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# LECTURE 10

## Pulse Amplitude Modulation

Salman Durrani
Research School of Engineering, The Australian National University. http://users.cecs.anu.edu.au/~Salman.Durrani/

## ENGN3226 Digital Communications

Research Questions
1. 2. 3. What is signal space analysis [L07-08]? Why is it necessary to use a carrier for the wireless transmission of digital baseband signals. [L09] How can we efficiently transmit digital information over AWGN communication channels ? Binary Modulations [ L09] PAM [L10] QPSK [L11] QAM [L12] How can we convert the received waveform r(t) into an N-dimensional vector r which can be used for optimum detection?  What are the statistics of the correlator output r ?  How can we prove that no information is lost in considering correlator output r for detection, rather than the received signal r(t) ?  How can we select optimum detection levels for binary receiver decision voltages in presence of AWGN noise?  How can we generalise binary decision criterion for multiple transmitted signals?  How can we simplify the general decision criterion into maximum correlation metrics for detection in AWGN channels? 

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10. How can we compare the performance of different modulation schemes? 
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Outline

3. How can we efficiently transmit digital information over AWGN communication channels ? Binary Modulations PAM BPSK, QPSK QAM

## 3 Basic Form of Binary Modulation

Binary Pulse Amplitude Modulation (also called Amplitude Shift Keying. Binary Phase Shift Keying Modulation (BPSK) Binary Frequency Shift Keying Modulation (BFSK)

## Pulse Amplitude Modulation

In Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM), the information is conveyed by the amplitude of the transmitted signal. Binary PAM is the simplest digital modulation method. 1 is represented by a pulse of amplitude A. 0 is represented by a pulse of amplitude A.

## Pulse Amplitude Modulation

 Signal Waveforms

## Pulse Amplitude Modulation

 Geometric Representation The basic geometric representation of digital PAM signal waveforms is as follows:

## Pulse Amplitude Modulation

 Signal Space Diagrams In M-ary PAM, binary information sequence is subdivided into blocks of k = log2(M) bits called symbols and each block or symbol is represented by one of M=2k pulse amplitude values. The mapping or assignment of k-information bits to the M=2k possible signal amplitudes is done using Gray encoding. In Gray code, each code word differs in only one bit from its neighboring code words.

## ENGN3226 Digital Communications

Gray Codes
In Gray code, each code word differs in only one bit from its neighboring code words.

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## Pulse Amplitude Modulation

 Signal Space Diagrams

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## ENGN3226 Digital Communications

Example 01
Analyse the properties of M=4 PAM. Step 1: Write the equations of the baseband waveforms.

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## ENGN3226 Digital Communications

Example 01
Step 2: Express the baseband waveforms in terms of basis functions.

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## ENGN3226 Digital Communications

Example 01
Step 2: Express the baseband waveforms in terms of basis functions.

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## ENGN3226 Digital Communications

Example 01
Step 4: Find the minimum distance between two signal points.

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## ENGN3226 Digital Communications

Example 01
Step 6: Find the correlations between two signal points.

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## ENGN3226 Digital Communications

Example 01
Step 7: Draw baseband and band-pass M=4 PAM signals to represent sequence 111000011100.

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## Pulse Shape Assumption

In the analysis we assumed rectangular pulses but in practical systems, the rise and decay times are nonzero and the pulses are generally smoother.

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## Pulse Shape Assumption

The pulse shape determines the spectral (frequency domain) characteristics of the transmitted signal.

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