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Overview of CRE topics

Chapters covered from the textbook (Elements of CRE, 4th Ed., Fogler, 2006) 1.Chapters 1 4 (Mid Term Exam) 2.Chapter 6 3.Chapter 5 (Sections 5.1 5.3) 4.Chapter 8 5.Chapter 10

Learning sources
Textbook CD-ROM
Summary notes Web modules Interactive Computer modules (ICMs) Solved problems
Living example problems, Professional Reference Shelf, Software toolbox (Polymath, COMSOL).

Materials on the Web and CDROM


http://www.engin.umich.edu/~cre/

Todays lecture
Chapter 1: Introduction
Definitions General Mole Balance Equation Batch CSTR PFR PBR

Chemical Reaction Engineering


Chemical reaction engineering is at the heart of virtually every chemical process. It separates the chemical engineer from other engineers. Industries that Draw Heavily on Chemical Reaction Engineering (CRE) are: Petronas, Shell, BP, etc (Oil and Gas Industries) Sawit Kinabalu, IOI, FPG (Oleochemical Industries) Pharmaceutical Antivenom, Drug Delivery Medicine Pharmacokinetics, Drinking and Driving Microelectronics CVD

Lets Begin CRE


Chemical Reaction Engineering (CRE) is the field that studies the rates and mechanisms of chemical reactions and the design of the reactors in which they take place.

Chemical Identity
A chemical species is said to have reacted when it has lost its chemical identity.

Chemical Identity
A chemical species is said to have reacted when it has lost its chemical identity. The identity of a chemical species is determined by the kind, number, and configuration of that species atoms.

Chemical Identity
A chemical species is said to have reacted when it has lost its chemical identity.
1. Decomposition

Chemical Identity
A chemical species is said to have reacted when it has lost its chemical identity.
1. Decomposition

2. Combination

Chemical Identity
A chemical species is said to have reacted when it has lost its chemical identity.
1. Decomposition

2. Combination

3. Isomerization

Reaction Rate
The reaction rate is the rate at which a species looses its chemical identity per unit volume.

Reaction Rate
The reaction rate is the rate at which a species looses its chemical identity per unit volume. The rate of a reaction (mol/dm3/s) can be expressed as either the rate of Disappearance: -rA or as the rate of Formation (Generation): rA

Reaction Rate
Consider the isomerization
rA = the rate of formation of species A per unit volume -rA = the rate of a disappearance of species A per unit volume rB = the rate of formation of species B per unit volume

A B

Reaction Rate
EXAMPLE: AB
If Species B is being formed at a rate of 0.2 moles per decimeter cubed per second, ie, rB = 0.2 mole/dm3/s

Reaction Rate
EXAMPLE: AB
rB = 0.2 mole/dm3/s Then A is disappearing at the same rate: -rA= 0.2 mole/dm3/s

Reaction Rate
EXAMPLE: AB
rB = 0.2 mole/dm3/s

Then A is disappearing at the same rate: -rA= 0.2 mole/dm3/s The rate of formation (generation of A) is rA= -0.2 mole/dm3/s

Reaction Rate
For a catalytic reaction, we refer to rA, which is the rate of disappearance of species A on a per mass of catalyst basis. (mol/gcat/s) NOTE: dCA/dt is not the rate of reaction

Reaction Rate
Consider species j: rj is the rate of formation of species j per unit volume [e.g. mol/dm3/s]

Reaction Rate
rj is the rate of formation of species j per unit volume [e.g. mol/dm3*s] rj is a function of concentration, temperature, pressure, and the type of catalyst (if any)

Reaction Rate
rj is the rate of formation of species j per unit volume [e.g. mol/dm3/s] rj is a function of concentration, temperature, pressure, and the type of catalyst (if any) rj is independent of the type of reaction system (batch reactor, plug flow reactor, etc.)

Reaction Rate
rj is the rate of formation of species j per unit volume [e.g. mol/dm3/s] rj is a function of concentration, temperature, pressure, and the type of catalyst (if any) rj is independent of the type of reaction system (batch, plug flow, etc.) rj is an algebraic equation, not a differential equation

General Mole Balance

General Mole Balance

Batch Reactor Mole Balance

Batch Reactor Mole Balance

Batch Reactor Mole Balance

Batch Reactor Mole Balance

Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor Mole Balance

Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor Mole Balance

Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor Mole Balance

CSTR Mole Balance

CSTR Mole Balance

Plug Flow Reactor

Plug Flow Reactor Mole Balance


PFR:

Plug Flow Reactor Mole Balance


PFR:

Plug Flow Reactor Mole Balance


PFR:

Plug Flow Reactor Mole Balance


PFR:

Plug Flow Reactor Mole Balance


PFR:

Plug Flow Reactor Mole Balance


PFR:

The integral form is:

V=

dF A FA 0 rA
FA

Plug Flow Reactor Mole Balance


PFR:

The integral form is:

V=

dF A FA 0 rA
FA

This is the volume necessary to reduce the entering molar flow rate (mol/s) from FA0 to the
exit molar flow rate of FA.

Packed Bed Reactor Mole Balance


PBR

Packed Bed Reactor Mole Balance


PBR
FA0 - FA +

r dW =
A

dNA dt

Packed Bed Reactor Mole Balance


PBR
FA0 - FA +

r dW =
A

dNA dt

Packed Bed Reactor Mole Balance


PBR
FA0 - FA +

r dW =
A

dNA dt

Packed Bed Reactor Mole Balance


PBR
FA0 - FA +

r dW =
A

dNA dt

The integral form to find the catalyst weight is:

W=

dFA FA 0 r A
FA

Reactor Mole Balance Summary

Reactor Mole Balance Summary

Reactor Mole Balance Summary

Reactor Mole Balance Summary

KEEPING UP

Separations

Filtration

Distillation

Adsorption

These topics do not build upon one another

Reaction Engineering

Mole Balance

Rate Laws

Stoichiometry

These topics build upon one another

Heat Effects

Isothermal Design
Stoichiometry Rate Laws Mole Balance

Mole Balance

Rate Laws

Heat Effects Isothermal Design Stoichiometry

Rate Laws
Mole Balance