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# LECTURE 10

## Pulse Amplitude Modulation

Salman Durrani
Research School of Engineering, The Australian National University. http://users.cecs.anu.edu.au/~Salman.Durrani/

## ENGN3226 Digital Communications

Research Questions
1. 2. 3. What is signal space analysis [L07-08]? Why is it necessary to use a carrier for the wireless transmission of digital baseband signals. [L09] How can we efficiently transmit digital information over AWGN communication channels ? Binary Modulations [ L09] PAM [L10] QPSK [L11] QAM [L12] How can we convert the received waveform r(t) into an N-dimensional vector r which can be used for optimum detection? [13] What are the statistics of the correlator output r ? [13] How can we prove that no information is lost in considering correlator output r for detection, rather than the received signal r(t) ? [13] How can we select optimum detection levels for binary receiver decision voltages in presence of AWGN noise? [14] How can we generalise binary decision criterion for multiple transmitted signals? [15] How can we simplify the general decision criterion into maximum correlation metrics for detection in AWGN channels? [15]

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10. How can we compare the performance of different modulation schemes? [16]
2 ENGN3226 Digital Communications

Outline

3. How can we efficiently transmit digital information over AWGN communication channels ? Binary Modulations PAM BPSK, QPSK QAM

## 3 Basic Form of Binary Modulation

Binary Pulse Amplitude Modulation (also called Amplitude Shift Keying. Binary Phase Shift Keying Modulation (BPSK) Binary Frequency Shift Keying Modulation (BFSK)

## Pulse Amplitude Modulation

In Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM), the information is conveyed by the amplitude of the transmitted signal. Binary PAM is the simplest digital modulation method. 1 is represented by a pulse of amplitude A. 0 is represented by a pulse of amplitude A.

## Pulse Amplitude Modulation

[1] Signal Waveforms

## Pulse Amplitude Modulation

[2] Geometric Representation The basic geometric representation of digital PAM signal waveforms is as follows:

## Pulse Amplitude Modulation

[3] Signal Space Diagrams In M-ary PAM, binary information sequence is subdivided into blocks of k = log2(M) bits called symbols and each block or symbol is represented by one of M=2k pulse amplitude values. The mapping or assignment of k-information bits to the M=2k possible signal amplitudes is done using Gray encoding. In Gray code, each code word differs in only one bit from its neighboring code words.

## ENGN3226 Digital Communications

Gray Codes
In Gray code, each code word differs in only one bit from its neighboring code words.

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## Pulse Amplitude Modulation

[3] Signal Space Diagrams

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## ENGN3226 Digital Communications

Example 01
Analyse the properties of M=4 PAM. Step 1: Write the equations of the baseband waveforms.

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## ENGN3226 Digital Communications

Example 01
Step 2: Express the baseband waveforms in terms of basis functions.

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## ENGN3226 Digital Communications

Example 01
Step 2: Express the baseband waveforms in terms of basis functions.

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## ENGN3226 Digital Communications

Example 01
Step 4: Find the minimum distance between two signal points.

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## ENGN3226 Digital Communications

Example 01
Step 6: Find the correlations between two signal points.

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## ENGN3226 Digital Communications

Example 01
Step 7: Draw baseband and band-pass M=4 PAM signals to represent sequence 111000011100.

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## Pulse Shape Assumption

In the analysis we assumed rectangular pulses but in practical systems, the rise and decay times are nonzero and the pulses are generally smoother.

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## Pulse Shape Assumption

The pulse shape determines the spectral (frequency domain) characteristics of the transmitted signal.

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