Typical Interior Beam

[4.6.2.6.1]

The beams are designed to act compositely with the deck on simple spans. The deck consists of a 7 inch thick concrete slab with a 2 inch wearing course. For simplicity and in order to be conservative, the beams are designed assuming the full 9 inches of thickness is placed in a single pour. A 1 / 2 inch of wear is assumed. A thickness of 8 1 / 2 inches is used for composite section properties. The haunch or stool is assumed to have an average thickness of 2 1 / 2 inches for dead load computations and 1 1 / 2 inches for section property computations.

The effective flange width,

b

e , is the smallest of:

1) 1 / 4 x Effective Span Length

 = 1 ⋅ 130 12 ⋅ = 390.0 in 4

2) 12 x Slab Thickness + 1 / 2 Top Flange Width

= 12 8.5 +

30

2

= 117.0 in

MAR 2007

LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN

DESIGN EXAMPLE 5-4

3) Average Beam Spacing = 108.0 in

GOVERNS

The modular ratio of the deck concrete to the beam concrete is:

n =

E

cdeck

3644

=

E

cbeam

4578

= 0.796

This results in a transformed effective flange width of:

b

etrans =

0.796

(108.0) = 86.0 in

Properties for an interior beam are given in Table 5.7.2.2.

Table 5.7.2.2 Cross-Section Properties

 Parameter Non-composite Section Composite Section Height of section, h 72 in 82.0 in Deck thickness --- 8.5 in 1.5 in (section properties) Average stool thickness --- 2.5 in (dead load) 108.0 in (deck concrete) Effective flange width, b e --- 86.0 in (beam concrete) Area, A 786 in 2 1553 in 2 Moment of inertia, I 547,920 in 4 1,235,000 in 4 Centroidal axis height, y 35.60 in 56.29 in Bottom section modulus, S b 15,390 in 3 21,940 in 3 15,050 in 3 48,040 in 3 (beam concrete) Top section modulus, S t 60,350 in 3 (deck concrete) Top of prestressed beam 15,050 in 3 78,610 in 3
 C. Shear Forces Three load combinations will be considered; Strength I, Service I, and and Bending Service III. As a result of the simple span configuration, only maximum Moments

MAR 2007

LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN

DESIGN EXAMPLE 5-5

γ

p values need to be considered.

Load effects related to settlement, thermal effects, water load, or stream pressure will not be considered.

It shall be assumed that traffic can be positioned anywhere between the barriers.

Number of design lanes =

distance between barriers =

design lane width

48

12

= 4

 [3.6.2] Dynamic load allowance IM = 33% [4.6.2.2] 1. Determine Live Load Distribution Factors Designers should note that the approximate distribution factor equations include the multiple presence factors. [4.6.2.2.2] Distribution Factor for Moment – Interior Beams

LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.1-1 lists the common deck superstructure types for which approximate live load distribution equations have been assembled. The cross section for this design example is Type (k). To ensure that the approximate distribution equations can be used, several parameters need to be checked.

 1) 3.5 ft ≤ beam spacing = 9.0 ft ≤ 16.0 ft OK 2) 3.5 in ≤ slab thickness = 8.5 in ≤ 12.0 in OK 3) 20 ft ≤ span length = 130 ft ≤ 240 ft OK 4) 4 ≤ number of beams = 6 OK

The distribution factor equations use a K g factor that is defined in LRFD Article 4.6.2.2.1.

η=

E

c

beam

4578

=

E

c

deck

3644

e

K

g =

g

=

(

deck centroid

η ⋅

[I

+

A

(e

g

)

2

]

= 1.256

)

=

(

beam centroid

)

=

77.75

35.60

=

42.15 in

1.256

[547,920 + 786 (42.15) ] = 2.442

2

x 10 6

 gM = 0.06 gM = 0.06

+ ⎜ ⎛

+ ⎜ ⎛

S

14

9.0

14

0.4

0.4

⎛ ⎜

S

L

⎞ ⎟

0.3

90

130

K

12

L

t

s

3

0.1

0.3

2.442 x 10

6

12 130

8.5

3

0.1

MAR 2007

LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN

DESIGN EXAMPLE 5-6

[4.6.2.2.2d]

gM = 0.473 lanes/beam

Two or more design lanes loaded:

 gM = 0.075 gM = 0.075

+ ⎜

+ ⎜ ⎛

S

⎟ ⎞

9.5

9.0

9.5

0.6

0.6

⎛ ⎜ S ⎞ ⎟

L

0.2

⎛ ⎜

90

130

0.2

gM = 0.698 lanes/beam

K

g

12

L

t

s

3

0.1

2.442 x 10

6

12 130 8.5

3

0.1

Distribution Factor for Moment - Exterior Beams

LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.2d-1 contains the approximate distribution factor

equations for exterior beams. Type (k) cross-sections have a deck dimension check to ensure that the approximate equations are valid.

The distance from the inside face of barrier to the centerline of the fascia

beam is defined as

d

e . For the example this distance is:

d

e =

24

(2.5 9.0) 1.50 ft

=

The check to use the approximate equations is:

1.0 ft

d

e

=

1.50 ft

5.5 ft

OK

Figure 5.7.2.3

MAR 2007

LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN

DESIGN EXAMPLE 5-7

The lever rule shall be used to determine the live load distribution factor for one lane.

The fascia beam live load distribution factor is found by summing reactions about the first interior beam:

W

1

gM

=

=

W

2

1.2

=

0.5 lanes

W ⎜ ⋅L + W L ⎞ ⎟ =

1

1

2

2

S

gM = 0.733 lanes/beam

1.2

0.58.5 ⎜ + 0.52.5

9.0

Two or more design lanes loaded:

The distribution factor is equal to the factor “e” multiplied by the interior girder distribution factor for two or more lanes

[4.6.2.2.2e]

[4.6.2.2.3]

[4.6.2.2.3a]

[4.6.2.2.3b]

d

e =

24.0

22.5

=

1.5 ft

e

=

gM

0.77

=

e

+ ⎜ ⎛ d

g

int

⎟ =

e

9.1

=

1.5⎞ ⎟= 0.935

0.77

+ ⎜

9.1

=

0.653

0.935 0.698

lanes/beam

Skew Factor

No correction is necessary for a skew angle of zero.

Distribution Factor for Shear – Interior Beams

LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.3a-1 can be used.

gV

=

0.36

+ ⎜

S

25.0

9.0 ⎟ ⎞ = 0.720

⎟= 0.36 + ⎜

25.0

lanes/beam

Two or more design lanes loaded:

gV

= 0.2

S

+ ⎜

12

S

35

⎟− ⎜

2

= 0.2

+ ⎛ ⎜ 9.0

9.0

35

⎟− ⎜

12

2

= 0.884

lanes/beam

Distribution Factor for Shear – Exterior Beams

The lever rule shall be used which results in the same factor that was computed for flexure and is equal to 0.733 lanes/beam

Two or more design lanes loaded:

MAR 2007

LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN

DESIGN EXAMPLE 5-8

e

=

0.6

+

⎛ ⎜

d

e

10

=

0.6

1.5 ⎟= ⎞ 0.750

+ ⎜

10

The exterior beam shear distribution factor for two or more design lanes

is determined by modifying the interior distribution factor:

gV

=

e

g

int

=

0.750 0.884

=

0.663

lanes/beam

 [4.6.2.2.3c] Skew Factor No correction is necessary for a skew angle of zero. [2.5.2.6.2] Distribution Factor for Deflection

[Table 3.6.1.1.2-1] The distribution factor for checking live load deflections assumes that the entire cross section participates in resisting the live load. The minimum Multiple Presence Factor (MPF) used by Mn/DOT when checking live load deflection is 0.85. The deflection distribution factor is:

gD

 = ( # of lanes )( ⋅ MPF ) = ( # of beam lines )

4 0.85

6

= 0.567

lanes/beam

Table 5.7.2.3 contains a summary of the live load distribution factors.

Table 5.7.2.3 Distribution Factor Summary (lanes per beam)

[1.3.3 – 1.3.5]

 Loading Flexure Shear Interior One Design Lane 0.473 0.720 Beam Two or More Design Lanes 0.698 0.884 Deflection 0.567 - Exterior One Design Lane 0.733 0.733 Beam Two or More Design Lanes 0.653 0.663 Deflection 0.567 - 2. Load Modifiers The following load modifiers will be used for this example: Strength Service Fatigue Ductility D η 1.0 1.0 1.0 Redundancy R η 1.0 1.0 1.0 Importance η I 1.0 n/a n/a η = η ⋅η ⋅η D R I 1.0 1.0 1.0

MAR 2007

LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN

DESIGN EXAMPLE 5-9

Beam Selfweight

=

(786 / 144) (0.155 kip/ft

3

) = 0.846 kip/ft

Stool Weight

=

(2.5 ft) (0.208 ft) (0.150 kip/ft

3

)

= 0.078 kip/ft

Deck Weight = (9.0

ft)(0.75 ft)(0.150 kip/ft )= 1.013 kip/ft

3

Future Wearing Surface = ( 0.020 kip/ft

2

)(

48

)(

ft 1 / 6

)

= 0.160 kip/ft

Barrier Weight = 2 (0.439 kip/ft)(1 / 6) = 0.146 kip/ft

Diaphragm Weight (9.0)[(2)(0.0103) + 0.0149]

2

+ ⋅

(

4.17

)

17

12

0.5

12

⎟⋅ ⎜

⎠ ⎝

(0.490) 0.561 kip

=

The bending moments and shears for the dead and live loads were obtained with a line girder model of the bridge. They are summarized in Tables 5.7.2.4 and 5.7.2.5.

Table 5.7.2.4 Shear Force Summary (kips/beam)

 Critical 0.1 Strand 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 Load Type/Combination Brg Brg Trans Shear Span Dev Span Span Span Span CL Face Point Point Point Point Point Point Point Point (0.0') (0.63') (2.38') (5.8') (13.0') (13.6') (26.0') (39.0') (52.0') (65.0') Selfweight 55 54 53 50 44 44 33 22 11 0 Stool 5 5 5 5 4 4 3 2 1 0 Dead Loads Deck 66 65 63 60 53 52 40 26 13 0 FWS 10 10 10 9 8 8 6 4 2 0 Barrier 9 9 9 9 8 8 6 4 2 0 Diaphragms 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 Total 146 144 141 134 118 113 89 59 29 0 Live Loads Uniform Lane 37 36 35 34 30 30 24 18 13 9 Truck with DLA 79 78 77 75 70 70 62 53 45 36 Total 116 114 112 109 100 100 86 71 58 45 Strength I Load Comb (1.25 ⋅ DL + 1.75 ⋅ LL) 386 380 372 358 323 316 262 198 138 79 Service I Load Comb (1.00 ⋅ DL + 1.00 ⋅ LL) 262 258 253 243 218 213 175 130 87 45 Service III Load Comb (1.00 ⋅ DL + 0.80 ⋅ LL) 239 235 231 221 198 193 158 116 75 36

MAR 2007

LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN

DESIGN EXAMPLE 5-10

Table 5.7.2.5 Bending Moment Summary (kip-ft/beam)

 Critical 0.1 Strand 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 Load Type/Combination Brg Brg Trans Shear Span Dev Span Span Span Span CL Face Point Point Point Point Point Point Point* Point (0.0') (0.63') (2.38') (5.8') (13.0') (13.6') (26.0') (39.0') (52.0') (65.0') Selfweight 0 34 128 305 643 670 1144 1501 1716 1787 Stool 0 3 12 28 59 62 105 138 158 165 DC1 Deck 0 41 154 365 770 802 1370 1798 2054 2140 Dead Loads Diaphragms 0 0 1 3 7 8 15 22 24 24 Total DC1 0 78 297 701 1479 1542 2634 3459 3952 4116 Barrier 0 6 22 53 111 116 197 259 296 308 DC2 FWS 0 7 24 58 122 127 216 284 324 338 Total DC2 0 13 46 111 233 243 413 543 620 646 Total (DC1+DC2) 0 91 343 812 1712 1785 3047 4002 4572 4762 Live Loads Uniform Lane 0 18 68 161 340 354 604 793 906 944 Truck with DLA 0 39 145 343 719 749 1265 1638 1857 1912 Total 0 57 213 504 1059 1103 1869 2431 2763 2856 Strength I - Load Comb (1.25 ⋅ DL + 1.75 ⋅ LL) 0 214 802 1897 3993 4162 7080 9257 10,550 10,951 Service I - Load Comb (1.00 ⋅ DL + 1.00 ⋅ LL) 0 148 556 1316 2771 2888 4916 6433 7335 7618 Service III – Load Comb (1.00 ⋅ DL + 0.80 ⋅ LL) 0 137 513 1215 2559 2667 4542 5947 6782 7047

* Drape point for strands.

 D. Design Typically the tension at the bottom of the beam at midspan dictates the Prestressing required level of prestressing.

1. Estimate Required Prestress

Service III load combination shall be used

Bottom of beam stress:

= ⎜

M

DC1

S

gb

+ ⎜ ⎛ M

S

DC2

cb

⎠ ⎟

+ ⎛ ⎜ M

⎝ ⎜

0.8

⎟ ⎟

LL

S

cb

= ⎜ ⎛ 4116 12

⎠ ⎟

15,390

+ ⎛ ⎜ 646 12

⎟ ⎟ ⎠

⎝ ⎜

21,940

2856 12 0.8 ⎞ ⎟ = 4.81 ksi

+ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝

21,940

MAR 2007

LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN

DESIGN EXAMPLE 5-11

As a starting point, the total prestress losses will be assumed to be 30%. This results in an effective prestress of

f

pe

=

0.75 f

pu

(1

0.30)

=

0.75 270 0.70

=

141.8 ksi

Strands are typically placed on a 2" grid. The bottom flange of a 72" beam can hold a maximum of 48 strands. The centroid of a 48 strand pattern would be

y str

 = ( ⎡Σ # of strands )( ⋅γ ) of strands ⎤ ⎢ ⎣ ⎡ 10 = ⋅ ( 2 ( total # of strands ) + 4 + 6 ) + ( 4 ⋅ 8 ) + 2 ⋅ ( 3 + ⎥ ⎦ 5 + 7 + 9 + 11 + 13 + ) 15 ⎤ ⎢ ⎣ 48 ⎥ ⎦

= 5.79 in

Using the centroid of this group as an estimate of the strand pattern eccentricity results in

e

48

=

y

g

5.79

=

35.60

5.79

=

29.81 in

The area of a 0.6" diameter 7-wire strand is

0.217 in

2

The axial compression produced by the prestressing strands is

P

=

A

s

f

pe

=

(# of strands)

(0.217) (141.8)

The internal moment produced by the prestressing strands is

M

p / s

=

A

s

f

pe

e

48

=

(#

of strands) 0.217 141.8 29.81

The allowable tension after losses

=

0.19

f
c

=

0.19

8

=

0.54 ksi

This moment and the axial compression from the prestress must reduce the bottom flange tension from 4.81 ksi tension to a tension of 0.54 ksi or

Required f

pe

=

4.81

Using the fact that

0.54

=

4.27 ksi

f pe =

P M

+

A S

One can estimate the required number of strands:

MAR 2007

LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN

DESIGN EXAMPLE 5-12

4.27

1

29.81

+

A

g

S

gb

⎥ ⎦

(

0.217

+

141.8

)

=

⎣ ⎢

4.27

1

29.81

+

786

15,390

(

0.217

+

141.8

)

= 43.2 strands

A strand pattern with 44 strands should be tried.

After reviewing Bridge Details Part II Figure 5-397.517, a 44 strand draped strand pattern was selected. Also, the drape points were chosen to be at 0.40L = 52.0 ft from the centerline of bearing locations. The trial strand pattern is shown in Figure 5.7.2.4.

The properties of this strand pattern at midspan are:

y strand

e strand

=

=

 ⎡ 10 ⋅ ( 2 + 4 + 6 ) + 2 ⋅ ( 3 + 5 + 7 + 8 + 9 + 11 + ) ⎢ ⎣ 44 y b − y strand = 35.60 − 5.27 = 30.33 in

13

= 5.27 in

Section Modulus at the strand pattern centroid is

I
g
547,920
=
=
S gps
30.33
e strand

= 18,065 in

3

Figure 5.7.2.4

MAR 2007

LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN

DESIGN EXAMPLE 5-13

[5.9.5]

[5.9.5.4.4b]

[5.9.5.2.3]

[5.9.5.4.2]

[5.9.5.4.3]

2. Prestress Losses

Prestress losses are computed using the refined method.

Initial Relaxation Loss

It shall be assumed that the prestress is transferred 18 hours after stressing

t =

18

24

= 0.75 days

f

pj

=

Δ

f

pR1

Δ

f

pR1

0.75 f

pu

=

0.75 270

=

202.50 ksi

=

(

log 24

t

)

f

f

pj

40

p

γ

0.55

f

pj

=

(

log 24 0.75

)

⎜ ⎛

202.50

40

0.9 270

0.55

202.50

=

1.80 ksi

Elastic Shortening Loss

The alternative equation presented in the LRFD C5.9.5.2.3a shall be used.

Δ

f

pES

=

 A ps f pbt ⋅ ( I g + e m 2 A g ) − e m M g A g A ( I + e 2 A ) + A g I g E ci ps g m g E p

A ps

= # of strands strand area = 44 0.217 = 9.55 in

(

)(

)

f

pbt

e

m

= f − Δf

pj

pR1

= 202.50 1.80 = 200.70 ksi

=

e

strand

=

30.33 in

2

A

g

I

g

E

ci

=

786 547,920 4347

(

)(

)

E

p 28,500

= 65,687,764 in

6

A

ps

(

I

g

+ e

m

2

A

g

)

= 9.55 547,920 + 30.33

[

(

2

)(

)]

786 = 12,137,748 in

Δ f pES

= 200.70 12,137,748 30.33 1787 12 786

(

)

(

)( )(

)

12,137,748

+

65,687,764

= 24.73 ksi

6

Shrinkage Loss

Use an average humidity for North Dakota of 70%.

Δ

f

pSR

=

17.0

(0.150 H) 17.0 (0.150 73) 6.05 ksi

=

=

Creep Loss

M

DC1

SW =

(4116 1787) 2329

=

kip-ft

MAR 2007

LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN

DESIGN EXAMPLE 5-14

DC 2

=

Δ

f

cdp

=

strand

M

DC1 SW

e

I

g

+

⎜ ⎛

M

DC 2

=

⎜ ⎜ 2329.12

y

cg

646 kip-ft

+

y

g

e

strand

+

I

cg

56.29 35.60

30.33 ⎟+ ⎟ ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ ⎛ 646.12

547,920

30.33

⎟ ⎟

1,235,000

= 1.87 ksi

 f = P i + P i ⋅ e strand − M sw cgp A g S gps S gps P i = (f pj −Δ f pR1 1681 + −Δ f pES ) A ps ( 1681 30.33 ) = − (202.50 1.80 24.73)(9.55) 1681 kips − − = ( 1787 12 ) = 3.77 ksi f cgp = 786 18,065 18065

[5.9.5.4.4c]

Δ

f

pCR

=

12

f

cgp

7

− ⋅Δ

f

cdp

=

(12 3.77)

(7

Relaxation Loss After Transfer

Δf

pR2

= 0.30 20 0.4 ⋅ Δf

[

pES

0.2 ⋅ Δf

(

pSR

1.87)

+ Δf

pCR

=

)]

32.15 ksi

= 0.30 [20 0.4 24.73 0.2 (6.05 + 32.15)] = 0.74 ksi

[5.9.5.1]

[5.9.4.1]

Total Losses

Δ =Δ

TL

f

pES

f

pSR

f

pCR

f

pe

=

f

pj

TL

−Δ =

202.50

f

pR2

63.67

 = + 24.73 6.05 32.15 0.74 + + =