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UCI

Microgrid
TheUniversityofCalifornia,Irvine(UCI)isrelativelyyoungwiththefirstgraduatingclassin1966.Today, UCIisratedfirstamongthe100bestuniversitieslessthan50yearsoldinthenation,andacclaimed internationallyforitsacademicstrengthinenergyandenvironmentaltopicsaswellasitsoperational recordinenergyefficiency. Asacornerstoneofoneoftheyoungest,largest,andmostprestigiousplannedcommunitiesinthe country(theCityofIrvine),UCIwasestablishedonsprawlingundevelopedacreageonthebluffs boundingthePacificOcean.Thisallowedthecampustobemethodicallyandsystematicallydesigned fromscratchwithalarge,circularcentralparkencircledbyaonemileundergroundutilitytunnelloop connectedtocentralenergyandinformationinfrastructure.TheUCIMicrogridwasintegraltothis moderndesignalongwithamoderndistrictheatingandcoolingsystem.Today,theUCIMicrogrid servesacommunityofmorethan30,000peopleandencompassesawidearrayofbuildingtypes (residential,office,research,classroom),transportationoptions(automobiles,buses,sharedcars, bicycles),andawidearrayofdistributedenergyresources.Throughanarrayofpriorandcurrent researchprograms,theUCIAdvancedPowerandEnergyProgram(APEP)hasteamedandworkedwith theUCIAdministrationandFacilitiesManagement(FM)tointegratekeymicrogridhardware,software, andsimulationassetsintotheUCIMicrogrid.

Figure1UniversityofCalifornia,IrvineMicrogrid

AsshowninFigure1,theUCIMicrogridisatestbedthat(1)isservedbySouthernCaliforniaEdison (SCE)throughtheUCISubstationwhichstepsdownvoltagefrom66kVto12kVusingtwo15MVA transformers,(2)encompassesten12kVcircuits,(3)includesmorethan1MWofsolarpower,(4)is servedbya19MWnaturalgasfiredcombinedcycleplant,(5)incorporatescentralizedchillingincluding oneofthelargestthermalenergystoragetanksinthecountry(4.5milliongallons/60,000tonhours),

and(6)servesallmajorbuildingswithdistrictheatingandcooling.TheUCIMicrogridalsocontainsa uniquesetofdistributedenergyresourcesthatisunparalleledintheworldincluding:(1)electricvehicle chargingatmultipleparkinglocations,(2)integratedfuelcellabsorptionchilling,(3)hydrogenfuelingfor fuelcellvehicles,(4)twoaxistrackingconcentratedsolarphotovoltaicsystems,(5)advancedbuilding energyefficiencymeasures,(6)advancedbuildingmonitoringandcontrol,and(7)advancedpower, powerquality,andthermalmetering. ThefollowingsectionpresentsmoredetailsofthemajorhardwareassetsoftheUCIMicrogrid.Eachof theseassetshasbeeninventoried,characterizedandmodeled.Thesubsequentsectionintroducesthe UCIMicrogridmodeldevelopmentandverificationviacomparisontodataacquiredbyconventional meteringdeployedthroughoutthemicrogrid,andadvancedhighresolutionandhighresponsemetering atover100keylocations.

UCI Microgrid Hardware Assets


Substation and Campus Circuits TheelectricservicefortheUCIcampushasalreadyexperiencedahistoryofchangeandsteadygrowth thatdefinesitspresentcharacteristics.TheearlycampuswasserveddirectlyfromtwoSCE12kVcircuits thatenteredtheUCIcentralplant.Eachofthesetwocircuitsseparatedintosubcircuitsthatfedthe portionofcampusaroundthecentralplant.AthirdSCE12kVcircuitfedtheEastSubstation,whichwas locatedontheoppositesideofcampus.Thisthirdlinealsoconnectedtoabusbarthatenergizedmore subcircuitstoservetheeastsideofcampus. In1990,theUCISubstationwasbuilttoacceptaSCE66kVservicedirectlyandstepthevoltagedownto 12kVlocallyandtherebydisplacethreelegacycircuits.MostbuildingsinthemainUCIcampusarestill servedbyinfrastructurederivativeofthesethreemaincircuits.TheprimaryfeedfortheUCISubstation isanSCE66kVlinewithasinglebillingmeter.ThetwoUCISubstationtransformers,whichcannotbe paralleled,eachserve5circuitsandacapacitorbank.The12kVsideofthetwotransformersare connectedwithatielineswitch.Atpresent,thetwocapacitorbanksattheUCISubstationare disconnectedduetoaresonanceissuethatoccurredwhenthe19MWcombinedcycleplantwas installed.Theturbinesassociatedwiththeplantgeneratereactivepowertoaugmentthisneed. ThehistoryandvisionoftheUCIelectricservicehavealreadyledtoapowersystemthatisflexiblefor modifications.Theemphasisonreliabilityforcampusbuildingshasledmostbuildingtransformersto havetwocircuitsourcesthatcaneasilyshiftload.Thecircuitsthemselvesarereconfigurablethrough existingswitchesthatwereinstalledtomeetvariousstagesofthecampusgrowth.Inaddition,theutility tunnelprovidesconvenientaccesstoreconductorcriticalcircuitsforincreasedcapacityortousehigh speedhardwiredfiberopticcommunicationsstrategiesinthefuture.Atpresent,most12kVcircuit feedershaveavailablecapacity.TherearealsonoexportationlimitationsforUCISubstation transformers,whichwouldsignificantlyincreasethelocalcapacityconstraintsonanydistributedenergy resourcesonthecampus.Theflexibilityelsewhereinthesystemmayimprovecapacitychallengeson thedistributionandsubstationtransformers,buttheselocationsarenotinherentlysuitedtodirect modification.

Central Plant TheUCIrvineCentralPlantconsistsof8electricchillers,asteamturbinechiller,athermalenergy storagetank,boilers(usedonlyforbackup),a13.5MWgasturbine,aheatrecoverysteamgenerator (HRSG),aductburner,anda5.5MWsteamturbine(Figure2).Thecentralplantservesallthecampus heatingandcoolingloadsaswellasthemajorityofthecampuselectricloads.The8electricchillersare capableofsupplying14,500tons,andthesteamdrivenchilleriscapableofanadditional2,000tons.The campuscoolingloadaverages3,100tons(74,400tonhoursperday)withapeakannualdemandof 13,900tons.Thethermalenergystoragetankusesathermoclinetominimizemixing.Thechillers operatetofacilitatethisthermoclinewhilealsoincreasingefficiencybyrecirculatingwaterexitingthe chillerbacktothechillerinletuntil39Fismaintainedatthechilledwaterexit.Thethermalenergy storagetankisabletoshift,onaverage,65%ofthechillingloadduringthedaytothenightwhen electricitypricesarelowerandtemperaturesarecooler,whichresultsinmoreefficientchilleroperation viabetterheatrejectionthroughthecoolingtowers.Thecampusheatingloadaverages44MMBtu/hr withapeakannualdemandof100MMBtu/hr.Theheatingloadisservedentirelythroughrecovered heatfromthegasturbineanduseoftheductburner.TheHRSGcansupply52,000lbs/hrsteamwithout ductfireand120,000lb/hrwithductfire.Thecampuselectricloadaverages13.4MWwithapeak annualdemandof18.6MW(note:thisistheelectricloadseparatedfromtheelectricityusedtoserve thecampuscoolingloads).Thegasturbineandsteamturbinesupplyabout85%oftheelectricalneeds onthecampuswiththebalancebeingservedbysolarresources(1%)andutilityimport(14%).

Figure2UCIrvineCentralPlant

Renewable Power UCIhas893kWoffixedpanelsolarphotovoltaicinstalledontherooftopsof12buildings(Figure3).This systemisownedandoperatedbyathirdpartyproviderwiththeelectricitypurchasedbyUCIthrougha

powerpurchaseagreement.Thecapacityfactorforthesepanels,inoperationsince2008,was0.187in 2012,whichisreasonablegiventhecoastalclimate.Thesystemprovides1%ofthecampuselectrical needs.Anadditional2.8MWoffixedsolarPVisscheduledforinstallationthiscalendaryear.

Figure3UCIMicrogridrenewablepower

Anadditional113kWofconcentratedsolarphotovoltaicwithtwoaxistrackingwasinstalledin2012as partofaresearchprojectfundedbytheCaliforniaPublicUtilitiesCommissionthroughtheCalifornia SolarInitiative.ThisresearchinvolvescollectingCPVandinterconnectdatato(1)supportdesign improvements,(2)informadvancedinvertercontrolstudies,and(3)developandevaluatesimulation modelingofintermittencyonprimarycircuits. Althoughthecampussolarresourcesarestillatalowpenetration(1%),theseresourcesarealready causingthegasturbinetobeturneddownattimesoflowelectricdemandandhighsolarirradiation. Figure4showsUCIMicrogriddataat15minuteresolutionforaweekendinMay2012.Thegasturbine canbeseenhavingtorespondtochangesinsolaroutput.


Figure4Gasturbinerespondingtosolaroutput

Enterprise Energy Management System Atpresent,APEPandthecampushavepartneredwithMelRoK,LLCtoprovideanenterpriseenergy managementsolutioncapableofinterfacingwithUCIMicrogridmodelingcapabilitiesandallowreal timeinformationtoinformtheUCIMicrogridmodel(seeUCIMicrogridModelandSimulationAssets section).Thissolutionwillconsistofinstalling100advancedmeterscapableofdeliveringhighresolution datatotheUCIMicrogridmodelaswellassubmeteringbuildingloads.Thelocationsofthesemeters havebeenchosenbasedonavisibilitystudyperformedwiththeUCIMicrogridmodel.Thissolutionwill alsoincorporateexistingmetersalreadyinstalledthroughoutthecampus.Thedatafromthesemeters willbepresentedtotheUCIFacilitiesManagementthroughMelRoKsEnergiStreamsoftware.MelRoKs systemisequippedwithDemandResponsecapabilitiesincludingAutoDemandResponse.MelRoKs system,inconjunctionwiththeUCIMicrogridmodel,willprovidetheUCIFacilitiesManagementteam withinformationnecessarytomakedecisionsasmoreintermittentrenewablesareinstalledontheUCI MicrogridinadditiontoallowingtheUCIMicrogridtooperateasasmartpoweranddemandresponse assetfortheCaliforniaIndependentSystemOperator. Electric Vehicle Charging Thecampushasinstalled8CoulombTechnologieslevel2chargersthatareopenforpublicuse.The APEPalsoadministerstheZeroEmissionVehicleNetworkEnabledTransport(ZEVNET)program(Figure 5).Thisprogramcurrentlyinvolvesafleetof77advancedvehicles.Thevehiclesincludebatteryelectric vehicles(ScioniQ,ToyotaRav4),pluginhybridvehicles(ToyotaPriusPlugIn),andfuelcellhybrid vehicles(Toyotafuelcellvehicles).Someofthevehiclesintheprogramareusedforresearchpurposes onlywhileothersareusedinacorporaterideshareprogram.


Figure5UCIMicrogridelectricvehiclecharging

Hydrogen Fueling Station TheUCIHydrogenFuelingStationservesthefuelingneedsoffuelcellvehiclesforseveralmajorcar manufacturers(Toyota,Honda,GM,Mercedes,Hyundai).ThestationisadministeredbyAPEPandis capableofdeliveringfillsat35MPaand70MPa(Figure6).Thehydrogenisdeliveredasaliquidand storedonsiteasaliquidina1500galloninsulatedvessel.In2011,thestationprovidedover2,500fills withanaveragedailydeliveryof22.4kg.Thestationbeganoperationin2003withacapacityofseveral kgperday.In2005,thestationwasupgradedtoacapacityof25kg/day.Fundinghasbeenawardedto furtherincreasethecapacityofthestationto180kg/daybytheendofthecurrentcalendaryear.


Figure6UCIhydrogenfuelingstation

Advanced Building Level Combined Cooling Heating and Power Thecampus,withthesupportofAPEP,alsoplanstoinstalla300kWmoltencarbonatefuelcell(MCFC) manufacturedbyFuelCellEnergytoprovideelectricitytotheMultiPurposeScienceandTechnology building(Figure7).Thefuelcellwillalsobeintegratedwithanabsorptionchiller(AC)andheatrecovery unittosupplycoolingandheatingtothebuildingaswell.Athermalenergystorage(TES)tankwillalso beusedtostorechilledwaterforlaterusewhentheabsorptionchillerisprovidingmorecoolingthan neededbythebuilding(e.g.,atnight).Thisinstallationwillalsohaveacontrolroomwhereinterested partiescanobservesystemoperation.Thiswillservetoeducatethebuildingindustry,government agencies,andothersonthebenefitsofadvancedcombinedcoolingheatingandpowersystems. Energy Efficiency and Demand Response UCIcurrentlyparticipatesintheBetterBuildingsChallengethroughtheOfficeofEnergyEfficiencyand RenewableEnergyintheDepartmentofEnergy.TheprogramwaslaunchedinDecember2011by PresidentObama.Thechallengeistoreducetheenergyconsumedacrossthecampusby20%by2020. Theprogramworkstomatchparticipantswithsolutionproviderstoenablethischallengetobemet. Thusfar,UCIhasnotonlymettargetsbutreducedenergyuseby10%despiteaddingonemillionsquare feet.TheNaturalSciencesIIbuildinghasalsoservedasashowcasefortheBetterBuildingsChallengeas aresultoftheSmartLabsInitiativeinstitutedthere.UCIalsoparticipatesindemandresponseprograms through,EnerNOC,aregistereddemandresponseproviderforSouthernCaliforniaEdison.Thecampus hasnominated700kWofdemandresponsesofar.Thisisachievedinvariouswaysinvolvingthesteam

turbine,HRSG,chillerplant,andthermalenergystoragetank.UCIalsohasplanstoimplementdemand responseatthebuildinglevelusingMelRoKstechnology.

Figure7UCIadvancedbuildinglevelCCHPsystemusingahightemperaturefuelcell,absorptionchiller,andthermalenergy storagetank

UCI Microgrid Model and Simulation Assets


APEPhascollaboratedwithacompanythatdevelopselectricaltransientanalysissoftware,ETAP (ElectricalTransientandAnalysisProgram),todevelopamodeloftheUCIMicrogridandthereby establishasimulationplatformforunderstandingandmanagingtheeffectsofhighpenetrationsof localizedrenewablesinthecommunity.TheUCIMicrogridmodelwasdevelopedusingconnectivity information(e.g.,lineimpedance,transformernameplate)providedbyUCIFMandcalibratedusingthe campusenergymanagementandmonitoringsystem.Figure8showsthecomparisonofsimulation resultsfromtheAPEPUCIMicrogridmodelstomeasureddata.Figure8alsoshowstheevolutionofthe microgridmodelingcapabilities.ThemodelwasoriginallydevelopedinMatlabSimulink,butlatera transitionwasmadetotheETAPsoftwareforfastercomputationandbettersimulationresults,as showninFigure8.Themodeliscapableofsimulatingsteadystateanddynamicphenomenaaswellas temporaleventssuchasPVgenerationandcapacitorswitching.Steadystatequalitiesofinterestare real/reactivepowerflowandthevoltageprofileacrosstheradialcircuits.Dynamicphenomenainclude powerquality(thirdharmonicdistortionandflicker),frequencystabilityandtransients(faultsand voltagesags/swells).Calibratingthecampusmodeltomeasureddataensuresthemodelaccurately simulatesthesystemimpedanceandlosses;oncecalibrated,themodeliscapableofexploringthe

effectsoffuturetechnologysuchasincreasedrenewablegeneration,andadvancedinvertercontrols, andenergystorage.

Figure8ExamplesofAPEPMicrogridModelPerformance

TheUCIMicrogridmodelwillalsoimportrealtimeinformationfromtheMelRoKsystemtoinformthe modelformoreaccuratepredictions.ItisenvisionedthattheUCIMicrogridmodelwillbeusedto managehighpenetrationofintermittentrenewablesbyallowingtheUCIFMtoevaluatemanagement optionsinrealtimetoenablethemtohavebettercontroloftheUCIMicrogrid.TheUCIMicrogrid modeluserinterfaceisshowninFigure9.

Irvine Smart Grid Demonstration


TheUCIMicrogridpresentsuniqueopportunitiestostudymicrogridsinitself,buttheUCIMicrogridhas theaddedbenefitofbeingservedfromsamesubstation(theSCEMacArthurSubstation)thatanchors theDOEIrvineSmartGridDemonstration(ISGD)project(Figure10).ISGD,ledbySCE,encompassestwo smart12kVprimarycircuitsandahostofsmartgridtechnologiesinstalledfromresidencesonthe secondarycircuitstoenergystoragealternativesonboththesecondaryandprimarycircuits,to synchrophasorsthroughouttheWesternElectricCoordinatingCouncil(theWesternGrid).This presentsfurtheropportunitiestotesttheuseofmicrogridsinthesmartgridfutureusingtheUCI Microgrid.

Figure9ETAPUCIMicrogridmodeluserinterface


Figure10IrvineSmartGridDemonstration

Summary
TheUCIMicrogridrepresentsaspecialopportunityfortestinghowmicrogridsoperateinternallyaswell ashowtheyinterfacewiththerestofthefuturesmartgrid.TherelationshipbetweenAPEPandUCIFM hasenabledtheUCImicrogridtobecomeatestbedfordifferenttechnologiesthroughthedevelopment oftheUCIMicrogridmodel,deploymentofadvancedmetering,andvariouspilotprojects.Inaddition, thesamesubstationthatservestheUCIMicrogridalsoservestheIrvineSmartGridDemonstration projectallowingtheUCIMicrogridtobetestedinthecontextofsmartgridfeatures.Thehistoryofthe UCImicrogridisalsofundamentaltoitscapabilityasatestbed.Theoriginaldesignandevolutionofthe campusprovideanattractiveplatformtosupportaflexibleandrobustplatformforthedeploymentand evaluationofthevarioustechnologiesandcircuitconfigurationsemerginginthemicrogridfuture.

Table1liststhemajorattributesdeployedtodayontheUCIMicrogrid. ContactforInformation: BrendanP.Shaffer bps@apep.uci.edu

Table1UCIMicrogridAttributes

Attributes Substation

Description 69kVto12kVusingtwo15MVAtransformers.ISGDsyncrophasorsat MacArthurSubstation. 13.5MWnaturalgasfiredgasturbine.HeatRecoverySteamGenerator withDuctBurner.6MWsteamturbine. MelRok,LLCEnergiStreamsystem.Capableofsubmeteringbuilding loadsandinterfacingwithUCIMicrogridmodeltoproviderealtime data. Maintains5millionsquarefeetofconditionedspaceaswellashigh temperaturewatertomakesteamforlaboratoryuse,domestichot water,andindustrialhotwater 4.5MMgallons.65%loadshiftingonaverage.60,000tonhoursof chillingstoragewhenfullycharged. 5smartchargersoncampus.15BEVsdeployed.10PHEVsdeployed. FixedPVon11campusrooftopsfor895kWtotal.113kWdualaxis trackingconcentratedPV.2.8MWadditionalfixedPVplannedfor 2013. BuildingRetrofits.10%loadreductiondespiteaddingonemillion squarefeet.UCIhasreceivednationalrecognitionforitsenergy efficiencyworkonlaboratories. Capableofdelivering180kgH2/day.Canfillat350barand700bar. 300kWMoltenCarbonateFuelCell(FuelCellEnergy)integratedwith 40tonabsorptionchiller(Yazaki)andthermalenergystoragetankto serveneedsofMultiPurposeScienceandTechnologyBuilding Nominationof700kWthroughEnerNOC.Multiplestrategiesusingthe TEStank,chillers,HRSGandsteamturbine. DevelopedintheElectricalTransientandAnalysisProgram(ETAP).Will provideinformationtotheUCIFMwhenoperatingthemicrogrid.

CogenerationPlant

EnterpriseEnergy ManagementSystem

CentralDistrict Heating/Cooling

ThermalEnergyStorage ElectricVehicleCharging

RenewablePower

EnergyEfficiency

HydrogenFuelingStation AdvancedBuildingLevel CombinedCoolingHeating andPower DemandResponse

UCIMicrogridModel