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PLASTIC INDUSTRY: I. HISTORY Humankind has been using natural plastics for thousands of years.

The early Egyptians soaked burial wrappings in natural resins to help preserve the dead. People have been using animal horns and turtle shells, which contain natural resins, for centuries to make items such as spoons, combs, buttons and many more. In order to find more efficient ways to produce plastics and rubbers, scientists began trying to produce these materials in the laboratory. About 1860, the development of plastics began after Phelan and Collander, a United States manufacturing billiard and pool balls, offered a prize of 10 000 US dollars for a satisfactory substitute for natural ivory. One of those who tried to win this prize was a U.S. inventor John Wesley Hyatt. Hyatt developed a method of pressure-working pyroxylin, a cellulose nitrate of low nitration that had been plasticized with camphor and a minimum of alcohol solvent. His product was patented under the trademark Celluloid, used in the manufacture of objects ranging from dental plates to mens collars. A SUMMARY OF THE IMPORTANT HISTORICAL LEAPS IN THE PLASTIC INDUSTRY 1839 - Polystyrene or PS discovered - Eduard Simon 1856 - Shellac - Alfred Critchlow, Samuel Peck 1862 - First man-made plastic was created by Alexander Parkes; the material called Parkesine was an organic material derived from cellulose that once heated could be molded, and retained its shape when cooled. 1868- Celluloid was derived from cellulose and alcoholized camphor by John Wesley 1872 - Polyvinyl Chloride or PVC - first created by Eugen Baumann 1894 - Viscose Rayon - Charles Frederick Cross, Edward John Bevan 1899- Arthur Smith had the first patent for processing a formaldehyde resin 1906-1907- Leo Hendrik Baekeland improved phenol-formaldehyde reaction techniques and invented the first fully synthetic resin to become commercially successful, tradenamed Bakelite. 1935 - Low-density polyethylene or LDPE - Reginald Gibson and Eric Fawcett 1938 - Polytetrafluoroethylene or PTFE tradenamed Teflon - Roy Plunkett 1951 - High-density polyethylene or HDPE tradenamed Marlex - Paul Hogan and Robert Banks 1951 - Polypropylene or PP - Paul Hogan and Robert Banks 1954 - Styrofoam a type of foamed polystyrene foam was invented by Ray McIntire for Dow Chemicals

II. PROPERTIES The bonding properties and chemical versatility of carbon account for the great number of plastics. Although carbon is the backbone of polymer chains, other elements are included in the chemical structures of plastics. These include hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine, fluorine, and occasionally other elements, such as sulphur and silicon. The following properties are characteristic of most plastics: 1. Viscoelasticity This refers to the time-dependent nature of deformation under an applied stress. The stress required to deform the polymer is related to both the level of strain as well as the rate of strain. When a polymer is deformed at a rapid rate there is not enough time for the polymer chains to untangle and thus the polymer behaves in a brittle manner with low fracture toughness. If stress is applied over a long period of time then viscous flow occurs and the polymer exhibits large amounts of strain or creep. Brittleness and Ductility Below their glass transition temperature thermoplastics deform principally by elastic deformation, i.e. they are brittle. Above their glass transition temperature, they deform principally by plastic deformation, i.e. they are ductile. Thus, thermoplastics go through a brittle to ductile transition when heated through their glass transition temperature. In the brittle state the polymer chains are locked into place through a strong interlocking network making plastic flow difficult. Thermoplastics above their glass transition temperature usually exhibit ductile behaviour. Under an applied stress these polymers plastically deform past their yield strength in a manner known as cold drawing. Cold drawing involves viscous flow where the chains slide past one another. Initially, the chains may be highly tangled but the applied stress forces them to elongate and align in a single direction. Durability Plastic, is in most cases, waterproof and does not rust nor decay via natural means. It is usually pliable at least when heated, and will absorb strikes / stress via the absorption of the stress by bending and compressing without breaking. Most plastic is impervious to most acids, sugars, salts, etc. Crazing Crazing involves the formation of small crack-shaped regions that are drawn down but remain constrained by the surrounding material. The drawn material ends up as ligaments that link the crazed surfaces. Eventually the crazes form cracks that lead to fracture. The crazes contain air giving them a white streaked appearance. Shear Banding Shear banding is produced in polymers when they are exposed to compressive stresses. Small stress relieving cracks nucleate within the polymer parallel to the direction of maximum shear stress at an angle of 45. As the number of shear bands accumulate, the overall strain of the material increases. Permeation Permeation is molecular migration through microvoids either in the polymer or between polymer molecules. Permeability is a measure of how easily gases or liquids can pass through a material. All materials are somewhat permeable to chemical molecules, but plastic materials tend to be an order

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of magnitude greater in their permeability than metals. However, not all polymers have the same rate of permeation. In fact, some polymers are not affected by permeation. Electrical Resistivity Polymers are resistant to flow of electrical charges. Characteristics of Plastics Tendency to creep Low hardness Low density Flammable Has an outstanding electrical characteristics Durable Lightweight Resistant to corrosion Versatile Ideal material for wide use in industry and in craftwork

III. PLASTICS: BASIC CONCEPTS A plastic is a material that contains polymerized organic substance of large molecular weight as an essential ingredient, is solid in its finished state, and at some stage in its manufacture, can be shaped by flow. Plastic materials display properties that are unique when compared to other materials and have contributed greatly to quality of our everyday life. Plastics, properly applied, will perform functions at a cost that other materials cannot match. Many natural plastics exist, such as shellac, rubber, asphalt, and cellulose; however, it is man's ability to synthetically create a broad range of materials demonstrating various useful properties that have so enhanced our lives. Plastics are used in our clothing, housing, automobiles, aircraft, packaging, electronics, signs, recreation items, and medical implants to name but a few of their many applications. It came from the Greek word plastikos, meaning moldable or deformable. The term "plastics" encompasses organic materials, such as the elements carbon (C), hydrogen (H), nitrogen (N), chlorine (Cl) and sulfur (S), which have properties similar to those naturally grown in organic materials such as wood, horn and rosin. Organic materials are based on polymers, which are produced by the conversion of natural products or by synthesis from primary chemicals coming from oil, natural gas or coal. Composition Almost invariably, organic polymers mainly comprise plastics. The vast majority of these polymers are based on chains of carbon atoms alone or with oxygen, sulfur, or nitrogen as well. The backbone is that part of the chain on the main "path" linking a large number of repeat units together. To customize the properties of a plastic, different molecular groups "hang" from the backbone (usually they are "hung" as part of the monomers before linking monomers together to form the polymer chain). The structures of these "side chains" influence the properties of the polymer. This fine tuning of the properties of the polymer by repeating unit's molecular structure has allowed plastics to become an indispensable part of the twenty-first century world. Structure of Polymers The easiest way to start viewing plastics is as a chain. Chains are made of very small pieces that are all identical. Put together they make a large structure with great strength. In the case of plastics, the small repeating units are called monomers. Generally, these monomers are based on a compound called Ethene. The monomers join together to form long strands which are called polymers. The different structures of the chemicals involved in making the strands give us the materials we are familiar with and also determine whether a plastic is easily recycled or not.

The components of the chain give different properties, as does the types of joins between the chains. There are two main ways the chains are joined: 1. Little Or No Cross Linking In these plastics, the chains mainly lie side by side and are not strongly chemically bonded to one another. These plastics are typically soft and can be stretched out of their original shape. A good example of this is cling wrap, commonly used to cover food These forms generally melt when heated. The heat makes the chains vibrate and so puts extra distance between them, which weakens the bonds between the chains and lets them move past one another. This explains why cling wrap becomes more pliable when it has been in the microwave oven for a period of time. These plastics are called thermoplastic because they become more pliable when heated (the original meaning of plastic is "capable of being shaped or formed"). They are the most easily recycled plastics. Lots of Cross Linking These forms have very strong bonds between the different chains. This makes it almost impossible for the chains to slide past each other and result in plastics that are both hard and brittle. When heated, the chains do not move and tend to burn and char rather than melt. They are technically referred to as thermosetting polymers. These plastics are stronger than the types with little cross linking and are used where strength is the desirable property, such as in the handles of cooking pots. These plastics require a great deal more effort to recycle. Monomer combinations There is no reason for every monomer in a molecular chain to be the same. A polymer can be composed of a combination of different monomers. A polymer composed of a single type of monomer is known as a homopolymer while a polymer composed of two or more different monomers is known as a copolymer. A copolymer is analogous to a metal alloy. Crystalline or Amorphous A polymer therefore is a series of long chain molecules composed into a complex arrangement to make a solid. There are two possible arrangements of the molecular chains. They are either crystalline (a), in the sense that they arrange themselves neatly to have long-range order, or they are amorphous (b) and randomly packed with no discernible order. While a polymer can be completely amorphous, it will never be completely crystalline but instead will also have regions that are partially amorphous. These structures are referred to as semi-crystalline. The degree of crystallinity may range from completely amorphous to up to 95% crystalline. The presence of both amorphous and crystalline regions in a polymer is analogous to a two-phase metal alloy. Polymers with molecular chains that have large irregularity with respect to attached functional groups find it difficult to arrange into an ordered structure and therefore favour the formation of an amorphous structure. Natural Versus Synthetic - Most plastics are produced from petrochemicals. Motivated by the finiteness of petrochemical reserves and possibility of global warming, bio-plastics are being developed. Bio-plastics are made substantially from renewable plant materials such as cellulose and starch.

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IV. CLASSIFICATION OF PLASTICS According to Polymerization Polymerization is the process of building up continuous molecular chains from individual identical monomer units.

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Addition Polymerization Addition polymerization the simple linking of polymer units head to tail to form chains by opening out a double bond to free a valence. Linear chains are formed, often with side linkages. A plastic material formed in a mixed way is called a copolymer. When three different monomers are linked, they form a terpolymer. Condensation Polymerization In condensation polymerization, free valences linking up and removing atoms and a molecule, such as water, is forced out of each stage in the making of the chain, thus, the polymer produced is condensed. Condensed polymers are usually copolymers.

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According to Physical Properties/ Processibility 1. Thermoplastic Thermoplastic materials are those that can be re-softened and re-molded many times by the application of heat near 93 C. Most of thermoplastics produced include ABS (acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene), acetals, acrylics, and cellulosic. They proceed by addition polymerization.

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Thermosets Thermosetting plastics can only be softened and molded once, since the spare valences of the thermosetting plastic links with other atoms in different molecular chains to form permanent chemical bonds during polymerization. Before heating, molecular chains are tangled up. They need further heating to complete their chemical reaction. This process is called CURING, accomplished by chemical means. The process produces a locking effect on the molecules, like the knots in fishing net. The links are formed where the chains overlap, creating a rigid three dimensional structure. The process of linking is called CROSS-LINKING and is similar to rubber vulcanizing. They proceed to condensation polymerization. If they dont contain the right amount of fillers, they can crack and chip on impact. Fillers are materials incorporated in the plastic that impart strength.

Thermoplastic vs. Thermoset Thermoplastic Proceed by addition polymerization Can be recycled Sensitive to heat and will melt Often transparent and unreinforced Must be protected from destruction caused by ultraviolet radiation Thermoset Proceed by condensation polymerization Can only be softened and molded once Can crack and chip on impact Rarely transparent and translucent Can crack and chip if not containing right amount of fillers

According to Chemical Sources 1. Cellulose Plastics Include the cellulose nitrates and cellulose acetates. The cellulose nitrate plastics are the oldest in this group, and "Celluloid" is the oldest example. These plastics are made from cotton or wood pulp. Synthetic Resin Plastics

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Include the phenol formaldehyde, phenolic furfural, urea formaldehyde, vinyl, styrene, and acrylic plastics. These plastics are made from phenol, formaldehyde, urea, acetylene, petroleum, glycerol, and phthalic anhydride. Protein Plastics Casein plastics are the most common type in the protein group. They are made from milk. Other protein plastics are made from soy beans, coffee beans, peanuts, and other agricultural products. Natural Resins Include shellac, asphalt, rosin, amber, and pitch. These materials with fillers are usually cold molded.

According to Society of the Plastics Industry Number/ SPI Code The Society of the Plastics Industry (SPI) established a classification system in 1988 to allow consumers and recyclers to properly recycle and dispose of different types of plastic. Manufacturers follow a coding system and place an SPI code, or number, on each plastic product, which is usually molded into the bottom. 1. SPI code # 1 (Polyethylene Terephthalate/PET/PETE) Containers made from this plastic sometimes absorb odor and flavor from foods and drinks that are stored in them. Items made from this plastic are commonly recycled. PETE plastic is used to make many common household items like beverage bottles, medicine jars, peanut butter jars, combs, bean bags, and rope. Recycled PETE is used to make shopping bags, carpet, fibrefill material in winter clothing, and more. SPI code # 2 (High-Density Polyethylene/HDPE) Plastic marked with an SPI code of 2 is made with High-Density Polyethylene, or HDPE. HDPE products are very safe and they are not known to transmit any chemicals into foods or drinks. HDPE products are commonly recycled. Items made from this plastic include containers for milk, motor oil, shampoos and conditioners, soap bottles, detergents, and bleaches. Many toys are made from this plastic as well. However, it is not safe to reuse an HDPE bottle as a food and drink container if it wasnt meant contain food items. Recycled HDPE is used to make plastic crates, plastic lumber, and fencing, to name a few. SPI code # 3 (Polyvinyl Chloride/ PVC) Plastic labelled with an SPI code of 3 is made with Polyvinyl Chloride, or PVC. PVC is not often recycled and it can be harmful if ingested. PVC is used for all kinds of pipes and tiles, but it is most commonly found in plumbing pipes. This kind of plastic should not come in contact with food items. Recycled PVC is used to make flooring, mobile home skirting, etc. SPI code # 4 (Low-Density Polyethylene/LDPE) Plastic marked with an SPI code of 4 is made with Low-Density Polyethylene, or LDPE. LDPE is not commonly recycled, but it is recyclable in certain areas. It is a very healthy plastic that tends to be both durable and flexible. Plastic cling wrap, sandwich bags, squeezable bottles, and plastic grocery bags are all made from LDPE. Garbage cans, lumber, and furniture are often products of LDPE recycling. SPI code # 5 (Polypropylene/PP) It is made with Polypropylene, or PP. It is not commonly recycled, but it is accepted in many areas . This type of plastic is strong and can usually withstand higher temperatures. Among many other

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products, it is used to make plastic diapers, Tupperware, margarine containers, yogurt boxes, syrup bottles, and prescription bottles. Plastic bottle caps are often made from PP as well. Recycled PP is used to make ice scrapers, rakes, battery cables, and more. SPI code # 6 (Polystyrene/PS) Plastic marked with an SPI code of 6 is made with Polystyrene, also known as PS and most commonly known as Styrofoam. It is commonly recycled, but it is difficult to do so and often end up in landfills anyway. Disposable coffee cups, plastic food boxes, plastic cutlery, packing foam, and packing peanuts are made from PS. Insulation, license plate frames, and rulers are some of its outcomes when recycled. SPI code # 7 (Others) The SPI code of 7 is used to designate miscellaneous types of plastic that are not defined by the other six codes. Polycarbonate and Polylactide are included in this category. These types of plastics are difficult to recycle. Polycarbonate, or PC, is used in baby bottles, large water bottles (multiple-gallon capacity), compact discs, and medical storage containers. Recycled plastics in this category are used to make plastic lumber, among other products.

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V. RAW MATERIALS Generally, there are two classifications of raw materials in plastic manufacture: the resins, and additives. RESINS Originally most plastics were made from resins derived from vegetable matter, such as cellulose (from cotton), furfural (from oat hulls), oils (from seeds), starch derivatives, or coal. Casein (from milk) was among the non-vegetable materials used. Resins are term applied to a group of sticky, liquid, organic substances that usually harden, upon exposure to air, into brittle, amorphous, solid substances. Natural resins are secreted by many plants, appearing on the external surface of a plant after a wound. The resins form protective coatings over the plant wounds, preventing the entrance of pathogenic microorganisms and also excessive loss of sap from the wound to obtain the natural resins commercially. Cuts are made in the tree bark. The globules of liquid resin that flow from the cut are directed by troughs into collecting buckets. Natural resins are yellow to brown in color and burn with a smoky flame that emits an aromatic odor. Chemically, they differ from one another in detail, but they all contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. All resins are insoluble in water but soluble in alcohol, ether, and other organic solvents. Synthetic resins resemble natural resins. The natural resin known as lac is not a plant exudate but is formed by the tiny scale insect, Laccifer lacca, indigenous to Southeast Asia. Lac is deposited on trees and is harvested for the production of shellac. The many natural resins are classified according to hardness and chemical constitution into three principal categories: hard resins, oleoresins, and gum resins.

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Hard resins

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Hard resins include amber, copals, mastic, and sandarac, are hard, brittle, odourless, and tasteless and exhibit a glasslike fracture. Hard resins are obtained either as fossils or as distillation products of the oleoresins.

Rosin Rosin is the most commercially important of all the resins. It is used in sizing paper, in soap making, as a constituent of varnishes and paints, and as a friction-producing coating for the bows of stringed instruments. Rosin is obtained by distillation of the oleoresin turpentine. The oleoresins are sticky, amorphous semisolids that contain essential oils. Among the oleoresins are the balsam, dragon's blood, and copaiba; turpentine is possibly the most widely used oleoresin. The essential oil of turpentine is used as a solvent for paints and varnishes and is employed in the manufacture of shoe polish and sealing wax. During the era of sailing vessels, the crude oleoresin turpentine was much used for caulking and waterproofing. Gum resins Resins such as frankincense, myrrh, benzoin, and asafoetida contain gums and are called gum resins. On the other hand, a more complex classification of resins based on specific chemical composition categorizes them into thermosetting, and thermoplastic. THERMOPLASTIC RESIN Description milky white, translucent substances, inexpensive, flexible, extremely tough, and chemicalresistant Autoclavable, excellent contact clarity, can be used for hot fill opportunities beyond the limits of HDPE, excellent barrier characteristic, lightweight and strong, tends to become brittle at lower temperature ranges rigid, glass like clarity, lightweight, able to withstand high temperatures, generally used for dry products which are not extremely hydroscopic in nature glass like clarity, durable, rigid, exceptional gas and moisture barrier properties, good alcohol & solvent barrier, not suitable generally for hot fill applications transparent, rigid, excellent resistance to oxygen permeation and oils, good water barrier characteristics

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Synthetic resin polyethylene

Major applications Packaging Non-packaging films

polypropylene

fibers and filaments

polystyrene

molded products such as cassettes, audio equipment cabinets; packaging film; foodstock trays food packaging

polyethylene terephthalate (PET)

polyvinyl chloride

flooring; pipes and conduits; siding, commonly used in the toiletry and cosmetic market

polycarbonate

nylon

Transparent, outstanding dimensional stability, resistant to ultraviolet light, high heat resistance great strength, toughness, and elasticity, insulating material

compact discs and optical memory discs

transportation industry products

Synthetic Resin phenolics

polyesters

polyurethanes

amino resins

epoxy resins

THERMOSETTING RESIN Description -workhorse of plastic industry -hard, strong, inexpensive to produce, possess excellent electrical resistance, chemical resistance, and heat resistance Easy to use, low,cost, only moderate mechanical properties, high styrene emissions in open moulds, high cure shrinkage, limited range of working times high toughness materials, relatively low mechanical properties in compression Good heat resistance, extreme surface, hardness, resistance to discoloration, solvent and chemical resistance high mechanical and thermal properties, high water resistance, low cure shrinkage More expensive than vinylesters, critical mixing, corrosive handling

Major Applications electrical products such as ovens and toasters, wiring devices, switch gears, pulleys, pot and cutlery handles

construction and transportation industries

building insulation, refrigeration wiring devices, molded products, electrical parts, adhesives and bonding agents coatings, reinforcement, electrical and electronic applications, adhesives, flooring, and construction

ADDITIVES Chemical additives are often used in plastics to produce some desired characteristics. Many plastics are manufactured as composites. This involves a system where reinforcements (usually fibers made of glass or carbon) are added to a plastic resin matrix. Composites have strength and stability comparable to that of metals but generally less weight. Plastic foams, which are composites of plastic and gas, offer bulk with low weight. The principal material forming the basic plastic mixture is called the resin. Additives are ingredients added to the resins to produce stable plastics. 1. Plasticizer Plasticizer, usually an organic liquid, is the most important additive. It is a suitable chemical chosen to increase the flexibility of the plastic. The more plasticizer in a resin, the more flexible the plastic. The plasticizer also makes it easier for plastics to enter and flow around a mold.

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Filler Filler is also called extender. Fillers are almost used in thermosetting plastics to make them less brittle and to reinforce their mechanical strength. Thus extended by fillers, less resin is used and a cheaper product can be made without the properties being altered. Exploitation and overuse of fillers, however, results in defective mouldings. Various forms of reinforcement are used: wood flour, cotton flock, mica, and fibers such as glass and jute. The properties of the filler itself are important: asbestos makes a moulding more heat-resistant; fabric is ideal for curved laminated mouldings; paper is for flat laminates. Stabilizers Some polymers such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC) are liable to decompose during manufacture. To counteract this action, different types of compounds called stabilizers are added to the mix. Pigments and Dyes added to give color. Blowing Agents All foamed plastics are basic resins with a blowing agent introduced. Heat, whether self-generated or applied externally, converts the blowing agent into gas bubbles expanding the resin into foam. If the gas is blown into a resin before it sets, it produces an interconnecting structure open cellular structure like a sponge. Catalysts A catalyst helps to start the chemical reaction of polymerization and curing. It can be a chemical itself, or simply applied heat. Accelerators An accelerator is also a chemical which speeds up the process of curing. It is sometimes referred to as a hardener.

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Fire retardants Flame-retarding grades of plastics are produced either by the addition of a fire-retardant to the mix or by application afterwards. Antioxidant The effect of oxygen on some plastics during manufacture and use causes degradation. Antioxidants protect a polymer from chemical degradation by oxygen or ozone.

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VI. MANUFACTURING PROCEDURE The production of plastics is roughly divided into four categories, acquiring of raw materials, synthesizing the basic polymer, compounding the polymer into a material that can be used for fabrication, molding or shaping the plastic into its final form. Flow Diagram

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Acquiring the raw materials or resins Resins is a term applied to a group of sticky, liquid, organic substances that usually harden, upon exposure to air, into brittle, amorphous, solid substances. Natural resins are secreted by many plants, appearing on the external surface of a plant after a wound. The resins form protective coatings over the plant wounds, preventing the entrance of pathogenic microorganisms and also excessive loss of sap from the wound to obtain the natural resins commercially. Cuts are made in the tree bark. The globules of liquid resin that flow from the cut are directed by troughs into collecting buckets. Most plastics were made from resins derived from vegetable matter, such as cellulose (from cotton), furfural (from oat hulls), oils (from seeds), starch derivatives, or coal. Casein (from milk) was among the non-vegetable materials used.

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Synthesizing of the basic polymer Polymers are produced from their constituent monomers through a process known as polymerization. Polymers can be produced through either addition polymerization or condensation polymerization. In addition polymerization the monomers physically link together sequentially while in condensation polymerization large molecules attach to one another through chemical reactions. Blowing or foaming agents are used to generate inert gases on heating, causing the resins to assume a cellular structure. Polymerization is also referred to as cure.

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Compounding the polymer Compounding consists of preparing plastic formulations by mixing or/and blending polymers and additives in a molten state. There are different critical criteria to achieve a homogenous blend of the different raw material. Dispersive and distributive mixing as well as heat are important factors, cokneaders and twin screws (co- and counter rotating) as well internal mixers are the most common used compounders in the plastic industry. The mixture of the liquid resin and the filler materials are termed as slurry.

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Molding or shaping There are a number of different methods that are commonly used for forming of polymers. These methods rely to a large extent on whether the polymer is a thermoplastic or thermoset. Thermoplastics are melted from a solid and reshaped before cooling. Common forming methods include injection molding, blow molding and extrusion. Thermosets are not fully polymerized before forming.

They are formed into the desired shape and then made into a solid through a chemical reaction to create cross-links in the polymer chains. Common forming methods include injection molding, compression molding and transfer molding.

A.INJECTION MOLDING -Injection moulding is by far the most important method of forming plastic materials. Plastic pellets are fed into a rotating auger. The auger moves the pellets down a path towards the mould. As the pellets move they are pushed against the heated outer walls and are melted into a viscous liquid. At the end of the molding machine the polymer liquid is injected into a fashioned mould and cooled until solid. B.EXTRUSION It is used for producing plastic parts that are generally simple and continuous in nature such as pipes and sheets. The process is similar to injection molding in that melted polymer is moved along by an auger. The polymer, however, is continually threaded through an open die to form a continuous part with constant cross-sectional shape.

C.COMPRESSION MOLDING Compression molding is principally used for thermosetting plastics. Preheated resin is placed into a hot mould cavity. The upper section of the mould is subsequently forced down onto the resin to create the desired product shape. The applied pressure and heat forces the liquefied polymer to fill the cavity. Following the compression, a period of heating is required to force cross-linking of the thermosetting polymer. The process of placing reinforcing material into position in a mold is calle d lay-up. Mold release agents are used to coat a surface to prevent plastic from sticking to the mold. A mother-mold is a rigid material used to hold or house a flexible inner mold. Undercuts are protuberances or indentations that lock a solid form into its mold and prevent its removal while a vent is a shallow channel or hole cut into a mold to allow air to escape as it is being displaced by a liquid.

D.BLOW MOLDING -Blow molding is generally used for containers such as PET (Polyethylene terephthalate) bottles. -In blow molding, a cylinder of plastic is placed inside a mould. One end of the cylinder is clamped shut and air is blown in from the other end to push the polymer against the walls of the mould. The air pressure is held constant as the part is cooled. E. TRANSFER MOULDING -is a process where the amount of molding material (usually a thermoset plastic) is measured and inserted before the molding takes place. The molding material is preheated and loaded into a chamber known as the pot. A plunger is then used to force the material from the pot through channels known as a sprue and runner system into the mold cavities. The mold remains closed as the material is inserted and is opened to release the part from the

sprue and runner. The mold walls are heated to a temperature above the melting point of the mold material; this allows a faster flow of material through the cavities. F. COMPRESSION MOULDING -is a method of molding in which the molding material, generally preheated, is first placed in an open, heated mold cavity. The mold is closed with a top force or plug member, pressure is applied to force the material into contact with all mold areas, while heat and pressure are maintained until the molding material has cured. G. CASTING -is a manufacturing process by which a liquid material is usually poured into a mold, which contains a hollow cavity of the desired shape, and then allowed to solidify. H. CALENDERING -molding represents the process of calendering heated and plasticized thermoplastic plastics into continual sheet products by making use of the gap between two oppositely rotating rollers or above. It is an important technique for producing plastic films and sheets. 5. Cooling and Finishing After molding, the plastic material is cooled. Additional steps like labelling and designing may follow

VII. GREEN PLASTICS/ BIOPLASTICS Green Plastics are plastics that are biodegradable and are usually made mostly or entirely from renewable resources. Frequently there is also a focus on environmentally friendly processing. Green plastics are the focus of an emerging industry focused on making convenient living consistent with environmental stability. Like all plastics, bio-plastics are composed of a polymer, combined with plasticizers and additives, and processed using extrusion or thermosetting. What makes green plastics "green" is one or more of the following properties: They are biodegradable. They are made from renewable ingredients. They have environmentally friendly processing. Bio-plastics are a form of plastics derived from renewable biomass sources, such as vegetable fats and oils, corn starch, pea starch, or micro-biota, rather than fossil-fuel plastics which are derived from petroleum. Most, but not all, bioplastics are designed to biodegrade. Biodegradable bio-plastics are used for disposable items, such as packaging and catering items (crockery, cutlery, pots, bowls, and straws). Biodegradable bio-plastics are also often used for organic waste bags, where they can be composted together with the food or green waste. Some trays and containers for fruit, vegetables, eggs and meat, bottles for soft drinks and dairy products and blister foils for fruit and vegetables are manufactured from bio-plastics.

Non-disposable applications include mobile phone casings, carpet fibres, and car interiors, fuel line and plastic pipe applications, and new electro-active bio-plastics are being developed that can be used to carry electrical current. In these areas, the goal is not biodegradability, but to create items from sustainable resources. Starch-based plastics Thermoplastic starch currently represents the most widely used bio-plastic. Pure starch possesses the characteristic of being able to absorb humidity, and is thus being used for the production of drug capsules in the pharmaceutical sector. Flexibiliser and plasticiser such as sorbitol and glycerine are added so the starch can also be processed thermo-plastically. By varying the amounts of these additives, the characteristic of the material can be tailored to specific needs (also called "thermoplastical starch"). Simple starch plastic can be made at home. Industrially, starch based bio-plastics are often blended with biodegradable polyesters. These blends are mainly starch/polycaprolactone or starch/Ecoflex (polybutylene adipate-co-terephthalate produced by BASF). These blends remain compostable. Other producers, such as Roquette, have developed another strategy based on starch/polyeolefine blends. These blends are no longer biodegradables, but display a lower carbon footprint compared to the corresponding petroleum based plastics. Cellulose-based plastics Cellulose bio-plastics are mainly the cellulose esters, (including cellulose acetate and nitrocellulose) and their derivatives, including celluloid. Other bio-plastics Other bio-plastics include those made from Polylactic acid (PLA) plastics, a transparent plastic produced from cane sugar or glucose; Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB), a polyester produced by certain bacteria processing glucose, corn starch; Polyamide 11 (PA 11), derived from natural oil; and Bioderived polyethylene. Bio-plastics and Biodegradation The terminology used in the bio-plastics sector is sometimes misleading. Most in the industry use the term bio-plastic to mean a plastic produced from a biological source. All (bio- and petroleum-based) plastics are technically biodegradable, meaning they can be degraded by microbes under suitable conditions. However many degrade at such slow rates as to be considered non-biodegradable. Nonbiodegradable bio-plastics are referred to as durable. The degree of biodegradation varies with temperature, polymer stability, and available oxygen content. Consequently, most bio-plastics will only degrade in the tightly controlled conditions of industrial composting units. In compost piles or simply in the soil/water, most bio-plastics will not degrade (e.g. PH), starch-based bio-plastics will, however.