Sie sind auf Seite 1von 13

As engineer we expected to exhibit the highest standard integrity.

Engineering has direct and vital impact on the quality hence engineers must perform their duties that requires adhere principles of ethical conduct. Engineers in the fulfilment of their shall:

Hold paramount safety, health and welfare of the people. Perform services only in areas of their competence Issue public statement only in an objective and truthful manner. Act for each employer or client as faithful agents or trustees. Avoid deceptive acts- to receive bribes to show favors Conduct themselves honorably, responsibly, ethically and lawfully the honors , reputation and usefulness of the orofession.

To be a professional there are a certain set of rules that you have to comply to this rules. Engineering societies in this case have adopted a set of rules knows as the code of ethics. Basically, a code of ethics provides a framework for ethical judgment for a professional. [1] Framework meaning there is no absolute solution on weather an action is ethical or unethical. No code can be totally comprehensive, covering every possible ethical situation that a professional engineer is likely to encounter. Instead, the code of ethics is the starting point in making an ethical decision. The code also functions to display the commitment to ethical conduct shared by members of a profession. For example if an engineer were to join a professional body like the board of engineers Malaysia (BEM), he and all other members are then bounded by the code of ethics of this particular body. These codes however do not establish new ethical principles; they only provide professionals with principle and standards that are already known to be responsible engineering practices for comparison. A code is used also because it is far more accessible when compiled. The code of ethics also plays an important function as a social tool in ensuring ethical behavior. The code helps create an atmosphere where ethical behavior is the norm. This in turn deters any professionals from acting unethically when making decisions. A code of ethics also works to enforce an individuals position with regard to certain activities. Lets say if an individual is being pressured by a superior to behave unethically, the code of ethics will provide some backup for the individual to refuse the superior thus ensuring ethical behavior. Code of ethics will also be able to boost the position of on individual

The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (IEM), primary role is to cover all major disciplines of engineering practiced in Malaysia. It is governed by Constitution and by-laws which include the regulation of professional conduct.It is being managed by a Council which consists of elected members. The Council will delegate the day to day management of the Institution to an Executive Committee which oversees six standing committees on finance, admissions, examination & qualification, publication, activities and professional practice. The principal duties of the Standing Committee on Professional Practice are as follows:-

a) To review, co-ordinate and formulate policies on all aspect of professional practice among members of the Institution including the conduct, ethics, discipline and good technical practice. b) To liaise with other professional bodies, public and statutory authorities c) To examine and report to the Executive Committee on any complaint made against a member of the Institution.

In very simple words ethics simply mean systematic reflection on what is moral. Morality is whole of decisions, opinions and actions with which people express what is right or wrong. And engineering ethics is same as normal ethics just that, it is for the case of engineering guided with some set of rules, which are mandatory to follow so that, engineers dont do something unethical knowingly (prevention). In general, importance of engineering ethics is that, it helps engineer to maintain his/her ethical reputation within their engineering careers. Some of the main principles by which an engineer should live by are as following:

Public safety, health and welfare (Engineers work for the society) Perform in area of competence (If not, disaster could happen) Honest and faithful to client and employer (Confidentiality and proprietary information ) Conduct themselves honorably (No bribes and fraud, punishment if caught) No conflict of interest (No self-vested interest) Consideration for environment (DOE strict standards)

It helps engineers to think morally and independently about the moral issues, to the situation which might arise on work. Ethical problems in engineering are often complex and involve conflicting ethical principles. Engineers must be able to resolve these conflicts and reach a defensible decision.

BEMs Code of Professional Conduct These are the code of professional conduct or ethics set by Board of Engineers Malaysia to prevent engineers from behaving and acting unethically. The codes of ethics are divided into

5 main sections and 27 subs section. Author will review and provide an overview of these codes for a better understanding (5 main sections).

Section 1 According to this section a registered engineer shall at all times hold paramount safety, health and welfare of the public. This section is further divided into 5 subs section. Engineering is a reputable profession; they work for the welfare of the society. To take care of safety, health and welfare of public (society) is their paramount responsibility. To aide this code BEM provides 5 subs section, according to which:

1. A professional engineer shall approve and sign only those engineering documents that he has prepared or are prepared under his direct supervision , so that he/she knows and understand what has been done in the documents and not sign it without knowing if it is correct or wrong to prevent any problem in future (to himself/herself) and public in general. 2. A professional engineer shall certify satisfactory completion of a piece of work only if he has control over the supervision of the construction or installation of that work, and only if he is satisfied that the construction or installation has fulfilled the requirements of the engineering design and specifications , as he/she would be held responsible if anything goes wrong in future, which might cause harm to safety, health or welfare of the public.

3. A registered engineer shall not reveal facts, data or information without the prior consent of the client or employer except as authorized or required by law or when withholding of such information is contrary to the safety of the public. If facts, data or information is released prior to consent of employer or client, it is considered a crime as the rivals or the competitor can have business or technological edge over the company engineer is working for. He/she should be honest and faithful to the client and the employer. But can be revealed if required by law (case) or if withholding the information isnt in safety, health and welfare of the public.

4. A registered engineer having knowledge of any violation of this code and local authorities regulations shall report thereon to appropriate professional bodies and, when relevant, also to public authorities and cooperate with the proper authorities in furnishing such information or assistance as may be required. As, these codes and regulations have been formed keeping in mind the safety, health and welfare of the public, breaking these codes mean, there are chances for harm to the public some way or the another. So, such information should be given to authorities when one comes to know about.

5. When the professional advice of a professional engineer is overruled and amended contrary to his advice, the professional engineer shall, if the amendment may in his opinion give rise to situation that may endanger life and/or property, notify his employer or client and such other authority as may be appropriate and explain the consequences to be expected as a result of his advice being overruled and amended. This is to prevent any wrong doings, if the professional engineer is knowing about the impact it might cause not taking his/her advice. He/she should take the responsibility of letting the concerned authorities know.

A registered engineer should always look out for dangers and signs, which might cause harm to safety, health and welfare of the public. They should never sign on documents they havent supervised or made themselves, they should never certify satisfactory completion of work until they are fully satisfied with the work, they shouldnt reveal any facts, data or information without prior consent of employee or client, they shouldnt hold back any facts, data or information regarding violation of BEM code and local authorities regulations and finally should inform concerned authorities if they know the negative impact on public in general if, their advice is turned down.

Section 2 According to this section a registered engineer shall undertake assignments only if he is qualified by education and experience in specific technical fields in which he is involved . This section is further divided into 2 subs section which are:

1. A Professional Engineer shall not affix his signature to any plan or document dealing with subject matter in which he lacks competence, nor to any plan or document not prepared under his direction and control. This is to prevent any problems in future, either big or small, which might arise as the engineer affixed his signature to plan or document dealing with subject matter in which he/she lacked competence. Nor should he/she affix signature to plan or documents not prepared under his direction and control as, he/she doesnt fully understand and know what is inside the plan or document, and if in future these plan and document fail somehow, they are the ones who would be held responsible.

2. A professional engineer shall not accept assignment and assume responsibility for coordination of an entire project and sign and stamp (P.E. stamp) the engineering documents for the entire project unless each technical segment of the project is signed and stamped personally by the qualified engineer who has prepared the respective segment of the project. This is there to prevent all the responsibilities of the project to fall directly upon one engineer, it also prevents engineer from signing and stamping plans and documents he/she isnt well versed with and finally it ensures project is on track and each part has been certified for satisfactory completion without any corruption directly.

A registered engineer should only affix his/her signatures to those plans and documents in which he/she is competent or knows about the topic properly (qualified and experienced), and not on those he/she lacks competence or arent prepared under their direction and control as, they have to be responsible for whatever happens once the plans and documents have been finalized and work starts (construction, installation, repair). He/she should accept assignment, assume responsibility of co ordination of entire project, sign or stamp engineering documents for entire project unless each technical segment of the project have been signed and stamped personally by qualified engineers under whose direction and control the documents and plans were made, this is to ensure each technical segment of the project have been reviewed and analyzed by engineer under whom they were made to prevent any failure or problem in the project in later on stages and to distribute the responsibilities in managing a big project.

Section 3 According to this section a registered engineer shall issue public statements only in an objective and truthful manner. This section is further divided into 3 subs section which are:

1. A registered engineer shall be objective and truthful in professional reports, statements and testimony. He shall include all relevant and pertinent information in such reports, statements, or testimony, which should bear the date indicating when it was current. This code aides honesty, truthfulness and faithfulness to the client, employer and public in general. It prevents an engineer from giving wrong information, data and facts which is unlawful and highly unethical.

2. A registered engineer may express publicly only technical opinions that are founded upon his competence and knowledge of the facts in the subject matter . This prevents an engineer from providing technical opinions unrelated to his competence and knowledge of facts of subject matter, thus preventing rumors and wrong information in the public which may tarnish clients or employees name (company).

3. A registered engineer shall not issue statement, criticism or argument on technical matter that is inspired or paid for by interested parties, unless he has prefaced his comments by explicitly identifying the interested parties on whose behalf he is speaking and by revealing the existence of any interest he may have in the matter. This code prevents engineers from issuing statement, criticism or argument on technical matters which are inspired or paid by interested parties, as these parties could have self-vested interest in doing so, which might harm clients or employers company or business in some way or another. If he/she still wishes to do something like that, he/she should explicitly identify the interested parties on whose behalf he/she is speaking and revealing existence of any interest he/she might have in matter, keeping engineer honest, trustworthy and faithful to the client and the employer.

This prevents a registered engineer from providing wrong facts, data and information into the public which might or may tarnish the image and the reputation of the clients or employers company. And if he/she plans to issue public statements it should be objective, to the point and not revealing too much than necessary. Also the engineer should not issue statement, criticism or argument on technical matter which has been inspired or paid by other interested parties or if he/she plans to go ahead, engineer should tell on whose behalf are they speaking and if they have any interest in matter themselves. Not to forget engineers are allowed to do so only for the technical opinions that are founded upon their competence and knowledge of facts in subject matter.

Section 4 According to this section a registered engineer shall act for each employer or clients as faithful agent or trustee. This section is further divided into 7 subs sections, which are:

1. A registered engineer shall disclose all known or potential conflicts of interest that could influence or appear to influence his judgment or the quality of his services. This code prevents engineer to take some unethical decision or action because of potential conflicts of interest, which means some self-vested interest personally or at corporate level, for ones own gain.

2. A registered engineer shall not accept compensation, financial or otherwise, from more than one party for services on the same project, or for services pertaining to the same project, unless the circumstances are fully disclosed and agreed to by all interested parties. This prevents engineer from taking benefits from more than one party, while working on same project, until circumstances are fully disclosed and agreed by all interested parties. Thus, being honest and faithful to the clients.

3. A registered engineer shall not solicit or accept financial or other valuable consideration, directly or indirectly, from outside agents in connection with the work for which he is responsible. This code prevents engineer from taking or

asking any financial or valuable consideration, from outside agents who are connected to work he/she is responsible for. If he/she does so, he/she is dishonoring the profession, plus can be considered taking or asking for bribe if caught red handed, and also will have an impact on his/her decision making.

4. A registered engineer as advisor or director of a company or an agency shall not participate in decision with respect to particular services solicited or provided by him or his organization. This code prevents an engineer to take part in decision making, so that he/she does not put his/her company over other bidders or companies available for self vested interest. An engineer needs to choose the best of the lot for completing or doing the task defined, not choosing company he/she has interest without any evaluation.

5. A registered engineer shall not solicit or accept a contract from a body or agency on which a principal or officer of his organization served as a member of that body or agency unless with knowledge and consent of that body or agency . This code prevents favoritism of the engineers company over others because, there was an officer of his/her organization serving as member of body or agency giving the contract, unless with knowledge and consent of the body or agency.

6. A registered engineer while acting in his professional capacity shall disclose in writing to his client of the fact if he is a director or member of or substantial shareholder in or agent for any contracting or manufacturing company or firm or business or has any financial interest in any such company or firm or business, with which he deals on behalf of his client. This code prevents engineer from the later question from the client that, why did the engineer give the contract to the particular company he/she has interest in rather than other contracting companies.

7. All professional advice shall be given in good faith. This code focuses on the fact that advices given by the engineers shall be in good faith meaning, it should be for good of the profession. The engineer shouldnt give wrong advice or advice for some self vested interest, if he/she has to give such advice. Engineer should let the company or people know that his/her advice will also benefit him/her in someway

This prevents anybody from pointing finger at a registered engineer and pointing out his/her misdeeds, which they might think is. This also makes an engineer faithful, honest and trustworthy employee. While being respected and honored by peers and colleagues.

Section 5 According to this section a registered engineer shall conduct himself honorably, responsibly, ethically and lawfully so as to enhance the honor, reputation and usefulness of the profession. This section is further divided into 10 subs section, which are:

1. A Registered Engineer shall not falsify his qualifications or permit misrepresentation of his or his associates' qualifications. He shall not misrepresent or exaggerate his responsibility in or for the subject matter of prior assignments. Brochures or other presentations incident to the solicitation of employment shall not misrepresent pertinent facts concerning employers, employees, associates, joint ventures, or past accomplishments. This code points to the fact that an engineer should not lie or exaggerate about his accomplishment to get a job, assignment etc. If he/she does so, they are being dishonest and in long run spoiling the reputation of the profession.

2. A registered engineer shall not offer, give, solicit or receive, either directly or indirectly, any contribution to influence the award of a contract which may be reasonably construed as having the effect of intent to influencing the award of a contract. He shall not offer any gift or other valuable consideration in order to secure work. He shall not pay a commission, percentage or brokerage fee in order to secure work. This code prevents engineers from influencing the award of contract in any way possible, and also preventing offering gifts and other valuable considerations in order to secure work, thus keeping engineers lawfully, ethically correct and keeping honor.

3. A registered engineer shall check with due diligence the accuracy of facts and data before he signs or endorses any statement or claim. He shall not sign on such documents unless, where necessary, qualifications on errors and

inaccuracies have been made. This code makes it important for engineers to check accuracy of facts and data before he/she signs or endorses any statement or claims, as its will become his/her responsibility once he/she has signed it. Its engineers duty to check with due diligence before signing or endorsing any statement or claim.

4. A registered engineer shall respond, within reasonable time, to communication from the board or any other relevant authority on matter pertaining to his professional service. This code makes it compulsory for engineers to respond to any communication from board or any relevant authority on matter pertaining to his/her professional service within reasonable time, so that if there are any discrepancies, issues or other important things, it can be solved and discussed at earliest possible, for good of all.

5. A registered engineer shall not maliciously injure or attempt to maliciously injure whether directly or indirectly the professional reputation, prospect or business of another engineer. This code directs or advices engineers that they should not try to injure professional reputation, prospect or business of another engineer in any manner, because if they do, it would create a bad image of the profession and would be ethically very wrong.

6. A registered engineer shall not directly or indirectly

a) Supplant or attempt to supplant another engineer,

b) Intervene or attempt to intervene in or in connection with engineering work of any kind which to his knowledge has already been entrusted to another engineer,

c) Take over any work of another engineer acting for the same client unless he has,

I.

Obtained a letter of release from the other engineer or obtain such letter through the client, provided that this requirement may be waived by the board or,

II.

Been formally notified by the client that the services of that other Engineer have been terminated in accordance with the provisions of any contract entered into between that Engineer and the client; provided always that, in case of dispute over non-payment or quantum of any outstanding fees, the client shall request the Board to be the stakeholder under the provision of Section 4(1)(e)(ea.)

This code prevents a registered engineer from replacing or trying to replace another engineer not directly or indirectly. If one wishes to do so, one has to inform the concerned authorities so, that they can decide if the change is possible or not. It also prevents engineer from intervening in work which has been already entrusted to another engineer, if one doesnt obey this code, it can create confusion at work place and irritate the other engineer.

7. Except with the prior approval of the board, a registered engineer shall not be a director or executive of or substantial shareholder in or agent for any contracting or manufacturing company or firm or business related to building or engineering. If such approval is given, such engineer shall not undertake any contract work wherein he is engaged as a consulting engineer in such project unless it is in respect of a design and build project. This code prevents favoritism, soliciting and corrupt practices and aides faithfulness and honesty towards the clients.

8. A registered engineer shall not be a medium of payment made on his client's behalf unless he is so requested by his client nor shall he, in connection with work on which he is employed, place contracts or orders except with the authority of and on behalf of his client. This code prevents an engineer from wrong practices of corruption and forgery, and aides honesty and trust towards the clients.

9. A registered engineer shall not

a) Offer to make by way of commission or any other payment for the introduction of his professional employment or,

b) Except as permitted by the board, advertise in any manner or form in connection with his profession.

This code prevents an engineer to take any payment for introduction of his/her professional employment except the salary and benefits given by the client, thus maintaining honor and good reputation of the profession. This code also prevents engineer from any advertisement in any manner other than permitted by board, if not clients with wrong motives can come to the engineer to give him/her contract, also it would contradict the above point.

A professional engineer in private practice shall not without the approval of the board enter into professional partnership with any person other than a professional engineer in private practice, a registered architect, a registered quantity surveyor or a licensed land surveyor. This prevents any other person from taking the advantage of registered engineer for various professional partnership gains while not being a registered engineer himself/herself; it also prevents any other mal-practices which might have taken place by the other person in name of the registered engineer

References

Internet

Ethical

Relativism.

2011.

Ethical

Relativism.

[ONLINE]

Available

at:

http://www.scu.edu/ethics/practicing/decision/ethicalrelativism.html. [Accessed 05 September 2011].

Principles and Theories. 2011. Principles and Theories. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.bio.davidson.edu/people/kabernd/indep/carainbow/Theories.htm. [Accessed 05 September 2011].

Literature

Reviews.

2011.

Literature

Reviews.

[ONLINE]

Available

at:

http://www.hospiweb.scotcit.ac.uk/lectures/lit_rev.shtml. [Accessed 05 September 2011].

NSPE Engineering Ethics. 2011. NSPE Engineering Ethics. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.nspe.org/ethics/index.html [Accessed 06 September 2011].