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CLASS VIII Science Solved LESSON-11-HUMAN EYE

Q.1. Explain the structure of eye. Ans: The human eye is like a camera. Its lens system forms an image on a light sensitive screen called the retina. The eye ball is approx. spherical in shape The human eye has the follo ing parts:# $a% &ornea:#The transparent spherical membrane covering the front of the eye. ith a diameter of !."cm.

$b% Iris:#The coloured diaphragm bet een the cornea and lens.

$c% 'upil:#The small hole in the iris.

$d% Eye lens:#Its is a transparent lens made of (elly like material.

$e% &iliary muscles:#These muscles hold the lens in position.

$f% )etina:#The back surface of the eye.

$g% *lind spot:#The point at hich the optic nerve leaves the eye. An image formed at this point is not sent to the brain.

$h% A+ueous humour:#A clear li+uid region bet een the cornea and the lens.

$i% ,itreous humour:#The space bet een eye lens and retina is is filled ith another li+uid called ,itreous humour.

Q.!.-o

e are able to see in dim and bright light.

Ans: /ur retina0s 1!1 million rods are used only in dim light and help us to see in dim and bright light

Q.".2hat is the function of the ciliary muscles.

Ans: &hanges focal length of eye lens. 2hen e see distant ob(ects3 the ciliary muscles are relaxed3 the lens becomes thin. This3 increase focal length of lens . This enables us to see distant ob(ects clearly.

2hen you are looking at ob(ects closer to the eye3 the ciliary muscles contract. The eye lens becomes thicker. &onse+uently3 the focal length of the eye lens decreases. This enables us to see nearby ob(ects clearly

Q.4.2hat kind of image is formed by eye#lens.

Ans: )eal3 inverted and diminished

Q.1.2hat are photoreceptors.

Ans: 'hotoreceptors are millions of speciali5ed neurons that detect and respond to light3 there are ! types of photoreceptors called rods and cones

Q.6.-o

e can see colours.

Ans: 2e see colour because of the )ods and &ones in our eyes

Q.7.2hat is persistence of vision.

The impression of image is remains on retina for about 1816th of second is called persistence of vision. This is used during cinematography. The se+uence of still picture taken by movie camera is pro(ected on the screen at the rate of !4 or more images per second so that images merge in one another on screen.

Q.9.-o

does persistence of vision help to see the ob(ect as moving.

'ersistence of vision of retina help to merge images in one another on screen help to see the ob(ect as moving .

Q.:.-o

e are able to see a moving picture.

Ans ;ue to persistence of vision of our eyes3 images merge in one another ith in 1816th of second and e can see movie.

Q.1<.2hich principle is used in cinematography.

Ans: persistence of vision.

Q.11.2hat happens

hen an ob(ect is brought closer to the eye and

hy.

2hen an ob(ect is brought closer to the eye the ciliary muscles contract. The eye lens becomes thicker. &onse+uently3 the focal length of the eye lens decreases. This enables us to see nearby ob(ects clearly

Q.1! 2hat is the far point and near point of the human eye

ith normal vision.

Ans: The farthest distance at hich an ob(ect clearly can be seen clearly. It is infinity for normal eyes. The nearest distance at hich an eye focus image clearly of an ob(ect is called near point. It is !1 cm from the eye.

Q.1".2hat are the three defects of the eye.

Ans: There are mainly three common refractive defects of vision. These are $i% myopia or near# sightedness3 $ii% -ypermetropia or farsightedness3 and $iii% 'resbyopia

Q.14.2hat are the different reasons for vision problems.

Ans: =yopia# This defect may arise due to $i% excessive curvature of the eye lens3 or $ii% elongation

of the eyeball

$b% -ypermetropia: This defect arises either because $i% the focal length of the eye lens is too long3 or $ii% the eyeball has become too small

'resbyopia # It arises due to the gradual of the eye lens

eakening of the ciliary muscles and diminishing flexibility

Q.11.2ho developed *raille system.

Ans: The *raille system *arbier.

as based on a method of communication originally developed by &harles

Q .16 2hy are e not able to see immediately after e enter a darkened hall.

Ans. 2hen e are in bright sunlight3 outside a darkened hall3 iris makes pupil small to receive less light. 2hen e enter a darkened hall from out side3 the eye is not able to see ith the reduced amount of light entering the pupil. ;epending on the darkness of the hall iris increases the si5e of the pupil to receive more light and then after sometime e are able to see things around us in a semi dark room also.

Q .17 hy in poor light e cannot perceive the true colours of an ob(ect.

Ans. In dim light the rods are sensitive but cones are not. &ones are responsible for perception of colours.

Q. 19. 2hich part in the eye provides the most of refraction of the light entering the eye.

Ans. &ornea and a+ueous humor.

Q. 1:. 2hy birds ake up ith sunrise and sleep in the resting place by sunset.

Ans. Their retina has cones in excess3 hich are sensitive to bright light only.

Q. !<. 2hich is the most insensitive part of the eye retina.

Ans. *lind spot is the spot on retina3

hich is insensitive to light.