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Illegal immigration to the United States

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Illegal immigration to the United States is the act of foreign nationals entering the United States, without government permission and in violation of United States nationality law, or staying beyond the termination date of a visa, also in violation of the law. he illegal immigrant population of the United States in !""# was estimated by the $enter for %mmigration Studies to be about && million people, down from &!.' million people in !""(.)&* +ther estimates range from ( to !" million.)!* ,ccording to a -ew .ispanic $enter report, in !""', '/0 of illegal immigrants were from 1e2ico3 !!0 were from other 4atin ,merican countries, primarily from $entral ,merica3)5* &50 were from ,sia3 /0 were from 6urope and $anada3 and 50 were from ,frica and the rest of the world.)5*

, warning sign at the international boundary between the United States and $anada in -oint 7oberts, Washington.

Contents

& -rofile and demographics o &.& 8reakdown by state o &.! 9umber of illegal immigrants o &.5 8irths o &.: -resent;day countries of origin ! <efinition o !.& %llegal entry o !.! =isa overstay o !.5 8order $rossing $ard violation 5 $auses o 5.& $auses by region o 5.! 6conomic incentives o 5.5 %nade>uate channels for legal migration o 5.: $hain immigration o 5.' Further %ncentives : 4obbying ' %nternational controversies o '.& 1e2ican federal and state government assistance / 4egal issues o /.& %mmigration laws

/.! -revention /.5 Workplace investigations /.: ,pprehension /.' <etention /./ <eportation /.( -olice and military involvement /.# Sanctuary cities /.? $ommunity;based involvement ( %mpacts o (.& 6conomic o (.! 4aw enforcement e2penses o (.5 6nvironment o (.: 9ational security and terrorism o (.' .arm to illegal immigrants o (./ $ultural # -ublic opinion and controversy o #.& US economy o #.! +pinions from influential groups in society o #.5 $rime o #.: 7esponse of government ? Film &" See also && 7eferences &! Further reading
o o o o o o o o

&5 62ternal links

Profile and demographics


1ain article: Undocumented immigrant population of the United States %llegal immigrants continue to outpace the number of legal immigrants @a trend thatAs held steady since the &??"s. While the maBority of illegal immigrants continue to concentrate in places with e2isting large .ispanic communities, increasingly illegals are settling throughout the rest of the country.):* ,n estimated &: million people live in families in which the head of household or the spouse is in the United States illegaly .):* he number of illegal immigrants arriving in recent years tend to be better educated than those who have been in the country a decade or more. , >uarter of all immigrants who have arrived in recent years have at least some college education. 9onetheless, illegal immigrants as a group tend to be less educated than other sections of the U.S. population: :? percent havenAt completed high school, compared with ? percent of native;born ,mericans and !' percent of legal immigrants.):* Undocumented immigrants work in many sectors of the U.S. economy. ,ccording to 9ational -ublic 7adio in !""', about 5 percent work in agriculture3 55 percent have Bobs in service industries3 and substantial numbers can be found in construction and related occupations C&/ percentD, and in production, installation, and repair C&( percentD.):* ,ccording to USA Today in !""/, about : percent work in farming3 !& percent have Bobs in service industries3 and substantial numbers can be found in construction and related occupations C&? percentD, and in production, installation, and repair C&' percentD, with &!0 in sales, &"0 in management, and #0 in

transportation.)'* %llegal immigrants have lower incomes than both legal immigrants and native; born ,mericans, but earnings do increase somewhat the longer an individual is in the country.):* , percentage of illegal immigrants do not remain indefinitely but do return to their country of origin3 they are often referred to as EsoBourners: they come to the United States for several years but eventually return to their home country.F)/*

Breakdown by state
,s of !""/,)(* the following data table shows a spread of distribution of locations where illegal immigrants reside by state. State of 7esidence of the %llegal ,lien -opulation: January !""" and !""/ State of Estimated population in Percent of Percent A erage annual residence January total change change All states &&,''',""" &"" 5( '&',""" California !,?5",""" !' &5 '5,555 !e"as &,/:",""" &: '" ?&,//( #lorida ?#",""" # !5 5",""" Illinois ''",""" ' !' &#,555 $ew %ork ':",""" ' ; ; Ari&ona '"",""" : '! !#,555 'eorgia :?",""" : &!5 :',""" $ew Jersey :5",""" : !5 &5,555 $orth Carolina 5(",""" 5 :! &#,555 (ashington !#",""" ! /' &#,555 )ther states !,?'",""" !/ /? !"","""

$umber of illegal immigrants


,ccording to the Government ,ccountability +ffice CG,+D, different estimates of the total number of illegal immigrants vary depending on how the term is defined.)#* here are also >uestions about data reliability.)#* he G,+ has stated that Fit seems clear that the population of undocumented foreign;born persons is large and has increased rapidly.F)#* +n ,pril !/, !""/ the -ew .ispanic $enter C-.$D estimated that in 1arch !""' the number of illegal immigrants in the U.S. ranged from &&.' to &! million individuals.)?* his number was derived by a statistical method known as the Fresidual method.F)#* ,ccording to the General ,ccounting office the residual estimation C&D starts with a census count or survey estimate of the number of foreign;born residents who have not become U.S. citiHens and C!D subtracts out estimated numbers of legally present individuals in various categories, based on administrative data and assumptions Cbecause censuses and surveys do not ask about legal statusD. he remainder, or residual, represents an indirect estimate of the siHe of the illegal immigrant population.)#* Using the residential method, several different estimates of the number of illegal immigrants present in the United States have been derived:

%n ,ugust, !""/, the <epartment of .omeland Security C<.SD placed the illegal immigrant population at &".' million as of January !""' and indicates that if recent trends continued, the figure for January !""/ would be && million.)&"*

he -ew .ispanic $enterIs indirect estimate of the number of illegal immigrants as of !""/ was &&.' million to &! million. hese estimates represented roughly one;third of the entire foreign;born population.)&&* ,ccording to the General ,ccounting +ffice, <.S had variously estimated the siHe of the illegal immigrant population as of January !""" as ( million and #.' million.)#*

Some unofficial private estimates put the number even higher)&!* From !""' to !""?, the number of people entering the U.S. illegally declined by nearly /(0, according to the -ew .ispanic $enter, from #'",""" yearly average in the early !"""s to 5"",""".)&5*

Births
he -ew .ispanic $enter determined that according to an analysis of $ensus 8ureau data about # percent of children born in the United States in !""# @ about 5:",""" @ were offspring of illegal immigrants. %n total, : million U.S.;born children of illegal immigrant parents resided in this country in !""? Calongside &.& million foreign;born children of illegal immigrant parentsD.)&:* hese infants are, according to the Fourteenth ,mendment to the United States $onstitution, ,merican citiHens from birth. hese children are sometimes peBoratively referred to as anchor babies by those aggressively opposed to this method of citiHenship attained outside of the legal immigration process.)citation needed* he maBority of children that are born with illegal parents fail to graduate high school, averaging two fewer years of school than their peers. 8ut once the parents do gain citiHenship the children do much better in school. 7eason for this decline in school is thought to be because of many issues not limited to but including stress, pressure to work at a younger age, and not having the economic resources needed to get higher education. )&'*

Present*day countries of origin


,ccording to the U.S. <epartment of .omeland Security, the countries of origin for the largest numbers of illegal immigrants are as follows Clatest of !""?D:)(* Country of origin +aw number Percent of total Percent change ,--- to ,--. 1e2ico /,/'",""" /!0 J:!0 6l Salvador '5",""" '0 J!'0 Guatemala :#",""" :0 J/'0 .onduras 5!",""" 50 J?'0 -hilippines !(",""" !0 J550 %ndia !"",""" !0 J/:0 Korea !"",""" !0 J&:0 6cuador &(",""" !0 J''0 8raHil &'",""" &0 J:?0 $hina &!",""" &0 ;5(0 +ther &,/'",""" &'0 ;&(0 he Urban %nstitute estimates Fbetween /',""" and (',""" undocumented $anadians currently live in the United States.F)&/*

/efinition
-eople can be termed illegal immigrants in one of three ways: by entering without authoriHation or inspection, by staying beyond the authoriHed period after legal entry, or by violating the terms of legal entry.)&(* heir mode of violation breaks down as follows: %f the suspect entered legally without inspection, then the suspect would be classified as either a F9on;%mmigrant =isa +verstayerF C: to '.' millionD or a F8order $rossing $ard =iolatorF C!'",""" to '"","""D. ogether, legal entries account for :.'L/ million illegal migrants, Bust under half of the total population. %f the suspect entered illegally without inspection, then the suspect would be classified as having F6vaded the %mmigration %nspectors and 8order -atrolF. his mode of entry accounts for / to ( million people, slightly more than half of the total population.)&#*

Illegal entry
1ain article: %llegal entryMUnited States he -ew .ispanic $enter estimates that /L( million illegal immigrants came to the United States via illegal entry, accounting for probably a little over half of the total population.)&#* here are an estimated half million illegal entries into the United States each year.)&#*)&?* , common means of border crossing is to hire professionals who smuggle illegal immigrants across the border for pay. hose operating on the US;1e2ico border are known informally as FcoyotesF.)&?*

0isa o erstay
,ccording to -ew, between : and '.' million illegal immigrants entered the United States with a legal visa, accounting for between 55L'"0 of the total population.)&#* , tourist or traveler is considered a Fvisa overstayF once he or she remains in the United States after the time of admission has e2pired. he time of admission varies greatly from traveler to traveler depending on what visa class into which they were admitted. =isa overstays tend to be somewhat more educated and better off financially than those who entered the country illegally. )!"* o help track visa overstayers the US;=%S% CUnited States =isitor and %mmigrant Status %ndicator echnologyD program collects and retains biographic, travel, and biometric information, such as photographs and fingerprints, of foreign nationals seeking entry into the United States. %t also re>uires electronic readable passports containing this information. =isa overstayers mostly enter with tourist or business visas.)&#* %n &??:, more than half)!&* of illegal immigrants were =isa overstayers whereas in !""/, about :'0 of illegal immigrants were =isa overstayers.)!!*

Border Crossing Card iolation


, smaller number of illegal immigrants entered the United States legally using the 8order $rossing $ard, a card that authoriHes border crossings into the U.S. for a set amount of time. 8order $rossing $ard entry accounts for the vast maBority of all registered non;immigrant entry into the United States L &:# million out of &(? million total L but there is little hard data as to how much of the illegal immigrant population entered in this way. he -ew .ispanic $enter estimates the number at around !'","""L'"",""".)&#*

Causes
1ain article: %llegal immigrationM$auses he United States is viewed worldwide as a highly desirable destination by would;be migrants. %nternational polls by the Gallup organiHation have found that more than &/' million adults in &:# foreign countries would, if they could, move to the US, which is the most desired destination for migrants.)!5* 1ost immigrants who come to the United States come for better opportunities for employment, avoidance of political oppression, the opportunity to reBoin their loved ones, for the prospect of providing better lives for themselves and their children, and for the educational and medical services benefits.)!:*

Causes by region
%n general illegal immigrants from 1e2ico and $entral ,merica come for economic reasons, but also sometimes due to political oppression.)!:* From ,sia, they come for economic reasons but some come involuntarily as indentured servants or se2 slaves.)!:* From Sub;Saharan ,frica, they come for economic activities and there is some chance of slave trade.)!:* From 6astern 6urope, they come for economic activities and to reBoin family already in the United States. .owever, there are also some who come involuntarily who work in the se2 industry. )!:* From the 1iddle 6ast, they come for economic activities, similar to all listed above.

Economic incenti es
he continuing practice of hiring unauthoriHed workers has been referred to as Ethe magnet for illegal immigration.N ,s a significant percentage of employers are willing to hire illegal immigrants for higher pay than they would typically receive in their former country, illegal immigrants have prime motivation to cross borders.)!'* %n !""5, then;-resident of 1e2ico, =icente Fo2 stated that remittances Fare our biggest source of foreign income, bigger than oil, tourism or foreign investmentF and that Fthe money transfers grew after 1e2ican consulates started giving identity cards to their citiHens in the United States.F .e stated that money sent from 1e2ican workers in the United States to their families back home reached a record O&! billion in !""5.)!/* wo years later, in !""', the World 8ank stated that 1e2ico was receiving O&#.& billion in remittances and that it ranked third Cbehind only %ndia and $hinaD among the countries receiving the greatest amount of remittances.)!(* ,s shown in the section causes by regions, economic reasons is the most popular reason as to why people illegally immigrate to the United States. he United States is attractive for economic reasons because United States employers hire illegal immigrants at wages substantially higher than they could earn in their native countries.)!#* , study of illegal immigrants from 1e2ico in the &?(# harvest season in +regon showed that they earned si2 times what they coud have earned in 1e2ico, and even after deducting the costs of the seasonal migration and certain additional e2penses for living in the United States, their net U.S. earnings were three times their 1e2ican alternative.)!?* %t is also important to consider the higher availability of this type of Bob. %n the &?/"s and early &?("s, 1e2icoAs high fertility rate caused a large increase in the population siHe. While the growth of the population has slowed in more recent times, the large numbers of people born in the /"s and ("s are now in prime working age looking for Bobs.)!?* ,ccording to Judith Gans, %mmigration -olicy -rogram 1anager at the University of ,riHona, United States employers are pushed to hire illegal migrants for three main reasons ; global

economic change, the inade>uacy of channels for legal economic migration, and ineffective employer sanctions.)!#* Global economic change is one cause for illegal immigration because information and transportation technologies now foster internationaliHed production, distribution and consumption, and labor. his has encouraged many countries to open their economies to outside investment, then increasing the number of low;skilled workers participating in global labor markets and making low;skilled labor markets all more competitive.)!#* his and the fact that developed countries have shifted from manufacturing to knowledge;based economies, have realigned economic activity around the world.)!#* 4abor has become more international as individuals migrate seeking work despite governmental attempts to control this migration.)!#* 8ecause the United States education system creates relatively few people who either lack a high school diploma or who hold -h<As, there is a shortage of workers needed to fulfill seasonal low; skilled Bobs as well as certain high;skilled Bobs. o fill these gaps, the United States immigration system attempts to compensate for these shortages by providing for temporary immigration by farm workers and seasonal low;skilled workers, and for permanent immigration by high;skilled workers.)!#* he third cause of illegal immigration @ the ineffectiveness of current employer sanctions for illegal hiring @ allows migrants who are in the country illegally to easily find Bobs. here are three reasons for this ineffectiveness ; the absence of reliable mechanisms for verifying employment eligibility, inade>uate funding of interior immigration enforcement, and the absence of political will due to labor needs to the United States economy. )!#* For e2ample, it is unlawful to knowingly hire an illegal immigrant, but according to Judith Gans, there are no reliable mechanisms in place for employers to verify that the immigrantsA papers are authentic.)!#* 6vidence is accumulating that the numbers of illegal immigrants is diminishing because of increased border security and tougher immigration laws, and because there are fewer Bobs in the ,merican economy.)!:*

Inade1uate channels for legal migration


he United States immigration system provides only limited channels for legal, permanent economic migration, especially for low;skilled workers.)!#* he United States immigration system rests on three pillars Cfamily reunification, provision of scare laborD as in agricultural and specific high;skilled worker sectors and protecting ,merican workers from competition with foreign workers.)!#* he current system sets an overall limit of /(',""" permanent immigrants each year3 this limit does not apply to spouses, unmarried minor children or parents of U.S. citiHens.)5"* +utside of this number for permanent immigrants, :#",""" visas are allotted for those under the family;preference rules and only &:",""" are allocated for employment;related preferences.)5"* he current system and low number of visas available, make it impossible for low;skilled workers to legally and permanently enter the country to work, so illegal entry becomes the way migrants respond to the lure of Bobs with higher wages than what they would be able to find in their current country.)!#* ,nother reason for the large numbers of illegal immigrants present in the United States is the termination of the bracero program. his program e2isted from &?:! to &?/: to supply low;skilled 1e2ican workers to harvest fruits and vegetables in the United States. 1any legal workers became illegal when this program ended because the change in law was not accompanied by a change in economic incentives for 1e2ican workers and the ,merican growers.)!?*

Chain immigration
his section re>uires e2pansion. (August 2008) ,ccording to demographer Jeffery -assel of the -ew .ispanic $enter, the flow of 1e2icans to the U. S. has produced a Fnetwork effectF ; furthering immigration as 1e2icans moved to Boin relatives already in the U.S.)5&* he -ew .ispanic $enter describes that the recent dramatic

increase in the population of illegal immigrants has sparked more illegal immigrants to cross borders. +nce the e2tended families of illegal immigrants cross national borders, they create a Enetwork effectN by building large communities.)5&* ,ccording to the 1igration -olicy %nstitute, increasing allowances for family members to immigrate to the US, and processing those applications faster, would reduce the number of illegal immigrants in the US.)5!*

#urther Incenti es
4ower costs of transportation, communication and information has facilitated illegal migration. 1e2ican nationals, in particular, have a very low cost of migration and can easily cross the border. 6ven if it re>uires more than one attempt, they have a very low probability of being detected and then deported once they have entered the country.)!?*

2obbying
Several ethnic lobbies support immigration reforms that would allow illegal immigrants that have succeeded in entering to gain citiHenship. hey may also lobby for special arrangements for their own group. he $hairman for the %rish 4obby for %mmigration 7eform has stated that Fthe %rish 4obby will push for any special arrangement it can get @ Aas will every other ethnic group in the country.AF)55*)5:*

International contro ersies


3e"ican federal and state go ernment assistance
he US <epartment of .omeland Security and some advocacy groups have criticiHed a program of the government of the state of PucatQn and that of a federal 1e2ican agency directed to 1e2icans migrating to and residing in the United States. hey claim that the assistance includes advice on how to get across the U.S. border illegally, where to find healthcare, enroll their children in public schools, and send money to 1e2ico. he 1e2ican federal government also issues identity cards to 1e2icans living outside of 1e2ico.)5'*)5/*

%n !""' the government of PucatQn produced a handbook and <=< about the risks and implications of crossing the U.S.;1e2ico border. he guide told immigrants where to find health care, how to get their kids into U.S. schools, and how to send money home. +fficials in PucatQn said the guide is a necessity to save lives but some ,merican groups accused the government of encouraging illegal immigration.)5(* %n !""' the 1e2ican government was criticiHed for distributing a comic book which offers tips to illegal aliens emigrating to the United States.)5#* hat comic book recommends to illegal immigrants, once they have safely crossed the border, F<onAt call attention to yourself.... ,void loud parties. ... <onAt become involved in fights.F he 1e2ican government defends the guide as an attempt to save lives. F%tAs kind of like illegal immigration for dummies,F said the e2ecutive director of the $enter for %mmigration Studies in Washington, 1ark Krikorian. F-romoting safe illegal immigration is not the same as arguing against it.F he comic book does state on its last page that the 1e2ican Government does not promote illegal crossing at all and only encourages visits to the US with all re>uired documentation.)5#*

Groups in favor of application and enforcement of current immigration law oppose 1atrRcula $onsular CF$onsular 7egistrationFD, an identification card issued by the Government of 1e2ico through its consulate offices. he purpose of the card is to demonstrate that the bearer is a 1e2ican national living outside of 1e2ico. Similar consular identification cards are the Guatemalan $%< card and the ,rgentinian $%< card as well as a number of other $%< cards issued to citiHens of $olombia, 6l Salvador, and .onduras.)5?* he document is accepted at financial institutions in many states and, in conBunction with an %7S a2payer %dentification 9umber, allows illegal immigrants to open checking and saving accounts.):"* %n <ecember !""#, Governor SchwarHenegger launched 8ank on $alifornia which calls on $alifornia mayors to specifically encourage the use of the 1e2ican $%< and Guatemalan $%< card by banks and credit unions as a primary identification when opening an account.):&*)not in citation given*

2egal issues
Immigration laws
1ain article: United States nationality law 1ain article: 4ist of United States immigration laws %mmigrants can be classified as illegal for one of three reasons: entering without authoriHation or inspection, staying beyond the authoriHed period after legal entry, or violating the terms of legal entry.):!* Section &5!' in itle # of the United States $ode, F%mproper entry of alienF, provides for a fine, imprisonment, or both for any immigrant who:):5* &. enters or attempts to enter the United States at any time or place other than as designated by immigration agents, or !. eludes e2amination or inspection by immigration agents, or 5. attempts to enter or obtains entry to the United States by a willfully false or misleading representation or the willful concealment of a material fact. he ma2imum prison term is / months for the first offense and ! years for any subse>uent offense. %n addition to the above criminal fines and penalties, civil fines may also be imposed. ,riHona, which passed immigration enforcement law ,riHona S8 &"(" in ,pril !"&", is currently the Ftoughest bill on illegal immigrationF in the United States,)::* and is being challenged by the <epartment of Justice as encroaching on powers reserved by the United States $onstitution to the Federal Government.)::* +n July !#, !"&", United States district court Budge Susan 8olton issued a preliminary inBunction affecting the most controversial parts of the law, including the section that re>uired police officers to check a personAs immigration status after a person had been involved in another act or situation which resulted in police activity. ):'* he 1e2ican $onstitution grants citiHens freedom to travel. he $onstitution stipulates also that the right to cross border migration is authoriHed only if other applicable laws and re>uirements are observed, and when certain prere>uisites have been met.):/*

Pre ention
1ain article: United StatesL1e2ico barrier

he cost to immigrate illegally has also increased, encouraging longer stays to recoup the cost. ens of thousands of illegal 1e2ican immigrants head each year in the direction of 1e2ico.)citation needed* While no statistics are kept on this reverse migration, researchers in both countries suggest that the numbers have declined as border controls have tightened.):(*
)citation needed*

%n +ctober !""#, 1e2ico agreed to deport $ubans using the country as an entry point to the US. hen;$uban Foreign 1inister Felipe -SreH 7o>ue said the $uban;1e2ican agreement would lead to Fthe immense maBority of $ubans being repatriated.F):#*

(orkplace in estigations
,udits of employment records in !""? at ,merican ,pparel, a prominent 4os ,ngeles garment manufacturer, by the %mmigration and $ustoms 6nforcement agency C%$6D uncovered discrepancies in the documentation of about !' percent of the companyAs workers. his techni>ue of auditing employment records originated during the George W. 8ush presidency and has been continued under -resident +bama. %t may result in deportations should definite evidence of illegality be uncovered, but at ,merican ,pparel the audit resulted only in the termination of employees who could not resolve discrepancies. 1ost fired workers, some of whom had worked a decade at the plant, reported that they would seek other employment within the United States. his techni>ue of enforcement is much less disruptive than mass raids at workplaces, but is not popular with employers who feel targeted and threatened.):?*

Apprehension
US %$6, US8-, and $8- enforce the %9,, and to some e2tent the United States military, local law enforcement and other local agencies, and private citiHens and citiHen groups guard the border.)citation needed* At border he U.S. $ustoms and 8order -rotection is responsible for apprehending individuals attempting illegal entry to the United States. he United States 8order -atrol is its mobile uniformed law enforcement arm, responsible for deterrence, detection, and apprehension of those who enter the United States without authoriHation from the government and outside the designated ports of entry.)citation needed* %n <ecember !""', the U.S. .ouse of 7epresentatives voted to build a separation barrier along parts of the border not already protected by separation barriers. , later vote in the United States Senate on 1ay &(, !""/, included a plan to blockade #/" miles C&,5#" kmD of the border with vehicle barriers and triple;layer fencing along with granting an Fearned path to citiHenshipF to the &! million illegal aliens in the U.S. and roughly doubling legal immigration Cfrom their &?("s levelsD)citation needed* . %n !""( $ongress approved a plan calling for more fencing along the 1e2ican border, with funds for appro2imately ("" miles C&,&"" kmD of new fencing.)citation needed* F%f immigrants, whether legal or illegal, are apprehended entering the US while committing a crime, they are usually charged under federal statutes and, if convicted, are sent to federal prisons.F)'"* At workplace For decades, immigration authorities have alerted CFno;match;lettersFD)'&* employers of mismatches between reported employeesA Social Security cards and the actual names of the card

holders. +n September &, !""(, a federal Budge halted this practice of alerting employers of card mismatches.)'!* %llegal hiring has not been prosecuted aggressively in recent years: between &??? and !""5, according to The Washington Post, Ework;site enforcement operations were scaled back ?' percent by the %mmigration and 9aturaliHation Service.)'5* 1aBor employers of illegal immigrants have included:

Wal;1art. %n !""', Wal;1art agreed to pay O&& million to settle a federal investigation that found hundreds of illegal immigrants were hired by Wal;1artAs cleaning contractors.
)':*

Swift T $o.: %n <ecember !""/, in the largest such crackdown in ,merican history, U.S. federal immigration authorities raided Swift T $o. meat;processing plants in si2 U.S. states, arresting about &,5"" illegal immigrant employees.)''* yson Foods. his company has also been accused of actively importing illegal labor for its chicken packing plants3 however, the Bury ac>uitted the company after evidence was presented that yson went beyond mandated government re>uirements in demanding documentation for its employees.)'/* Gebbers Farms. %n <ecember !""?, US immigration authorities forced this 8rewster, Washington farm known for its fruit orchards to fire more than '"" illegal workers, mostly immigrants from 1e2ico. Some were working with false social security cards and other false identification.)'(*

6l -aso CtopD and $iudad JuQreH CbottomD seen from earth orbit3 the 7io Grande is the thin line separating the two cities through the middle of the photograph.

/etention
1ain article: %mmigration detention in the United States ,bout :"0 of illegal immigrants enter legally and then overstay. )/* ,bout 5&,""" people who are not ,merican citiHens are held in immigration detention on any given day,)'#* including children,

in over !"" detention centers, Bails, and prisons nationwide. he United States government held more than 5"",""" people in immigration detention in !""( while deciding whether to deport them.)'?*

/eportation
<eportations of immigrants, which are also referred to as removals, may be issued when immigrants are found to be in violation of the United StatesI immigration laws. <eportations may be imposed on a person who is neither native;born nor a naturaliHed citiHen of the United States.)/"* <eportation proceedings are also referred to as removal proceedings and are typically initiated by the <epartment of .omeland Security. he United States issues deportations for various reasons which include security, protection of resources, and protection of Bobs. !he AE/PA and II+I+A Acts of 4..5 %n &??/ there were two maBor pieces of legislation passed that had a significant effect on illegal immigration and most importantly deportations in the United States. he two new laws were the ,ntiterrorism and 6ffective <eath -enalty ,ct C,6<-,D and the %llegal %mmigration 7eform and %mmigrant 7esponsibility ,ct C%%7%7,D. hese two laws were introduced following the events of the World rade $enter bombing of &??5 and the +klahoma $ity bombing of &??', both of which were terrorist attacks that claimed ,merican lives. hese two acts resulted in a significant change in the process of convicting lawful permanent residents. ,lthough deportation had always been a viable and practiced sentence, these new laws changed the way criminal cases of lawful permanent residents were handled which in turn resulted in an increased number of deportations from the United States.)/&* 8efore the &??/ deportation laws there were two steps that lawful permanent residents who were convicted of crimes had to go through. he first step was simply to determine whether or not the person was deportable. he second step reviewed the case to determine if that person should or shouldnIt be deported. 8efore the &??/ deportation laws the second step prevented many permanent residents from being deported by allowing for their cases to be reviewed in full before issuing deportations. 62ternal factors were taken into consideration such as the effect deportation would have on a personIs family members and a personIs connections with their country of origin. Under this system permanent residents were able to be relieved of deportation if their situation deemed it unnecessary. he &??/ laws however issued many deportations under the first step without ever arriving at the second step resulting in a great increase in the likelihood and fre>uency of permanent residents being subBected to deportation. +ne significant change that resulted from the new laws was the definition of the term Uaggravated felony.I 8eing convicted of a crime that is categoriHed as an aggravated felony results in mandatory detention and deportation. he new definition of aggravated felony includes simple convictions like shoplifting that would not be considered anything more than a misdemeanor in a lot of states. he new laws have categoriHed a much wider range of crimes under the term aggravated felony. he effect of this has been a large increase in permanent residents facing mandatory deportation from the United States without the opportunity to plea for relief. he &??/ deportation laws have received a lot of criticism for their curtailing of permanent residentIs rights.)/&* !he USA Patriot Act he US, -atriot ,ct was passed seven weeks after the terrorist attacks of September &&, !""&. he purpose of the act was to give the government more power to act against suspicious terrorist activity. he new governmental powers granted by this act included significant e2pansion in surveillance as well as a significant e2pansion in the range of conditions in which illegal aliens could be deported from the United States based on suspicion of terrorist activity. he US,

-atriot ,ct had a direct effect on deportations of immigrants from the United States. he new act gave the government the power to deport individuals based not on plots or acts of terrorism but simply on affiliations with certain organiHations. he Secretary of State designated specific organiHations Uforeign terrorist organiHations before the US, -atriot ,ct was implemented. +rganiHations on this list were deemed dangerous because they were actively involved in terrorist activity that threatened United States national security. he US, -atriot ,ct created a type of organiHation deemed UdesignatedI organiHations. he Secretary of State and ,ttorney General were given the power to designate any organiHation that supported terrorist activity on any level. he act also allows for penaliHation of an individualIs involvement in undesignated organiHations that were still deemed suspicious. )/!* Under the US, -atriot ,ct the ,ttorney General was granted the power to UcertifyI illegal aliens based on the grounds that they pose a threat to national security. +nce an illegal alien is certified they must be taken into custody and face mandatory detention which will result in a criminal charge or release. he US, -atriot ,ct has been criticiHed for violating the Fifth ,mendmentIs right to due process. Under the US, -atriot ,ct an illegal alien is not granted the opportunity for a hearing before given certification. %t is criticiHed in general for allowing mandatory detention of illegal aliens on inade>uate grounds. )/5* Complications $omplications in deportation efforts ensue when parents are illegal immigrants but their children are birthright citiHens. Federal appellate courts have upheld the refusal by the %mmigration and 9aturaliHation Service to stay the deportation of illegal immigrants merely on the grounds that they have U.S.;citiHen, minor children.)/:* here are some 5.& million United States citiHen children with at least one illegal immigrant parent as of !""'3 at least &5,""" ,merican children had one or both parents deported in the years !""'L!""(.)/'*)//* Such was the case of 1e2ican 6lvira ,rellano, who had a child while in the U.S. illegally and later sought sanctuary at a $hicago;area church in an effort to evade a deportation order. his was also the case in the instance of Sadia UmanHor, a fugitive from a !""/ deportation order who failed to appear in court after her arrest for illegally crossing into the U.S.)/(* VV <eportations from the United States increased by more than /" percent from !""5 to !""#, with 1e2icans accounting for nearly two;thirds of those deported.)/#* Under the +bama administration, deportations have increased to record levels beyond the level reached by the George W. 8ush administration with a proBected :"",""" deportations in !"&", &" percent above the deportation rate of !""# and !' percent above !""(.)/?* Fiscal year !"&& saw 5?/,?"/ deportations, the largest number in the history of U.S. %mmigration and $ustoms 6nforcement3 of those, !&/,/?# had been convicted of crimes, including:)("*

::,/'5 convicted of Fdrug;related crimesF 5',?!( convicted of driving under the influence ',#:# convicted of se2ual offenses &,&&? convicted of homicide

he <76,1 ,ct is intended to alleviate the issue of children of illegal immigrants being deport as a result of their parents illegal status. he ,ct would allow immigrant students the opportunity to be protected from deportation and receive lawful permanent residency under certain conditions which include: good moral character, enrollment in a secondary or post;secondary education program, and having lived in the United States at least ' years. hose in opposition of the <76,1 ,ct believe that it encourages illegal immigration.)(&* /eportation !rends

, direct effect of the deportation laws of &??/ and the US, -atriot ,ct have been a dramatic increase in deportations. -rior to these acts deportations had remained at about an average of !",""" per year. 8etween &??" and &??' deportations had increased to about an average of :",""" a year. From &??/ to !""' the yearly average had increased to over &#",""". %n the year !""' the number of deportations reached !"#, '!& with less than half being deported under criminal grounds. )(!* 3ass deportation ,ccording to The Washington Post,)(5* 7aBeev K. Goyle, of the $enter for ,merican -rogress, a liberal Washington think tank, says he conducted a study to respond to officials who have advocated mass deportations. his study claims that the cost of forcibly removing most of the nationAs estimated &" million illegal immigrants is O:& billion a year. , spokesman for 7ep. om ancredo calls the study FuselessF because no oneAs talking about employing mass deportation as a tactic. 1ark Krikorian, e2ecutive director of the $enter for %mmigration Studies, describes the study as a cartoon version of how enforcement would work. here have been two maBor periods of mass deportations in U.S. history. %n the 1e2ican 7epatriation of the &?5"s, through mass deportations and forced migration, an estimated '"",""" 1e2icans and 1e2ican ,mericans were deported or coerced into emigrating, in what 1ae 9gai, an immigration history e2pert at the University of $hicago, has described as Fa racial removal programF.)(:* he maBority of those removed were U.S. $itiHens.)(:* 7ep. 4uis GutierreH, <;%ll., cosponsor of a U.S. .ouse 8ill that calls for a commission to study the Fdeportation and coerced emigrationF of U.S. citiHens and legal residents, has e2pressed concerns that history could repeat itself, and that should illegal immigration be made into a felony, this could prompt a Fmassive deportation of U.S. citiHensF.)(:* 4ater, in +peration Wetback in &?':, when the United States last deported a siHable number of illegal immigrants, in some cases along with their U.S. born children Cwho are citiHens according to U.S. lawD,)('* some illegal immigrants, fearful of potential violence as police swarmed through 1e2ican ,merican barrios throughout the southeastern states, stopping F1e2ican;lookingF citiHens on the street and asking for identification, fled to 1e2ico.)('*

Police and military in ol ement


%n &??', the United States $ongress considered an e2emption from the -osse $omitatus ,ct, which generally prohibits direct participation of <epartment of <efense personnel in civilian law enforcement activities, such as search, seiHure, and arrests.)(/* %n &??(, 1arines shot and killed &# year old U.S. citiHen 6se>uiel .ernQndeH Jr)((* while on a mission to interdict smuggling and illegal immigration near the border community of 7edford, e2as. he 1arines observed the high school student from concealment while he was tending his familyAs goats in the vicinity of their ranch. ,t one point, .ernandeH raised his .!!;caliber rifle and fired shots in the direction of the concealed soldiers. .e was subse>uently tracked for !" minutes then shot and killed.)(#*)(?* %n reference to the incident, military lawyer $raig . rebilcock argues that Fthe fact that armed military troops were placed in a position with the mere possibility that they would have to use force to subdue civilian criminal activity reflects a significant policy shift by the e2ecutive branch away from the posse comitatus doctrine.F)#"* he killing of .ernandeH led to a congressional review)#&* and an end to a nine;year old policy of the military aiding the 8order -atrol.)#!* ,fter the September && attacks in !""&, the United States again considered placing soldiers along the U.S.;1e2ico border as a security measure.)#5* %n 1ay !""/, -resident George W. 8ush

announced plans to use the 9ational Guard to strengthen enforcement of the US;1e2ico 8order from illegal immigrants,)#:* emphasiHing that Guard units Fwill not be involved in direct law enforcement activities.F)#'* 1e2ican Foreign Secretary 4uis 6rnesto <erbeH said in an interview with a 1e2ico $ity radio station, F%f we see the 9ational Guard starting to directly participate in detaining people ... we would immediately start filing lawsuits through our consulates.F)#/* he ,merican $ivil 4iberties Union C,$4UD called on the -resident not to deploy military troops to deter immigrants, and stated that a Fdeployment of 9ational Guard troops violates the spirit of the -osse $omitatus ,ctF.)#(* ,ccording to the State of the Union address in January !""(,)##* more than /""" 9ational Guard members have been sent to the US;1e2ico border to supplement the 8order -atrol,)#?* costing in e2cess of O('" million.)?"*

Sanctuary cities
1ain article: Sanctuary city Several US cities have instructed their own law enforcement personnel and other city employees not to notify or cooperate with the federal government when they become aware of illegal immigrants living within their Burisdiction. 1any cities, including Washington, <.$.3 9ew Pork $ity 9P$3 4os ,ngeles3 $hicago3 San Francisco3)?&* San <iego3 ,ustin3 Salt 4ake $ity3 <allas3 <etroit3 .onolulu3 .ouston3 Jersey $ity3 1inneapolis3 1iami3 <enver3 ,urora, $olorado3 8altimore3 Seattle3 -ortland, +regon3 -ortland, 1aine3 and Senath, 1issouri, have become Fsanctuary citiesF, having adopted ordinances refraining from stopping or >uestioning individuals for the sole purpose of determining their immigration status.)?!* 1ost of these cities claim that the benefit illegal immigrants bring to their city outweigh the costs. +pponents say the measures violate federal law as the cities are in effect creating their own immigration policy, an area of law which only $ongress has authority to alter.)?5* .owever scholars have tagged these so;called EdonIt tellN measures as Eobvious targets for e2press preemptionN given the apparent conflict between EdonIt tellN policies and the restrictions in Sections :5: of the FWelfare 7eform ,ctF and Section /:! of the F%mmigration 7eform ,ctF that e2pressly forbid restraints on communications with federal officials, including the sharing of information relating to peopleAs illegal immigration status.

Community*based in ol ement
,ccording to a !""/ report by the ,nti;<efamation 4eague, white supremacists and other e2tremists were engaging in a growing number of assaults against legal and illegal immigrants and those perceived to be immigrants.)?:* he 9o 1ore <eaths organiHation offers food, water, and medical aid to migrants crossing the desert regions of the ,merican Southwest in an effort to reduce the increasing number of deaths along the border.)?'*

Impacts
Economic
1ain article: 6conomic impact of illegal immigrants in the United States

(ages and employment George J. 8orBas, an economist at .arvard University, has argued that illegal immigration may reduce the economic status of U.S. poor while benefiting middle class individuals and wealthier ,mericans.)?/*)verification needed* he presence of illegal immigrants and the e2ploitation of them may drive down wages for certain sectors of the ,merican populace, further widening the socioeconomic gulf between rich and poor.)?(* -rofessor emeritus Stephen J. Unger from the University of $olumbia, e2plains that this results from employers who hire illegal immigrants that are e2ploited or willing to work for lower wages, instead of raising wages to attract legal citiHens. husly, wages are kept flat or depressed and the employment rates for legal U.S. citiHens decrease at the same time.)?#* ,dditionally, illegal immigrants may displace work opportunities that would otherwise be available to citiHens, thereby inducing native;born citiHens to commit crimes.)??* 7esearch by 8orBas, Jeffrey Grogger, and Gordon .. .anson suggests that a &";percent immigrant;induced increase in the supply of a particular skill group reduced the black wage by :." percent, lowered the employment rate of black men by 5.' percentage points, and increased the incarceration rate of blacks by almost one percent.)&""* %n a !""! study of the effects of illegal immigration and border enforcement on wages in border communities from &??" to &??(, conducted by Gordon .. .anson, 7aymond 7obertson, and ,ntonio Spilimbergo, the researchers concluded that their findings were consistent with the hypothesis that Fimmigration from 1e2ico has a minimal impact on wages in U.S. border citiesF. )&"&* he group also concluded that their findings suggest that concerns about the impact of illegal immigration on border communities have been e2aggerated, and that border enforcement did not appear to affect wages in border communities.)&"&* Consumer demand 7everse migration of illegal immigrants from the US back to 1e2ico has reduced consumer demand in the United States due to an overall decline in the population.)&"!*)&"5*)&":*)&"'*)&"/*)not in citation given* ,ccording to a study by the $enter for %mmigration Studies, analysis of US $ensus data suggests that between !""' and !""#, most of the reduction in less;educated, young .ispanic immigrants is due to illegal immigrants leaving on their own.)&"(* !a"es and social ser ices %llegal immigrants are estimated to pay in about O( billion per year into Social Security. )&"#* , paper in the peer reviewed a2 4awyer Bournal from the ,merican 8ar ,ssociation asserts that illegal immigrants contribute more in ta2es than they cost in social services.)&"?* .owever, he nonpartisan $ongressional 8udget +ffice reviewed !? reports published over &' years to evaluate the impact of illegal immigrants on the budgets of state and local governments, and found that the ta2 revenues that illegal immigrants generate for state and local governments do not offset the total cost of services provided to those immigrants, though the report speculated that the impact of illegal immigrants on state and local budgets was likely to be modest.)&&"* 3ortgages ,round !""', an increasing number of banks saw illegal immigrants as an untapped resource for growing their own revenue stream and contended that providing illegal aliens with mortgages would help revitaliHe local communities, with many community banks providing home loans for

illegal immigrants. ,t the time, critics complained that this practice would reward and encourage illegal immigration, as well as contribute to an increase in predatory lending practices. +ne banking consultant said that banks which were planning to offer mortgages to illegal immigrants were counting on the fact that immigration enforcement was very la2, with deportation unlikely for anyone who had not committed a crime.)&&&*

2aw enforcement e"penses


Apprehension 6 deportation 8order control uses the latest technology to help capture illegal immigrants in the process of crossing, sometimes detainWprosecute, and send them back over the border. ,ccording to the US <epartment of .omeland Security and the 8order -atrol 6nforcement %ntegrated <atabase, apprehensions have increased from ?'',5&" in !""! to &,&'?,#"! in !"":. F8ut fewer than : percent of apprehended migrants were actually detained and prosecuted for illegal entry, partly because it costs O?" a day to keep them in detention facilities and bed space is very limited. For the remainder of the apprehended migrants, if they are willing to sign a form attesting that they are voluntarily repatriating themselves, they are simply bussed to a gate on the border, where they re;enter 1e2ico.F)&&!*)verification needed* F<uring the summer of !"":, the U.S. government pressured the 1e2ican government into accepting Adeep repatriationA of as many as 5"" apprehended migrants per day to si2 cities in central and southern 1e2ico. Crimes committed by illegal immigrants $alifornia has the largest immigrant population in the US, and immigrants Cboth legal and illegalD are under represented among $alifornia prison inmates.)??* he most recent research indicates appro2imately 5'0 of the $alifornia population consists of immigrants, while immigrants represent &(0 of the prison population. %n fact, U.S. born adult men are incarcerated at a rate over two;and;a;half times greater than that of foreign;born men.)??* .owever, this does not separate the illegal versus legal immigrants. %llegal immigrants avoid involvement in criminal activity to reduce interaction with law enforcement officials, and according to im Wadsworth, an assistant professor of sociology at the University of $olorado at 8oulder, F)t*he suggestion that high levels of immigration may have been partially responsible for the drop in crime during the &??"s seems plausible.F)&&5* ,ccording to 6dmonton and Smith in he 9ew ,mericans: 6conomic, <emographic, and Fiscal 6ffects of %mmigration, Fit is difficult to draw any strong conclusions on the association between immigration and crimeF.)'"* $ities with large immigrant populations showed larger reductions in property and violent crime than cities without large immigrant populations.)&&:* ,lmost all of what is known about immigration and crime is from information on those in prison. %ncarceration rates do not necessarily reflect differences in current crime rates.)'"* he $enter for %mmigration Studies in a !""? report argued that F9ew government data indicate that immigrants have high rates of criminality, while older academic research found low rates. he overall picture of immigrants and crime remains confused due to a lack of good data and contrary information.F %t also criticiHed reports using data from the !""" $ensus according to which :0 of prisoners were immigrants. 9on;citiHens often have a strong incentive to deny this in order to prevent deportation and there are also other problems. Some better but still uncertain methods have found that !";!!0 of prisoners were immigrants. %t also criticiHed studies looking at percentages of immigrants in a city and crime for only looking at overall crime and not immigrant crime as well as having other possible problems.)&&'*

,s of !"&", the U.S. %mmigration and $ustoms 6nforcement agency C%$6D under its FSecure $ommunitiesF proBect has identified !:",""" illegal immigrants convicted of crimes, according to <epartment of .omeland Security figures. +f those, about 5",""" have been deported, including #,/"" convicted of what the agency calls Fthe most egregious offenses.)&&/* , few of the other reasons also cited for why the e2tent of illegal immigrantsA criminal activities is unknown are as follows:

For many minor crimes, especially crimes involving Buveniles, those who are apprehended are not arrested. +nly a fraction of those who are arrested are ever brought to the courts for disposition.)'"* 1any illegal immigrants who are apprehended by 8order -atrol agents are voluntarily returned to their home countries and are not ordinarily tabulated in national crime statistics. %f immigrants, whether illegal or legal, are apprehended entering the United States while committing a crime, they are usually charged under federal statutes and, if convicted, are sent to federal prisons. hroughout this entire process, immigrants may have a chance of deportation, or of sentencing that is different from that for a native;born person.)'"* We lack comprehensive information on whether arrested or Bailed immigrants are illegal immigrants, nonimmigrants, or legal immigrants. Such information can be difficult to collect because immigrants may have a reason to provide false statements Cif they reply that they are an illegal immigrant, they can be deported, for instanceD. he verification of the data is troublesome because it re>uires matching %9S records with individuals who often lack documentation or present false documents.)'"* 9oncitiHens may have had fewer years residing in the United States than citiHens, and thus less time in which to commit crimes and be apprehended.)'"*

%n &???, law enforcement activities involving illegal immigrants in $alifornia, ,riHona, 9ew 1e2ico, and e2as cost a combined total of more than O&"# million. his cost did not include activities related to border enforcement. %n San <iego $ounty, the e2pense Cover O'" millionD was nine percent of the total countyAs budget for law enforcement that year. )&&(* , study published by the Federal 7eserve 8ank of <allas has found that while property;related crime rates have not been affected by increased immigration Cboth legal and illegalD, in border counties there is a significant positive correlation between illegal immigration and violent crime, most likely due to e2tensive smuggling activity along the border.)&&#* +n ,ugust /, !""#, an audit done by agents of %mmigration and $ustoms 6nforcement found that &!! of the /5( Bail inmates in the 4ake $ounty, %llinois Bail were of >uestionable immigration status. +f those &!! originally suspected, (' were later ordered to face deportation proceedings by the %$6. ,ccording to 4ake $ounty sheriff 1ark $urran, illegal immigrants were charged with half of the &: murders in the county. )&&?* he ,riHona <epartment of $orrections reported in !"&" that illegal immigrants are over; represented in the stateAs prison population. %n June !"&", illegal immigrants represented &:.# percent of ,riHona state prisoners, but accounted for ( percent of the stateAs overall population according to the <epartment of .omeland Security. %n addition, the data showed that illegal immigrants accounted for :"0 of all the prisoners serving time in ,riHona state prisons for

kidnapping3 !:0 of those serving time for drug charges3 and &5 percent of those serving time for murder.)&!"* , US Justice <epartment report from !""? indicated that one of the largest street gangs in the United States, 4os ,ngeles;based &#th Street gang, has a membership of some 5",""" to '",""" with #"0 of them being illegal aliens from 1e2ico and $entral ,merica. ,ctive in :: cities in !" states, its main source of income is street;level distribution of cocaine and mariBuana and, to a lesser e2tent, heroin and methamphetamine. Gang members also commit assault, auto theft, carBacking, drive;by shootings, e2tortion, homicide, identification fraud, and robbery.)&!&* ,nother prominent street gang, 1ara Salvatrucha, also known as 1S &5, with a membership of some #,""" to &",""" members in the US, is estimated to be predominantly composed of illegal immigrants Cwith some reporting up to ?"0D.)&!!*)&!5* 1S;&5 members smuggle illicit drugs, primarily powder cocaine and mariBuana, into the US and transport and distribute the drugs throughout the country. Some members also are involved in alien smuggling, assault, drive;by shootings, homicide, identity theft, prostitution operations, robbery, and weapons trafficking. )&!&* With over 5,""" members in 9orthern =irginia alone making it the largest gang in the region,)&!:* 1S;&5 has been targeted by the 9orthern =irginia 7egional Gang ask Force which reports that :"0 of arrests from !""5;!""# were of illegal aliens.)&!5*)&!'* %t is also reported that (&0 of the U.S. %mmigration and $ustoms 6nforcement C%$6D gang arrestees under F+peration $ommunity ShieldF in 9orthern =irginia from February !""' to September !""(, were of 6W% F6nter Without %nspectionF status.)&!5* Identity theft %dentity theft is sometimes committed by illegal immigrants who use social security numbers belonging to others, in order to obtain fake work documentation.)&!/* .owever, the US Supreme $ourt has ruled that illegal immigrants cannot be prosecuted for identity theft if they use Fmade; upF social security numbers that they do not know belong to someone else3 to be guilty of identity theft with regard to social security numbers, they must know that the social security numbers that they use belong to others.)&!(* /rug trafficking ,ccording to proceedings from a &??( meeting of the .ouse Judiciary Subcommittee on %mmigration and $laims, F hrough other violations of our immigration laws, 1e2ican drug cartels are able to e2tend their command and control into the United States. <rug smuggling fosters, subsidiHes, and is dependent upon continued illegal immigration and alien smuggling.F)&!#* <rug cartels have been reported using illegal immigrants, sometimes armed, to cultivate mariBuana within ,merican 9ational Forests, in $aliforniaAs 4os -adres 9ational Forest,)&!?*)&5"* ahoe 9ational Forest,)&5&* Si2 7ivers 9ational Forest,)&5!* and Se>uoia 9ational Forest,)&55* as well as in ,riHona,)&5:* +regon,)&5'* and $olorado.)&5/* 'ang iolence See also: !"&" amaulipas massacre and 4os Xetas ,s of !""', +peration $ommunity Shield had detained nearly fourteen hundred illegal immigrant gang members.)&5(*

1embers from the Salvadoran gang 1S;&5 are believed by authorities to have established a smuggling ring in 1atamoros, 1e2ico. his smuggling involved transporting illegal aliens from foreign countries into the United States. 1S;&5 has shown e2treme violence against 8order -atrol security to Eteach them a lesson.N)&5#* F1e2ican alien smugglers plan to pay violent gang members and smuggle them into the United States to murder 8order -atrol agents, according to a confidential <epartment of .omeland Security memo obtained by the <aily 8ulletin.F)&5?*

En ironment
Waves of illegal immigrants are taking a heavy toll on U.S. public lands along the 1e2ican border, federal officials say.)&:"* 1ike $offeen, a biologist with the Fish and Wildlife Service in ucson, ,riHona found the level of impact to be shocking.)&:"* F6nvironmental degradation has become among the migration trendAs most visible conse>uences, a few years ago, there were :' abandoned cars on the 8uenos ,ires refuge near Sasabe, ,riHona and enough trash that a volunteer couple filled (!5 large bags with &#,""" pounds of garbage over two months in !""!.F)&:&* F%t has been estimated that the average desert;walking immigrant leaves behind # pounds of trash during a Bourney that lasts one to three days if no maBor incidents occur. ,ssuming half a million people cross the border illegally into ,riHona annually, that translates to !,""" tons of trash that migrants dump each year.F)&:!* %llegal immigrants trying to get to the United States via the 1e2ican border with southern ,riHona are suspected of having caused eight maBor wildfires in !""!. he fires destroyed /#,:&5 acres C!(/.#/ km!D and cost ta2payers O'.& million to fight.)&:5*

$ational security and terrorism


1ohamed ,tta and two of his co;conspirators had e2pired visas when they e2ecuted the September && attacks. ,ll of the attackers had U.S. government issued documents and two of them were erroneously granted visa e2tensions after their deaths.)&::* he 9ational $ommission on errorist ,ttacks Upon the United States found that the government inade>uately tracked those with e2pired tourist or student visas. 1ark Krikorian of the $enter for %mmigration Studies, a think;tank that promotes immigration reduction, testified in a hearing before the .ouse of 7epresentatives that Fout of the :# al;Yaeda operatives who committed crimes here between &??5 and !""&, &! of them were illegal aliens when they committed their crimes, seven of them were visa overstayers, including two of the conspirators in the first World rade $enter attack, one of the figures from the 9ew Pork subway bomb plot, and four of the ?W&& terrorists. %n fact, even a couple other terrorists who were not illegal when they committed their crimes had been visa overstayers earlier and had either applied for asylum or finagled a fake marriage to launder their status.F)&:'* =ice $hair 4ee .. .amilton and $ommissioner Slade Gorton of the 9ational $ommission on errorist ,ttacks Upon the United States has stated that of the nineteen hiBackers of the September &&, !""& attacks, F wo hiBackers could have been denied admission at the port on entry based on violations of immigration rules governing terms of admission. hree hiBackers violated the immigration laws after entry, one by failing to enroll in school as declared, and two by overstays of their terms of admission.F)&:/* Si2 months after the attack, their flight schools received posthumous visa approval letters from the %mmigration and 9aturaliHation Service

C%9SD for two of the hiBackers, which made it clear that actual approval of the visas took place before the September && attacks.)&:(* Since the attacks of September &&, !""&, illegal immigrants within the United States have attempted to carry out other terrorist attacks as well. hree of the si2 conspirators in the !""( Fort <i2 attack plot@<ritan <uka, Shain <uka, and 6lBvir <uka@were ethnic ,lbanians from the 7epublic of 1acedonia who entered the United States illegally through 1e2ico with their parents in &?#:. .osam 1aher .usein Smadi, an illegal immigrant from Jordan who remained in the United States after the e2piration of his tourist visa, was arrested in September !""? for attempting to carry out a car bomb attack against Fountain -lace in <allas.

7arm to illegal immigrants


here are significant dangers associated with illegal immigration including potential death when crossing the border. ,ccording to $hicano activist 7oberto 1artineH, since the &??: implementation of an immigration;control effort called +peration Gatekeeper, immigrants have attempted to cross the border in more dangerous locations.)&:#* hose crossing the border come unprepared, without food, water, proper clothing, or protection from the elements or dangerous animals3 sometimes the immigrants are abandoned by those smuggling them.)&:#* <eaths also occur while resisting arrest. %n 1ay !"&", the 9ational .uman 7ights $ommission in 1e2ico accused 8order -atrol agents of tasering illegal immigrant ,nastasio .ernQndeH;7oBas to death. 1edia reports that .ernQndeH;7oBas started a physical altercation with patrol agents and later autopsy findings concluded that the suspect had trace amounts of methampehatine in his blood levels which contributed to his death.)&:?*)&'"* he killing of ,nastasio .ernQndeH;7oBas was the subBect of e2tensive media coverage in ,pril, !"&! by -8S F9eed to KnowF)&'&* and Democracy No !)&'!* he foreign ministry in 1e2ico $ity has demanded an e2planation from San <iego and federal authorities, according to iBuana newspapers.)&:?* ,ccording to the US 8order ,gency, there were ?#( assaults on US 8order ,gents in !""# and there were a total of &! people killed by agents in !""( and !""#.)&'5* ,ccording to the Washington +ffice on 4atin ,mericaAs 8order Fact $heck site, 8order -atrol rarely investigates allegations of abuse against migrants, and advocacy organiHations say that Feven serious incidents such as the shootings of migrants result in administrative, not criminal, investigations and sanctions.F)&':* Sla ery %ndian, 7ussian, hai, and $hinese women have been reportedly brought to the United States under false pretenses. E,s many as '",""" people are illicitly trafficked into the United States annually, according to a &??? $%, study. +nce here, theyAre forced to work as prostitutes, sweatshop laborers, farmhands, and servants in private homes.N US authorities call it Ea modern form of slavery.N)&''* )&'/* Prostitution he $oalition ,gainst rafficking in Women has reported scores of cases where women were forced to prostitute themselves. E rafficking in women plagues the United States as much as it does underdeveloped nations. +rganiHed prostitution networks have migrated from metropolitan areas to small cities and suburbs. Women trafficked to the United States have been forced to have se2 with :"";'"" men to pay off O:",""" in debt for their passage.N )&'(* ,t least :',""" $entral ,merican children attempt to illegally immigrate to the United States every year and

many of them finish in brothels as se2 slaves, according to 1anuel $apellin, director in .onduras of the humanitarian organiHation "ouse A##iance.)&'#* /eath See also: .aitian diasporaM<eaths <eath by e2posure has been reported in the deserts, particularly during the hot summer season. )&'?* E62posure to the elementsN encompasses hypothermia, dehydration, heat strokes, drowning, and suffocation. ,lso, illegal immigrants may die or be inBured when they attempt to avoid law enforcement. 1artineH points out that engaging in high speed pursuits while attempting to escape arrest can lead to death.)&/"* 1any migrants are also killed or maimed riding the roofs of cargo trains in 1e2ico.)&/&*

Cultural
.arvard political scientist and historian Samuel -. .untington argues in Who Are We$ The %ha##enges to America&s Nationa# 'dentity that illegal immigration, primarily from 1e2ico, threatens to divide the United States culturally, into an ,nglo;-rotestant north, central, and eastern portion, and a $atholic;.ispanic southwest. %mmigration researcher ,ndrea 9ill has a similar point. 9ill noted that the association of illegal immigration with 4atinos would bring adverse attention to their community. )&/!* 7ecent immigration laws could help fuel these associations and possibly encourage citiHens to discriminate and distance themselves from the .ispanic culture.)&/!* Furthermore, this separation could allow for tensions and possibly violence to grow between both groups.)&/!*

Public opinion and contro ersy


US economy
+ne of the most important factors regarding public opinion about illegal migration is the level of unemployment3 anti;immigrant sentiment is highest where unemployment is highest and vice; versa.)&/5* %n general, some say that illegal immigrants are taking away Bobs from ,mericans3 however businesses and agricultural groups disagree and say that migrant workers are needed to fill unattractive Bobs.)5"* his is further supported by a 1ay !""/ 9ew Pork imesW$8S 9ews -oll reported that '5 percent of ,mericans felt that Fillegal immigrants mostly take the Bobs ,mericans donIt wantF.)&/:* .owever there are others who say that immigration helps to Fdecimate the bargaining leverage of the ,merican worker. %f you use a form of labor recruitment that bids down the cost of labor, that leads you to a society where a small number are very, very rich, thereAs nobody in the middle, and everyone is left scrambling for crumbs at the bottom.)&/'* Pet there are still others who say that the U.S. Fhas an economy that depends on immigrationF and Fwithout immigration labor, it would almost certainly not be possible to produce the same volume of food in the country.F)&/'*

)pinions from influential groups in society


In estors ,ccording to a Gallup poll done in !""/, the opinions of investors were illustrated to support some of the claims made above and disagree with others. %n support of an opinion stated above,

#:0 of investors believe that illegal immigrants mostly take low paying Bobs that ,mericans do not want.)&//* .owever, nearly /!0 of investors say illegal immigration is hurting the investment climate.)&//* /#0 of investors say that illegal immigrants cost ta2payers too much because they use government services like public education and medical services but another !'0 say that in the long run, illegal immigrants become productive citiHens who come to make up paying their fair share of ta2es.)&//*

Crime
he highly publiciHed murder of ,riHona rancher 7ob KrentH in 1arch !"&", suspected to have been committed by an illegal immigrant,)&/(* provided a strong rallying cry for immigration opponents and called public attention to other crimes@ notably property crimes@ committed by foreign nationals during their border crossings into the U.S. KrentH had previously reported that illegal immigrants had done over O# million dollars in damage to his ranching operations during a five;year period,)&/#* and in the wake of his murder, interviews with his family and friends focused on similar crimes and break;ins committed by immigrants.)&/?* , few weeks later, ,riHona passed ,riHona S8&"(", the nationAs toughest state immigration law. )&("* While the lawAs writers have defended ,riHonaAs new illegal immigration law by opining that it is necessary to fight violent crime. hough admitting an increase in border;related violence, such as home invasions and kidnappings, many ,riHona police chiefs, such as -hoeni2 -olice $hief Jack .arris)&(&*, have stated their disagreement with the law, arguing that it will distort police priorities.)&(!* -inal $ounty Sheriff -aul 8abeu, in an interview on .oriHon, said it is Fabsolutely appropriateF for law enforcement officers to >uestion people about their immigration status during a routine stop or investigation.)&(5* he law sparked protests in ,riHona and elsewhere, as well as led to the boycott of ,riHona by cities and communities nationwide.)&(:* , !""# report by the non;partisan -ublic -olicy %nstitute of $alifornia analyHes crime and immigration in $alifornia. Since most criminals are young adults, the study considered the proportion of foreign;born young adults in the general population compared to those in the prison population. he researchers found that, while foreign born young adults represented about 5'0 of $aliforniaAs population, they represented only about &(0 of the prison population. he study concludes that Fimmigrants are underrepresented in $alifornia prisons compared to their representation in the overall population.F)&('* %n a report published by the $ongressional 7esearch Service, illegal aliens who have been released from custody have gone on to commit &/,!!/ other crimes between !""# and mid;!"&&, including &? murders, &:! se2 crimes, and thousands of drunk;driving offenses, drug offenses, and felonies3 roughly one in si2 illegal immigrants who were released were later arrested for committing crimes.)&(/*

+esponse of go ernment
,n ,8$ 9ews -oll,)&((* indicates that most respondents C/(0D believe the United States is not doing enough to keep illegal immigrants from coming into the country and, according to a $8S 9ewsW9ew Pork imes poll)&(#* most ,mericans believe that US immigration policy needs either fundamental changes C:&0D or to be completely rebuilt C:?0D. %n an opinion poll by Xogby %nternational in !""', voters were also asked, F<o you support or oppose the 8ush administrationAs proposal to give millions of illegal aliens guest worker status and the opportunity to become citiHensZF 5'0 gave their support3 '/ percent disagreed. he

same poll noted a huge maBority, #&0, believes local and state police should help federal authorities enforce laws against illegal immigration.)citation needed* #ederal response ,lthough ,mericans may favor one immigration policy over another, perceptions of government and officialsI ability to implement these policies is consistently negative.)&(?* State and local response ,ccording to a $99W+pinion 7esearch $orporation -oll,)&#"* most respondents C''0D believe state or local police forces should arrest illegal immigrants they encounter who have not broken any state or local laws. he previously cited $99W+pinion 7esearch $orporation -oll poll indicates that most respondents C(/0D are against state governments issuing driverAs licenses to illegal immigrants. , poll by the Field %nstitute found that F)$alifornia* residents are very much opposed C/!0 to 5'0D to granting illegal immigrants who do not have legal status in this country the right to obtain a $alifornia driverIs license. .owever, opinion is more divided C:?0 to :#0D about a plan to issue a different kind of driverIs license that would allow these immigrants to drive but would also identify them as not having legal status.F)&#&*)&#!* Further, most respondents C/50D in the above;mentioned !""/ Yuinnipiac University -oll)&#5* support local laws passed by communities to fine businesses that hire illegal immigrants while 550 oppose it. %n addition to these opinions, others at the local level have gotten involved in grass root, citiHen; organiHed efforts to enhance controls on illegal migration.)&#:* Several citiHen;led anti;illegal migration organiHations have been created using a E1inutemanN mantra. hese organiHations developed with the purpose of patrolling the border and lobbying legislative bodies to create policy to reduce illegal migration. For instance, the 1inuteman $ivil <efense $orps Cn.d.D have the following as their stated mission: E%t is the mission of the 1inuteman $ivil <efense $orps to see the borders and coastal boundaries of the United States secured against the unlawful and unauthoriHed entry of all individuals, contraband, and foreign military. We will employ all means of civil protest, demonstration, and political lobbying to accomplish this goal.N)&#'*
Sanctuary cities

$urrently there is a lot of controversy around Sanctuary cities, one response from the state and local governments. 1any ,merican cities have designated themselves as sanctuary cities and many other state and municipal governments discourage the reporting of illegal immigrants to U.S. immigration and $ustoms 6nforcement.)!:* , sanctuary city is defined as a city that follows certain practices to protect illegal immigrants3 these include ; cities that do not allow municipal funds or resources to be used to enforce federal immigration laws, usually by not allowing police or municipal employees to in>uire about oneAs immigration status.)&#/* hese cities include Washington <.$., 9ew Pork $ity, 4os ,ngeles, $hicago, San Francisco, Santa ,na, San <iego, San Jose, Salt 4ake $ity, 6l -aso, .ouston, <etroit, Jersey $ity, 1inneapolis, 1iami, <enver, 8altimore, Seattle, -ortland, +regon, 9ew .aven, Somerville, $ambridge, and -ortland, 1aine. )&#(* he controversy of this topic comes up around election time when public officials are often faced with deciding if they will continue to enforce the laws of a sanctuary city or appear to be harsher on immigration. ,lso the public opinion of the cities is not very high, a poll in !"&&

found that '?0 of the population supported a proposal to remove federal funding to sanctuary cities and '#0 wanted the Justice <epartment to take action against these cities.)&##* Enforcement (&0 of respondents in a !""/ Yuinnipiac University -olling %nstitute poll believed that enforcement of immigration laws will re>uire additional measures beyond a border fence, with /'0 of respondents supporting employer fines.)&#5* ((0 of respondents to a 4os ,ngeles imesW8loomberg -oll support employer fines.)&#?*)&?"* , later 98$WWall Street Journal poll indicates '(0 strongly favor employer fines and &(0 somewhat favor them, while ::0 strongly favor increased border security and &?0 strongly oppose.)&?&* %n a $8S 9ewsW9ew Pork imes poll, /?0 of ,mericans favor prosecuting and deporting illegal immigrants3 550 favor deporting those who have lived and worked in the U.S. for at least two years.)&(#*)&?!* he 1anhattan %nstitute reported that (#0 of likely 7epublican voters favor a proposal combining increased border security, tougher penalties for employers who hire illegal workers, and allowing illegal aliens to register for a temporary worker program that includes a path to citiHenship. 7espondents favored the program over a deportation and enforcement;only plan '#0 to 550.)&?5* Following the passage of ,riHonaAs Support +ur 4aw 6nforcement and Safe 9eighborhoods ,ct in ,pril, !"&", which authoriHes police officials to >uestion persons on their immigration status if there is reasonable suspicion that they are illegally in the country or committing other violations not related to their immigration status, numerous polls showed widespread support for the law. , 7asmussen poll found that /"0 of the electorate support such a law while 5&0 are opposed to such a law.)&?:* , 9ew Pork imes poll showed similar results: '&0 of ,mericans felt the law was Fabout rightF in its dealings with illegal immigration, ?0 felt that its measures did not go far enough to address the problem while 5/0 have negative opinions regarding such a law.)&?'*

#ilm
.ow <emocracy Works 9ow: welve Stories is a &!;part documentary film series that e2amines the ,merican political system through the lens of immigration reform from !""&L!""(, from filmmaking team Shari 7obertson and 1ichael $amerini. Several films in the series contain a large focus on the issue of illegal immigration in the U.S. and feature advocates from both sides of the debate. Since the debut of the first five films, the series has become an important resource for advocates, policy;makers and educators.)&?/* he series premiered on .8+ with the broadcast debut of The Senator&s (argain on 1arch !:, !"&". , directorsA cut of The Senators& (argain was featured in the !"&" .uman 7ights Watch Film Festival at 4incoln $enter, with the theatrical title Story &!: 4ast 8est $hance. hat film featured ed KennedyAs efforts to pass he $omprehensive %mmigration 7eform ,ct of !""(. he second story in the &!;part series, )ountains and %#ouds, opened the festival in the same year. he films document the attempt to pass comprehensive immigration reform during the years from !""&L!""(, and present a behind;the;scenes story of the success Cand failureD of many bills from that period with an effect on illegal immigration including:

he <76,1 ,ct 76,4 %< ,ct $omprehensive %mmigration 7eform ,ct of !""( Secure ,merica and +rderly %mmigration ,ct

1arking Up he <ream, Story Si2 in the "o Democracy Wor*s No series, focuses on the heated !""5 markup in he Senate Judiciary $ommittee, contrasting optimistic supporters who viewed he <76,1 ,ct as a small bi;partisan bill that would help kids with the billAs opponents, who saw the legislation as thinly;veiled Famnesty for illegalsF. ,lso presented in the film are the rallies and demonstrations from illegal immigrant students who would benefit from the <76,1 ,ct. he film opens with demonstration from those high;school students as they stage a mock graduation ceremony on the U.S. $apitol lawn.

See also
United States portal

!""/ United States immigration reform protests .ow <emocracy Works 9ow: welve Stories %mmigration reduction in the United States %mmigration reform %mmigration to the United States %ne>uality within immigrant families CUnited StatesD 1e2ican migration 1inuteman $ivil <efense $orps 1inuteman -roBect 9ativism CpoliticsD Who Are We$ The %ha##enges to America&s Nationa# 'dentity C!"":D 7epublicans for %mmigration 7eform

+eferences
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?.

&".

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$Y -ress. ? 1ar. !"&!. Web. !' +ct. !"&!. ]http:WWlibrary.c>press.comWc>researcherWdocument.phpZid_c>resrre!"&!"5"?""\. 5&. [ a b 4ouis Uchitelle CFebruary &#, !""(D. F9afta Should .ave Stopped %llegal %mmigration, 7ightZF. The Ne 1or* Times. 7etrieved 1ay ', !"&". 9ew Pork imes, February &#, !""( 5!. 8 ,ccording to the 1igration -olicy %nstitute, many analysts believe that alleviating the backlog would significantly reduce the number of illegal immigrants each year.7amah 1cKay, 1igration -olicy %nstitute. FFamily 7eunificationF. 1igration %nformation Source, 1ay !""5 55. 8 ,n %rish Face on the $ause of $itiHenship, 9ina 8ernstein, 1arch &/, !""/, he 9ew Pork imes. )&* 5:. 8 9ational $ouncil of 4a 7aHa, %ssues and -rograms ` %mmigration ` %mmigration 7eform, )!* 5'. 8 FFo29ews.comF. Fo29ews.com. <ecember &, !"&&. 7etrieved !"&!;"&;"!. 5/. 8 F96WS.88$.co.ukF. 96WS.88$.co.uk. !""/;"&;!'. 7etrieved !"&!;"&;"!. 5(. 8 F1e2ican State %ssues A.ow oA on 8order JumpingF. /o2 Ne s. 1arch !5, !""'. 5#. [ a b %liff, 4aurence CJanuary (, !""'D. F1e2ico offers tips for crossing border in comic bookF. The Seatt#e Times. 5?. 8 <aniela Gerson C!""';"&;&?D. F4ong;awaited <ocument For the UndocumentedF. 9ew Pork Sun. :". 8 8ank of ,merica to offer bank accounts, credit cards to illegal immigrants &' February !""( :&. 8 F%< 7e>uirementsF C-<FD. Sacramento, $,: 8ank on $alifornia, $alifornia State Government. 7etrieved !""?;"!;&(. :!. 8 F he 9ew ,mericans: 6conomic, <emographic, and Fiscal 6ffects of %mmigrationF. he 9ational ,cademies -ress. &??(. p. !&. :5. 8 3 45260 'm.ro.er entry 7y a#ien. $ornell 4aw School. 7etrieved July 5", !"&" ::. [ a b ,rchibold, 7andal $. C,pril !:, !"&"D. FU.S.Is oughest %mmigration 4aw %s Signed in ,riHonaF. The Ne 1or* Times: p. ,&. :'. 8 ,rchibold, 7andal $. CJuly !?, !"&"D. FJudge 8locks ,riHonaIs %mmigration 4awF. The Ne 1or* Times: p. ,&. :/. 8 F, -rimer on 1e2icoIs %mmigration and 6migration 4aws,F by 8arnard 7. hompson, 1e2i<ata.info, 1arch !:, !""# a url_http:WWme2idata.infoWid&(/!.html :(. 8 he percentage of illegal immigrants who used to routinely return home and no longer do is unknown 9Ptimes.com, <ecember !&, !""/ :#. 8 1e2ico to deport $ubans heading illegally to US, %nternational .erald ribune, +ctober !", !""# :?. 8 F%mmigration $rackdown With Firings, 9ot 7aidsF article by Julia -reston in The Ne 1or* Times September !?, !""? '". [ a b c d e f g 6dmonston and Smith, The Ne Americans+ 9ational ,cademy -ress, page 5#( '&. 8 <efinition of 9o;1atch 4etters ,ugust &", !""( by the %$63 see also ; Safe .arbor %$6.gov, +ctober 5&, !""( '!. 8 -reston, Julia C+ctober !, !""(D. F$ourt +rders a 9ew <elay on %llegal Worker 7ulesF. 9ew Pork imes. ,rchived from the original on June !/, !"&!. 7etrieved June !/, !"&!. '5. 8 E%llegal .iring is 7arely -enaliHed.N UIWashington -ostII Washington-ost.com, June &?, !""/ ':. 8 Wal;1art to -ay O&& 1illion: $hain Settles %llegal;Worker %nvestigation Washington-ost.com, 1arch &?, !""'

''.

8 %mmigration raid linked to %< theft, $hertoff says CUS, +<,PD <ecember &5, !""/. 8ecause Swift uses a government 8asic -ilot program to confirm whether Social Security numbers are valid, no charges were filed against Swift. $ompany officials have >uestioned the programAs ability to detect when two people are using the same number. '/. 8 6nforcing $orporate 7esponsibility for =iolations of Workplace %mmigration 4aws: he $ase of 1eatpacking .arvard.edu, <ecember !!, !""/. yson also used its enrollment in the 8asic -ilot and 6=- -rograms Cvoluntary employment eligibility screening programsD as part of its defense. '(. 8 9ew Pork imes, July ?, !"&", by Julia -reston, %llegal Workers Swept From Jobs in USilent 7aidsI, http:WWwww.nytimes.comW!"&"W"(W&"WusW&"enforce.htmlZ src_meTref_homepage '#. 8 8ernstein, 9ina. F%n;$ustody <eathsF. 9ew Pork imes. 7etrieved 1ay ', !"&". '?. 8 9ina 8ernstein C!""#;"#;&!D. F%ll and in -ain, <etainee <ies in U.S. .andsF. 9ew Pork imes. 7etrieved !""#;"#;&#. /". 8 Fdeportation ClawD ; 8ritannica +nline 6ncyclopediaF. 8ritannica.com. 7etrieved !"&!;&&;"'. /&. [ a b http:WWwww.Bstor.orgWstableW&5:!5&:Zse>_& /!. 8 http:WWwww.Bstor.orgWstableW&!!?/"#Zse>_&& /5. 8 F5? .arvard Journal on 4egislation !""! US, -atriot ,ct 7ecent <evelopmentsF. .einonline.org. 7etrieved !"&!;&&;"'. /:. 8 4ee, 1argaret C&! 1ay !""/D. FU.S. $itiHenship of -ersons 8orn in the United States to ,lien -arentsF C-<FD. $ongressional 7esearch Service 7eport for $ongress. pp. &", &(. 7etrieved !""#;"#;&/. /'. 8 -reston, Julia C!""(;&&;&(D. F%mmigration Yuandary: , 1other orn From .er 8abyF. 9ew Pork imes. 7etrieved !""#;"#;!". //. 8 -assel, Jeffrey C!""/;"5;"(D. F he SiHe and $haracteristics of the UnauthoriHed 1igrant -opulation in the USF C-<FD. -ew .ispanic $enter. 7etrieved !""#;"#;!". /(. 8 Julia -reston, F%mmigration Yuandary: , 1other orn From .er ,F F9ew Pork imes,F 9ovember &(, !""( /#. 8 Julie Watson C!""#;"#;!:D. F1e2icans deported from US face shattered livesF. USA Today. ,ssociated -ress. /?. 8 Slevin, -eter CJuly !', !"&"D. F<eportation of illegal immigrants increases under +bama administrationF. The Washington Post: pp. ,&. (". 8 Jim 8arnett C+ctober &#, !"&&D. FU.S. deportations reach historic levelsF. $99. 7etrieved !"&&;&";&#. (&. 8 F'' Stanford 4aw 7eview !""!;!""5 -atriotic or Unconstitutional ; he 1andatory <etention of ,liens under the US, -atriot ,ct 9oteF. .einonline.org. 7etrieved !"&!;&&;"'. (!. 8 FU.S. <eportation -olicy, Family Separation, and $ircular 1igration ; .agan ; !""# ; %nternational 1igration 7eview ; Wiley +nline 4ibraryF. +nlinelibrary.wiley.com. !""#;"5;"'. 7etrieved !"&!;&&;"'. (5. 8 <arryl Fears C!""';"(;!/D. FO:& 8illion $ost -roBected o 7emove %llegal 6ntrantsF. Washington imes. (:. [ a b c U.S. urged to apologiHe for &?5"s deportations Wendy Koch, US, +<,P, :W'W!""/ ('. [ a b imeline: &?'5 +peration Wetback: he U.S. %mmigration Service deports more than 5.# million people of 1e2ican heritage. he 8order, -8S (/. 8 -osse $omitatus ,ct 9ot <ated)dead #in** ((. 8 8order Skirmish ime.com, ,ugust !', &??(

(#.

8 F+n the 8orderF. .artford ,dvocate. !""#;"/;5". ,rchived from the original on July &', !""#. 7etrieved !""#;"(;&&. (?. 8 F,bout the Film he 8allad of 6se>uiel .ernQndeHF. -8S. !""#;"(;"(. 7etrieved !""#;"(;&&. #". 8 he 1yth of -osse $omitatus +ctober !""" #&. 8 .ouse panel plans probe of S. e2as border killing <-F .org, July &(, &??( #!. 8 -entagon -ulls roops +ff <rug -atrols ,ction $omes as Grand Jury Weighs %ndictment of 1arine <-F .org, July 5", &??( #5. 8 9ational Guard presence cutting number of illegal US;1e2ico border crossings -% .edu, June &!, !""/ #:. 8 8ush Set o Send Guard to 8order Washington-ost.com, 1ay &', !""/ #'. 8 -resident 8ush ,ddresses the 9ation on %mmigration 7eform ,rchives.gov, 1ay !""/ #/. 8 1e2ico hreatens 4awsuits +ver U.S. Guard -atrols 9ews1a2.com, 1ay &(, !""/ #(. 8 ,$4U $alls on -resident 9ot to <eploy 1ilitary roops to <eter %mmigrants at the 1e2ican 8order ,$4U.org, 1ay ', !""/ ##. 8 -resident 8ushAs -lan For $omprehensive %mmigration 7eform !""( State of the Union #?. 8 $omprehensive %mmigration 7eform 9ot <ated ?". 8 9ational Guard works the border SFgate.com, +ctober !5, !""/ ?&. 8 $ity and $ounty of San Francisco, +ffice of the 1ayor, F1ayor 9ewsom launches sanctuary city outreach program,F, ! ,pril !""#. 7etrieved &" +ctober !""?. ?!. 8 -nforcing 'mmigration 8a , The 9o#e of State and 8oca# 8a -nforcement, $ongressional 7esearch Service report, ,ugust &:, !""/ page !/ ?5. 8 U.S. $ities -rovide Sanctuary to %llegals Fo29ew.com, July !', !""5 ?:. 8 F62tremists <eclare A+pen SeasonA on %mmigrantsF. ,nti;<efamation 4eague. ,pril !/, !""/. ?'. 8 9o 1ore <eaths homepage .ome -age ?/. 8 9ational7eview.com ?(. 8 1iller, <ebra ,.F%llegal %mmigrationFC!""(D.7eference -oint -ress. !";!5 ?#. 8 Unger, Stephen ... F%mmigration: Who winsZ Who 4osesZF. 7etrieved ' 1arch !"&!. ??. [ a b c F$rime, $orrections, and $aliforniaF. -ublic -olicy %nstitute of $alifornia. &"". 8 %mmigration and ,frican;,merican 6mployment +pportunities: he 7esponse of Wages, 6mployment, and %ncarceration to 4abor Supply Shocks 9867.org, September !""/ &"&. [ a b .anson, Gordon ..3 7aymond 7obertson, and ,ntonio Spilimbergo C!""!D. F<oes 8order 6nforcement -rotect U.S. Workers from %llegal %mmigrationZF. The 9evie of -conomics and Statistics 9: C&D: (5L?!. &"!. 8 F7ealty 7ates Follow -opulationF. $hina <aily. &"5. 8 F4abor 1arket %mpacts of ,mnesty: , $omparative ,nalysis of %7$, and current conditionsF. U$4, 9orth ,merican %ntegration and <evelopment $enter. &":. 8 F7aising the Floor for ,merican WorkersF. he ,dvocates for .uman 7ights. &"'. 8 F7eal 6arnings ; !"&&F. US 8ureau of 4abor Statistics. &"/. 8 FForeign 8ornF. US $ensus 8ureau. &"(. 8 F.omeward 8ound: 7ecent %mmigration 6nforcement and the <ecline in the %llegal ,lien -opulationF. $enter for %mmigrant Studies. &"#. 8 6duardo -orter C,pril ', !""'D. F%llegal %mmigrants ,re 8olstering Social Security With 8illionsF. 9ew Pork imes.

&"?. 8 J. 4ipman, Francine, J. CSpring !""/D. Ta2ing Undocumented 'mmigrants, Se.arate+ Une:ua# and Without 9e.resentation. he a2 4awyer. ,lso published in .arvard 4atino 4aw 7eview, Spring !""/. .arvard.edu &&". 8 F he %mpact of UnauthoriHed %mmigrants on the 8udgets of State and 4ocal GovernmentsF C-<FD. he $ongress of the United States ; $ongressional 8udget +ffice. &!;!""(. &&&. 8 8anks help illegal immigrants own their own home, $99W1oney &&!. 8 $ornelius, Wayne ,.. F$ontrolling UUnwantedI %mmigration: 4essons from the United States, &??5L!"":F Journal of 6thnic and 1igration Studies 5&.: C!""'D. 68S$+host.com, !? +ctober !""( &&5. 8 Scott, Jim. F<rop in =iolent $rime ied to %mmigrationZF. Futurity. &&:. 8 http:WWwww.sacbee.comW&&"WstoryW(5##!!.html)dead #in** +pinion ; 6ditorial: %mmigrant threatZ .ardly ; sacbee.com &&'. 8 %mmigration and $rime ,ssessing a $onflicted %ssue, Steven ,. $amarota and Jessica 1. =aughan, 9ovember !""?, http:WWwww.cis.orgWarticlesW!""?Wcrime.pdf &&/. 8 Slevin, -eter CJuly !/, !"&"D. F<eportation of illegal immigrants increases under +bama administrationF. Washington Post. &&(. 8 anis J. Salant and others, %llegal %mmigrants in U.S.W1e2ico 8order $ounties: he $osts for 4aw 6nforcement, $riminal Justice, and 6mergency 1edical Services Creport prepared for the United StatesW1e2ico 8order $ounties $oalition, February !""&D. &&#. 8 he impact of illegal immigration and enforcement on border crime rates, Federal reserve bank of <allas. <allasFed8ackup.org, 1arch !""5 &&?. 8 Gordon, ony C!""#;"?;&#D. F4ake $o. sheriff says !&.'0 of Bail inmates illegal immigrantsF. Dai#y "era#d. 7etrieved !""#;"?;&?.)dead #in** &!". 8 $8S 9ews: FUndocumented %mmigrants %ncreasingly Filling ,riHona -risonsF July !!, !"&". &!&. [ a b F9ational Gang hreat ,ssessment !""?F 9ational Gang %ntelligence $enter F8% retrieved June &?, !"&! &!!. 8 estimony of .eather 1ac<onald, Senior Fellow, 1anhattan %nstitute for -olicy 7esearch, before the .ouse Judiciary Subcommittee on %mmigration, 8order Security, and $laims ,pril &5, !""'. &!5. [ a b c $enter for %mmigration Studies: F%mmigration 6nforcement <isrupts $riminal Gangs in =irginiaF January !""#. &!:. 8 F9orthern =irginia 7egional Gang ask Force ; 9orthern =irginia $omprehensive Gang ,ssessment !""5;!""#F C-<FD. 7etrieved !"&!;"&;"!. &!'. 8 Washington 62aminer: FGangs flee 9.=a.for havens in 1dF +ctober !(, !""? &!/. 8 F.idden $ost of %llegal %mmigration: %< heftF. 1S98$. !""/;"5;5&. &!(. 8 FSupreme $ourt +pinion: Flores;Figueroa v. United StatesF. The Ne 1or* Times. &!#. 8 .ouse of 7epresentatives, Subcommittee on %mmigration and $laims, $ommittee on the Judiciary, 8order Security and <eterring %llegal 6ntry %nto the United States .ouse.gov, ,pril !5, &??( &!?. 8 Fo2man, ,dam. F=entura$ountyStar.comF. =entura$ountyStar.com. 7etrieved !"&!;"&;"!. &5". 8 F ranscripts.cnn.comF. ranscripts.cnn.com. !""?;"/;&/. 7etrieved !"&!;"&; "!. &5&. 8 1argot 7oosevelt, F8ustedb,F Time, !( July !""5. &5!. 8 F%llegal immigrant arrested at mariBuana garden on Si2 7ivers,F -ure*a Times; Standard, ! +ctober !""#. &55. 8 ina Ferrell, )onumenta# out#oo* over the hori<on, -<F file, Se>uoia 9ational Forest news release, &? ,ugust !""?.

&5:. 8 /ina# Nationa# /orest mari=uana cu#tivator sentenced to 4>> months infedera# .rison, -<F file, +ffice of the United States ,ttorney, <istrict of ,riHona, !! <ecember !""#. &5'. 8 )ari=uana, %u#tivation US <epartment of Justice, 9ational <rug %ntelligence $enter, February !""'. &5/. 8 <ennis Webb, F1ariBuana farms sprouting up across state,F ?rand @unction (%o#o0) Sentine#, &/ September !""?. &5(. 8 Whitehouse.gov, Sheet: Securing ,merica hrough %mmigration 7eform ,rchives.gov, 9ovember !#, !""' &5#. 8 %mmigration and the ,lien Gang 6pidemic: -roblems and Solutions 1anhattan; institute.org, ,pril &5, !""' &5?. 8 7eport: 1S;&5 gang hired to murder 8order -atrol <aily8ulletin.com, January ?, !""/ &:". [ a b %mmigration aking oll on -arks, 7efuges 9ear U.S.;1e2ico 8order 8y ,pril 7eese, 4and 4etter, 6nvironment and 6nergy -ublishing, 44$, -ublic 4ands, =ol. &", 9o. ?, February &5, !""5 &:&. 8 <umping of rash, Waste, 6ndemic in State with Flood of %llegal %mmigration ,rthur .. 7otstein, ,ssociated -ress 9ewswires, <ateline $oronado 9ational 1emorial, ,riHona July &!, !"": &:!. 8 %llegal 6ntrantsA 7esidue3 rash Woes -iling Up 8y ony <avis, he ,riHona <aily Star C ucsonD ,ugust !:, !""' &:5. 8 %llegal %mmigrants ied to $ostly Wildfires ,ssociated -ress, <ateline ucson, ,riHona, September ?, !""! &? Jul !"": &::. 8 FSi2 months after Sept. &&, hiBackersA visa approval letters receivedF. %NN. 1arch &5, !""!. 7etrieved 1ay ', !"&". &:'. 8 =isa +verstays: $an We 8ar the errorist <oorZ &"?th $ongress .ouse.gov, 1ay &&, !""/ &:/. 8 -repared Statement of =ice $hair 4ee .amilton and $ommissioner Slade Gorton 9ational $ommission on errorist ,ttacks Upon the United States before the Senate $ommittee on the Judiciary ,ugust &?, !"": he ?W&& $ommission 7eport. ?; &&pdp.org, ,ugust &?, !"": &:(. 8 Si2 months after September &&, hiBackersA visa approval letters received $99.com, 1arch &5, !""! &:#. [ a b 7oberto 1artineH C%n 1otion 1agaHineD, F+peration GatekeeperF %n1otion1agaHine.com, 7etrieved: July :, !""#. &:?. [ a b $ity 9ews Service, Staff CJune !, !"&"D. F$oroner: 1eth played role in 1e2ican border stun gun deathF. San Diego Ne s Net or*. 7etrieved June /, !"&". &'". 8 F-8S 9eed to Know, $rossing the 4ineF. &'&. 8 8rian 6pstein C,pril !", !"&!D. F$rossing the line at the borderF. P(S Need to Ano . 7etrieved ,pril !:, !"&!. &'!. 8 F<eath on the 8order: Shocking =ideo Shows 1e2ican %mmigrant 8eaten and ased by 8order -atrol ,gentsF. Democracy No !. ,pril !:, !"&!. 7etrieved ,pril !:, !"&!. &'5. 8 ,rchibold, 7andal $. CFebruary !#, !""#D. F8order -atrol ,gentAs rial in Killing of %llegal %mmigrant Starts in ,riHonaF. The Ne 1or* Times. 7etrieved 1ay ', !"&". &':. 8 1eyer, 1aureen. F,re migrants routinely abused by $ustoms and 8order -rotection agentsZF. (order /act %hec*. Washington +ffice on 4atin ,merica. 7etrieved !: September !"&!. &''. 8 1any of these women are forced in to heavy labor to pay for their passage into the U.S. -8S 7eport on %llegal %mmigrant Slavery in the US &'/. 8 1odern slavery thriving in the U.S. 7etrieved: 1arch ', !""#.

&'(. 8 $oalition ,gainst rafficking in Women for -rostitution 7etrieved: 1arch ', !""#. &'#. 8 4a -rensa ; :' mil nicos centroamericanos emigran a 6U, al aco W ": W "5 W !""# W 6diciones W 4a -rensa)dead #in** &'?. 8 9ieves, 6velyn C,ugust /, !""!D. F%llegal %mmigrant <eath 7ate 7ises Sharply in 8arren ,reasF. he 9ew Pork imes. 7etrieved !""?;"/;!?.)dead #in** &/". 8 $rossing +ver: , 1e2ican Family on the 1igrant rail, review by $arol ,moruso. &/&. 8 FA rain of deathA drives migrant ,merican dreamersF. %NN. June !', !"&". &/!. [ a b c 9ill, ,ndrea $hristina C!"&&D. F4atinos and S.8. &"(": <emoniHation, <ehumaniHation, and <isenfranchisementF. "arvard 8atino 8a 9evie 4:: 5'L//. &/5. 8 6spenshade, homas J. and 8elanger, 1aryanne C&??#D F%mmigration and -ublic +pinion.F %n 1arcelo 1. SuareH;+roHco, ed. %rossings, )e2ican 'mmigration in 'nterdisci.#inary Pers.ectives0 %am7ridge+ )ass0, David 9oc*efe##er %enter for 8atin American Studies and "arvard University Press+ .ages 5B6;>05 &/:. 8 he State of ,merican -ublic +pinion on %mmigration in Spring !""/: , 7eview of 1aBor Surveys, pew .ispanic center -ew.ispanic.org, 1ay &(, !""/ &/'. [ a b FJost, Kenneth. F%mmigration $onflict: Should States $rack down on Unlawful ,liensZF he $Y 7esearcher +nline !!.&" C&?!5D: n. pag. $Y 7esearcher by $Y -ress. ? 1ar. !"&!. Web. !' +ct. !"&!. ]http:WWlibrary.c>press.comWc>researcherWdocument.phpZid_c>resrre!"&!"5"?""\. &//. [ a b c Jacobe, <ennis. F%nvestors 8elieve %llegal %mmigration %s .urting he U.S. 6conomic $limate: 6ight %n &" %nvestors Say he Government Should <o 1ore o Stop %llegal %mmigration.F Gallup -oll 8riefing C!""/D: &;:. 8usiness Source $omplete. Web. !' +ct. !"&!. &/(. 8 F1urder of ,riHona 7ancher 7oils %mmigration <ebateF. /o2 Ne s. ,ssociated -ress. ,pril &", !"&". 7etrieved ,pril 5", !"&". &/#. 8 J.<. Wallace C1ay &#, !""'D. F%llegal %mmigration $ostly for Southeastern ,riHona 7anchersF. K+4< 9ews &5. 7etrieved ,pril 5", !"&". &/?. 8 4eo W. 8anks C,pril !?, !"&"D. F he KrentH 8onfireF. ucson Weekly. 7etrieved ,pril 5", !"&". &(". 8 .oward Fischer C,pril !#, !"&"D. F,riHona now has toughest immigration law stateF. $apitol 1edia Services. 7etrieved ,pril 5", !"&". &(&. 8 F-ress 8riefing with -ublic Safety 1anager Jack .arrisF. 1ay /, !"&". &(!. 8 Ari<ona 9e.u7#ic: -olice weighing ,riHonaAs immigration billAs impact ,pril !!, !"&". &(5. 8 F-inal $ounty Sheriff -aul 8abeu shares his perspective on enforcing ,riHonaIs new immigration law.F. .oriHon C-8SD. 1ay &#, !"&". &(:. 8 F,riHonaAs S8;&"(": the 8attle for %mmigrantAs 7ightsF 1aking $ontact, produced by 9ational 7adio -roBect. 9ovember &/, !"&". &('. 8 Kristin F. 8utcher and ,nne 1orrison -iehl, -ublic -olicy %nstitute of $alifornia. F$rime, $orrections and $aliforniaF. February !""# &(/. 8 9eil 1unro C? ,ugust !"&!D. Frrested illegals who were released charged with &/,!!/ subse>uent crimesF. Dai#y %a##er. 7etrieved &" ,ugust !"&!. &((. 8 ,8$ 9ews -oll. Sept. !(;5", !""( &(#. [ a b $8S 9ewsW9ew Pork imes -oll. 1ay &#L!5, !""( &(?. 8 Segovia, Francine, and 7enatta <efever. F he -olls ;; rends: ,merican -ublic +pinion +n %mmigrants ,nd %mmigration -olicy.F -ublic +pinion Yuarterly (:.! C!"&"D: 5(';5?:. 7eferenceSearch. Web. !' +ct. !"&!. &#". 8 $99W+pinion 7esearch $orporation -oll. +ct. &!;&:, !""( &#&. 8 FField.comF C-<FD. 7etrieved !"&!;"&;"!. &#!. 8 <riverAs 4icenses For Undocumented ,liens in $alifornia)dead #in**

&#5. [ a b Yuinnipiac University -oll. 9ov. &5;&?, !""/. &#:. 8 Kevin, 8uckler, Swatt 1arc 4., and Salinas -atti. F-ublic =iews +f %llegal 1igration -olicy ,nd $ontrol Strategies: , est +f he $ore .ypotheses.F Journal +f $riminal Justice 5(.Cn.d.D: 5&(;5!(. Science<irect. Web. !' +ct. !"&!. &#'. 8 United States secured against the unlawful and unauthoriHed entry of all individuals, contraband, and foreign military. We will employ all means of civil protest, demonstration, and political lobbying to accomplish this goal.N &#/. 8 Fimrite, -eter C!""(;":;!5D. F9ewsom says S.F. wonAt help with raidsF. SFGate. &#(. 8 FSanctuary $ities, US,F. +hio Jobs T Justice -olitical ,ction $ommittee CSalvi $ommunicationsD. &##. 8 8arlettaIs sanctuary cities bill popular, 1ay &5, Jonathan 7iskind, he imes 4eader. &#?. 8 4os ,ngeles imesW8loomberg -oll. 9ov. 5";<ec. 5, !""( &?". 8 F%mmigrationF. -ollingreport.com. 7etrieved !"&!;"&;"!. &?&. 8 98$ 9ewsWWall Street Journal -oll conducted by the polling organiHations of -eter .art C<D and 9eil 9ewhouse C7D. June #L&&, !""( &?!. 8 F he most comprehensive public opinion coverage ever provided for a presidential electionF. 7asmussen 7eports. !""(;"';!'. 7etrieved !"&!;"&;"!. &?5. 8 F%mmigration -ollF. 1anhattan %nstitute. 7etrieved !"&!;"&;"!. &?:. 8 9ationally, /"0 Favor 4etting 4ocal -olice Stop and =erify %mmigration Status, 7asmussen 7eports &?'. 8 -oll Shows 1ost in U.S. Want +verhaul of %mmigration 4aws, he 9ew Pork imes &?/. 8 1ay 5, !"&" in $urrent ,ffairs, Film C!"&";"';"5D. F%mmigrationprof 8log: ,cclaimed -olitical <ocumentary Series U.ow <emocracy Works 9owI ,nnounces Washington <.$. ScreeningsF. 4awprofessors.typepad.com. 7etrieved !"&&;"?;!!.

#urther reading

8arkan, 6lliott 7. F7eturn of the 9ativistsZ $alifornia -ublic +pinion and %mmigration in the &?#"s and &??"s.F Socia# Science "istory !""5 !(C!D: !!?;!#5. in -roBect 1use 8rimelow, -eter3 A#ien Nation C&??/D $ull, 9icholas J. and $arrasco, <avRd, ed. A#am7rista and the US;)e2ico (order, /i#m+ )usic+ and Stories of Undocumented 'mmigrants U. of 9ew 1e2ico -ress, !"":. !!' pp. <e 4a orre, 1iguel ,., Trai#s of "o.e and Terror, Testimonies on 'mmigration. 1aryknoll, 9P: +rbis -ress, !""?. <owling, Julie ,., and Jonathan davier %nda, eds. Governing %mmigration hrough $rime: , 7eader. Stanford, $,: Stanford University -ress, !"&5. Flores, William =. F9ew $itiHens, 9ew 7ights: Undocumented %mmigrants and 4atino $ultural $itiHenshipF 8atin American Pers.ectives !""5 5"C!D: #(;&"" .anson, =ictor <avid )e2ifornia, A State of (ecoming C!""5D .arbage -age. Susan and %nSs =aldeH, F7esidues of 8order $ontrolF, Southern S.aces, &( ,pril !"&&. %nda, Jonathan davier. argeting %mmigrants: Government, echnology, and 6thics. 1alden, 1,: Wiley;8lackwell, !""/. Kennedy, John F. , 9ation of %mmigrants. 9ew Pork: .arper T 7ow, &?/:. 1agaca, 4isa, Stradd#ing the (order, 'mmigration Po#icy and the 'NS C!""5 1ohl, 7aymond ,. F4atiniHation in the .eart of <i2ie: .ispanics in 4ate;twentieth; century ,labamaF A#a7ama 9evie !""! ''C:D: !:5;!(:. %SS9 """!;:5:&

9gai, 1ae 1. 'm.ossi7#e Su7=ects, '##ega# A#iens and the )a*ing of )odern America C!"":D, 9gai, 1ae 1. F he Strange $areer of the %llegal ,lien: %mmigration 7estriction and <eportation -olicy in the United States, &?!&L&?/'F 8a and "istory 9evie !""5 !&C&D: /?;&"(. %SS9 "(5#;!:#" Fullte2t in .istory $ooperative =icino, homas J. Suburban $rossroads: he Fight for 4ocal $ontrol of %mmigration -olicy. 4anham, 1<: 4e2ington 8ooks, !"&5. homas J. 6spenshade3 FUnauthoriHed %mmigration to the United StatesF Annua# 9evie of Socio#ogy. =olume: !&. &??'. pp &?'J.

E"ternal links

Federation of ,merican Scientists: (order Security, /ences A#ong the U0S0 'nternationa# (order Ca report of the $ongressional 7esearch Service issued on January &5, !""'D 4atin ,merican %mmigrations 6ffects on US 7elations from the <ean -eter Krogh Foreign ,ffairs <igital ,rchives University of $alifornia, San <iego: $enter for $omparative %mmigration Studies U.S. $itiHenship and %mmigration Services: %mmigration and 9ationality ,ct, itle # $ode of Federal 7egulations -ew .ispanic $enter: The State of American Pu7#ic C.inion on 'mmigration in S.ring 200B, A 9evie of )a=or Surveys <eath at US;1e2ico border reflects immigration tensions Guardian $o UK 6n ren de la 1uerte ; Da##as C7server "o Democracy Wor*s No , T e#ve Stories ; Series page F4etAs change the conversation on immigrationF -ulitHer -riHe winner Jose ,ntonio =argas discusses Fcoming outF as an undocumented immigrant