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Power System Harmonic Mitigation for Water/Wastewater Applications

Power Quality Correction

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Make the most of your energy Ben Banerjee Sept. 30 & Oct. 2, 2008

Make the most of SM your energy

Power Quality Correction

Benefits For Harmonics Mitigation For Water & Waste Water Applications

Improved Bottom Line:


* System Cost Reduction * Maximize System Reliability * Improve Energy Efficiency * System Capacity Release

Power Quality Correction

Agenda
* * * * * * * * Characteristic of a Typical W/WW Facility Impact of Non-Linear Loads Harmonics Fundamental Effects of Harmonics Harmonics Standard IEEE 519-1992 Cost-Effective Harmonics Mitigations AccuSine Solutions Application Considerations

Power Quality Correction

Distribution System/ Load Characteristics Of

A Typical W/WW Facility

Typical W/WW Applications / Loads


Wastewater Plants

Many pumps for fluid movement (VFD) VT Centrifugal pumps CT Progressive cavity pumps (semi-solids) Solids handling (VFD) Conveyors Aeration blowers (VFD) CT & VT types Disinfectant UV systems (ultraviolet) Electronic ballasts 3 Ozone generators (SCR power supplies) HVAC

Division - Name - Date - Language

Typical W/WW Applications / Loads


Water Purification

Many pumps (VFD) UV systems (electronic ballasts) Reverse osmosis Centrifugal pumps (VFD) Ozone generators (SCR power supplies)

Division - Name - Date - Language

Power Quality Correction

Elect. Loads& System Characteristics For Typical W/WW Facility

Mostly Motor Loads * Typically 40% to 50% FVNR (Linear Loads) * Typically 30% to 40% VFDs (Non-Linear Loads) * Typically 5% to 10% RVSS MCC / SWGR/ SWBR Fed Either From Utility Or Generator VFDS may be within MCC or remote located > Generator Normally Sized for Critical Loads > For Water/ Waste Water Facility: * Sometime UV System (Non-Linear Loads) * Sometime Ozone Generator ( Non-Linear Loads)

>

Power Quality Correction

Harmonics Fundamentals

Power Quality Correction

Linear vs Non-Linear

Until recently, most electrical equipment drew current in a linear fashion:


v i
Current (i) & Voltage (v) are both Sinusoidal

Today, many electrical loads draw current in a non-linear fashion:


v
Current (i) is periodic, but not sinusoidal

Power Quality Correction

Examples

What produces Non-linear Current?


Computers M Variable Frequency Drives Electronic Ballasts

Fax Machines

Copiers

Almost Anything Power Electronics

Power Quality Correction All Periodic Waves Are Generated With Sine Waves Of Various Frequencies
Time Domain
f1 = 60 H z

Frequency Domain
1 0.5 0 1 3 5 7 9 1 1

60 Hz

f1
f 3 = 3 x 6 0 hz = 18 0 hz

+
180 Hz

1 0.5 0 1 3 5 7 9 1 1

f3
f 5 = 5 x 6 0 hz = 3 0 0 hz

+
300 Hz

1 0.5 0 1 3 5 7 9 1 1

f5
f 7 = 7 x 6 0 hz = 4 2 0 hz

+
420 Hz

1 0.5 0 1 3 5 7 9 1 1

f7
D is t o rt e d Wa v e = f1 + f3 + f5 + f7

1 0.5

0 1 3 5 7 9 1 1

Now We Can Define Harmonics:


Fundamental

3 Harmonic 7 Harmonic
th

rd

A harmonic is a component of a periodic wave having a frequency that is an integer multiple of the fundamental power line frequency [ In USA , 60Hz]
Characteristic harmonics are the predominate harmonics seen by the power distribution system

t1h

Harmonic

Predicted by the following equation:


For Six Pulse Drive: Harmonic 1 5 7 11 13 Frequency Sequence 60Hz 300Hz 420Hz 660Hz 780Hz

hC = characteristic harmonics to be expected n = an integer from 1,2,3,4,5, etc. p = number of pulses or rectifiers in circuit

Hc = np +/- 1

Multi-pulse Converters
Harmonic Orders Present Hn = NP +/- 1
Hn 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 Harmonics present by rectifier design Type of rectifier 1 phase 2 phase 3 phase 3 phase 4-pulse 4-pulse 6-pulse 12-pulse x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x 3 phase 18-pulse

Hn = harmonic order present N,n = an integer P = number of pulses

x x

x x

Power Quality Correction

Issues With High System Harmonics


System Reliability Energy Efficiency System Capacity

Power Quality Correction

Power Quality Correction

Power Quality Correction

K Factor Rated Transformer


For Dry Type Transformer, To Determine What Amount Of Harmonic Current Can Be Tolerated, K Factor Calculation Is Made Instead Of Using The THD(I) Formula

Power Quality Correction

How do you know if Harmonics are present in your system?


Building
a New Electric World

Other Common symptoms of harmonics include:

Random

logic faults: CNC, PLCs, drives, UPSs, computers Random Breaker Thermal Trips Clocks Running Faster

Corporate Presentation 12-Apr-2004 EN

Common Symptoms of Harmonics (cont.)


Building
a New Electric World

Potential Power

Resonance Condition

> Over Voltage

Factor Capacitor

> Harmonic heating effect > Trips on over-current

Limits

on capacity of UPSs faulting-Unable to do frequency

Generator

regulation

Corporate Presentation 12-Apr-2004 EN

SYSTEM CAPACITY ISSUE


Building
a New Electric World

Displacement True

Power Factor

or Total Power Factor

Corporate Presentation 12-Apr-2004 EN

Power Quality Correction

The Power Triangle:


Power Factor is the ratio of Active Power to Total Power:


Power Factor =
Active Power (kW)

Total Power (kVA)

Active (Real) Power Total Power = kW Reactive kVA Power = Cosine () = Displacement Power Factor (DPF)

Power Factor is a measure of efficiency (Output/Input)

Total Power Factor


TPF = (DPF) x (Harm coefficient) KW DPF = KVAf = Cos 1 1 + THD(I)2
TPF = Total or true power factor DPF = Displacement power factor Harm coefficient = Harmonic power factor

Harm coefficient =

= Cos

Total Power Factor Example


Variable frequency drive (PWM type) DPF = .95 TDD = 90%
(no DC choke & no input line reactor) 1 1 + .92

Harm coefficient =

= .7433

TPF = .95 x .7433 = .7061

Power Quality Correction

How are Harmonic measured ?

North American Standard


ANSI Standard IEEE 519-1992 IEEE Recommended Practices and Requirements for Harmonic Control in Electrical Power Systems

ANSI Standard IEEE 519-1992


Chapter 11
Addresses THD(V) delivered by utility to user THD(V) must be < 5% [< 69 KV systems]

Chapter 10
Defines the amount of TDD a user can cause Based upon Demand Load & System Fault Level Table 10.3 for systems < 69 kV Defines limits for voltage notches caused by SCR rectifiers Table 10.2

Defines PCC (point of common coupling)

Power Quality Correction

IEEE 519-1992 Table 10.2


Limits on Commutation Notches (Applies to SCR rectifiers only)
Table 10.2 Low-Voltage System Classification and Distortion Limits
*Special Applications Notch Depth THD (Voltage) Notch Area, Vs 10% 3% 16,400 General System 20% 5% 22,800 **Dedicated System 50% 10% 36,500

Note: Notch area for other than 480 V systems should be multiplied by V / 480.

*Special Applications Airports, Hospitals ** Dedicated System Dedicated exclusive to converter loads

IEEE 519 - Harmonic Distortion Limits


Table 11.1 - Voltage Distortion Limits
Bus voltage at PCC 69kV and below 69.001 kV through 161kV 161.001kV and above Max. individual Voltage distortion (%) 3.0 1.5 1.0 Total Voltage distortion THD (%) 5.0 2.5 1.5

The limits listed above should be used as system design values for the worst case for normal operation (conditions lasting longer than one hour). For shorter periods, during start-ups or unusual conditions, the limits may be exceeded by 50%.

THD =

V
h=2

50

2 h

*100

V1

Power Quality Correction

Total Harmonic Current Distortion Is Same As

Total Demand Distortion (TDD)

I
TDD

2 2

+ I

+ I
1

2 4

+L

100 % =
h = 2

Ih

100
1

IEEE 519-1992 Table 10.3


Current Distortion Limits for General Distribution Systems (<69 kV)
Isc/Iload <20 20<50 50<100 100<1000 >1000 <11 4.0% 7.0% 10.0% 12.0% 15.0% 11<=h<17 17<=h<23 23<=h<35 2.0% 1.5% 0.6% 3.5% 2.5% 1.0% 4.5% 4.0% 1.5% 5.5% 5.0% 0.2% 7.0% 6.0% 2.5% h>=35 0.3% 0.5% 0.7% 1.0% 1.4% TDD 5.0% 8.0% 12.0% 15.0% 20.0%

Isc = short circuit current capacity of source Iload = demand load current (fundamental) TDD = Total Demand Distortion (TDD = Total harmonic current distortion measured against fundamental current at demand load.)

Utility

IEEE 519-1992 Chapter 10 states Within an industrial plant, the PCC is the point between the nonlinear load and other loads.

Other customers PCC 1 PCC 2

Most harmonic problems are not at PCC with utility >Occurs with generators & UPS >Occurs where nonlinear loads are concentrated >Occurs inside the plant Need to protect the user by moving the harmonic mitigation requirements to where harmonic loads are located

Customer 1

Customer 2

Specification Issues
Write Separate harmonic spec from nonlinear load spec (Section 16)
Write standard nonlinear load specification It is System Standard & NOT Product Standard

Universal solution is more Cost Effective


Good for all nonlinear loads Apply AHF per electrical bus (best economics)

5% TDD per load or bus inside the plant ?


IEEE 519-1992 Chapter 10 states Within an industrial plant, the PCC is the point between the nonlinear load and other loads.

Write TDD specs not THD(I)

Methods For Harmonics Mitigation


**Individual Device Solution Embedded Solution **System Solution

Individual Device Solution

Harmonic Mitigation Methods


Typically applied per device: -Isolating Harmonic Loads --Line reactors
5th harmonic filters (Only 5th) Broadband filters (up to 13th) Embedded Solutions: Multi-pulsing (6-Pulse,18-Pulse) Active front end (AFE) converter C-Less Technology

System solution
Active Harmonic Filter Harmonics Mitigation Transformer (Up to 19th)

Inductors
Pros:
Inexpensive & reliable Transient protection for loads Big TDD reduction (90% to 35% w/3% Z) Complimentary to active harmonic control

Cons:
Limited reduction of TDD at equipment terminals after 3% Z Reduction dependent on source

Impedance

Input Current Distortion as a Function of inductor Size Input Current Distortion (%) 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 0 1 2 3 4 5 Inductor Size (% on Drive Base)

Power Quality Correction

Current Distortion THD(I) or TDD as a function of Rsce With 6-pulse power converter

Multi-pulse Converters
Harmonic Orders Present Hn = NP +/- 1
Hn 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 Harmonics present by rectifier design Type of rectifier 1 phase 2 phase 3 phase 3 phase 4-pulse 4-pulse 6-pulse 12-pulse x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x 3 phase 18-pulse

Hn = harmonic order present N,n = an integer P = number of pulses

x x

x x

Harmonic mitigation methods


VFD mitigation topologies
6-Pulse converter
DC Link Reactor
Wye
C
4 7

12-Pulse converter
+
DC Bus Load

A B

18-Pulse converter
Multipulse Transformer A Line Reactor
9 1 2

Rectifier Assembly DC+

M
AC Line Delta
C

DC-

Delta

Transformer Tertiary

C-less or 3% reactance min (if included); small footprint, simplified cabling


A
100 0

Externally mounted 3 winding transformer; more wire and cabling; complicated


A
100 0

Large footprint, more steel & copper (losses)

A
100 0

6 pulse

12 pulse
0.0s 0.02s

18 pulse

Current waveform distorted TDD 30% to 40% with 3% reactor (depending on network impedance)

Current slightly distorted TDD 8% to 15% (depending on network impedance)

Current wave form good TDD 5% to 7% (depending on network impedance)

Multi-Pulse Drives
Description: Drives/UPS with two (12 pulse) or three (18 pulse) input bridges fed by a transformer with two or three phase shifted output windings.

Pros:
Reduces TDD to 10% (12 pulse) & 5% (18 pulse) at loads Reliable

Cons:
High installation cost with external transformer Large footprint (even w/autotransformer) Series solution with reduction in efficiency One required for each product Cannot retrofit

Active Front End Converter

Products with active power converter and input broadband filter to create sinusoidal current & voltage waveforms on AC lines.
A C S o u r c e

VFD
IGBT DC Bus IGBT

Filter

Converter

AC Motor Inverter

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AFE Converters >Pros:


Meets 5% TDD limit of IEEE 519

>Cons:
Mains

Larger and more expensive than 6 pulse drives

Approximately twice the size & price

Mains voltage must be free of imbalance and voltage harmonics


Generates more harmonics

200 KVA rated AFE VFD PWM VFD DC Drive PF caps

100 KVA rated

Without mains filter THD(V) can reach 40% Requires short circuit ratio > 40 at PCC Switched mode power supplies prohibited Capacitors prohibited on mains IGBT & SCR rectifiers prohibited on same mains
No other nonlinear loads permitted

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Harmonic mitigation methods (Applied per VFD)


Solution Increase short circuit capacity Advantage Reduces THD(V) Lower TDD Simplified design Less cost Low cost adder Simple Reduces 5th & total TDD Disadvantage Increases TDD Not likely to occur** Compliance is limited Application limited Size limited Compliance difficult Does not meet harmonic levels at higher orders^ Large heat losses Application limited Large footprint/heavy Good for >100 HP Large footprint/heavy Good for >100 HP Large footprint/heavy Very high cost per unit High heat losses Typical % TDD Dependent upon SCR*** Typical Price Multiplier* Cost of transformer and installation change out

C-Less Technology Impedance (3% LR or 5% DC choke) 5th Harmonic filter

30 - 50% TDD 30 - 40% TDD 18 - 22% TDD

0.90 - 0.95 1.05 - 1.15 1.20 - 1.45

Broadband filter

Reduces TDD (thru 13th) Reduces TDD Reliable Reduces TDD Reliable

8 - 15% TDD

1.25 - 1.50

12-pulse rectifiers

8 - 15 % TDD

1.65 - 1.85

18-pulse rectifiers

5 - 8% TDD

1.65 - 1.85

Active front end converter

Very good TDD Regeneration possible

< 5% TDD

2.0 - 2.5

* Price compared to a standard 6-pulse VFD. ** Utilities and users are not likely to change their distribution systems. *** Increasing short circuit capacity (lower impedance source or larger KVA capacity) raises TDD but lowers THD(V). ^ Can be said for all methods listed.

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System Solution
Applied to one or many nonlinear loads

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When wave shapes with different phase shifts are combined

Application of Harmonic Mitigation Transformers

AccuSine PCS
**Guarantees elimination of harmonic
problems both TDD and THD(V) ** 2nd through 50th order

System Solution
Active Harmonic Filter Applied to one or many nonlinear loads VFD, UPS, UV, DC drives, DC power supplies Provides DPF correction More cost effective for multiple loads Saves space Lower heat Losses

Active Harmonic Filter: System Solution


~
Source Is Ia CT Il L

Load

AHF
Is + Ia = Il

AHF

Parallel connected

Ia includes 2nd to 50th harmonic current Is <5% TDD

Active Harmonics Filter


I. source
2 1,5 1 0,5 0 -0,5 -1 -1,5 -2 2 1,5 1 0,5 0 -0,5 -1 -1,5 -2

I. Harmonics

I. Active Conditioner
-0,5 0 0,5 1 -1 1,5 -1,5 -2 2 1,5 1 0,5 0 -0,5 -1 -1,5 -2

I. resultant

I.s
Source

I.ac
active conditioner

57

I.h

non linear load

AHF HarmonicsPerformance
At VFD Terminals
Order Fund 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 % TDD AHF off % I fund 100.000% 0.038% 31.660% 11.480% 0.435% 7.068% 4.267% 0.367% 3.438% 2.904% 0.284% 2.042% 2.177% 0.293% 1.238% 1.740% 0.261% 0.800% 1.420% 0.282% 0.588% 1.281% 0.259% 0.427% 1.348% 35.28% AHF on % I fund 100.000% 0.478% 0.674% 0.679% 0.297% 0.710% 0.521% 0.052% 0.464% 0.639% 0.263% 0.409% 0.489% 0.170% 0.397% 0.243% 0.325% 0.279% 0.815% 0.240% 0.120% 0.337% 0.347% 0.769% 0.590% 2.67%

AHF injection

Source current

AccuSine PCS Overall Performance


Harmonic compensation

2nd through 50th order Includes inter-harmonics Independent of source impedance Selection and operation same whether on AC line or backup generator or UPS output

Obtain 5% TDD (current distortion) Reactive current injection ( VAR Correction)


Reactive current injection is secondary to harmonic mitigation

Either or both functions VAR compensation


100 second detect-to-inject cycle to full control for step load changes

Dynamic response

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Dual Mode Operation


Ias =
Ih2 + Ir2

Ias = rms output current of AHF Ih = rms harmonic current Ir = rms reactive current
Ias 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Examples Ih 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0 95.0 Ir 99.5 98.0 95.4 91.7 86.6 80.0 71.4 60.0 43.6 31.2

AccuSine PCS
Advantages

Disadvantages

Highly effective (2nd to 50th orders cancelled) Scalable Parallel units as needed Universal solution Handles many loads Many types of loads at same time HMI & Modbus Communication Best cost for multiple loads Lowest heat profile Smallest footprint with std VFD/UPS

Heat from high speed switching of IGBT Cost issues possible for single load

Considerations

Load must have input impedance (3%) Protects load Limits size of AHF Need branch circuit protection

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AccuSine PCS Specifications


Universal Application

208 480 VAC No user action required to set 50 or 60 Hz Use highly customized transformers for higher voltages (to 15 kV)

Fuse protected (200,000 AIC) UL 508 & CSA approved CE (EMC) - 400V Logic ride through 1 to 10 minutes

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Power Diagram For A Typical AHF


IGBT Module
C C C

Pre-charge Contactor
Fuse

S1

S3

S5

AC Lines

Fuse Fuse

Line Inductor

DC Bus Capacitors
+ C

Inductor

Filter Board
S2

S4

S6

Product Package
Standard (UL/CSA, ABS) Three sizes-50A,100A,300A NEMA 1, 1A, 12, & 3R Enclosed NEMA 1

50 amp 52 x 21 x 19 Weight 250Lbs 100 amp 69 x 21 x 19 Weight 350 Lbs 300 amp 75 x 32 x 20 Weight 775 Lbs

Chassis IP00 Wall mount 50 & 100 amp Free standing 300 amp with disconnect

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Product Package
International enclosures

NEMA 12, IP30, IP54 50 amp 75 x 31.5 x 23.62 Weight 661 Lbs 100 amp 75 x 31.5x 23.62 Weight 771 Lbs 300 amp 91 x 39.37 x 31.5 Weight 1212 Lbs Free standing with door interlocked disconnect CE Certified, ABS, UL, CUL

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Product Re-packaging
Maximum ambient into air inlet 400C Must meet air flow at inlet of AccuSine

50 amp 300 CFM 100 amp 500 CFM 300 amp - 1250 CFM 50 amp 1800 watts 100 amp 3000 watts 300 amp 9000 watts On chassis Remote with cable

Heat released

HMI considerations required

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Product Re-packaging

MCC Packaging

50 & 100 amp models only Requires one vertical 20 x 20 section Includes circuit breaker in section

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Comparison of 18-P VFD To AccuSine + 6-P VFD+3%LR

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System Solution
AccuSine PCS Sizing Example A 125 HP variable torque 6-pulse VFD with 3% LR

Required AHF filtering capability = 47.5 amperes Required AHF size = 84.4 amps Required AHF size = 113.5 amps Required AHF size = 157.6 amps (not 6 x 47.5 = 285 amps)

Two 125 HP VT 6-pulse VFD w/3% LR


Three 125 HP VT 6-pulse VFD w/3% LR


Six 125 HP VT VFD w/3% LR


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System solution
Comparison of 18-P VFD to AccuSine + 6-P VFD+3%LR Footprint required

AccuSine PCS+ Std VFD less than 18-P VFD (w/autotransformer) for all conditions AccuSine PCS+ Std VFD less than 18-P VFD Exception at single units of 50-75 HP, advantage 18-P VFD Less site cooling required with AccuSine PCS + Std VFD When more than one VFD, AccuSine PCS + 6-P VFD always beats 18-P VFD If only one VFD involved, 300-500 HP sizes favor 18-P VFD

Heat losses

Less Operating Cost AccuSine PCS+ 6-P VFD


Price ( Installed Cost)


SQ D Software Tool

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AccuSine to18-pulse Comparisons


IR: 10.00% Years: 10
System:

kWH rate: $.10 Days/week: 7 Hours/day: 24


1x 125 HP AccuSine 18-pulse System 35,914.49 31,342.92 9.03 5.02 4,228.22 3,960.89 Advantage: AccuSine 6,257.33 System 2x 125 HP AccuSine 18-pulse System 72,909.11 56,776.63 18.06 7.37 8,456.45 6,885.12 Advantage: AccuSine 26,041.16 System 3x 125 HP AccuSine 18-pulse System 109,363.67 88,590.87 27.09 12.39 12,684.67 10,504.07 Advantage: AccuSine 34,523.50 System 3x 150 HP AccuSine 18-pulse System 116,681.51 96,415.47 27.09 12.39 15,253.06 12,198.66 Advantage: AccuSine 39,526.83 system 2x 150 HP AccuSine 18-pulse System 77,787.68 78,288.60 18.06 10.03 10,168.70 8,598.35 Advantage: AccuSine 9,401.64 system 3x 200 HP AccuSine 18-pulse System 151,521.89 117,574.82 27.09 12.39 19,603.58 14,125.78 Advantage: AccuSine 68,489.71 System 1x 150 HP AccuSine 18-pulse System 38,893.84 43,866.16 9.03 5.02 5,084.35 4,342.66 Advantage: -295.25 18-pulse 2x 200 HP AccuSine 18-pulse System 101,014.59 86,099.03 18.06 10.03 13,069.06 10,132.22 Advantage: AccuSine 33,435.03 System 3x 300 HP AccuSine 18-pulse System 186,321.52 139,746.79 54.17 20.84 27,859.10 23,563.31 Advantage: AccuSine 73,663.68 system 1x 200 HP AccuSine 18-pulse System 50,507.30 47,771.37 9.03 5.02 6,534.53 5,102.25 Advantage: AccuSine 11,767.77 System 2x 300 HP AccuSine 18-pulse System 124,214.34 110,330.12 36.11 15.34 18,572.74 16,664.58 Advantage: AccuSine 25,916.93 system 3x 400 HP AccuSine 18-pulse System 212,625.00 190,969.18 54.17 23.49 36,350.50 29,184.76 Advantage: AccuSine 66,842.42 system 1x 300 HP AccuSine 18-pulse System 62,107.17 71,451.53 18.06 10.81 9,286.37 8,428.81 Advantage: -4,277.20 18-pulse 2x 400 HP AccuSine 18-pulse System 141,750.00 127,318.85 36.11 15.34 24,233.66 20,373.23 Advantage: AccuSine 38,774.77 system 3x 500 HP AccuSine 18-pulse System 233,887.50 247,668.92 54.17 25.20 45,995.04 35,958.34 Advantage: AccuSine 49,509.34 system 1x 400 HP AccuSine 18-pulse System 70,875.00 89,389.61 18.06 10.81 12,116.83 10,178.29 Advantage: -6,290.32 18-pulse 2x 500 HP AccuSine 18-pulse System 155,925.00 173,686.31 36.11 18.00 30,663.36 24,273.86 Advantage: AccuSine 22,540.43 system 1x 500 HP AccuSine 18-pulse System 77,962.50 99,703.69 18.06 10.81 15,331.68 11,968.30 Advantage: -531.93 18-pulse

User Price Sq Ft Annual operating costs

NPV Cash Flow System:

User Price Sq Ft Annual operating costs

NPV Cash Flow System:

User Price Sq Ft Annual operating costs

NPV Cash Flow

AccuSine PCS Installation Considerations

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AHFInstallation Considerations
Main Left

Main-tie-main
Tie

Main Right

CBml CTml CTtl CTtr CTmr CBar

CBmr

CBal

AHF- L

AHF-R

This configuration provides individual AHF operation per side regardless of breaker positions.

AHF Installation Considerations


Utility Main Power CB CTm CBa CTg Generator

~
Generator CB

Regardless of Main Power CB and Generator CB positions, AHF limits harmonics for both sources.

AHF

AccuSine PCS Limitations


3-Phase / 3-Wire design only
Does not help neutral harmonics

Sine-Wave Product for


3-Phase / 4-Wire System

AccuSine Selection
Use SpreadsheetSQ D Software No Harmonics Analysis required Information Required for Sizing: * One Line * All VFDs DetailsHP & CT or VT * All Linear Loads Details-HP/KW * Other Non-Linear LoadsUV / OG * If DPF Correction is required. * Both LV & MV Bus * Add 3% LR for all Non-Linear Loads

Generator & Harmonics Load

Generator Feeding Nonlinear Loads

Soft Source High Impedance with limited over load capacities High Impedance produces excessive THDv High THDv directly affects Voltage Regulation Many existing Generators with old Regulator Design can fail High THDv affects Electronics Loads & can fail

Power Quality Correction

Voltage distortion THD(V) as a function of RSCE with 6-pulse power converter

Generator Feeding Nonlinear Loads

*Harmonics Current Generates Excessive Heating


in the Windings *Derating of Generator needed with Nonlinear Loads

Generator Feeding Nonlinear Loads: AccuSine Advantages

*Helps Generator runs Cooler *Helps Voltage Regulation *Helps Older Existing Generators in the Field *Helps Retrofits Space & Generator Rating *Helps Environment

Solution Approach

Measure

Supply & Commission

Solution Cycle
Simulate

Specify & Propose

Analyze & Report

Power Quality Correction

Thank You ! Questions?

For More Information, Please Contact:


B. Ben Banerjee Power Quality Correction Group Schneider Electric San Francisco Field Office Direct: 925-463-7103 Cell: 925-858-2182 E-mail: ben.banerjee@us.schneider-electric.com