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MAR 2007

LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN

DESIGN EXAMPLE 5-1

Prestressed I- Beam Design Example

This example illustrates the design of a pretensioned I-Beam for a two span bridge without skew. The 130'-0" spans are supported with Mn/DOT 72" beams. Mn/DOT standard details and drawings for diaphragms (B406, B812), railings (Fig. 5-397.117), and beams (Fig. 5- 397.517) are to be used with this example. This example contains the design of a typical interior beam at the critical sections in positive flexure, shear, and deflection. The superstructure consists of six beams spaced at 9'-0" centers. A typical transverse superstructure section is provided in Figure 5.7.2.1. A framing plan is provided in Figure 5.7.2.2. The roadway section is composed of two 12' traffic lanes and two 12' shoulders. A Type F railing is provided on each side of the bridge and a 9" composite concrete deck is used. End diaphragms (B812) are used at each end of the bridge and interior diaphragms (B406) are used at the interior third points and at the pier.

end of the bridge and interior diaphragms (B406) are used at the interior third points and
end of the bridge and interior diaphragms (B406) are used at the interior third points and

Figure 5.7.2.1

MAR 2007

LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN

DESIGN EXAMPLE 5-2

MAR 2007 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN DESIGN EXAMPLE 5-2 Figure 5.7.2.2

Figure 5.7.2.2

MAR 2007

LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN

DESIGN EXAMPLE 5-3

A. Materials

The modulus of elasticity for high strength concrete suggested by ACI Committee 363 is used for the beam concrete. The composite deck is assumed to have a unit weight of 0.150 kcf for dead load computations and 0.145 kcf for elastic modulus computations. The beam concrete is assumed to have a unit weight of 0.155 kcf for dead load computations.

The material and geometric parameters used in the example are shown in Table 5.7.2.1:

Table 5.7.2.1 Material Properties

Material Parameter

 

Prestressed Beam

Deck

 

f

ci

at transfer

 

7 ksi

---

f

c

at 28 days

 

8.0 ksi

 

4 ksi

Concrete

E

ci

at transfer

(

1265

) f′ ci
)
f′
ci

+ 1000

---

 

= 4347 ksi

 

E

c

at 28 days

(

1265

) f′ c
)
f′
c

+ 1000

= 4578 ksi

(

33,000 0.145

)

1.5

= 3644 ksi

⋅ f ′ c
f
c
 

f

y

for rebar

 

60 ksi

60 ksi

f

pu

for strand

 

270 ksi

 

---

Steel

E

s

for rebar

 

29,000 ksi

29,000 ksi

 

E

p

for strand

 

28,500 ksi

---

     

0.6 inch diameter

 

Strand type

270 ksi, low relaxation

---

B. Determine

Cross-Section Properties for a Typical Interior Beam

[4.6.2.6.1]

The beams are designed to act compositely with the deck on simple spans. The deck consists of a 7 inch thick concrete slab with a 2 inch wearing course. For simplicity and in order to be conservative, the beams are designed assuming the full 9 inches of thickness is placed in a single pour. A 1 / 2 inch of wear is assumed. A thickness of 8 1 / 2 inches is used for composite section properties. The haunch or stool is assumed to have an average thickness of 2 1 / 2 inches for dead load computations and 1 1 / 2 inches for section property computations.

The effective flange width,

b

e , is the smallest of:

1) 1 / 4 x Effective Span Length

=

1

130 12

=

390.0 in

4

2) 12 x Slab Thickness + 1 / 2 Top Flange Width

= 12 8.5 +

30

2

= 117.0 in

MAR 2007

LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN

DESIGN EXAMPLE 5-4

3) Average Beam Spacing = 108.0 in

GOVERNS

The modular ratio of the deck concrete to the beam concrete is:

n =

E

cdeck

3644

=

E

cbeam

4578

= 0.796

This results in a transformed effective flange width of:

b

etrans =

0.796

(108.0) = 86.0 in

Properties for an interior beam are given in Table 5.7.2.2.

Table 5.7.2.2 Cross-Section Properties

Parameter

Non-composite Section

Composite Section

Height of section, h

72 in

82.0 in

Deck thickness

---

8.5 in

   

1.5 in (section properties)

Average stool thickness

 

---

2.5 in (dead load)

   

108.0 in (deck concrete)

Effective flange width,

b

e

---

86.0 in (beam concrete)

Area, A

786

in 2

1553

in 2

Moment of inertia, I

547,920 in 4

1,235,000 in 4

Centroidal axis height, y

 

35.60 in

56.29 in

Bottom section modulus,

S

b

15,390 in 3

21,940 in 3

 

15,050 in 3

48,040 in 3 (beam concrete)

Top section modulus,

S

t

60,350 in 3 (deck concrete)

Top of prestressed beam

 

15,050 in 3

78,610 in 3

C.

Shear Forces

Three load combinations will be considered; Strength I, Service I, and

and Bending

Service III. As a result of the simple span configuration, only maximum

Moments

MAR 2007

LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN

DESIGN EXAMPLE 5-5

γ

p values need to be considered.

Load effects related to settlement, thermal effects, water load, or stream pressure will not be considered.

It shall be assumed that traffic can be positioned anywhere between the barriers.

Number of design lanes =

distance between barriers =

design lane width

48

12

= 4

[3.6.2]

Dynamic load allowance IM = 33%

[4.6.2.2]

1. Determine Live Load Distribution Factors

Designers should note that the approximate distribution factor equations

include the multiple presence factors.

[4.6.2.2.2]

Distribution Factor for Moment – Interior Beams

LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.1-1 lists the common deck superstructure types for which approximate live load distribution equations have been assembled. The cross section for this design example is Type (k). To ensure that the approximate distribution equations can be used, several parameters need to be checked.

1)

3.5 ft beam spacing = 9.0 ft 16.0 ft

OK

2)

3.5 in slab thickness = 8.5 in 12.0 in

OK

3)

20 ft

span length = 130 ft 240 ft

OK

4) 4 number of beams = 6

OK

The distribution factor equations use a K g factor that is defined in LRFD Article 4.6.2.2.1.

η=

E

c

beam

4578

=

E

c

deck

3644

e

K

g =

g

=

(

deck centroid

η ⋅

[I

+

A

(e

g

)

2

]

= 1.256

)

=

(

beam centroid

)

=

77.75

35.60

=

42.15 in

1.256

[547,920 + 786 (42.15) ] = 2.442

2

x 10 6

One design lane loaded:

gM

= 0.06

gM

= 0.06

+ ⎜ ⎛

+ ⎜ ⎛

S

14

9.0

14

0.4

0.4

⎛ ⎜

S

L

⎞ ⎟

0.3

90

130

K

12

L

t

s

3

0.1

0.3

2.442 x 10

6

12 130

8.5

3

0.1

MAR 2007

LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN

DESIGN EXAMPLE 5-6

[4.6.2.2.2d]

gM = 0.473 lanes/beam

Two or more design lanes loaded:

gM

= 0.075

gM

= 0.075

+ ⎜

+ ⎜ ⎛

S

⎟ ⎞

9.5

9.0

9.5


0.6

0.6

⎛ ⎜ S ⎞ ⎟

L

0.2

⎛ ⎜

90

130


0.2

gM = 0.698 lanes/beam

K

g

12

L

t

s

3

0.1

2.442 x 10

6

12 130 8.5

3

0.1

Distribution Factor for Moment - Exterior Beams

LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.2d-1 contains the approximate distribution factor

equations for exterior beams. Type (k) cross-sections have a deck dimension check to ensure that the approximate equations are valid.

The distance from the inside face of barrier to the centerline of the fascia

beam is defined as

d

e . For the example this distance is:

d

e =

24

(2.5 9.0) 1.50 ft

=

The check to use the approximate equations is:

1.0 ft

d

e

=

1.50 ft

5.5 ft

One design lane loaded:

OK

to use the approximate equations is: − 1.0 ft ≤ d e = 1.50 ft ≤

Figure 5.7.2.3

MAR 2007

LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN

DESIGN EXAMPLE 5-7

The lever rule shall be used to determine the live load distribution factor for one lane.

The fascia beam live load distribution factor is found by summing reactions about the first interior beam:

W

1

gM

=

=

W

2

1.2

=

0.5 lanes

W ⎜ ⋅L + W L ⎞ ⎟ =

1

1

2

2

S

gM = 0.733 lanes/beam

1.2

0.58.5 ⎜ + 0.52.5

9.0

Two or more design lanes loaded:

The distribution factor is equal to the factor “e” multiplied by the interior girder distribution factor for two or more lanes

[4.6.2.2.2e]

[4.6.2.2.3]

[4.6.2.2.3a]

[4.6.2.2.3b]

d

e =

24.0

22.5

=

1.5 ft

e

=

gM

0.77

=

e

+ ⎜ ⎛ d

g

int

⎟ =

e

9.1

=

1.5⎞ ⎟= 0.935

0.77

+ ⎜

9.1

=

0.653

0.935 0.698

lanes/beam

Skew Factor

No correction is necessary for a skew angle of zero.

Distribution Factor for Shear – Interior Beams

LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.3a-1 can be used.

One design lane loaded:

gV

=

0.36

+ ⎜

S

25.0

9.0 ⎟ ⎞ = 0.720

⎟= 0.36 + ⎜

25.0

lanes/beam

Two or more design lanes loaded:

gV

= 0.2

S

+ ⎜

12

S

35

⎟− ⎜

2

= 0.2

+ ⎛ ⎜ 9.0

9.0

35

⎟− ⎜

12

2

= 0.884

lanes/beam

Distribution Factor for Shear – Exterior Beams

One Design Lane Loaded:

The lever rule shall be used which results in the same factor that was computed for flexure and is equal to 0.733 lanes/beam

Two or more design lanes loaded:

MAR 2007

LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN

DESIGN EXAMPLE 5-8

e

=

0.6

+

⎛ ⎜

d

e

10

=

0.6

1.5 ⎟= ⎞ 0.750

+ ⎜

10

The exterior beam shear distribution factor for two or more design lanes

is determined by modifying the interior distribution factor:

gV

=

e

g

int

=

0.750 0.884

=

0.663

lanes/beam

[4.6.2.2.3c]

Skew Factor

No correction is necessary for a skew angle of zero.

[2.5.2.6.2]

Distribution Factor for Deflection

[Table 3.6.1.1.2-1] The distribution factor for checking live load deflections assumes that the entire cross section participates in resisting the live load. The minimum Multiple Presence Factor (MPF) used by Mn/DOT when checking live load deflection is 0.85. The deflection distribution factor is:

gD

=

(

#

of lanes

)(

MPF

)

=

(

#

of beam lines

)

4 0.85

6

= 0.567

lanes/beam

Table 5.7.2.3 contains a summary of the live load distribution factors.

Table 5.7.2.3 Distribution Factor Summary (lanes per beam)

[1.3.3 – 1.3.5]

 

Loading

 

Flexure

Shear

Interior

   

One Design Lane

 

0.473

0.720

Beam

 

Two or More Design Lanes

 

0.698

0.884

 

Deflection

 

0.567

-

Exterior

   

One Design Lane

 

0.733

0.733

Beam

 

Two or More Design Lanes

 

0.653

0.663

 

Deflection

 

0.567

-

2. Load Modifiers

 

The following load modifiers will be used for this example:

 
   

Strength

Service

Fatigue

Ductility

D

η 1.0

 

1.0

1.0

Redundancy

R

η 1.0

 

1.0

1.0

Importance

η

I

1.0

 

n/a

n/a

 

η = η ⋅η ⋅η

D

R

I

1.0

 

1.0

1.0

MAR 2007

LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN

DESIGN EXAMPLE 5-9

3. Dead and Live Load Summary

Beam Selfweight

=

(786 / 144) (0.155 kip/ft

3

) = 0.846 kip/ft

Stool Weight

=

(2.5 ft) (0.208 ft) (0.150 kip/ft

3

)

= 0.078 kip/ft

Deck Weight = (9.0

ft)(0.75 ft)(0.150 kip/ft )= 1.013 kip/ft

3

Future Wearing Surface = ( 0.020 kip/ft

2

)(

48

)(

ft 1 / 6

)

= 0.160 kip/ft

Barrier Weight = 2 (0.439 kip/ft)(1 / 6) = 0.146 kip/ft

Diaphragm Weight (9.0)[(2)(0.0103) + 0.0149]

2

+ ⋅

(

4.17

)

17

12

0.5

12

⎟⋅ ⎜

⎠ ⎝

(0.490) 0.561 kip

=

The bending moments and shears for the dead and live loads were obtained with a line girder model of the bridge. They are summarized in Tables 5.7.2.4 and 5.7.2.5.

Table 5.7.2.4 Shear Force Summary (kips/beam)

       

Critical

0.1

Strand

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

Load Type/Combination

Brg

Brg

Trans

Shear

Span

Dev

Span

Span

Span

Span

CL

Face

Point

Point

Point

Point

Point

Point

Point

Point

 

(0.0')

(0.63')

(2.38')

(5.8')

(13.0')

(13.6')

(26.0')

(39.0')

(52.0')

(65.0')

 

Selfweight

55

54

53

50

44

44

33

22

11

0

Stool

5

5

5

5

4

4

3

2

1

0

Dead Loads

Deck

66

65

63

60

53

52

40

26

13

0

FWS

10

10

10

9

8

8

6

4

2

0

Barrier

9

9

9

9

8

8

6

4

2

0

 

Diaphragms

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

0

Total

146

144

141

134

118

113

89

59

29

0

Live Loads

Uniform Lane

37

36

35

34

30

30

24

18

13

9

Truck with DLA

79

78

77

75

70

70

62

53

45

36

Total

116

114

112

109

100

100

86

71

58

45

Strength I Load Comb

                   

(1.25 DL + 1.75 LL)

386

380

372

358

323

316

262

198

138

79

Service I Load Comb

                   

(1.00 DL + 1.00 LL)

262

258

253

243

218

213

175

130

87

45

Service III Load Comb

                   

(1.00 DL + 0.80 LL)

239

235

231

221

198

193

158

116

75

36

MAR 2007

LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN

DESIGN EXAMPLE 5-10

Table 5.7.2.5 Bending Moment Summary (kip-ft/beam)

       

Critical

0.1

Strand

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

Load Type/Combination

Brg

Brg

Trans

Shear

Span

Dev

Span

Span

Span

Span

CL

Face

Point

Point

Point

Point

Point

Point

Point*

Point

 

(0.0')

(0.63')

(2.38')

(5.8')

(13.0')

(13.6')

(26.0')

(39.0')

(52.0')

(65.0')

   

Selfweight

0

34

128

305

643

670

1144

1501

1716

1787

Stool

0

3

12

28

59

62

105

138

158

165

DC1

Deck

0

41

154

365

770

802

1370

1798

2054

2140

Dead Loads

Diaphragms

0

0

1

3

7

8

15

22

24

24

Total DC1

0

78

297

701

1479

1542

2634

3459

3952

4116

 

Barrier

0

6

22

53

111

116

197

259

296

308

 

DC2

FWS

0

7

24

58

122

127

216

284

324

338

Total DC2

0

13

46

111

233

243

413

543

620

646

Total (DC1+DC2)

0

91

343

812

1712

1785

3047

4002

4572

4762

Live Loads

Uniform Lane

0

18

68

161

340

354

604

793

906

944

Truck with DLA

0

39

145

343

719

749

1265

1638

1857

1912

 

Total

0

57

213

504

1059

1103

1869

2431

2763

2856

Strength I - Load Comb

                   

(1.25 DL + 1.75 LL)

0

214

802

1897

3993

4162

7080

9257

10,550

10,951

Service I - Load Comb

                   

(1.00 DL + 1.00 LL)

0

148

556

1316

2771

2888

4916

6433

7335

7618

Service III – Load Comb

                   

(1.00 DL + 0.80 LL)

0

137

513

1215

2559

2667

4542

5947

6782

7047

* Drape point for strands.

D. Design

Typically the tension at the bottom of the beam at midspan dictates the

Prestressing

required level of prestressing.

1. Estimate Required Prestress

Service III load combination shall be used

Bottom of beam stress:

= ⎜

M

DC1

S

gb

+ ⎜ ⎛ M

S

DC2

cb

⎠ ⎟

+ ⎛ ⎜ M

⎝ ⎜

0.8

⎟ ⎟

LL

S

cb

= ⎜ ⎛ 4116 12

⎠ ⎟

15,390

+ ⎛ ⎜ 646 12

⎟ ⎟ ⎠

⎝ ⎜

21,940

2856 12 0.8 ⎞ ⎟ = 4.81 ksi

+ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝

21,940

MAR 2007

LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN

DESIGN EXAMPLE 5-11

As a starting point, the total prestress losses will be assumed to be 30%. This results in an effective prestress of

f

pe

=

0.75 f

pu

(1

0.30)

=

0.75 270 0.70

=

141.8 ksi

Strands are typically placed on a 2" grid. The bottom flange of a 72" beam can hold a maximum of 48 strands. The centroid of a 48 strand pattern would be

y str

=

(

⎡Σ # of strands

)(

⋅γ

)

of strands

 

10

=

(

2

(

total # of strands

)

+

4

+

6

)

+

(

4

8

)

+

2

(

3

+

5

+

7

+

9

+

11

+

13

+

)

15

48

 

= 5.79 in

Using the centroid of this group as an estimate of the strand pattern eccentricity results in

e

48

=

y

g

5.79

=

35.60

5.79

=

29.81 in

The area of a 0.6" diameter 7-wire strand is

0.217 in

2

The axial compression produced by the prestressing strands is

P

=

A

s

f

pe

=

(# of strands)

(0.217) (141.8)

The internal moment produced by the prestressing strands is

M

p / s

=

A

s

f

pe

e

48

=

(#

of strands) 0.217 141.8 29.81

The allowable tension after losses

=

0.19

f ′ c
f
c

=

0.19

8
8

=

0.54 ksi

This moment and the axial compression from the prestress must reduce the bottom flange tension from 4.81 ksi tension to a tension of 0.54 ksi or

Required f

pe

=

4.81

Using the fact that

0.54

=

4.27 ksi

f pe =

P M

+

A S

One can estimate the required number of strands:

MAR 2007

LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN

DESIGN EXAMPLE 5-12

4.27

1

29.81

+

A

g

S

gb

⎥ ⎦

(

0.217

+

141.8

)

=

⎣ ⎢

4.27

1

29.81

+

786

15,390

(

0.217

+

141.8

)

= 43.2 strands

A strand pattern with 44 strands should be tried.

After reviewing Bridge Details Part II Figure 5-397.517, a 44 strand draped strand pattern was selected. Also, the drape points were chosen to be at 0.40L = 52.0 ft from the centerline of bearing locations. The trial strand pattern is shown in Figure 5.7.2.4.

The properties of this strand pattern at midspan are:

y strand

e strand

=

=

10

(

2

+

4

+

6

)

+

2

(

3

+

5

+

7

+

8

+

9

+

11

+

)

44

 

y

b

y

strand

=

35.60

5.27

=

30.33 in

 

13

= 5.27 in

Section Modulus at the strand pattern centroid is

I g 547,920 = = S gps 30.33 e strand
I
g
547,920
=
=
S gps
30.33
e strand

= 18,065 in

3

Figure 5.7.2.4
Figure 5.7.2.4

MAR 2007

LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN

DESIGN EXAMPLE 5-13

[5.9.5]

[5.9.5.4.4b]

[5.9.5.2.3]

[5.9.5.4.2]

[5.9.5.4.3]

2. Prestress Losses

Prestress losses are computed using the refined method.

Initial Relaxation Loss

It shall be assumed that the prestress is transferred 18 hours after stressing

t =

18

24

= 0.75 days

f

pj

=

Δ

f

pR1

Δ

f

pR1

0.75 f

pu

=

0.75 270

=

202.50 ksi

=

(

log 24

t

)

f

f

pj

40

p

γ

0.55

f

pj

=

(

log 24 0.75

)

⎜ ⎛

202.50

40

0.9 270

0.55

202.50

=

1.80 ksi

Elastic Shortening Loss

The alternative equation presented in the LRFD C5.9.5.2.3a shall be used.

Δ

f

pES

=

A

ps

f

pbt

 

(

I

g

+

e

m

2

A

g

)

e

m

M

g

A

g

 

A

(

I

+

e

2

A

)

+

A

g

I

g

E

ci

 

ps

 

g

m

 

g

 

E

p

A ps

= # of strands strand area = 44 0.217 = 9.55 in

(

)(

)

f

pbt

e

m

= f − Δf

pj

pR1

= 202.50 1.80 = 200.70 ksi

=

e

strand

=

30.33 in

2

A

g

I

g

E

ci

=

786 547,920 4347

(

)(

)

E

p 28,500

= 65,687,764 in

6

A

ps

(

I

g

+ e

m

2

A

g

)

= 9.55 547,920 + 30.33

[

(

2

)(

)]

786 = 12,137,748 in

Δ f pES

= 200.70 12,137,748 30.33 1787 12 786

(

)

(

)( )(

)

12,137,748

+

65,687,764

= 24.73 ksi

6

Shrinkage Loss

Use an average humidity for North Dakota of 70%.

Δ

f

pSR

=

17.0

(0.150 H) 17.0 (0.150 73) 6.05 ksi

=

=

Creep Loss

Non-composite dead load moment excluding selfweight

M

DC1

SW =

(4116 1787) 2329

=

kip-ft

MAR 2007

LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN

DESIGN EXAMPLE 5-14

Composite dead load moment, M

DC 2

=

Δ

f

cdp

=

strand

M

DC1 SW

e

I

g

+

⎜ ⎛

M

DC 2

=

⎜ ⎜ 2329.12

y

cg

646 kip-ft

+

y

g

e

strand

+

I

cg

56.29 35.60

30.33 ⎟+ ⎟ ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ ⎛ 646.12

547,920

30.33

⎟ ⎟

1,235,000

= 1.87 ksi

f

=

P

i

+

P

i

e

strand

M

sw

 

cgp

A

g S

gps

 

S

gps

P

i

=

(f pj

−Δ

f

pR1

1681

+

−Δ

f

pES

)

A

ps

(

1681 30.33

)

=

(202.50 1.80 24.73)(9.55) 1681 kips

=

(

1787 12

)

= 3.77 ksi

f cgp =

 

786

 

18,065

 

18065

[5.9.5.4.4c]

Δ

f

pCR

=

12

f

cgp

7

− ⋅Δ

f

cdp

=

(12 3.77)

(7

Relaxation Loss After Transfer

Δf

pR2

= 0.30 20 0.4 ⋅ Δf

[

pES

0.2 ⋅ Δf

(

pSR

1.87)

+ Δf

pCR

=

)]

32.15 ksi

= 0.30 [20 0.4 24.73 0.2 (6.05 + 32.15)] = 0.74 ksi

[5.9.5.1]

[5.9.4.1]

Total Losses

Δ =Δ

TL

f

pES

f

pSR

f

pCR

f

pe

=

f

pj

TL

−Δ =

202.50

f

pR2

63.67

=

+

24.73 6.05 32.15 0.74

+

+

=