MAR 2007
LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN
DESIGN EXAMPLE 51
Prestressed I Beam Design Example
This example illustrates the design of a pretensioned IBeam for a two span bridge without skew. The 130'0" spans are supported with Mn/DOT 72" beams. Mn/DOT standard details and drawings for diaphragms (B406, B812), railings (Fig. 5397.117), and beams (Fig. 5 397.517) are to be used with this example. This example contains the design of a typical interior beam at the critical sections in positive flexure, shear, and deflection. The superstructure consists of six beams spaced at 9'0" centers. A typical transverse superstructure section is provided in Figure 5.7.2.1. A framing plan is provided in Figure 5.7.2.2. The roadway section is composed of two 12' traffic lanes and two 12' shoulders. A Type F railing is provided on each side of the bridge and a 9" composite concrete deck is used. End diaphragms (B812) are used at each end of the bridge and interior diaphragms (B406) are used at the interior third points and at the pier.
Figure 5.7.2.1
MAR 2007
LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN
DESIGN EXAMPLE 52
Figure 5.7.2.2
MAR 2007
LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN
DESIGN EXAMPLE 53
A. Materials
The modulus of elasticity for high strength concrete suggested by ACI Committee 363 is used for the beam concrete. The composite deck is assumed to have a unit weight of 0.150 kcf for dead load computations and 0.145 kcf for elastic modulus computations. The beam concrete is assumed to have a unit weight of 0.155 kcf for dead load computations.
The material and geometric parameters used in the example are shown in Table 5.7.2.1:
Table 5.7.2.1 Material Properties
Material Parameter 
Prestressed Beam 
Deck 

f′ ci 
at transfer 
7 ksi 
 

f c 
at 28 days 
8.0 ksi 
4 ksi 

Concrete 
E ci 
at transfer 
( 
1265 ⋅ 
)
f′
ci

+ 1000 
 

= 4347 ksi 

E c 
at 28 days 
( 
1265 ⋅
)
f′
c
+ 1000 = 4578 ksi 
( 33,000 ⋅ 0.145 ) 1.5 = 3644 ksi 
⋅
f
′
c


f y 
for rebar 
60 ksi 
60 ksi 

f pu 
for strand 
270 ksi 
 

Steel 
E s 
for rebar 
29,000 ksi 
29,000 ksi 

E p 
for strand 
28,500 ksi 
 

0.6 inch diameter 

Strand type 
270 ksi, low relaxation 
 
B. Determine
CrossSection Properties for a Typical Interior Beam
[4.6.2.6.1]
The beams are designed to act compositely with the deck on simple spans. The deck consists of a 7 inch thick concrete slab with a 2 inch wearing course. For simplicity and in order to be conservative, the beams are designed assuming the full 9 inches of thickness is placed in a single pour. A ^{1} / _{2} inch of wear is assumed. A thickness of 8 ^{1} / _{2} inches is used for composite section properties. The haunch or stool is assumed to have an average thickness of 2 ^{1} / _{2} inches for dead load computations and 1 ^{1} / _{2} inches for section property computations.
The effective flange width,
b
e , is the smallest of:
1) ^{1} / _{4} x Effective Span Length
= 
1 
⋅ 
130 12 ⋅ 
= 
390.0 in 
4 
2) 12 x Slab Thickness + ^{1} / _{2} Top Flange Width
= 12 ⋅ 8.5 +
30
2
= 117.0 in
MAR 2007
LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN
DESIGN EXAMPLE 54
3) Average Beam Spacing = 108.0 in
GOVERNS
The modular ratio of the deck concrete to the beam concrete is:
n =
E
cdeck
3644
=
E
cbeam
4578
= 0.796
This results in a transformed effective flange width of:
b
etrans ^{=}
0.796
^{⋅}
(108.0) ^{=} 86.0 in
Properties for an interior beam are given in Table 5.7.2.2.
Table 5.7.2.2 CrossSection Properties
Parameter 
Noncomposite Section 
Composite Section 

Height of section, h 
72 in 
82.0 in 

Deck thickness 
 
8.5 in 

1.5 in (section properties) 

Average stool thickness 
 
2.5 in (dead load) 

108.0 in (deck concrete) 

Effective flange width, 
b 
e 
 
86.0 in (beam concrete) 

Area, A 
786 
in ^{2} 
1553 
in ^{2} 

Moment of inertia, I 
547,920 in ^{4} 
1,235,000 in ^{4} 

Centroidal axis height, y 
35.60 in 
56.29 in 

Bottom section modulus, 
S 
b 
15,390 in ^{3} 
21,940 in ^{3} 

15,050 in ^{3} 
48,040 in ^{3} (beam concrete) 

Top section modulus, 
S 
t 
60,350 in ^{3} (deck concrete) 

Top of prestressed beam 
15,050 in ^{3} 
78,610 in ^{3} 
C. 
Shear Forces 
Three load combinations will be considered; Strength I, Service I, and 
and Bending 
Service III. As a result of the simple span configuration, only maximum 

Moments 
MAR 2007
LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN
DESIGN EXAMPLE 55
γ
p values need to be considered.
Load effects related to settlement, thermal effects, water load, or stream pressure will not be considered.
It shall be assumed that traffic can be positioned anywhere between the barriers.
Number of design lanes =
distance between barriers _{=}
design lane width
48
12
_{=} 4
[3.6.2] 
Dynamic load allowance IM = 33% 
[4.6.2.2] 
1. Determine Live Load Distribution Factors 
Designers should note that the approximate distribution factor equations 

include the multiple presence factors. 

[4.6.2.2.2] 
Distribution Factor for Moment – Interior Beams 
LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.11 lists the common deck superstructure types for which approximate live load distribution equations have been assembled. The cross section for this design example is Type (k). To ensure that the approximate distribution equations can be used, several parameters need to be checked.
1) 
3.5 ft ≤ beam spacing = 9.0 ft ≤ 16.0 ft 
OK 

2) 
3.5 in ≤ slab thickness = 8.5 in ≤ 12.0 in 
OK 

3) 
20 ft ≤ 
span length = 130 ft ≤ 240 ft 
OK 
4) 4 ≤ number of beams = 6 
OK 
The distribution factor equations use a K _{g} factor that is defined in LRFD Article 4.6.2.2.1.
η=
E
c
beam
4578
=
E
c
deck
3644
e
K
_{g} =
g
=
(
deck centroid
η ⋅
[I
+
A
⋅
(e
g
)
2
]
= 1.256
)
=
−
(
beam centroid
)
=
77.75
−
35.60
=
42.15 in
1.256
⋅
[547,920 + 786 ⋅ (42.15) ] = 2.442
2
x 10 ^{6}
One design lane loaded:
gM 
= 0.06 
gM 
= 0.06 
+ ⎜ ⎛
⎝
+ ⎜ ⎛
⎝
S
14
⎞
⎟
⎠
9.0
14
0.4
⎞
⎟
⎠
0.4
⋅
⎛ ⎜
⎝
⋅
S
L
⎞ ⎟
⎠
0.3
⎛
⎜
⎝
90
130
⎞
⎟
⎠
⋅
⎛
⎜
⎜
⎝
K
12
⋅
L
⋅
t
s
3
⎞
⎟
⎟
⎠
0.1
0.3
⋅
⎛
⎜
⎜
⎝
2.442 x 10
6
12 130
⋅
⋅
8.5
3
⎞
⎟
⎟
⎠
0.1
MAR 2007
LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN
DESIGN EXAMPLE 56
[4.6.2.2.2d]
gM = 0.473 lanes/beam
Two or more design lanes loaded:
gM 
= 0.075 
gM 
= 0.075 
⎛
+ ⎜
⎝
+ ⎜ ⎛
⎝
S
⎟ ⎞
⎠
9.5
9.0
9.5
⎞
⎟
⎠
0.6
0.6
⋅
⎛ ⎜ S ⎞ ⎟
⎝
L
⎠
0.2
⋅
⎛
⎜
⎜
⎝
⋅
⎛ ⎜
⎝
90
130
⎞
⎟
⎠
0.2
gM = 0.698 lanes/beam
K
g
12
⋅
L
⋅
t
s
3
⎞
⎟
⎟
⎠
0.1
⋅
⎛
⎜
⎜
⎝
2.442 x 10
6
12 130 8.5
⋅
⋅
3
⎞
⎟
⎟
⎠
0.1
Distribution Factor for Moment  Exterior Beams
LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.2d1 contains the approximate distribution factor
equations for exterior beams. Type (k) crosssections have a deck dimension check to ensure that the approximate equations are valid.
The distance from the inside face of barrier to the centerline of the fascia
beam is defined as
d
e . For the example this distance is:
d
_{e} =
24
−
(2.5 9.0) 1.50 ft
−
=
The check to use the approximate equations is:
−
1.0 ft
≤
d
e
=
1.50 ft
≤
5.5 ft
One design lane loaded:
OK
Figure 5.7.2.3
MAR 2007
LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN
DESIGN EXAMPLE 57
The lever rule shall be used to determine the live load distribution factor for one lane.
The fascia beam live load distribution factor is found by summing reactions about the first interior beam:
W
1
gM
=
=
W
2
1.2
=
0.5 lanes
⋅
⎛W ⎜ ⋅L + W ⋅L ⎞ ⎟ =
⎜
⎝
1
1
2
2
⎟
⎠
S
gM = 0.733 lanes/beam
1.2
⋅
_{⎛}_{0}_{.}_{5}_{⋅}_{8}_{.}_{5} ⎜ + 0.5⋅2.5⎞
9.0
⎝
⎟
⎠
Two or more design lanes loaded:
The distribution factor is equal to the factor “e” multiplied by the interior girder distribution factor for two or more lanes
[4.6.2.2.2e]
[4.6.2.2.3]
[4.6.2.2.3a]
[4.6.2.2.3b]
d
_{e} =
24.0
−
22.5
=
1.5 ft
e
=
gM
0.77
=
e
⋅
+ ⎜ ⎛ d
⎝
⎞
⎜
g
int
⎟ =
⎟
e
9.1
=
⎠
⎛1.5⎞ ⎟= 0.935
⎝
0.77
+ ⎜
9.1
=
⎠
0.653
0.935 0.698
⋅
lanes/beam
Skew Factor
No correction is necessary for a skew angle of zero.
Distribution Factor for Shear – Interior Beams
LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.3a1 can be used.
One design lane loaded:
gV
=
0.36
⎛
+ ⎜
⎝
S
25.0
⎞
⎛ 9.0 ⎟ ⎞ = 0.720
⎝
⎟= 0.36 + ⎜
⎠
25.0
⎠
lanes/beam
Two or more design lanes loaded:
gV
= 0.2
⎛ S ⎞
+ ⎜
⎝
12
⎛ S ⎞
⎟
⎠
⎝
35
⎟− ⎜
⎠
2
= 0.2
+ ⎛ ⎜ 9.0 ⎞
⎠
⎛ 9.0 ⎞
⎟
35
⎝
⎠
⎟− ⎜
⎝
12
2
= 0.884
lanes/beam
Distribution Factor for Shear – Exterior Beams
One Design Lane Loaded:
The lever rule shall be used which results in the same factor that was computed for flexure and is equal to 0.733 lanes/beam
Two or more design lanes loaded:
MAR 2007
LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN
DESIGN EXAMPLE 58
e
=
0.6
+
⎛ ⎜
⎜
⎝
d
e
10
⎞
⎟
⎟
⎠
=
0.6
⎛ 1.5 ⎟= ⎞ 0.750
⎝
+ ⎜
10
⎠
The exterior beam shear distribution factor for two or more design lanes
is determined by modifying the interior distribution factor:
gV
=
e
⋅
g
int
=
0.750 0.884
⋅
=
0.663
lanes/beam
[4.6.2.2.3c] 
Skew Factor 
No correction is necessary for a skew angle of zero. 

[2.5.2.6.2] 
Distribution Factor for Deflection 
[Table 3.6.1.1.21] The distribution factor for checking live load deflections assumes that the entire cross section participates in resisting the live load. The minimum Multiple Presence Factor (MPF) used by Mn/DOT when checking live load deflection is 0.85. The deflection distribution factor is:
gD
= 
( # 
of lanes )( ⋅ 
MPF 
) 
= 

( 
# 
of beam lines 
) 
4 0.85
⋅
6
= 0.567
lanes/beam
Table 5.7.2.3 contains a summary of the live load distribution factors.
Table 5.7.2.3 Distribution Factor Summary (lanes per beam)
[1.3.3 – 1.3.5]
Loading 
Flexure 
Shear 

Interior 
One Design Lane 
0.473 
0.720 

Beam 
Two or More Design Lanes 
0.698 
0.884 

Deflection 
0.567 
 

Exterior 
One Design Lane 
0.733 
0.733 

Beam 
Two or More Design Lanes 
0.653 
0.663 

Deflection 
0.567 
 

2. Load Modifiers 

The following load modifiers will be used for this example: 

Strength 
Service 
Fatigue 

Ductility 
D 
η 1.0 
1.0 
1.0 

Redundancy 
R 
η 1.0 
1.0 
1.0 

Importance 
η 
I 
1.0 
n/a 
n/a 

η = η ⋅η ⋅η D R 
I 
1.0 
1.0 
1.0 
MAR 2007
LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN
DESIGN EXAMPLE 59
3. Dead and Live Load Summary
Beam Selfweight
=
(786 / 144) (0.155 kip/ft
⋅
3
) = 0.846 kip/ft
Stool Weight
=
(2.5 ft) ⋅ (0.208 ft) ⋅ (0.150 kip/ft
3
)
= 0.078 kip/ft
Deck Weight = (9.0
ft)⋅ (0.75 ft)⋅ (0.150 kip/ft )= 1.013 kip/ft
3
Future Wearing Surface = ( 0.020 kip/ft
2
)(
⋅
48
)(
ft ⋅ 1 / 6
)
= 0.160 kip/ft
Barrier Weight = 2 ⋅ (0.439 kip/ft)⋅ (1 / 6) = 0.146 kip/ft
Diaphragm Weight ≅ (9.0)⋅ [(2)⋅ (0.0103) + _{0}_{.}_{0}_{1}_{4}_{9}_{]}
2
+ ⋅
(
4.17
)
_{⋅}
⎛ 17 ⎞
⎜
12
⎝
_{⎛} 0.5 _{⎞}
_{⎟}
12
⎠
⎟⋅ ⎜
⎠ ⎝
⋅
(0.490) 0.561 kip
=
The bending moments and shears for the dead and live loads were obtained with a line girder model of the bridge. They are summarized in Tables 5.7.2.4 and 5.7.2.5.
Table 5.7.2.4 Shear Force Summary (kips/beam)
Critical 
0.1 
Strand 
0.2 
0.3 
0.4 
0.5 

Load Type/Combination 
Brg 
Brg 
Trans 
Shear 
Span 
Dev 
Span 
Span 
Span 
Span 

CL 
Face 
Point 
Point 
Point 
Point 
Point 
Point 
Point 
Point 

(0.0') 
(0.63') 
(2.38') 
(5.8') 
(13.0') 
(13.6') 
(26.0') 
(39.0') 
(52.0') 
(65.0') 

Selfweight 
55 
54 
53 
50 
44 
44 
33 
22 
11 
0 

Stool 
5 
5 
5 
5 
4 
4 
3 
2 
1 
0 

Dead Loads 
Deck 
66 
65 
63 
60 
53 
52 
40 
26 
13 
0 
FWS 
10 
10 
10 
9 
8 
8 
6 
4 
2 
0 

Barrier 
9 
9 
9 
9 
8 
8 
6 
4 
2 
0 

Diaphragms 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
0 
0 

Total 
146 
144 
141 
134 
118 
113 
89 
59 
29 
0 

Live Loads 
Uniform Lane 
37 
36 
35 
34 
30 
30 
24 
18 
13 
9 
Truck with DLA 
79 
78 
77 
75 
70 
70 
62 
53 
45 
36 

Total 
116 
114 
112 
109 
100 
100 
86 
71 
58 
45 

Strength I Load Comb 

(1.25 ⋅ DL + 1.75 ⋅ LL) 
386 
380 
372 
358 
323 
316 
262 
198 
138 
79 

Service I Load Comb 

(1.00 ⋅ DL + 1.00 ⋅ LL) 
262 
258 
253 
243 
218 
213 
175 
130 
87 
45 

Service III Load Comb 

(1.00 ⋅ DL + 0.80 ⋅ LL) 
239 
235 
231 
221 
198 
193 
158 
116 
75 
36 
MAR 2007
LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN
DESIGN EXAMPLE 510
Table 5.7.2.5 Bending Moment Summary (kipft/beam)
Critical 
0.1 
Strand 
0.2 
0.3 
0.4 
0.5 

Load Type/Combination 
Brg 
Brg 
Trans 
Shear 
Span 
Dev 
Span 
Span 
Span 
Span 

CL 
Face 
Point 
Point 
Point 
Point 
Point 
Point 
Point* 
Point 

(0.0') 
(0.63') 
(2.38') 
(5.8') 
(13.0') 
(13.6') 
(26.0') 
(39.0') 
(52.0') 
(65.0') 

Selfweight 
0 
34 
128 
305 
643 
670 
1144 
1501 
1716 
1787 

Stool 
0 
3 
12 
28 
59 
62 
105 
138 
158 
165 

DC1 
Deck 
0 
41 
154 
365 
770 
802 
1370 
1798 
2054 
2140 

Dead Loads 
Diaphragms 
0 
0 
1 
3 
7 
8 
15 
22 
24 
24 

Total DC1 
0 
78 
297 
701 
1479 
1542 
2634 
3459 
3952 
4116 

Barrier 
0 
6 
22 
53 
111 
116 
197 
259 
296 
308 

DC2 
FWS 
0 
7 
24 
58 
122 
127 
216 
284 
324 
338 

Total DC2 
0 
13 
46 
111 
233 
243 
413 
543 
620 
646 

Total (DC1+DC2) 
0 
91 
343 
812 
1712 
1785 
3047 
4002 
4572 
4762 

Live Loads 
Uniform Lane 
0 
18 
68 
161 
340 
354 
604 
793 
906 
944 

Truck with DLA 
0 
39 
145 
343 
719 
749 
1265 
1638 
1857 
1912 

Total 
0 
57 
213 
504 
1059 
1103 
1869 
2431 
2763 
2856 

Strength I  Load Comb 

(1.25 ⋅ DL + 1.75 ⋅ LL) 
0 
214 
802 
1897 
3993 
4162 
7080 
9257 
10,550 
10,951 

Service I  Load Comb 

(1.00 ⋅ DL + 1.00 ⋅ LL) 
0 
148 
556 
1316 
2771 
2888 
4916 
6433 
7335 
7618 

Service III – Load Comb 

(1.00 ⋅ DL + 0.80 ⋅ LL) 
0 
137 
513 
1215 
2559 
2667 
4542 
5947 
6782 
7047 
* Drape point for strands.
D. Design 
Typically the tension at the bottom of the beam at midspan dictates the 
Prestressing 
required level of prestressing. 
1. Estimate Required Prestress
Service III load combination shall be used
Bottom of beam stress:
⎛
= ⎜
⎜
⎝
M
DC1
S
gb
⎞
⎟
⎟
⎠
+ ⎜ ⎛ M
S
DC2
⎜
⎝
cb
⎞
⎟
⎠ ⎟
+ ⎛ ⎜ M
⎝ ⎜
⋅ 0.8 ⎞
⎟ ⎟
⎠
LL
S
cb
= ⎜ ⎛ 4116 ⋅ 12 ⎞
⎠ ⎟
⎟
⎜
⎝
15,390
+ ⎛ ⎜ 646 ⋅ 12 ⎞
⎟ ⎟ ⎠
⎝ ⎜
21,940
⎛ 2856 ⋅ 12 ⋅ 0.8 ⎞ ⎟ = 4.81 ksi
+ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝
21,940
⎟
⎠
MAR 2007
LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN
DESIGN EXAMPLE 511
As a starting point, the total prestress losses will be assumed to be 30%. This results in an effective prestress of
f
pe
=
0.75 f
⋅
pu
⋅
(1
−
0.30)
=
0.75 270 0.70
⋅
⋅
=
141.8 ksi
Strands are typically placed on a 2" grid. The bottom flange of a 72" beam can hold a maximum of 48 strands. The centroid of a 48 strand pattern would be
^{y} str
= ( ⎡Σ # of strands )( ⋅γ 
) of strands ⎤ 

⎢ ⎣ ⎡ 10 = 
⋅ 
( 2 
( total # of strands ) + 4 + 6 ) + ( 4 ⋅ 8 ) + 2 
⋅ 
( 
3 
+ 
⎥ ⎦ 5 
+ 
7 
+ 
9 
+ 
11 
+ 
13 
+ ) 15 ⎤ 

⎢ ⎣ 
48 
⎥ ⎦ 
= 5.79 in
Using the centroid of this group as an estimate of the strand pattern eccentricity results in
e
48
=
y
g
−
5.79
=
35.60
−
5.79
=
29.81 in
The area of a 0.6" diameter 7wire strand is
0.217 in
2
The axial compression produced by the prestressing strands is
P
=
A
s
⋅
f
pe
=
(# of strands) ⋅
(0.217) ⋅ (141.8)
The internal moment produced by the prestressing strands is
M
p / s
=
A
s
⋅
f
pe
⋅
e
48
=
(#
of strands) 0.217 141.8 29.81
⋅
⋅
⋅
The allowable tension after losses
=
0.19 ⋅
=
0.19
⋅
=
0.54 ksi
This moment and the axial compression from the prestress must reduce the bottom flange tension from 4.81 ksi tension to a tension of 0.54 ksi or
Required f
_{p}_{e}
=
4.81
Using the fact that
−
0.54
=
4.27 ksi
^{f} pe ^{=}
P M
^{+}
A S
One can estimate the required number of strands:
MAR 2007
LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN
DESIGN EXAMPLE 512
⎡
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎣
⎢
4.27
⎛
⎜
⎜
⎝
1
29.81
+
A
g
S
gb
⎞
⎟
⎟
⎠
⎤
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎥ ⎦
(
0.217
+
141.8
)
=
⎡
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎣ ⎢
4.27
⎛
⎜
⎜
⎝
1
29.81
+
786
15,390
⎞
⎟
⎟
⎠
⎤
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎦
(
0.217
+
141.8
)
= 43.2 strands
A strand pattern with 44 strands should be tried.
After reviewing Bridge Details Part II Figure 5397.517, a 44 strand draped strand pattern was selected. Also, the drape points were chosen to be at 0.40L = 52.0 ft from the centerline of bearing locations. The trial strand pattern is shown in Figure 5.7.2.4.
The properties of this strand pattern at midspan are:
^{y} strand
e strand
=
=
⎡ 10 
⋅ 
( 2 
+ 
4 
+ 
6 
) 
+ 
2 
⋅ 
( 3 
+ 
5 
+ 
7 
+ 
8 
+ 
9 
+ 
11 
+ 
) 

⎢ ⎣ 
44 

y 
b − 
y strand 
= 
35.60 
− 
5.27 
= 
30.33 in 
13 ⎤
⎥
⎦
= 5.27 in
Section Modulus at the strand pattern centroid is
= 18,065 in
3
MAR 2007
LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN
DESIGN EXAMPLE 513
[5.9.5]
[5.9.5.4.4b]
[5.9.5.2.3]
[5.9.5.4.2]
[5.9.5.4.3]
2. Prestress Losses
Prestress losses are computed using the refined method.
Initial Relaxation Loss
It shall be assumed that the prestress is transferred 18 hours after stressing
t =
18
24
= 0.75 days
f
pj
=
Δ
f
pR1
Δ
f
pR1
0.75 f
⋅
pu
=
0.75 270
⋅
=
202.50 ksi
=
(
log 24
⋅
t
)
⋅
⎛ f
⎜
f
⎝
⎜
pj
40
p
γ
− 0.55
⎞
⎟
⎟
⎠
⋅
f
pj
=
(
log 24 0.75
⋅
)
⋅
⎜ ⎛
⎝
202.50
40
0.9 270
⋅
− 0.55
⎞
⎟
⎠
⋅
202.50
=
1.80 ksi
Elastic Shortening Loss
The alternative equation presented in the LRFD C5.9.5.2.3a shall be used.
Δ
f
pES
=
A 
ps 
f pbt 
⋅ 
( 
I 
g 
+ 
e m 2 
A 
g ) − 
e 
m 
M 
g 
A 
g 

A 
( 
I 
+ 
e 
2 
A 
) 
+ 
A 
g 
I 
g 
E 
ci 

ps 
g 
m 
g 
E 
p 
A ps
= # of strands ⋅ strand area = 44 ⋅ 0.217 = 9.55 in
(
)(
)
f
pbt
e
m
= f − Δf
pj
pR1
= 202.50 − 1.80 = 200.70 ksi
=
e
strand
=
30.33 in
^{2}
A
g
I
g
E
ci
=
786 547,920 4347
(
)(
)
E
p 28,500
= 65,687,764 in
6
A
ps
(
I
g
+ e
m
2
A
g
)
= 9.55 547,920 + 30.33
[
(
2
)(
)]
786 = 12,137,748 in
Δ ^{f} pES
_{=} 200.70 ⋅ 12,137,748 − 30.33 1787 12 786
(
)
(
)( )(
)
12,137,748
+
65,687,764
= 24.73 ksi
6
Shrinkage Loss
Use an average humidity for North Dakota of 70%.
Δ
f
pSR
=
17.0
−
(0.150 H) 17.0 (0.150 73) 6.05 ksi
⋅
=
−
⋅
=
Creep Loss
Noncomposite dead load moment excluding selfweight
M
DC1
−
_{S}_{W} =
(4116 1787) 2329
−
=
kipft
MAR 2007
LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN
DESIGN EXAMPLE 514
Composite dead load moment, M
DC 2
^{=}
Δ
f
cdp
=
⎛ strand
⎜
⎜
⎝
M
DC1 SW
−
⋅
e
I
g
⎞
⎟
⎟
⎠
+
⎜ ⎛
⎜
⎝
M
DC 2
=
⎛
⎜ ⎜ 2329.12
_{⎝}
_{⋅}
⋅
y
cg
646 kipft
−
+
y
g
e
strand
⎞
⎟
⎟
⎠
+
I
cg
56.29 35.60
−
30.33 ⎟+ ⎟ ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ ⎛ 646.12 ⋅
547,920
⎠
⎝
30.33 ⎞
⎟ ⎟
⎠
1,235,000
= 1.87 ksi
f 
= 
P 
i + 
P i 
⋅ e strand 
− 
M sw 

cgp 
A 
g S gps 
S gps 

P i = (f pj 
−Δ f pR1 1681 + 
−Δ f pES ) A ps ( 1681 30.33 ) 
= − 
(202.50 1.80 24.73)(9.55) 1681 kips − − = ( 1787 12 ) = 3.77 ksi 

f _{c}_{g}_{p} = 

786 
18,065 
18065 
[5.9.5.4.4c]
Δ
f
pCR
=
12
⋅
f
cgp
7
− ⋅Δ
f
cdp
=
(12 3.77)
⋅
−
(7
Relaxation Loss After Transfer
Δf
pR2
= 0.30 ⋅ 20 − 0.4 ⋅ Δf
[
pES
− 0.2 ⋅ Δf
(
pSR
⋅
1.87)
+ Δf
pCR
=
)]
32.15 ksi
= 0.30 ⋅ [20 − 0.4 ⋅ 24.73 − 0.2 ⋅ (6.05 + 32.15)] = 0.74 ksi
[5.9.5.1]
[5.9.4.1]
Total Losses
Δ =Δ
TL
f
pES
+Δ
f
pSR
+Δ
f
pCR
f
pe
=
f
pj
TL
−Δ =
202.50
−
+Δ
f
pR2
63.67
= 
+ 24.73 6.05 32.15 0.74 + + 
= 
Viel mehr als nur Dokumente.
Entdecken, was Scribd alles zu bieten hat, inklusive Bücher und Hörbücher von großen Verlagen.
Jederzeit kündbar.