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• Relative Acceleration
Analysis
• Roll-Without-Slip Motion
• Concept Quiz
• Group Problem Solving
• Attention Quiz
2. Determine the acceleration of a
point on a body by using a relative
acceleration analysis.
1. Resolve the acceleration of a point
on a body into components of
translation and rotation.
• Check Homework
• Applications
• Translation and Rotation
Components of Acceleration
RELATIVE MOTION ANALYSIS: ACCELERATION
Today’s Objectives:
Students will be able to:
In-Class Activities:
1. If two bodies contact one another without slipping, and the points in
contact move along different paths, the tangential components of
2. When considering a point on a rigid body in general plane
motion,
C) It’s relative acceleration component is always normal
to the path.
A) It’s total acceleration consists of both absolute
acceleration and relative acceleration components.
B) It’s total acceleration consists of only absolute
acceleration components.
B) the same, different
D) different, different
______
acceleration will be _________.
and the normal components of
D) None of the above.
A) the same, the same
C) different, the same
acceleration will be
In the mechanism for a window, link
AC rotates about a fixed axis through
C, and AB undergoes general plane
motion. Since point A moves along a
curved path, it has two components
of acceleration while point B, sliding
in a straight track, has only one.
The components of acceleration of
these points can be inferred since
their motions are known.
How can we determine the
accelerations of the links in the
mechanism?
APPLICATIONS
In an automotive engine, the
forces delivered to the
crankshaft, and the angular
acceleration of the crankshaft,
depend on the speed and
acceleration of the piston.
How can we relate the
accelerations of the piston,
connection rod, and crankshaft
to each other?
APPLICATIONS (continued)
/
=
+
dt
dt
dv A
dv B
dv B A
dt
(Section 16-7)
The result is a B = a A + (a B/A ) t + (a B/A ) n
RELATIVE MOTION ANALYSIS: ACCELERATION
The equation relating the accelerations of two points on the
body is determined by differentiating the velocity equation
with respect to time.
This term is the acceleration
of B with respect to A and
includes both tangential and
normal components.
These are absolute accelerations
of points A and B. They are
measured from a set of fixed
x,y axes.
The relative tangential acceleration component (a B/A ) t is (α ×r B/A )
and perpendicular to r B/A .
The relative normal acceleration component (a B/A ) n is (−ω 2 r B/A )
and the direction is always from B towards A.
RELATIVE MOTION ANALYSIS: ACCELERATION
(a B/A ) t + (a B/A ) n
Graphically:
(continued)
a A
a B
+
=
Note that the last term in the relative acceleration equation is
not a cross product. It is the product of a scalar (square of
the magnitude of angular velocity, ω 2 ) and the relative
position vector, r B/A .
Since the relative acceleration components can be expressed
as (a B/A ) t = α × r B/A and (a B/A ) n = - ω 2 r B/A , the relative
acceleration equation becomes
RELATIVE MOTION ANALYSIS: ACCELERATION
a B = a A + α × r B/A − ω 2 r B/A
(continued)
In this mechanism, point B is known to travel along a circular path, so
a B can be expressed in terms of its normal and tangential components.
Note that point B on link BC will have the same acceleration as point B
In applying the relative acceleration equation, the two points used in the
analysis (A and B) should generally be selected as points which have a
known motion, such as pin connections with other bodies.
APPLICATION OF THE RELATIVE ACCELERATION
EQUATION
Point C, connecting link BC and the piston, moves along a straight-line
path. Hence, a C is directed horizontally.
3. Indicate on it a A , a B , ω, α, and r B/A . If the points A and B
move along curved paths, then their accelerations should
be indicated in terms of their tangential and normal
components, i.e., a A = (a A ) t + (a A ) n and a B = (a B ) t + (a B ) n .
5. If the solution yields a negative answer for an unknown
magnitude, this indicates that the sense of direction of the
vector is opposite to that shown on the diagram.
2. Draw the kinematic diagram of the body.
4. Apply the relative acceleration equation:
1. Establish a fixed coordinate system.
a B = a A + α × r B/A − ω 2 r B/A
PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS
IC
Find:
shown.
EXAMPLE I
B at this instant.
acceleration of 5 m/s 2 and a
the rod and the acceleration at
Given: Point A on rod AB has an
The angular acceleration of
velocity of 6 m/s at the instant
ω = v A /r A/IC = v A / (3) = 2 rad/s
procedure!
Solution: First, we need to find the angular velocity of the rod
at this instant. Locating the instant center (IC) for
rod AB, we can determine ω:
Since points A and B both move
along straight-line paths,
a B i = - 5 j + α k × (3 i – 4 j) – 2 2 (3 i – 4 j)
Applying the relative acceleration equation
a B i = - 5 j + 4 α i + 3 α j – (12 i – 16 j)
a A = -5 j m/s 2
a B = a B i m/s 2
EXAMPLE I (continued)
a A + α × r B/A – ω 2 r B/A
a B
=
=
=
α
a B
0 =
m/s 2
- 26.7
11 + 3α
So with
Solving:
a B = 4 α – 12
EXAMPLE I (continued)
By comparing the i, j components;
a B i = - 5 j + 4 α i + 3 α j – (12 i – 16 j) , we can solve.
Consider two bodies in contact with one another without slipping,
where the points in contact move along different paths.
In this case, the tangential components of acceleration will be the
same, i. e.,
The normal components of acceleration will not be the same.
(a A ) n ≠ (a A’ ) n so a A ≠ a A’
(a A ) t = (a A’ ) t (which implies α B r B = α C r C ).
BODIES IN CONTACT
As the cylinder rolls, point G (center) moves along a straight line.
If ω and α are known, the relative velocity and acceleration
equations can be applied to A, at the instant A is in contact with
the ground. The point A is the instantaneous center of zero
velocity, however it is not a point of zero acceleration.
Another common type of problem encountered in dynamics
involves rolling motion without slip; e.g., a ball, cylinder, or disk
rolling without slipping. This situation can be analyzed using
relative velocity and acceleration equations.
ROLLING MOTION
a A = ω 2 r j
Since G moves along a straight-line path, a G is
horizontal. Just before A touches ground, its
velocity is directed downward, and just after
contact, its velocity is directed upward. Thus,
point A accelerates upward as it leaves the ground.
Since no slip occurs, v A = 0 when A is in contact
with ground. From the kinematic diagram:
Evaluating and equating i and j components:
a G i = a A j + (-α k) × (r j) – ω 2 (r j)
a G = a A + α × r G/A – ω 2 r G/A
v G i = 0 + (-ωk) × (r j)
ROLLING MOTION
v G = v A + ω × r G/A
• Acceleration:
(continued)
or
• Velocity:
v G = ωr i
a G = αr i
a A = ω 2 r
v G = ωr
a G = αr
and
and
=>
or
Solution: Since the gear rolls on the fixed rack without slip, a O
is directed to the right with a magnitude of:
Find:
The accelerations of
point A at this instant.
Plan:
Given: The gear rolls on the
fixed rack.
a O = αr = (6 rad/s 2 )(0.3 m)=1.8 m/s 2
EXAMPLE II
So now with a O = 1.8 m/s 2 , we can apply the relative
acceleration equation between points O and A.
a A = 1.8i + (-6k)×(0.3j) –12 2 (0.3j)
a A = a O + α × r A/O – ω 2 r A/O
(3.6 i – 43.2j) m/s 2
EXAMPLE II
(continued)
1.8 m/s 2
y
=
x
1. If a ball rolls without slipping, select the
tangential and normal components of
the relative acceleration of point A with
respect to G.
2. What are the tangential and normal components of the
relative acceleration of point B with respect to G.
A) - ω 2 r i −αr j
B) - αr i + ω 2 r j
B) - αr i + ω 2 r j
C) ω 2 r i − αr j
A) αr i + ω 2 r j
C) ω 2 r i −αr j
CONCEPT
D) Zero.
D) Zero.
QUIZ
Find:
The velocity and acceleration of
the slider block C.
Plan:
Given: The smember AB is rotating with
instant.
Note that Point B is rotating. So
what components of acceleration
will it be experiencing?
PROBLEM SOLVING
GROUP
v B
v B
Solution:
a B
GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING (continued)
Since Point B is rotating, its velocity and acceleration will be:
= (-21 i ) in/s
= (-14 i −63 j ) in/s 2
= (ω AB ) r B/A = (3) 7 = 21 in/s
= (ω AB ) 2 r B/A = (3) 2 7 = 63 in/s 2
= (α AB ) r B/A = (2) 7 = 14 in/s 2
a Bn
a Bt
Now apply the relative velocity equation between points B and C
to find the angular velocity of link BC.
=
By comparing the i, j components;
-0.8 v C = - 21 + 12 ω BC
-0.6 v C = - 5 ω BC
(-0.8 v C i −0.6 v C j) = (-21 i ) + ω BC k × (-5 i −12 j)
GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING (continued)
9.375 in/s
= (-21 + 12 ω BC ) i −5 ω BC j
v B + ω BC × r C/B
Solving:
v C =
v C
(-0.8 a C i − 0.6 a C j) = (-14 i − 63 j)
+ α BC k × (-5 i −12 j) – (1.125) 2 (-5 i −12 j)
Now, apply the relative acceleration equation between points B
and C.
(- 0.8 a C i − 0.6 a C j)
= (-14+12 α BC + 6.328 ) i
+ (- 63 – 5 α BC + 15.19) j
GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING (continued)
By comparing the i, j components;
a B + α BC × r C/B – ω 2 BC r C/B
- 0.8 a C = -7.672 + 12 α BC
- 0.6 a C = - 47.81 –5 α BC
a C
=
Solving these two i, j component
equations
GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING (continued)
- 0.8 a C = -7.672 + 12 α BC
- 0.6 a C = - 47.81 –5 α BC
α BC = -3.0 rad/s 2
54.7 in/s 2
Yields
a C =
1. Two bodies contact one another
without slipping. If the tangential
component of the acceleration of point
A on gear B is 100 ft/sec 2 , determine
the tangential component of the
acceleration of point A’ on gear C.
gear B is 100 ft/sec 2 , determine the angular acceleration of
gear B.
2. If the tangential component of the acceleration of point A on
A) 50 ft/sec 2
C) 200 ft/sec 2