Sie sind auf Seite 1von 124

Coordination between conventional and wide area protection for

electrical power systems



DIPLOMARBEIT


Institut fr Elektrische Anlagen und Hochspannungstechnik
Abteilung Elektrische Anlagen

an der
Technischen Universitt Graz


Leiter der Abteilung: Univ.-Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Dr.techn. Lothar Fickert

Betreuung: o.Univ.-Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Dr.techn. Lothar Fickert
Dr. Larsson Mats, ABB
Privatdozent Dr.-Ing. Christian Rehtanz, ABB


Vorgelegt von: Georg Achleitner

Graz, im Mai 2003



Abstract

Title: Coordination between conventional and wide area protection for electrical power
systems

Keywords: wide area protection system, protection devices, overcurrent protection, distance
protection, Modelica, Dymola, simulation

This diploma thesis reports an investigation on the coordination between conventional and
wide area protection for electrical power systems.
The interest was focused on distance and overcurrent protection devices. These two types
were rebuilt as very detailed models in the simulation environment Dymola. Both models
were included in different realistic network models. Various faults in the network were
applied and the effect on the entire network and the relays were observed.
Furthermore the interaction of a wide area protection system and the local protection devices
were investigated and rules for the implementation of wide area protection systems were
found.






Kurzfassung:

Titel: Koordination von konventionellem und Weitbereichsschutz fr elektrische Netzwerke

Schlsselwrter: Weitbereichsschutz, Schutzeinrichtung, berstromschutz, Distanzschutz,
Modelica, Dymola, Simulation

Diese Diplomarbeit untersucht die Koordinierung von konventionellem und
Weitbereichsschutz fr elektrische Netzwerke.
Im Mittelpunkt der Untersuchung standen berstrom- und Distanzschutzrelais. Diese beiden
Typen wurden als detaillierte Modelle in der Simulationsumgebung Dymola nachgebildet und
in verschiedene realistische Netzwerkmodelle inkludiert. Verschiedene Netzwerkfehler
wurden getestet und die Auswirkung auf das gesamte Netzwerk und die Relais beobachtet.

Weiters wurde das Zusammenwirken von Weitbereichsschutz und lokalen
Schutzeinrichtungen untersucht und Richtlinien fr die Implementierung von
Weitbereichsschutzsystemen gefunden.


Acknowledgement

This thesis was written during my stay at ABB Corporate Research in Baden-Dttwil in
Switzerland. Many people assisted me with doing this thesis who I would like to thank,
especially the following persons:

Prof. Fickert has been my main supervisor at the Technical University of Graz. He supported
me in the preparation of my stay in Switzerland and produced a lot of good ideas during our
few, but very productive meetings. I also would like to thank him for his visit at Corporate
Research, which gave me the possibility to present my work and introduce him to my
supervisors in the department.

Christian Rehtanz who made this project possible. He arranged everything at ABB and was
my supervisor in the first 3 months. He introduced my to group C6, guided me through the
first and difficult period. Thanks to his happy and encouraged mood, for his readiness to
interrupt his work when I had a problem und to help me. Very often he just listened to me,
gave me an idea and brought me back on track of my work.

Mats Larsson who was willing to accept me as his diploma thesis student after Christian
Rehtanz left the department. He gave me the possibility to get to know a new simulation tool
and was already my second supervisor in the first time beside Christian. In my last time at
ABB he supported me with many ideas, was always prepared to listen to me. Furthermore I
would like to thank him for the activities we joined together during my spare time.

Cherry and Petr, who have been perfect group members, for their help, when I had problems
and for some funny and long evenings, when a social group meeting was arranged.

I want to say thank you to Kirsi, who shared the office at ABB with me for 6 months. She was
a nice and busy colleague and I heard a lot of Finnish, but i was not able to learn a single
word. Peter Walti, who help me a lot to understand the basic of relay technology and for
supporting me, when I had problems due to practical and realistic use of protection devices.

Fatima and Jonas, two other trainees, for their time together in Kantonspital, skiing days and a
lot of fun.




I also would like to say thanks to Martin and Michi in Zrich for the nice hiking tours, dinners
and for showing me the social part of Zrich. Christian for the work he did for me when
something had to be arranged in Graz, Julia for correcting my thesis and Paul who was my
contact person in Linz.
I also say thanks to all my friends at home, who gave me the feeling that they did not forget
me in this time.

I also say thanks to my family for supporting me over the years and who gave me the
opportunity to study and encouraged me to go abroad to get to know also other countries and
people.

Page 1
Table of Contents


Table of Contents


1 List of abbreviations and symbols.................................................. 3
2 Introduction .................................................................................... 5
3 Protection of Power Systems .......................................................... 7
3.1 Overview of protection equipment ......................................................................... 7
3.2 Basic considerations of short circuit faults ............................................................ 8
3.3 Different Types of Protection Relays...................................................................... 9
3.3.1 Overcurrent protection ....................................................................................... 9
3.3.2 Distance Protection .......................................................................................... 12
3.3.3 Thermal overload protection relays.................................................................. 25
3.3.4 Over/underfrequency protection relays............................................................ 28
3.3.5 Over/undervoltage protection relays ................................................................ 29
3.3.6 Differential protection...................................................................................... 29
3.4 Wide Area Measurement Systems ........................................................................ 29
3.5 Potential for Interaction WAMS conventional relays ..................................... 33
4 Simulation tools and models ......................................................35
4.1 Modelica Dymola................................................................................................. 35
4.2 Relay model............................................................................................................. 36
4.2.1 The Breaker ...................................................................................................... 36
4.2.2 Overcurrent Relay ............................................................................................ 37
4.2.3 Distance Protection .......................................................................................... 39
4.2.4 Oscillation Detection........................................................................................ 40
4.2.5 Autoreclosing ................................................................................................... 41
4.2.6 Over/Under voltage relay model ...................................................................... 42
4.3 Network models ...................................................................................................... 42
Page 2
Table of Contents

4.3.1 Line Model ....................................................................................................... 42
4.3.2 Cigr Nordic 32................................................................................................ 45
4.3.3 A model from South-America.......................................................................... 47
4.3.4 Test Model........................................................................................................ 48
4.4 PSGuard system in Simulink ................................................................................ 48
5 Simulation results .........................................................................49
5.1 Nordic 32 system..................................................................................................... 49
5.1.1 Fault on Line 4021-4042.................................................................................. 49
5.1.2 Fault on Line 4032-4044.................................................................................. 53
5.2 South American Model .......................................................................................... 53
5.3 Test System............................................................................................................. 56
5.3.1 Generator Tripping........................................................................................... 56
5.3.2 Line Fault on Line L1112................................................................................. 58
6 Conclusion and Discussion..........................................................61
Appendix A Diagrams .....................................................................63
Cigr Nordic 32 Test System............................................................................................. 63
Fault on Line 4021-4042.................................................................................................. 63
Fault on Line 4032-4044.................................................................................................. 69
Appendix B Source Code.................................................................74
Bibliography......................................................................................114
List of Tables.....................................................................................118
List of Figures...................................................................................119
1 List of abbreviations and symbols Page 3

1 List of abbreviations and symbols

ABB Asea Brown Boveri
CIGRE Confrence Internationale des Grands Rseaux Electriques
DVG Deutsche Verbundgesellschaft e. V.
GPS Global Positioning System
PMU Phasor Measurement Unit
p.u. Per unit
SCADA Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition.
SCTF Study Committee Task Force
UCTE Union for the Coordination of Transmission of Electricity
UFLS Under Frequency Load Shedding
WAMS Wide Area Measurement System
WCSS Western Systems Coordinating Council
WECC Western Electricity Coordinating Council


Thermal coefficient [K
-1
]

0
Specific resistance @
0
[mm
2
/m]

Temperature [K]

0
Reference temperature [K]

1
Starting temperature [K]

2
End temperature [K]

U
Ambient temperature [K]


Stationary End Temperature [K]

Time constant
A Cross-section of the line [mm
2
]
a Index characterizing the algebraic function
A
0
Line surface [m
2
]
b Constant characterizing the relay
B
c Specific heat [kJ/kgK]
C Capacity [C]
1 List of abbreviations and symbols Page 4

d Density [kg/m
3
]
G
Conductance [

1
S Siemens]
I Current [A]
I> 1,2 x I
Load
[A]
I
Load
Maximum Load Current [A]
I
p
Continuous load current before the current is increased to I
Tamb.

k Settable inverse time factor
l Length [m]
L Inductance [H]
m Mass [kg]
P Active Power [W]
p I
p
/I
base

Q Heat quantity [kJ]
R Resistance []
s = A
0
/l Line circumference [m]
SIL Surge Impedance Load
t Time [s]
T
amb
Ambient temperature
T
base
Temperature under normal operation conditions
T
sc
Duration of the short circuit [s]
T
trip
Max. Temperature
V Voltage [V]
X Reactance []
Z Impedance []

2 Introduction Page 5

2 Introduction
Nowadays it becomes more and more important that electrical transmission lines can be in use
as long as possible and with maximum load. Due to the reason that faults are unavoidable in a
power system, the system has to be restored within the securely shortest time. Therefore
automatical protection systems are necessary, which operate securely, quickly and without the
influence of an operator. Since protection of transmission lines is more difficult than that of
busbars in most cases, transmission lines are in the interest of investigation.
Protection systems of transmission lines are traditionally equipped with protection relays,
which have different requirements. On one hand the relays have to protect the equipment
against physical damage, e.g. overcurrent over a long period, and on the other hand to react
responsibly with regard to the stability of the whole system. Both protective functions are
typically conflicting because long-term voltage instability can cause overcurrent and false
tripping of relays can cause stability problems. This and the different specification of various
networks make it difficult to tune a protection system and make it dependent on the
experience and idea of the planning technicians.

Because of the rapidly growing importance and availability of information technologies new
ways of protecting the power system need to be considered.
A new and interesting approach is using Phasor Measurement Units (PMU) to build up a
Wide Area Measurement System (WAMS). The advantage is to give better overall protection
instead of only local protection provided by traditional systems.

The main task of all these ideas is to protect a system from collapsing or equipment from
being damaged. However the basic principles should be the same for all [1]
1
:

Secure, selective and fast.

Secure means that the operator has to have the guarantee that a fault is detected and cleared.
The possibility of a failure should be minimized as much as possible.

1
Feier, Fickert Strungen und Schutz in elektrischen Anlagen, p3
2 Introduction Page 6

Fault detection and clearance have to be selective. A good protection system will fix the
problem without shutting down a whole system. Only the part concerned, has to be taken out
of service, the rest should be still working.
The idea behind an automated protection system is, that it can react much faster than an
operator. Furthermore it is able to make decisions, which would never or too late be done by
humans. The faster a relay, a machine works, the shorter the outage and the lower the costs of
such an outfall.

This thesis focuses on the coordination between a Wide Area Measurement System and the
traditional, local protection system. The overall theme is to explore the interaction between
distance- and overcurrent protection and the Wide Area Measurement System.

In Chapter 3 an overview of different types of power system protection is given and different
types are described. The emphasis is on the use of distance protection and on the problems,
which are related to distance relays.
The second part in this chapter is to introduce a Wide Area Measurement System (WAMS), in
particular the PSGuard of ABB and to show some possible interaction between conventional
protection systems and WAMS.

The simulation-tool used is presented in chapter 4. In this part the used models of the relays
are described and problems are illustrated. The used network models are explained.

The simulation results are discussed and solutions are given in chapter 5.

In chapter 6 the results will be discussed and some perspective for further work will be given.

3 Protection of Power Systems Page 7

3 Protection of Power Systems

3.1 Overview of protection equipment

Relay (possible time settings)
Generator Differential protection: very fast (0.1-0.5 sec)
Stator: overcurrent protection
Rotor: excitation protection
both winding protection


Unbalanced protection (1-2000sec)


Synchronism check


Over/undervoltage protection (0.05-2 sec)


Power flow direction protection (Turbo generators can
work as motor)


Earth fault (5 sec)


Over/underfrequency protection (0.05-1sec)

Busbar Differential protection (0.05-1sec)
Overcurrent protection (0.05-10sec)
Voltage surge protection
Lines Distance protection (0.05-5sec)
Overcurrent protection (0.05-10sec)
Earth fault protection (5sec)
Overload protection (0.5 10sec)
Transformer Differential protection (0.05-1sec)
Overcurrent Protection (0.05-10sec)
Overexcitation protection
Load

Over/under voltage protection
Overcurrent protection
Overexcitation protection (0.2-10sec)
Table 1: Overview of Protection [2], [3], [4]

3 Protection of Power Systems Page 8

In the following parts the overcurrent, the over/undervoltage relay and especially the distance
protection are described more detailed.
3.2 Basic considerations of short circuit faults
There are different reasons for short circuits having to be cleared very quickly. One is
transient stability which requires rapid clearing in order to avoid unstable operation points,
another reason is that the lines and cables have only limited potential to absorb a lot of
energy. Because of the normally short duration of a fault it can be assumed that there exist
neither heat radiation nor heat conduction. The starting temperature will be set equal to the
maximum operation temperature. The following equations show the relation between current
and temperature. [5]
1


( ) d mc dt R t I dQ
sc

3 2
10 (3-1)
( ) [ ]
A
l
R
0 0
1 + (3-2)
d A l m (3-3)
When 3-3 and 3-2 are inserted in 3-1 the following expression is given:

( ) ( )
( )

+
+
(
,
\
,
(
j
sc
t
sc
dc
dt
A
t I
0 0 1
0 2
0
2
1
1
ln



(3-4)
Q Heat quantity [kJ]
I
sc
Current [A]
R Resistance []
m Mass [kg]
c Specific heat [kJ/kgK]
Temperature [K]

0
Specific resistance @
0
[mm
2
/m]
Thermal coefficient [K
-1
]
l Length [m]
A Cross-section of the line [mm
2
]
d Density [kg/m
3
]

0
Reference temperature [K]

1
Starting temperature [K]

2
End temperature [K]
t
sc
Time of Short Circuit [sec]



1
Muckenhuber, Elektrische Anlagen, p 1.2.3
3 Protection of Power Systems Page 9

The problem during a short circuit is that the energy, which is stored in a very short time,
cannot be delivered to the ambient air. The equipment will therefore be heated more and more
and will eventually be destroyed or will loose a lot of its lifetime.
3.3 Different Types of Protection Relays
3.3.1 Overcurrent protection
There are three different types of overcurrent protection relays; short circuit, earth fault and
overload. The operation principle for all three applications is based on the comparison of the
current seen by the relay with a pre-set value. [6]
1

Overcurrent relays are the simplest and the least expensive but the most difficult to apply. It is
not easy to coordinate a large number of relays only by time settings. If also different relay
characteristics can be chosen the coordination can become a challenge. That is one of the
reasons why overcurrent relays are normally only used as a backup protection or in
distribution networks which have a radial structure in most cases.
Due to the fact that in this thesis only short circuit relays are used for simulations, only these
relays will be described in detail.

3.3.1.1 Short circuit overcurrent relays
The line current is the only input variable for these relays and such a relay works
independently of the direction of the current. If direction detection is necessary the voltage
has to be added as a second input.
One group of overcurrent relays has a constant timecurrent independent characteristic the
other one has a current-dependent trip characteristic.

The choice of a specific characteristic has more or less traditional reasons. In Europe a current
independent characteristic is widely used, in America it is more common with current
dependent characteristics. [7]
2


1
Jonsson: Line Protection and Power System Collapse, p. 9
2
Gremmel Hennig: ABB Taschenbuch - Schaltanlagen, p 714
3 Protection of Power Systems Page 10


Current dependent
Current independent
Operating
time [s]
Current [I]

Figure 1: Overcurrent Trip Characteristic

One problem is to choose the type of relay. The other one is to coordinate the relays in a
network.
R1 R2 R3
R1
R2
R3
Operation time [s]
Current [A]

Figure 2: Coordination of Overcurrent Relays

3 Protection of Power Systems Page 11

The operation current of the relays has to be larger than the maximum current during normal
conditions, to avoid unnecessary trips. The relays must have current settings which give a
secure tripping for the following station and at least such settings that the relay trips as a
backup protection for the next line if there is a short circuit at the end of the longest following
line. To get selectivity the tripping time is set shorter for relays located close to the load, and
longer for more distant loads. Short circuits with large fault currents will therefore exist
longer than ones with small currents. This is unsatisfactory because the settings have to be
done not only to protect the equipment from being damaged but also to keep the connected
network stable. [8]
1


In case of meshed system configurations it may be impossible to find correct settings for
overcurrent protection that achieve selectivity in the network. In this case the overcurrent unit
has to be equipped with a directional element and is then called directional overcurrent
protection. Even with these relays it can be difficult to find a clever and good way to gain
selectivity in a network.
One possibility would be to use directional overcurrent protection with a current dependent
relay characteristic. If all relays have the same settings, the relay with the highest measured
fault current will trip first. It can be assumed that this is the right relay because the fault
current becomes higher the closer it is located to the fault.

However short circuit relays are rarely used on the transmission level and will therefore in
this theses only be used as a backup protection.
3.3.1.2 Earth fault protection relays
Under normal condition a power system is usually balanced and the residual currents are
small. During an earth fault the balance is disturbed and the residual currents increase
significantly. Thus the zero current can be used to detect this type of faults and it will also be
insensitive to the load current.
This type of protection in combination with overcurrent protection will be preferable in non-
solid grounded system, however in other networks distance protection will do this work.

1
Arnesen O., Faanes H.: Elektriske Kraftsystemer Del2, p. 194
3 Protection of Power Systems Page 12

3.3.2 Distance Protection
Distance protection is the most widely used protection system in transmission networks. The
most accurate form of comparison for relay quantities is to compare the current entering a
circuit with the current leaving it. For many transmission circuits, because of the line length, it
is costly to compare the currents at the two ends of the line since this requires communication
circuits that are at least as long as the transmission line. Therefore distance protection of
transmission lines is a reliable and selective form of protection for lines where the line
terminals are relatively far apart. [10]
1
However in some applications communication lines are
used to speed up the fault clearing time [11], a progress becoming more and more common.
3.3.2.1 Operating principle of distance protection
Definition of distance protection [12]
2
:

Distance protection is a time coordinated protection
system, which is dependent of the resistance and the direction
of the energy flow. The tripping time increases stepwise
with the increase of the distance between the relay and the fault location.

Distance protection is working by measuring the impedance of the line. During normal
conditions the impedance seen by the relay is very large.

I
U
Z (3-5)
Z Impedance []
U Voltage [V]
I Current [A]

If a fault occurs, only the impedance of the line up to the fault point and the fault resistance
will limit the current. Both are very small in comparison to normal conditions and as a result
the current will increase. With the measured current and voltage the relay calculates the
resulting resistance and reactance. If these values are smaller than the known and stored data
of the line, the fault has to be in the protected area and the relay will work.

1
Anderson P.M: Power System Protection, chapter 11, p. 379
2
Siemens, Elektronische Netzschutztechnik, p. 5.1
3 Protection of Power Systems Page 13

Figure 3 shows the R-X diagram in principle. The area around the line impedance is
necessary, because the fault resistance is not known and can vary from failure to failure.

Line impedance
Zone1
jX
R
22
1

Figure 3: R-X diagram for a distance relay (MHO-Relay)
The normal operating point would be far to the right (point 1 in Figure 3) while during
disturbances this point moves to or into the tripping characteristic (point 2 in Figure 3).
One has to be aware that there is always an uncertainty in the measured parameters. The line
parameters are changing due to load conditions, environment influence and compensations
installations. The measuring transformers have a certain percentage of inaccuracy and
additionally the relay itself has some inexactness.

In Figure 4 a typical distance protection scheme is shown. It can easily be seen, that the relay
is working as the primary protection for its own zone, and as a backup for the next lines.
The coordination is achieved by different time delays.
3 Protection of Power Systems Page 14

R1 R2 R3
Length
Time
T1
T2
T3
T4
Zone 1 Zone 1 Zone 1
Zone 2 Zone 2 Zone 2
Zone 3
Zone 4
Zone 3

Figure 4: Principle of Distance Protection
The first zone of Relay 1 should cover about 80-85% of the first line without any time delay.
Due to the above-mentioned inaccuracy of the line parameters and an additional fault
resistance the first zone cannot protect the whole line length. The second zone has to work for
the remaining 20% of the line and as a backup for Relay 2. The third zone of Relay 1 has to
be the backup for Relay 2 and 3. Hence to a fault on Line 2, between Relay 2 and Relay 3, not
only R2 will see the fault but also R1. In this case R2 should trip the line, because it will
detect the failure in its first, at least second zone. Relay 1 also detects a fault, but in the
second or even third zone and has to wait too long to get the chance to take the line out of
operation.
In practice the second zone will cover 80-120% of the first line and is called overreach
protection zone. Its duty is to protect the end of the line and the connected busbar.
Zone 3 is typically set to cover about 120% of the longest adjacent line.
More than 3 zones are becoming very difficult to handle in a meshed network and are
therefore used very rarely However the fundamental idea of zone 3 is to provide 100% remote
back-up protection to all adjacent circuits and also to be discriminative in time with zone 2 of
all adjacent circuits. [6]
1


1
Jonsson: Line Protection and Power System Collapse, p. 9
3 Protection of Power Systems Page 15

3.3.2.2 Overview over the basic types of distance relays
This section gives an overview of the 6 basic types of distance relays [13]
1
:
TRIP ZONE
NO TRIP ZONE
jX
R
jX
R
R
jX
R
jX
Zone 3
Zone 2
Zone 1
R
jX
Zone 3
Zone 2
Zone 1 R
jX
a) Impedance characteristic b) Mho characteristic
c) Offset mho characteristic d) Self-polarized mho and
reactance characteristic
e) Quadrilateral f) Lenticular

Figure 5: Basic types of distance relays

a) Impedance. The disadvantage of this relay is that it is not directional. It is also very
sensitive to load encroachments and power swings.
b) MHO. To avoid the problems of the impedance relay the origin was moved to the
first quadrant to get a directional relay.
c) Offset MHO. This relay provides better protection for close-in faults.
d) Reactance. This relay measures only the reactive component of the impedance.
e) Quadrilateral. Numerical relays have a quadrilateral characteristic where the reach
can be set independently in resistive and reactive direction. An example is the ABB
REL 5xx relay group, or ABB REL 316*4.
f) Lenticular or Ellipse. To provide less sensitivity to load.

1
IEEE Guide for Protective Relay Application to Transmission Lines, p40-41
3 Protection of Power Systems Page 16


Figure 6 shows the relay characteristic of a state of the art distance relay. This relay has the
ability to fulfil different functions. It has not only a normal but also a reverse zone detection
to protect a certain part behind the relay and a characteristic which obstructs load
encroachment.

Figure 6: Distance function characteristic [9]
1


1
ABB, Numerischer Leitungsschutz Type REL 316*4, p. 3.5.2-36
Underimpedance
Characteristic
Zone 3
Zone 2
Zone 1
RLoad
Reverse zone
Overreach zone
Load angle
3 Protection of Power Systems Page 17

3.3.2.3 Oscillation Detection

Figure 7: Oscillations in a 2-machine network [9]
1

In large power systems it can happen that one part starts to swing against each other because
of large changes in load or changes in power system configuration caused by load changes or
clearance of faults. As the rotating masses try to find a stable point, they oscillate with
damped oscillation until they find a stable operating point. [15]
2

These oscillations cause changes in phase and amplitude of voltage difference between the
different parts of the network and cause changes in the power flow between the swinging
parts.
If such an oscillation reaches an unfavourable operation point (high current, low voltage) the
tripping characteristic of the relay will be reached and can lead to unwanted trigger of the
relay because distance relays see such oscillation only as a swing of the measured impedance.
To avoid such problematic operation conditions, oscillation detection has been implemented
in most of the relays.








1
ABB, Numerischer Leitungsschutz Type REL 316*4, p. 4-40
2
ABB, Application Manual Rel 511*2.3, p. 125
3 Protection of Power Systems Page 18

The operating principle of the oscillation detection is very simple:
jX
R
R
out
Impedance locus at power swing
R
in
X
in
X
out
t

Figure 8: Oscillation Detection

The method uses the feature that the change of the impedance is slow in comparison during a
short circuit fault. If the speed of the change is lower than a 6-Hz-power swing, the detection
logic decides that it has to be a power swing, and the relay will not operate.
Two limits are introduced. The time it takes to cross the area between the outer and the inner
line is measured. If the timer exceeds the pre-set value, the tripping function will be blocked
for a certain time (normally a few seconds). Due to the reason that the first swing is normally
slower than the following ones, the time is set to 45ms. [15]
1


Another possibility to detect oscillations is described in [9]
2
. As can be seen in Figure 7 the
voltage changes and therefore also the angle between U and I. This feature is used to detect
oscillations. If there are several changes of U x cos() in a short time period the relay will
receive a block signal. Oscillations up to 6 Hz will be detected.


1
ABB, Application Manual Rel 511*2.3, p. 133
2
ABB, Numerischer Leitungsschutz Type REL 316*4, p. 4-41
3 Protection of Power Systems Page 19

3.3.2.4 Theoretical background of distance protection
New relays measure the failure impedance in the positive system independent of the type of
the short circuit. The positive (+) and negative (-) sequence impedance are considered to be
the same for the line. [8]
1


A detailed introduction to symmetrical components can be found in [10].

3
2
j
e a (3-6)
( )
3 2 1 0
3
1
U U U U + + (3-7)
( )
3
2
2 1
3
1
U a U a U U + +
+
(3-8)
( )
3 2
2
1
3
1
U a U a U U + +

(3-9)
+
+ + U U U U
0 1
(3-10)
+
+ + U a U a U U
2
0 2
(3-11)
+
+ + U a U a U U
2
0 3
(3-12)

In the following, one, two and three pole short-circuits are described


1
Arnesen O., Faanes H.: Elektriske Kraftsystemer Del 2, p. 200
3 Protection of Power Systems Page 20

Relay
1
2
3
Z
+
, Z
-
, Z
0
I1 I2 I3
U1 U2 U3

Figure 9: In principle the connection of a distance relay

The next equations and considerations refer to Figure 9

a) Three pole short circuit:
+ + +

Z
U
I
Z
U
I
Z
U
I
3
3
2
2
1
1
, , (3-13)
1 3
1 3
3 2
3 2
2 1
2 1
3
3
2
2
1
1
I I
U U
I I
U U
I I
U U
I
U
I
U
I
U
Z


+
(3-14)
b) Two pole short circuit
+ +


Z
U U
Z Z
U U
I I
2
2
1
2
1
2 1
(3-15)
2 1
2 1
1
2 1
2 I I
U U
I
U U
Z

+
(3-16)
c) One pole short circuit (grounded in starpoint)
( )
0
1
1
3
1
Z Z Z
U
I
+ +

+
(3-17)
0 1
3 3 3 I I I I
+
(3-18)
+
Z Z ;
+
Z Z
0
(3-19)
3 Protection of Power Systems Page 21

( ) ( )
+ + + + +
+ + + + + Z Z I Z I I I Z I Z I Z I U
0 0 0 0 0 1
(3-20)
(
(
,
\
,
,
(
j
+
+
+
+ +
Z
Z Z
Z I Z I U
0
0 1 1
(3-21)
k
Z
Z Z
3
0

+
+
(3-22)
0 1
1
3I k I
U
Z
+

+
(3-23)
+
X X ) 5 2 (
0
;
+
R R ) 6 5 . 1 (
0
;
+ +
R X ) 20 2 (
Parameter k varies from 1/3 to 4/3 depending on the tower-configuration.

For all fault scenarios the fault resistance has to be taken into account. Warrington gives the
following formula for the resistance of an arcing fault [14]:

305 . 0
8750
4 . 1
arc
l
I
R (3-24)
l
arc
Length [m] of fault
I Current [A]

3 Protection of Power Systems Page 22

3.3.2.5 Examples which can cause problems to distance relays
In this section 3 examples will be given which illustrate problems related to distance relays
and their settings.

3.3.2.5.1 Current infeed
It can cause problems for the measurement of the relay, if an infeed exists on the following
bus. This will increase the measured impedance of the relay.
Z
AB
Z
BC
R1
A B
C
I
AB
I
BC
I
DB
D
Z
BF
F

Figure 10: Current infeed

( )
BF
AB
DB
AB
AB
BF AB DB AB AB
AB
R
Z
I
I
Z
I
Z I I I Z
I
U
Z
(
(
,
\
,
,
(
j
+ +
+ +
1
1
(3-25)

The impedance will increase with the term
AB
DB
I
I
. The bigger the infeed the bigger the
aberration.

3 Protection of Power Systems Page 23

3.3.2.5.2 Current outfeed
Z
AB
Z
BC
R1
A B
C
I
AB
I
BC
I
BD
D

Figure 11: Current outfeed
( )
BF
AB
BD
AB
AB
BF BD AB AB AB
AB
BF BF AB AB
AB
R
Z
I
I
Z
I
Z I I I Z
I
Z I I Z
I
U
Z
(
(
,
\
,
,
(
j
+
+

+
1
1
(3-26)

The impedance will decrease with the term
AB
BD
I
I
. The bigger the outfeed the smaller the
measured impedance.

3.3.2.5.3 Double lines
Z
AB
Z
BC
R1
A B C
I
AB1
I
BC1
Z
BF
F
I
BC2
D
Z
CD
I
AB2
R2


Figure 12: Double line

3 Protection of Power Systems Page 24

a) I
AB2
= 0

BF
BF BC
BC
BC
Z
Z Z
I
I

2
2
1
(3-27)
1 2 BC AB BC
I I I (3-28)

With equation 3-27 and equation 3-28 follows:

(
(
,
\
,
,
(
j

BC
BF
AB BC
Z
Z
I I
2
1
1
(3-29)
BC
BF
AB BC
Z
Z
I I
2
2
(3-30)
BC
BF
BF AB
AB
R
Z
Z
Z Z
I
U
Z
2
1
2 + (3-31)

The problems start with the settings of Zone2. The relay should cover 120% of the first
line, thus 20% of the following line, the measured impedance in the case that the fault is at
20% of the Line BC (Z
BF
= 0.2 x Z
BC)
will be:
BC AB R
Z Z Z 36 . 0
1
+
Therefore the settings of Zone 2 and 3 have to be chosen very carefully, so that there is no
interaction with other relays, specially, if there are more lines than the double line
connected to e.g. Bus B in Figure 12.

b) Assumption that the two Lines AB are identical and therefore I
AB2 =
I
AB1


1 2 BC AB BC
I I I (3-32)
BC
BF
BF AB
AB
R
Z
Z
Z Z
I
U
Z
2
1
2
4 + (3-33)

In comparison with equation 3-31 and the example given above, it can easily be seen that
the measured impedance will increase much more because of the infeed from the parallel
Line AB.
3 Protection of Power Systems Page 25

A short example:
We assume that all lines are identical and have a resistance of 10 and there is a fault at
busbar C which has a very small impedance in relation to the line impedance and
therefore it is neglected. We look at the Relay R1.

Scenario1 Line AB2 is out of operation:
The Relay would measure a fault resistance of 15 .

Scenario2 All lines are in operation:
The Relay would measure a fault resistance of 20 .

Scenario3 Line BC2 is out of operation:
The Relay would measure a fault resistance of 30 .

The example is meant to show that it is difficult to find a good solution for the settings of
a distance relay in meshed networks when the relay should be used as reserve protection
for the adjacent lines.
3.3.3 Thermal overload protection relays
Overload protection relays have to protect the equipment from overcurrent for too long.
Overcurrent over a certain period can exceed the limits. The heat dissipation of overhead lines
is so good that overload protection is rarely used. Under normal conditions it would not be
possible to run the line at the heat limit with respect to the ensuing voltage drop.

Overload of lines is not a matter of seconds but minutes or hours. Therefore all mechanisms
cooling and heating the line are working: radiation and conduction respective the loss of the
line and sun radiation.

If the radiation is neglected, the heat balance is [5]
1
:

( ) dt A k d c m dt R I dQ
U
+
0
2
(3-34)

1
Muckenhuber, Elektrische Anlagen, p 1.2.1
3 Protection of Power Systems Page 26

From (3-34) follows:

dt
d
(3-35)

with:
2
0
2
I kAs
A d c


(3-36)
( )
2
0
2
0 0
1
I kAs
I kAs
U

(3-37)

the general solution is:


t
e c

(3-38)
and the particular one:
( )
(
(
,
\
,
,
(
j
+


t
e 1
1 1
(3-39)
The relation for the end temperature is:
( )
( )
0 0
1

+

U
kAs
I (3-40)
and the equation for the time is:
1
ln

t (3-41)
Q Heat quantity [kJ]
R Resistance []

0
Specific resistance @
0
[mm
2
/m]
I Current [A]
m Mass [kg]
A Cross-section of the line [mm
2
]
c Specific heat [kJ/kgK]
Thermal coefficient [K
-1
]
l Length [m]
d Density [kg/m
3
]
Temperature [K]

0
Reference temperature [K]

1
Starting temperature [K]

2
End temperature [K]

U
Ambient temperature [K]


Stationary End Temperature [K]
Time constant
s = A
0
/l Line circumference [m]
3 Protection of Power Systems Page 27

The maximum load current may not be higher than the maximal allowed operation current.
(The maximum operation temperature must not be higher than the maximum allowed
temperature


B
)

( )
( )
0 0
1

+


B
U B
all
kAs
I I (3-42)

The overload protection works similar to the overcurrent relay. It has also the current as input
and waits a certain time until it trips the line.

For example the ABB-Relay 511
1
uses the following equation, which is very similar to 3-41.
base
amb Trip
base
base
T
T T
I
I
p
I
I
t

(
(
,
\
,
,
(
j

(
(
,
\
,
,
(
j

2
2
2
ln (3-43)

p is I
p
/I
base

I
p
is continuous load current before the current is increased to I
Tamb. [A]

T
amb
is ambient temperature [K].
T
Trip
max. temperature [K]
T
base
temperature under normal operation conditions [K]

The ambient temperature influences the conductor and insulation temperature. Since it is the
actual temperature and not the temperature rise, that damages the equipment, ambient
temperature compensation is used with most thermal protection relays. In addition the settings
of the relay have to be adapted continuously because of changing weather conditions.
Therefore it can become necessary to equip some parts of the line with additional sensors to
get actual reference points. [5]

Overload relays have to operate correctly under all conditions. Their time settings will set so
long that there is no problem due to transient stability but they may operate during long-term
voltage stability.
However it could be important to have the possibility to overload a line for a longer period to
avoid a total blackout because some damages on the line could be cheaper than to have a total

1
ABB, Application Manual Rel 511*2.3, p. 294
3 Protection of Power Systems Page 28

breakdown of the network. This could be done by external signals or adaptive relaying. If
investigations show that problems due to overload relays can cause major problems, one
should abstain from using such relays.
3.3.4 Over/underfrequency protection relays
The frequency of a power system will change if the load-generation equilibrium is disturbed.
If the state of imbalance is caused by a deficiency of generation, the frequency will decrease
until a new balance between load and generation is established. If there is too much
generation in comparison to the load, the frequency will increase.

To avoid damage to the generation-equipment and to avoid frequency instability, certain
protection mechanisms are included in power systems.

Overfrequency relays will be used for generator shedding in case of too much generation.
The settings vary from network to network. (e.g.: WECC .: 61,7 Hz @ 60 Hz normal).

Underfrequency load shedding (UFLS) will be necessary to restore a network from low
frequency. It will stepwise increase the amount of shed load. For smaller disturbances, the
amount will be smaller and the time delay from recognition to trip will become shorter than
for larger ones.
The recommendations for the relays settings differ from network to network. In Europe for
example the first actions have to be taken at 49 Hz, before other regulations should work.
[16]
1


Network (country) Nom. Frequency [Hz] First action [Hz] Minimal Frequency [Hz]
UCTE 50 49 47.5
WECC 60 59.4 56.4
Brazil 60 58.5 57.3
Australia 50 49 46.7
Thailand 50 49 47.9
Canada 60 58.5 56

1
UCPTE, Summary of the current operating principles of the UCPTE, p. 24
3 Protection of Power Systems Page 29

Tasmania 50 47 44.8
Ireland 50 48.5 48
Table 2: UFLS in different networks [16], [17], [18], [19]


For security reasons power plants will automatically disconnect at 47,5 Hz. Operation below
this frequency is endangered (vibration, loss of capacity in the auxiliary gear, ). [20]
1


3.3.5 Over/undervoltage protection relays
Over/under voltage protection systems are very similar to over/under frequency protection.
The voltage at the line end depends on the voltage drop on the line and therefore on the load.
The voltage has to be kept in certain limits. Overstepping these limits can be caused by an
abnormal operation situation or faults. Overvoltage is mainly a reason of problems with
voltage regulations of generators or bad reactive power control. Undervoltages are caused by
short circuits or high demand for reactive power.
3.3.6 Differential protection
The idea of the differential protection is to measure the sum of the currents flowing in a point
and the current leaving this one. If the balance is ok, the protection system will not react. If a
fault occurs, the protection unit detects that the sum of all currents is not zero any more and
will therefore open all the connections to the protected part. Normally this system is used to
protect short line or busbars where communication lines are short and affordable.
3.4 Wide Area Measurement Systems
The WAMS is a new possibility to monitor the network by using Phasor Measurement Units.
The PMUs measure the amplitude of the voltage, the current and the angle. These data are
transferred to a central computer, the so-called PSGuard System.
2
The big advantage of this
system is, that all measurements get a time stamp by a GPS (Global Positioning System)-
Signal. Therefore the System knows which data belong to which dataset even if the
transmission time of one signal is longer than the other one (See Figure 13).

1
9
th
Meeting of the European Electricity Regulatory Forum, UCTE Paper, p. A1-22
2
http://www.abb.com/global/abbzh/abbzh254.nsf/viewUNID/E3091E26E4DC972EC1256B98002BB004
3 Protection of Power Systems Page 30

Wide Area Measurement Systems can increase [21]
the power transmission
the system reliability, or
both in combination.

p
ABB
PSGuard
System
Protection
Center (SPC)
High Voltage
Transmission Network
PMU
Re
U
2
I
2
U
1
U
3
I
1
I
3
Im
Re
U
2
I
2
U
1
U
3
I
1
I
3
Im
Re
U
2
I
2
U
1
U
3
I
1
I
3
Im
Re
U
2
I
2
U
1
U
3
I
1
I
3
Im
PMU PMU PMU
PMU
Re
U
2
I
2
U
1
U
3
I
1
I
3
Im
GPS
Satellite
PSGuard
System
Protection
Center (SPC)

Figure 13: PSGuard
Furthermore the requirements for a wide area protection system are [21]:
Dynamic measurement and representation of events
Wide area system view
Coordinated and optimized stabilizing actions
Handling of cascaded outages.

The big advantage of PSGuard is, that it provides a very simple state estimation.
For the state calculation the weighted least squares algorithm (WLS-algorithm) using phasor
measurement units is used. [22], [23]

Assume an electrical network with N busses and K connections between the nodes. For each
connection which connects the bus i and j, the following equation holds: K K , , 2 , 1 K
3 Protection of Power Systems Page 31


( ) ( )
( ) ( )
i k j jk k i j k j jk jk
j k i ik k j i k i ik ik
U Y U Y Y U U Y U Y I
U Y U Y Y U U Y U Y I
+ +
+ +
(3-44)

h( )
X z
v


Figure 14: Model for state calculation

( ) v x h z + (3-45)
The measurement relationship between the voltages (state of the system) and the connection
currents is linear when PMUs are used. This yields:

v x H z + (3-46)
The mathematical formula of the optimisation problem is:
( ) ( ) ( ) x H z W x H z x J
T
x

2
1
min (3-47)
W is the inverted covariance matrix. All measurements are assumed to be independent.
The solution of equation 3-46 can easily be derived as:
( ) z W H G z W H H W H x
T T T 1
1

(3-48)
with
[ ]
T
N i
I I I I U U U z
1 1 1 1 1
L L L (3-49)
The Greek letters denote the starting and ending point of the connection. And H can be
written as
]
]
]
,

B
I
H (3-50)
I identity matrix of dimensions [NxN]
B build out of equation 3-44 with respect of ordering of currents and voltages, and the
admittance parameters of the connection.

3 Protection of Power Systems Page 32


The advantage of this calculation:
Solution is only a simple matrix equation
Matrix G can be computed offline


Furthermore PSGuard provides the possibility for
Topology detection of the network
Transient voltage stability prediction
Frequency stability
.

3 Protection of Power Systems Page 33

3.5 Potential for Interaction WAMS conventional relays

Table 3: Possible Interaction WAMS - relays
Fewer problems
Possible problems
3 Protection of Power Systems Page 34


In Table 3 dark grey areas symbolize possible problem areas. Light grey parts should not
cause any problematic interaction between the protection relay and the WAMS.
In the Table a short explanation of the reasons for some interactions and also the time are
given.
Overload protection was considered as not so important because of the reasons described at
the end of section 3.3.3.
Frequency relays have been already included in the simulations in the context of load
shedding.

The simulations in this thesis are focusing on overcurrent and distance protection. These two
protection systems are the most widely used types of protection for transmission lines.
Therefore the interest was to focus on problems which can be caused by local protection.
Furthermore interferences between PSGuard Protection System and local protection should be
detected and solutions for avoiding such problems should be found.

4 Simulation tools and models Page 35

4 Simulation tools and models
This chapter gives a short introduction to the simulation tool, explains the simulation models
and presents the used network models.
4.1 Modelica Dymola
The used simulation tool in this thesis is Dymola (Dymosim AB, Lund, Sweden). Dymola is a
graphical editor and translator for the object oriented language Modelica.
Modelica is an object-oriented language for modelling of large, complex and heterogeneous
physical systems. Models are described by using differential, discrete or algebraic
equations. [24]
It supports also non causal modelling which makes it in addition to the object oriented
concept very powerful to simulate for example power lines that are very cumbersome to
model using block-orientated languages as Simulink (Mathworks Inc., Natick, USA). [25]
Dymola was chosen because it was much easier to simulate breaker actions, than in Matlab
(Mathworks Inc., Natick, USA) or Simulink. The breaker logic was very easy to implement
by using state-machines and the possibility of object-orientated programming made it simple
to combine different modules.

In power system models of the simulation tool all voltages and currents are described with
their phasors:

b a
ji i I + (4-1)
b a
jv v V + + 1 (4-2)

The connection pin (one node in the network) is defined as followed:

0
1

j
k
k
I (4-3)
j
V V V .......
2 1
(4-4)

For a more detailed description of the parts of the network models see:
Online Documentation of the Library ObjectStab or [25].
4 Simulation tools and models Page 36

The power system represents a star grounded, three phase balanced network. The faults are
three-phase low impedance earth fault.
The influence of the measuring transformers on the Relays is neglected.
4.2 Relay model


Figure 15: Distance Relay (Screenshot)
In the simulation environment a relay model was developed. It includes an overcurrent
protection, a distance protection, an oscillation detection and has the possibility for
Autoreclosing. In the following each part is presented separately.
Additionally, when a trip signal arrives from one part of the protection system, a short time
delay is included, which should simulate the opening time of the circuit breaker. The opening
time was set to be 50msec.
An oscillation signal from Oscillation Detection only blocks the tripping signal from the
distance protection, but not from the overcurrent protection. [9]

Overcurrent protection exists also as a standalone relay model. Furthermore an
over/undervoltage protection relay exists, which is described in 4.2.6.

4.2.1 The Breaker
It was not possible to set the current over the breaker to zero, when the breaker should be
open. This would lead to an unsolvable Jacobian Matrix. Therefore the current over the
breaker was set to be very small. 1e-5 p.u. was small enough to get acceptable simulation
results.

4 Simulation tools and models Page 37

4.2.2 Overcurrent Relay
In the overcurrent relay time inverse and time constant trip characteristic were applied.
The relay has the current as input, the measured impedance and a so-called direction signal,
which gives information about the direction of the power flow.
The direction of the power flow is calculated as follows:

jX
R
A
V
uV
uA

Figure 16: Powerflow direction detection

0 ) cos( > V A (4-5)

If equation 4-5 is greater than 0, the power flow is in the direction, the relay should protect,
otherwise it is the opposite direction.

a) Time-constant
If the current is over a preset value, the timer is started. If the timer reaches the trip-time a trip
signal is given to an output variable and can be used in the main part of the relay for starting
the breaker opening process. The time constant has to be set longer than the longest time of
the Zone detection to avoid interferences with the impedance measuring system. [15]
1


b) Time-inverse
The principle is the same as described above, but the calculation of the tripping time is
different. Now the time is depended on the value of the current. A larger current results in
faster trigger. [26]
2


1
ABB, Application Manual Rel 511*2.3, p. 217
2
ABB, RAIDK, RAIDG, RAPDK and RACIK Phase overcurrent and earth fault protection, Users Guide, p7
4 Simulation tools and models Page 38

1
(
(
,
\
,
,
(
j

>
a
I
I
kb
t (4-6)
As long as I is greater than I>
,
the relay will trigger when the following equation is fulfilled.
( )
dt
kb
I
t I
t
a

(
(
,
\
,
,
(
j

>
0
1
1 (4-7)

Figure 17: Example for normal inverse [26]

The values for the different characteristics [26]:

Characteristic a b
Normal inverse 0.02 0.14
Very inverse 1 13.5
Extremely inverse 2 80
Long-time inverse 1 120
Table 4: Overcurrent characteristics
If there was a short activation of the time-inverse overcurrent protection and afterward the
starting signal for the protection system is reset the value will not be set to 0 at once, however
it will be slowly set back to 0 to simulate some fall-back process.
4 Simulation tools and models Page 39


The overcurrent function was built in as a reserve overcurrent protection and will not react if
the Zone-detection is working.
4.2.3 Distance Protection
Zone 1
Zone 2
Zone 3
Line jX
R
R1 R2 R3
X3
X2
X1

Figure 18: Distance relay characteristic
The distance characteristic was programmed as seen in Figure 18. This model is based on the
ABB-Relay 511*2.3 [15]
1
. The point R1-R3 and X1-X3 are the setting points for Zone1-
Zone3. The time settings were chosen as 0.1 sec for Zone1, 0.4 sec for Zone 2 and 0.8 sec for
Zone3.
If the impedance enters Zone3, the timer is started. When the impedance stays too long in one
of the zones, corresponding to the preset trip times, the distance protection sets a trip signal to
true.
The impedances were calculated as followed:
( )
2 2
b a
b b a a
a
i i
i u i u
z
+
+
(4-8)
( )
2 2
b a
b a a b
b
i i
i u i u
z
+
+
(4-9)
The following tripping conditions have to be fulfilled:
Overcurrent (1,4 x In) or Undervoltage (0,7 x Un) and
The Zone Detection.

1
ABB, Application Manual Rel 511*2.3, p. 56
4 Simulation tools and models Page 40

The undervoltage condition is necessary, because sometimes there is a very low infeed and
then the fault current will not reach the required amplitude, however the voltage can then be
used as an indicator for deciding whether it is a fault or not.

T1: in Zone 3
T2: in Zone 2
T6:not in Zone 3
wait Zone 2
T5: not in Zone 2
T4: not in Zone 1
Zone 1
Zone 3
T3: in Zone 1


Figure 19: Distance protection logic
In Figure 19 the logic of the distance protection is shown. Zone 2 can only be detected, when
zone 3 was detected before.
4.2.4 Oscillation Detection

T1: Outzone
T3: inzone
T4: not outzone
T2: not outzone
wait
Start
Timer
Stop
Timer


Figure 20: Oscillation detection logic
For the oscillation detection the same trip characteristic was implemented as presented in
Figure 8. The ring is laid outside Zone 3, to protect all zones from unwanted tripping.
The oscillation signal is active as long as the impedance is located in Zone 3.
.
The timer is started when the outzone (the outer part of the ring) is entered. If it is left, the
timer is stopped and reset, if it enters the inner zone, the timer will be stopped and the time is
compared to the pre-set value.
The pre-set value for the first swing is 45msec and for the following 15msec.
4 Simulation tools and models Page 41

4.2.5 Autoreclosing
Statistically 80% of all failures in transmission networks will disappear, when the line is
cleared. They are mostly transient faults like arcs, trees or similar. If the line is taken out of
operation, the normal situation will be restored and the line can be reclosed. This is the reason
why autoreclosing is implemented in most protection relays.

After opening the breaker the relay will wait a certain time, for example 600msec, and will
then reclose the breaker. If this action is successful, the line is in operation again and the fault
is removed. If the Autoreclosing process was not successful, the relay will open the breaker
again and take the line out of operation until a service team fixes the problem and resets the
relay manually. Reclosing more than 2 times is considered too dangerous and only allowable
in areas where it can be assumed that this second try of reclosure will lead to success and not
to damage of life or equipment.
The Autoreclosing function will however only work when the fault detection logic was started
as the primary protection system (the fault is located in the first zone, and the tripping is not
due to overcurrent). In all other cases it has to be assumed that the fault is more complex or
has a bigger problem as reason that a reclosing should be avoided.

The functionality was implemented in the simulation model. If the breaker opens, a timer is
started. After a time period of 600ms the breaker will be closed again. If the failure still exits,
the relay will work and open the breaker otherwise the breaker will stay closed and the relay
will continue working.

The input variable from the higher-ranked relay is the variable breaker-open. Due to the
reason that the breaker could be closed externally, the condition T3 was necessary in the state
machine model. (see Figure 21).

4 Simulation tools and models Page 42

T1: Breaker open
T2: Timer > Autoreclosing Time
T4: Breaker close
T3: Breaker close
wait
Start
Autoreclose
Reclose
breaker


Figure 21: Autoreclosing logic
4.2.6 Over/Under voltage relay model
This model is very simple. It will trigger with a preset time delay if the voltage is over (for
example 1,1 x Un) or under (for example 0,9 x Un) a certain limit.
Additionally there is a possibility for Autoreclosing.
4.3 Network models
4.3.1 Line Model

Figure 22: Line model
The line model in Figure 22 is composed of one PiLink model as it can be seen in Figure 23
and 2 relay models. Both relay models are directional relays, which means that they look
only in one direction. The two relays are connected via a transmission channel. If one relay
opens the breaker, the breaker on the other side will also be opened with a time delay of
20ms.
4 Simulation tools and models Page 43


Figure 23: Line model (PiLink)
The line is described with the following equations (1 is the left node, 2 the right one) and with
equation 4-1 and 4-2:
( )
]
]
]
,

]
]
]
,

,
+
+
]
]
]
,

, +
]
]
]
,

]
]
]
,

,
b b
a a
b
a
b
a
v v
v v
R X
X R
X R v
v
G B
B G
i
i
2 1
2 1
2 2
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
(4-10)
( )
]
]
]
,

]
]
]
,

,
+
+
]
]
]
,

, +
]
]
]
,

]
]
]
,

,
b b
a a
b
a
b
a
v v
v v
R X
X R
X R v
v
G B
B G
i
i
2 1
2 1
2 2
2
2
2
2
1
1
2
1
(4-11)

The line model was also built in a version with a fault. At any position on the line a fault can
be simulated. If the fault current becomes very small (the breaker does not set the current to
zero) the fault is assumed to be cleared. With the length of the fault duration, the fault type
can be chosen. (short and transient faults to permanent faults).

The base for the per unit (p.u.) system is 100 MVA. However with generators it is possible to
use another base (for example: 1000 MVA). The voltage is 1 p.u. as rated voltage in the
network, but for the current this is not true. The value has a range of 20 p.u. or more. It was
necessary to find a possibility to get all the currents to a comparable base because the relays
use the current as input.
Therefore the SIL (Surge Impedance Load) was used to level all the calculated currents at the
different lines. At rated line voltage, the real power delivered, or SIL, is [27]
1

C
L
V
SIL
rated
2
(4-12)

1
Glover J. D., Sarma M.: Power System Analysis & Design,
4 Simulation tools and models Page 44

To get the length of the line the impedance which is in p.u, has to be recalculated to real
values. The resistance is then divided through 0.03 /km [28], which is a reasonable value for
high voltage transmission lines.
The maximum possible line load depends on the line length. For shorter lines much higher
load is possible than for longer ones where voltage-stability limits the maximum load.
The St. Clair curves [29] show the correlation between the line length and the line load in
SIL. These curves have been implemented in the line model.
The current is divided by the SIL and a factor that comes from the St. Clair curves.

In this line model it was not taken care of the mutual coupling of the three phases.

4 Simulation tools and models Page 45

4.3.2 Cigr Nordic 32

Figure 24:The Cigr Nordic32 test system. Bold lines represent 400 kV and
thin lines represent 220 kV and 130 kV.
4 Simulation tools and models Page 46

The Nordic 32 test system is a system which is constructed in order to study transient and
voltage stability and long-term dynamics. [30] The system consists of four major parts:
North with a large hydro production and some load, Central with a heavy load and
substantial thermal generation, South-west with thermal generation and some load and
External with a high load and generation. The North may be seen as the northern part of
Sweden, Central the central and southern part of Sweden, South-west the Danish island
Zealand and External Finland. The system consists of 32 nodes and 29 generators on the
voltage levels 400, 220 and 130 kV. [31]
1

For the simulation the CIGR Nordic 32 with the flow case lf28 was used. [32]
2

Two different fault scenarios have been simulated with the Nordic 32 test system. The first
one was fault at bus 4045 and the second was a line fault in the area around bus 4042.


1
Agneholm E.: The Restoration Process following a major Breakdown in a Power System, p35
2
Larsson, Mats: Coordinated Voltage Control in Electric Power Systems, p 151
4 Simulation tools and models Page 47

4.3.3 A model from South-America
14
6
25
13
11
12
10
15
7
8
24
23
16
27
22
19
18
9
21
1
3
2
4
20
26
5
17
load with fixed power
load with explicit load model
neighboring model
Substation which is observed with PMUs
(not all lines must be observed)
1
2
6
5
4
3
shunt element

Figure 25: Model from South-America
The model presented above has a very large amount of generation in the north, or upper
part, and large loads in the south, or lower part. Therefore it is very interesting for
simulating problems with the transmission corridors.

4 Simulation tools and models Page 48

4.3.4 Test Model
The test model is the same as in 4.4. (see Figure 26). The only difference is, that in this
model an UFLS protection is integrated, whereas in 4.4 the protection task is done by a
PSGuard System, which is included in the Simulink model.
4.4 PSGuard system in Simulink

Figure 26: Test system
A two-area test system was used to have a look on interactions between the PSGuard System
and local protection. It is based on data given in reference [33].
The test system was set together using Modelica. All the settings were done in this simulation
environment. Inputs and Outputs were defined to get a communication between Modelica and
Simulink. The model was then exported from Modelica and imported as a Simulink block to
Simulink.
The rest of the PSGuard simulation was already implemented in Simulink. This system uses a
frequency prediction algorithm which was presented in [34].

For the test of the protection system a fault on the line N10-N11 was simulated.
5 Simulation results Page 49

5 Simulation results
In this chapter the simulation results are presented. The goal of chapter 5.1 and 5.2 is, to show
how quickly the local protection needs to finish working.
In part 5.3 the interest of study was to look at the interaction between PSGuard and the
protection relays.
The impedance characteristic of the relays shows the 3 zones, as they were set in the
simulations and also shows the line impedance as a straight line.

In these simulations the relay settings were chosen to be as realistic as possible because real
values were not available for these investigations.
5.1 Nordic 32 system
Two test scenarios were used in the Cigr Nordic 32 model (see page 45). In the first one a
fault on the Line 4021-4042 and in the second one a fault on the Line 4032-4044 was
simulated.
Both cases were simulated. Case A used current independent characteristics and Case B
reserve overcurrent protection with current depend trip characteristics. (inverse time
characteristic).
The inverse time characteristic should simulate an overload protection.
The comparison of the two simulations shows that the system will not collapse in the first 500
seconds if the relays have an inverse time overcurrent characteristic or a current independent
overcurrent protection could be blocked.
As a third possibility a successful reclosing was shown. In this Case C the system stabilizes
itself after the disturbance quite quickly.

5.1.1 Fault on Line 4021-4042
In this test case a fault on the Line 4021-4042 was applied. The fault was of the type that can
not be cleared by disconnecting the line. Therefore the reclosing was not successful.

The first figure (see Figure 27) shows the voltage at one of the most interesting buses of the
system whereas Figure 28 shows the current on Line 4032-4042. The beginning of a voltage
collapse can be observed.
5 Simulation results Page 50

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
0.55
0.6
0.65
0.7
0.75
0.8
0.85
0.9
0.95
1
1.05
Voltage at Bus 4045
Time [sec]
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

[
p
.
u
.
]
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

Figure 27: Voltage at Bus 4045

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
Time [sec]
C
u
r
r
e
n
t
[
I
/
I
m
a
x

l
o
a
d
]
Current on Line 40324042
1
2
3
4
5

Figure 28: Current on Line 4032-4044
In Figure 29 and Figure 30 the measured impedance of Relay 4032 on Line 4032-4042 and
Relay 4032 on Line 4032-4044 are shown.
5 Simulation results Page 51

0.15 0.1 0.05 0 0.05 0.1 0.15
0.25
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
Resitance R [p.u.]
R
e
a
c
t
a
n
c
e

X

[
p
.
u
.
]
Impedance of Relay 4032 on Line40324042
1
2
4 3

Figure 29: Impedance of Relay 4032 on Line 4032-4042

0.1 0.05 0 0.05 0.1
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
Resitance R [p.u.]
R
e
a
c
t
a
n
c
e

X

[
p
.
u
.
]
Impedance of Relay 4032 on Line 40324044
1
2
6 5
4
3

Figure 30: Impedance of Relay 4032 on Line 4032-4044

Point 1 shows the operation point up to 1. In Figure 30 point 1 is far outside the plot range.


5 Simulation results Page 52

Event Time [sec] Description
1 0-1 Normal operation
2 1-1,15 Fault on Line 4021-4042
1,15-1,75 Line 4021-4042 is tripped
3 1,75-1,9 Reclose trial, unsuccessful and final trip at 1,9sec
4 125,54 Trip of Line 4032-4042 due to overcurrent
5 125,55 Shortly after action 4
6 127,12 Trip of Line 4032-4044 because of zone 3
Table 5: Time-table for the Fault on Line 4021-4042 in Case A

At the time of 1 second the fault was applied. The operation point 2 shows that the voltage
decreases and the current increases. The measured impedance in Figure 29 and Figure 30
jumps near to the tripping characteristic. After 150 msec the line is tripped and the voltage
begins to recover. Because of the reclosing mechanism the relays bring the line back into
operation after 600msec. (Time: 1,75 sec) however the fault is still existing and the breaker
open again at 1,9 sec and will not try an autoreclose again.
The system starts to swing and will be damped after 20 sec. Due to the system conditions the
voltage will steadily decrease and the current increase. After crossing the limit of 1.4 p.u. of
the current the overcurrent protection (see Figure 28) is activated and will therefore trip the
line (point 4 at 125,54 sec). The outage of the Line 4032-4044 leads to a voltage drop and a
sudden increase of the current on line 4032-4044. The impedance moves quickly (the
oscillation detection will not work) into Zone 3 which results in a tripping at 127,12 sec. After
this trip the system starts to collapse because three of the important transmission lines are
taken out of operation.

In Case B
1
the overcurrent protection will not react in the first 500msec. In this time no
problem with the zone detection could be observed. A phenomenon of this power system can
be seen in Figure 40 and Figure 41: Voltage Instability. We can see that there are no adverse
interactions between different protection systems even though the system will end up in a
voltage collapse.


1
Appendix A page 64
5 Simulation results Page 53

Case C
1
shall show, that there is no problem with the system, if the reclosing is successful.
5.1.2 Fault on Line 4032-4044
Case A
2
and Case B
3
are very similar to the scenario described in section 5.1.1.
In Case A the collapse is much faster after the tripping of Line 4032-4044 than in Case A of
5.1.1. (1.04sec than 1.57sec)

Remark to Case A: Relay 4021 trips because of the action of the overcurrent protection. Point
6 seems to hit zone 3, but the measured impedance does not reach the outer zone.

The time table for the fault in Case A (1-3 are the same for Case B):

Event Time [sec] Description
1 0-1 Normal operation
2 1-1,15 Fault on Line 4032-4044
1,15-1,75 Line 4032-4044 is tripped
3 1,75-1,9 Reclose trial, unsuccessful and final trip at 1,9sec
4 137,48 Trip of Line 4032-4042 due to overcurrent
5 137,49 Shortly after action 4
6 138,53 Trip of Line 4021-4042 because of overcurrent
Table 6: Time-table for the Fault on Line 4032-4044

With this simulation it should be proven, that the general simulation results in 5.1.1 are not
changing with the location of the fault.
5.2 South American Model
In the South American Test System (see Figure 25) the fault was applied on the double Line
9_16. One the first of both lines (Line 9_16) the fault was generated after 2 seconds, 0.4
seconds later a fault was generated on the second line 9_16_2.
This test system is employed to investigate, if an unplanned tripping of the relays occurs.

1
Appendix A page 66 et seq.
2
Appendix A page 69 et seq.
3
Appendix A page 72 et seq.
5 Simulation results Page 54

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
Voltage at Bus 24
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

[
p
.
u
.
]
Time [sec]
1
2,3 4,5
9
6
7
8

Figure 31: Voltage at Bus 24
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
0.25
0.3
0.35
0.4
0.45
0.5
0.55
0.6
0.65
0.7
0.75
Current on Line 824
Time [sec]
C
u
r
r
e
n
t

[
I
/
I
m
a
x

l
o
a
d
]
1
2
3
9
4
5
6
7
8

Figure 32: Current on Line 8-14
Figure 31 and Figure 32 show a voltage instability after the tripping of the double line due to
the high production in the upper and the high consumption in the lower part of the network.
No problem could be found with Relay 24 on Line 16-24.
5 Simulation results Page 55

0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08
0.1
0.05
0
0.05
0.1
Resitance R [p.u.]
R
e
a
c
t
a
n
c
e

X

[
p
.
u
.
]
Impedance at Relay 24 on Line 1624
2
3,4, 5
9
8
7
6

Figure 33: Impedance at Relay 24 on Line 16-24
Relay 14 on Line 8-14 sees a Zone 3 detection. But before the impedance had to cross the
oscillation detection. The time to cross this area (Resistance: 0.0008 p.u. and Reactance:
0.0016 p.u.) was 0.3 sec, much higher than the maximal allowed 0.045sec. (see chapter 4.2.4).
0.15 0.1 0.05 0 0.05 0.1 0.15
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
Resitance R [p.u.]
R
e
a
c
t
a
n
c
e

X

[
p
.
u
.
]
Impedance of Relay 14 on Line814
9
outer line
inner line
5
4
3
2
6
7
8

Figure 34: Impedance on Relay 14 on Line 8-14
The oscillation flag was set and blocked a tripping of the Relay due to distance protection.
5 Simulation results Page 56

Even if there was no oscillation detection, the time from entering zone3 to the collapse of the
whole system was only 0.2sec, which is much too slow for this zone.

Event Time [sec] Description
1 0-2 Normal operation
2 2-2,15 Fault on Line 9_16
3 2,4-2,55 Fault on Line 9_16_2
2,15-2,75 Line9_16 is tripped
2,55-3,15 Line9_16_2 is tripped
4 2,75-2,9 Reclose trial, unsuccessful and final trip at 2,9sec of Line 9_16
5 3,15-3,3 Reclose trial, unsuccessful and final trip at 3.3sec of Line 9_16
6 115.44 Enter outer area of oscillation detection
7 115.74 Enter inner area of oscillation detection
8 120,45 Enter zone 3
9 120,65 System collapse
Table 7: Time-table for Fault on double Line 9_16
The oscillation detection could help blocking the relays in such a case and avoid unplanned
tripping. Together with other security arrangements this could help stabilizing the system.
5.3 Test System
This test system is a combination of the system showed in Figure 26 and a Matlab model built
by ABB that includes the PSGuard System.

In this simulation two test cases are shown:
The first one has already been tested and described in [34]. The second case shows a fault on
Line L1112. Both simulations were used to find possible interactions.
It has to be mentioned that the system of test case two was not built to test line faults and
therefore it has taken care of transient voltage instability. Setting the clearing time of the relay
as low as possible could minimize this problem.
5.3.1 Generator Tripping
In this simulation generators are tripped at three different times. The first tripping is at 10.1
seconds of G5, at 85.2 seconds of G4 and at 160seconds of G2.
5 Simulation results Page 57

In Figure 35 the current over the TieLine is presented, because this bottleneck is the most
critical line in this test system. Additionally the voltage on Bus 10 is presented.
No problems in the interaction of the relays and PSGuard could be found.

Event Time [sec] Description
1 10,1 Generator 5 is tripped
2 85,2 Generator 4 is tripped
3 160 Generator 2 is tripped
Table 8: Time-table of Generator Tripping
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
C
u
r
r
e
n
t

[
p
.
u
.
]
Time [sec]
Current on TieLine
1
2
3

Figure 35: Current at TieLine

5 Simulation results Page 58

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200
0.94
0.95
0.96
0.97
0.98
0.99
1
1.01
1.02
1.03
Time [sec]
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

[
p
.
u
.
]
Voltage at Bus 10
1
2
3

Figure 36: Voltage at Bus 10

5.3.2 Line Fault on Line L1112
A fault was applied on L1112 at 10seconds. The fault was not clearable therefore the
reclosing was not successful.
The system will be stabilized very fast with the help of PSGuard. One thing that has to be
mentioned in this case is that the relays have to be much faster than the first action of
PSGuard. Otherwise this would lead to a system collapse because these two protection
mechanisms are working against each other.

Event Time [sec] Description
1 10 Fault on Line L1112
2 10,05-10,65 L1112 is out of operation
3 10.65-10.7 Reclose, unsuccessful and L1112 is finally out of operation
Table 9: Time-table of Line Fault on Line L1112
5 Simulation results Page 59

0 10 20 30 40 50 60
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
Time[sec]
C
u
r
r
e
n
t

[
p
.
u
.
]
Current on TieLine
1
2
3

Figure 37: Current on Tie Line

0 10 20 30 40 50 60
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
Voltage at Bus 10
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

[
p
.
u
.
]
Time [sec]
1
2
3

Figure 38: Voltage on Bus 10

However also in this test case no major problem could be detected. The clearing time was set
very fast and therefore the overshot of the voltage due to possible transient voltage instability
was very low.
5 Simulation results Page 60

This simulation shows that under very strange transient instability conditions neither PSGuard
nor the local protection units can detect the problem properly. A solution might be to use Out-
of-Step relays to avoid unexpected triggering of the relays.
A better approach might be to combine Out-of-Step Protection together with PMUs, which is
described more detailed in [35]. This could help to prevent relays from working in the right
way at the wrong time.

6 Conclusion and Discussion Page 61

6 Conclusion and Discussion

This thesis shows the functionality and interaction of protection systems in a power system.
The used programming language provides the possibility to model different types of relays in
a simple way and applies different types of complexity.

The objective was to detect potential problems related to the simultaneous usage of the local
protection relays and the PSGuard Wide Area Protection System.

It is important to mention that in order to find a common base for all the line currents the use
of SIL was essential because otherwise it would not have been possible to use the currents as
an input variable for the relays. The currents of the simulation are normally not of interest and
will have various levels depending on the base of the power. SIL was chosen because it
represents the natural loading of the line that is an unique parameter for each line. Together
with the St. Clairs curves the maximum allowable loading could be calculated which gives
realistic values for each line. These new loading was used as a new power base for each line
and the current was calculated out of these parameters. The results were now comparable on
the idea that every line has a certain limit of maximum transportable power and the result
could be used for the relays.

The simulation results show that the local protection relays should have done their work after
2-3 seconds if all relays are working and that they will, under not too abstruse conditions, do
their work properly and without any surprising actions. For all systems it has to be assumed
that the local protection system is set properly and that there are normally no faults due to
hidden failures or false settings of the protection system. [36] We should also take into
consideration that there will always be situations, when relays or breakers do not work
because of several reasons: mechanical problems, maintenance, and failure settings.

It can easily be seen, that a Wide-Area Measurement System should not start too early with
the action because from the appearance of a fault to the clearance, if a reclosing is successful,
it takes about 1-3 seconds, which depends on the settings and other circumstances. If a Wide
Area Measurement System would react in this time too early it can cause problems even if the
detected problems have already been removed.

Today the relay settings are normally calculated from short circuit studies including a wide
variety of system configurations, generations schedules and reasonable voltages.
6 Conclusion and Discussion Page 62

However due to the opportunities of transmission lines and protection relays ways of
influence and communication with local protection equipment should be found. This could
help to detect failures by starting self-tests of the units and could make the protection process
more accurate and faster by adapting relay settings.
Several papers describe different approaches to find the best settings of a relay. One approach
could be to use PMUs to find the proper settings as described in [36], [37] and [38]. This
could be a new area where PSGuard may be useful.

Furthermore adaptive relaying will become more and more important with the use of FACTS-
devices. This changes the measured impedance of the distance relay and can lead to unwanted
operation of the protection systems. To avoid these problems it will be necessary to
manipulate the characteristics of the protection units in order to achieve on the one hand a fast
and controllable network on the other hand to maintain the availability and selectivity of the
protection units.

All the ideas mentioned above are only possibly if the protection units are relatively new with
built in intelligent micro controlled operation systems that allow an external operator to
change settings over some communication channels. The problem today is, that in fact about
70% of all relays are still electro-mechanical. [6]
1
These relays can only be adjusted by hand
and do not allow remote controlled changing of the settings. Due to the lifetime of such
protection equipment these parts will be in service for at least 40 years or longer.
Therefore this thesis should show, that no adjustments need to be applied to existing
protection systems and that WAMS can be used additionally. One possibility offered by most
of the old relays is to send a blocking signal and hinder the relay from tripping. This is easy
to implement and gives the Wide Area Protection System the necessary flexibility to work
together with local protection relays in cases of voltage instability or at times when some
overload is needed to stabilize the system. However one should take care that this blocking
does not block the relay from working when a real fault occurs independently from the
worse system conditions.

As presented in the thesis no large problems should be expected combining WAMS and local
protection, provided that PSGuard has a delay time > 1.5sec. It has to be taken care, that the
existing system is well planned and works fine without any major disturbances. With the
change from old to new protection relays the possible fields of applications of WAMS will
increase and allow more precise, faster and better protection of electrical power systems.


1
Jonsson: Line Protection and Power System Collapse, p. 36
Appendix A Diagrams Page 63

Appendix A Diagrams
Cigr Nordic 32 Test System
Fault on Line 4021-4042
Case A

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
Current at Line 40324044
Time [sec]
C
u
r
r
e
n
t

[
I
/
I
m
a
x

l
o
a
d
]
1
2
3
5
6
7

Figure 39: Current on Line 4032-4042


Appendix A Diagrams Page 64

Case B
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500
0.8
0.85
0.9
0.95
1
1.05
Voltage at Bus 4045
Time [sec]
V
o
l
t
a
g
e
[
p
.
u
.
]
1
2

Figure 40: Voltage on Bus 4045
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500
0.65
0.7
0.75
0.8
0.85
0.9
0.95
1
1.05
1.1
1.15
Current on Line40324044
C
u
r
r
e
n
t

[
I
/
I
m
a
x

l
o
a
d
]
Time [sec]


Figure 41: Current on Line 4032-4044
Appendix A Diagrams Page 65

0.1 0.05 0 0.05 0.1
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
Resitance R [p.u.]
R
e
a
c
t
a
n
c
e

X

[
p
.
u
.
]
Impedance of Relay 4032 on Line 40324044
2
3

Figure 42: Impedance of Relay 4032 on Line 4032-4044
0.15 0.1 0.05 0 0.05 0.1 0.15
0.25
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
Resitance R [p.u.]
R
e
a
c
t
a
n
c
e

X

[
p
.
u
.
]
Impedance of Relay 4032 on Line 40324042
1
2
3

Figure 43: Impedance of Relay 4032 on Line 4032-4042
Appendix A Diagrams Page 66

Case C
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
0.8
0.85
0.9
0.95
1
1.05
Time [sec]
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

[
p
.
u
.
]
Voltage at Bus 4045
1
2

Figure 44: Voltage at Bus 4045
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
0.65
0.7
0.75
0.8
0.85
0.9
0.95
1
Time [sec]
C
u
r
r
e
n
t

[
I
/
I
m
a
x

l
o
a
d
]
Current on Line 40324044
1
2

Figure 45: Current on Line4032-4044
Appendix A Diagrams Page 67

0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
Resitance R [p.u.]
R
e
a
c
t
a
n
c
e

X

[
p
.
u
.
]
Impedance of Relay 4021 on Line 40214042
1
2

Figure 46: Impedance of Relay 4021 on Line 4021-4042

0.1 0.05 0 0.05 0.1
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
Resitance R [p.u.]
R
e
a
c
t
a
n
c
e

X

[
p
.
u
.
]
Impedance of Relay 4032 on Line40324044
1
2

Figure 47: Impedance of Relay 4032 on Line 4032-4044
Appendix A Diagrams Page 68

0.15 0.1 0.05 0 0.05 0.1 0.15
0.25
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
Resitance R [p.u.]
R
e
a
c
t
a
n
c
e

X

[
p
.
u
.
]
Impedance of Relay 4032 on Line 40324042
2
1

Figure 48: Impedance of Relay 4032 on Line 4032-4042


Appendix A Diagrams Page 69

Fault on Line 4032-4044
Case A
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
0.55
0.6
0.65
0.7
0.75
0.8
0.85
0.9
0.95
1
1.05
Time [sec]
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

[
p
.
u
.
]
Voltage at Bus 4045
2
3
4
5
6

Figure 49: Voltage at Bus 4045
Appendix A Diagrams Page 70

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
0
0.5
1
1.5
Time [sec]
C
u
r
r
e
n
t

[
I
/
I
m
a
x

l
o
a
d
]
Current on Line 40324042
2
3
4
5


Figure 50: Current on Line 4032-4042
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
Time [sec]
C
u
r
r
e
n
t

[
I
/
I
m
a
x

l
o
a
d
]
Current on Line 40214042
4
5
6
7
2
3

Figure 51: Current on Line 4021-4042

Appendix A Diagrams Page 71

0.15 0.1 0.05 0 0.05 0.1 0.15
0.25
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
Resitance R [p.u.]
R
e
a
c
t
a
n
c
e

X

[
p
.
u
.
]
Impedance of Relay 4032 on Line 40324042
1
2 3
4

Figure 52: Impedance of Relay 4032 on Line 4032-4042
0.15 0.1 0.05 0 0.05 0.1 0.15
0.25
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
Resitance R [p.u.]
R
e
a
c
t
a
n
c
e

X

[
p
.
u
.
]
Impedance of Relay 4021 on Line 40214042
1
2
3
4
5
6

Figure 53: Impedance of Relay 4021 on Line 4021-4042
Appendix A Diagrams Page 72

Case B
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
0.65
0.7
0.75
0.8
0.85
0.9
0.95
1
1.05
Time [sec]
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

[
p
.
u
.
]
Voltage at Bus 4045
2 3

Figure 54: Voltage at Bus 4045
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
Time [sec]
C
u
r
r
e
n
t

[
I
/
I
m
a
x

l
o
a
d
]
Current on Line 40324042
1
2
3

Figure 55: Current on Line 4032-4042
Appendix A Diagrams Page 73

0.15 0.1 0.05 0 0.05 0.1 0.15
0.25
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
Resitance R [p.u.]
R
e
a
c
t
a
n
c
e

X

[
p
.
u
.
]
Impedance of Relay 4032 on Line 40324042
1
2
3

Figure 56: Impedance of Relay 4032 on Line 4032-4042
0.15 0.1 0.05 0 0.05 0.1 0.15
0.25
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
Resitance R [p.u.]
R
e
a
c
t
a
n
c
e

X

[
p
.
u
.
]
Impedance of Relay 4021 on Line 40214042
3
2
1

Figure 57: Impedance of Relay 4021 on Line 4021-4042

Appendix B Source Code Page 74

Appendix B Source Code
Relays
Protection Test


Relays.Buswithselfexpiredfault
Busbar model with shunt fault

Information
The shunt fault is modelled as an impedance connected to ground through
a breaker. The fault is applied at simulation time FaultTime and stays
active as long as the fault current is not smaller than the variable small.
For numerical reasons, the fault impedance must not be exactly equal
to zero.

Parameters
Name Default Description
FaultTime 10 Time of fault occurence [s]
FaultDuration 0.05 Duration of fault [s]
Appendix B Source Code Page 75

FaultR 0.1 Fault Resistance [p.u.]
FaultX 0 Fault Reactance [p.u.]
iFaultmin 1e-4 min Fault Current [p.u.]

Relays.Relay.Basic
Relay Basic Components

Types and constants
type CurrentAngle = ObjectStab.Base.Angle;

Relays.Relay.Basic.BreakerAndMeasurement
Breaker with external trigger and measurement

Information
Power, Voltage and Current Measurement unit. The values are forwarded to the
out ports. The breaker has an external trigger input.

This model has to be series connected

Parameters
Name Default Description
small 1e-6

Relays.Relay.Basic.PowerMeasurement
Power Measurement


Appendix B Source Code Page 76

Information
Power Measurement for Electrical Cuts.
Should be connected in series.

Relays.Relay.Basic.CurrentMeasurement
Current Measurement

Information
Current Measurement for Electrical Cuts.
Should be connected in series.

Relays.Relay.Basic.VoltageMeasurement
Voltage Measurement for Electrical Cuts

Information
Voltage Measurement for Electric Cuts.
Should be connected to one pin

Relays.Relay.Basic.TakeTimer

Information
Timer model. If the 'run' input is true, the timer will
start counting and gives the time, which has elapsed to the output 'Time'. With
Appendix B Source Code Page 77

the input 'reset', the timer can be reset, whether it is in running or
stop-state.

Relays.Relay.Basic.TransmissionDelay

Information
This transmission delay is used for simulating the tripping signal which is sent from a relay at
one
side of the line to the other side. It will send a trip signal after a delay time to both sides back.

Parameters
Name Default Description
DataDelay 0.01 Time to transfer the data

Appendix B Source Code Page 78

Relays.Relay.OvercurrentRelay
Over Current Relays


Relays.Relay.OvercurrentRelay.OvercurrentRelayconstanttime
withReclosing
Over Current Relay which time constant trip characteristic and has the possibility
for auto reclosing

Information
This overcurrent Relay has a constant time characteristic and the possibility for Autoreclosing

Also in this model it is necessary to set the line parameters to get the maximum allowable
load current. (see SIL Table)

Parameters
Name Default Description
imax 1.3 i>> [p.u.]
Appendix B Source Code Page 79

vmin 0.8 Minimum Voltage [p.u]
tfast 0.5 Time for i> [s]
ReclosingTime 0.6 Auto Reclosing Time [s]
NumberofReclosing 2 Number of Reclosings
breakeropen 0.05 Time for open the breaker [s]
small 1e-4
R 0.0 Series Resistance [p.u.]
X 0.1 Series Reactance [p.u.]
B 0.1 Shunt Susceptance [p.u.]
G 0.0 Shunt Conductance [p.u.]
Voltagebase 400 Voltage Base in kV [p.u]
Resistancebase 0.03 Ohm per km
SIL 1/(sqrt(X/B)) SIL

Relays.Relay.OvercurrentRelay.OvercurrentRelayconstanttime
Overcurrent Relay which detects a shortcut

Information
This overcurrent Relay has a constant time characteristic.

Appendix B Source Code Page 80

Also in this model it is necessary to set the line parameters to get the maximum allowable
load current. (see SIL Table)

Parameters
Name Default Description
imax 1.3 i>> [p.u.]
tfast 0.5 Time for i> [s]
breakeropen 0.05 Time for open the breaker [s]
small 1e-4
R 0.0 Series Resistance [p.u.]
X 0.1 Series Reactance [p.u.]
B 0.1 Shunt Susceptance [p.u.]
G 0.0 Shunt Conductance [p.u.]
Voltagebase 400 Voltage Base in kV [p.u]
Resistancebase 0.03 Ohm per km
SIL 1/(sqrt(X/B)) SIL

Appendix B Source Code Page 81

Relays.Relay.OvercurrentRelay.OvercurrentRelay
Over Current Relay which trip time depends on the current

Information
This Relay has different tripping characteristics (settings see OvercurrentRelayTable):

Normal inverse
Very inverse
Extremely inverse
Long-time inverse

Also in this model it is necessary to set the line parameters to get the maximum allowable
load current. (see SIL Table)
Parameters
Name Default Description
ild 1.2 I> (1.2 *Iload) [p.u.]
imax 1.5 I>> (0.7 *Ishort cut) [p.u.]
tfast 0.5 time for I>> - time for opening breaker [s]
k 0.7 settable inverse time factor
breakeropen 0.05 time for opening the breaker [s]
Appendix B Source Code Page 82

small 1e-4
i 3 1 normal inverse, 4 long time inverse
R 0.0 Series Resistance [p.u.]
X 0.1 Series Reactance [p.u.]
B 0.1 Shunt Susceptance [p.u.]
G 0.0 Shunt Conductance [p.u.]
Voltagebase 400 Voltage Base in kV [p.u]
Resistancebase 0.03 Ohm per km
SIL 1/(sqrt(X/B)) SIL

Relays.Relay.OvercurrentRelay.OvercurrentRelayTable
Table look-up in one dimension (matrix/file)

Information
The different trip characteristics: (see ABB Relay RAID)

Normal inverse: 1
Very inverse: 2
Extremely inverse: 3
Long-time inverse: 4



Parameters
Name Default Description
i 3 1 normal inverse, 4 long time inverse

Appendix B Source Code Page 83

Relays.Relay.OvercurrentRelay.OvercurrentRelaywithReclosing
Over Current Relay which trip time depends on the current with Auto Reclosing

Information
This Relay has different tripping characteristics (settings see OvercurrentRelayTable):

Normal inverse
Very inverse
Extremely inverse
Long-time inverse

and the possibility for Autoreclosing.

Also in this model it is necessary to set the line parameters to get the maximum allowable
load current. (see SIL Table)


Parameters
Name Default Description
ild 1.2 I> (1.2 * I load) [p.u.]
imax 1.5 I>> (0.7 * I short cut) [p.u.]
Appendix B Source Code Page 84

vmin 0.8 Minimum Voltage [p.u]
tfast 0.5 time for I>> - time for opening breaker [s]
k 0.7 settable inverse time factor
breakeropen 0.05 time for opening the breaker [s]
ReclosingTime 0.6 Auto Reclosing Time [s]
NumberofReclosing 2 Number of Reclosings
small 1e-4
i 3 1 normal inverse, 4 long time inverse
R 0.0 Series Resistance [p.u.]
X 0.1 Series Reactance [p.u.]
B 0.1 Shunt Susceptance [p.u.]
G 0.0 Shunt Conductance [p.u.]
Voltagebase 400 Voltage Base in kV [p.u]
Resistancebase 0.03 Ohm per km
SIL 1/(sqrt(X/B)) SIL

Appendix B Source Code Page 85

Relays.Relay.VoltageRelay
Over / Under Voltage Relays


Relays.Relay.VoltageRelay.VoltageRelay
Over / Under Voltage Relay

Information
Voltage Relays use as input the voltage. If this parameter is lower a certain value, the breaker
will open.

Parameters
Name Default Description
vmax 1.3 V>> [p.u]
vmin 0.7 V>> [p.u]
twait 0.5 Time to wait to trip (to avoid voltage tips) [s]
breakeropen 0.05 time for opening the breaker [s]
small 1e-4

Appendix B Source Code Page 86

Relays.Relay.VoltageRelay.VoltageRelaywithReclosing
Over/Under Voltage Relay with Reclosing

Information
Voltage Relays use as input the voltage. If this parameter is lower a certain value, the breaker
will open.
This model has the possibility for autoreclosing.

Parameters
Name Default Description
vmax 1.3 V>> [p.u]
vmin 0.7 V>> [p.u]
twait 0.5 Time to wait to trip (to avoid voltage tips) [s]
ReclosingTime 2 Auto Reclosing Time [s]
NumberofReclosing 2 Number of Reclosings
breakeropen 0.05 time for opening the breaker [s]
small 1e-4

Appendix B Source Code Page 87

Relays.Relay.DistanceRelay

Relays.Relay.DistanceRelay.Autoreclosing

Information
The Autoreclosing function tries to reconnect the line after a trip related to zone1. If this
process is successful, all timers will be reset. If this fails, the breaker will stay open and the
line will be out of operation.

Parameters
Name Default Description
imax 1.4 I> [p.u.]
vmin 0.8 Minimum Voltage [p.u]
ReclosingTime 0.6 Auto Reclosing Time [s]
NumberofReclosing 1 Number of Reclosings
resettime 10 Time to wait that AR is reset

Appendix B Source Code Page 88

Relays.Relay.DistanceRelay.OscillationDetection

Information
The Oscillation Detection should prevent the distance relay from tripping during power
oscillations.

^
|
|
_______________________|______________________
| | |
| ____________________|___________________ |
| | | | |
| | | | |
| | | | |
| | | | |
| | |------------------------------------->
| | | |
| | | |
| | | |
| | | |
| | | |
| |________________________________________| |
| |
|______________________________________________|

Appendix B Source Code Page 89



The time crossing the part between the outer and inner boarder is measured. If this value is
higher than a preset value, an oscillation is detected and the variable oscillation is set to true.
If it is lower, nothing will happen.

Parameters
Name Default Description
inOsciR 0.02892 Oscillation Detection Resistance innerZone [p.u.]
inOsciX 0.2892 Oscillation Detection Reactance innerZone [p.u.]
OsciR 0.001 Oscillation Detection Resistance Zone1 + .. [p.u.]
OsciX 0.01 Oscillation Detection Reactance Zone1+... [p.u.]
osci1 0.025 Time for first Oscillation [s]
osci 0.015 Time for the following Oscillations [s]
ArgDir 15 ArgDir
ArgNegRes 25 ArgNegRes
R 0.0 Series Resistance [p.u.]
X 0.1 Series Reactance [p.u.]
resetoscillationtime 5 Time that have to pass before oscillation is reset [s]

Relays.Relay.DistanceRelay.OvercurrentDetectionwithDirection

Information
This Overcurrent Protection is the backup protection for the distance Relay.
The characteristic is time-constant. For more Information have a look at the Overcurrent
Relay Models.

Parameters
Name Default Description
Appendix B Source Code Page 90

imax 1.4 I> [p.u.]
R3 0.02892 Resistance Zone3 [p.u.]
X3 0.2892 Reactance Zone3 [p.u.]
timeimax 0.5 Trip time for I>> [s]
ArgDir 15 ArgDir
ArgNegRes 25 ArgNegRes
R 0.0 Series Resistance [p.u.]
X 0.1 Series Reactance [p.u.]

Relays.Relay.DistanceRelay.ZoneDetectionwithDirection

Information
Zone Detection for Distance Relays
Appendix B Source Code Page 91


The relay has the following characteristic: The crossings with the x- and y-axis are the values
which can be set.

jX
^
_______________
\ /
\ /
\ /----right line
\ /
/\---------------> R
/ /'. /
/ / '
ArgNegRes /
/
ArgDir

The right line is parallel to the line characteristic.

A more detailed description can be found in the manual of the Relay ABB 511
http://www.abb.com/substations
Parameters
Name Default Description
vmin 0.8 Minimum Voltage [p.u]
imax 1.4 I> [p.u.]
R1 0.009 Resistance Zone1 [p.u.]
X1 0.09 Reactance Zone1 [p.u.]
timezone1 0.5 Time for Zone 1 [s]
R2 0.01615 Resistance Zone2 [p.u.]
X2 0.1615 Reactance Zone2 [p.u.]
Appendix B Source Code Page 92

timezone2 1 Time for Zone 2 [s]
R3 0.02892 Resistance Zone3 [p.u.]
X3 0.2892 Reactance Zone3 [p.u.]
timezone3 2 Time for Zone 3 [s]
ArgDir 15 ArgDir
ArgNegRes 25 ArgNegRes
R 0.0 Series Resistance [p.u.]
X 0.1 Series Reactance [p.u.]

Relays.Relay.DistanceRelay.DistanceRelaywithDirection
Distance Relay

Information
Distance Relay
The original for this model is the ABB Relay 511
http://www.abb.com/substations

In the model are included:

a possibility for Autoreclosing
Appendix B Source Code Page 93

an oscillation detection
an time-constant overcurrent protection as backup protection and
a zone detection

It is necessary to combine this model with a line. It is not possible to use it as a stand alone
model. (use PilinkwithDistanceRelay)

Parameters
Name Default Description
imax 1.4 I> [p.u.]
vmin 0.8 Minimum Voltage [p.u]
timeimax 1 Trip time for I>> [s]
R1 0.009 Resistance Zone1 [p.u.]
X1 0.09 Reactance Zone1 [p.u.]
timezone1 0.1 Time for Zone 1 [s]
R2 0.01615 Resistance Zone2 [p.u.]
X2 0.1615 Reactance Zone2 [p.u.]
timezone2 0.4 Time for Zone 2 [s]
R3 0.02892 Resistance Zone3 [p.u.]
X3 0.2892 Reactance Zone3 [p.u.]
timezone3 0.8 Time for Zone 3 [s]
ArgDir 15 ArgDir
ArgNegRes 25 ArgNegRes
R 0.001 Series Resistance of the Line [p.u.]
X 0.1 Series Reactance of the Line [p.u.]
inOsciR R3 Oscillation Detection Resistance innerZone [p.u.]
inOsciX X3 Oscillation Detection Reactance innerZone [p.u.]
OsciR 0.1*R3 Oscillation Detection Resistance innerZone + .. [p.u.]
OsciX 0.1*X3 Oscillation Detection Reactance innerZone+... [p.u.]
Appendix B Source Code Page 94

osci1 0.045 Time for first Oscillation [s]
osci 0.015 Time for the following Oscillations [s]
breakeropen 0.05 Time for opening the breaker [s]
ReclosingTime 0.6 Auto Reclosing Time [s]
NumberofReclosing 1 Number of Reclosings
resettime 5 Time to wait that AR is reset
SIL SIL
resetoscillationtime 5 Time that have to pass before oscillation is reset [s]

Relays.Relay.DistanceRelay.DistanceRelaywithDirection1
Distance Relay

Information
Distance Relay
The original for this model is the ABB Relay 511
http://www.abb.com/substations

In the model are included:

a possibility for Autoreclosing
Appendix B Source Code Page 95

an oscillation detection
an overcurrent protection with various trip characteristics (see Overcurrent Relay) as backup
protection and
a zone detection

It is necessary to combine this model with a line. It is not possible to use it as a stand alone
model. (use PilinkwithDistanceRelay)Distance Relay

Parameters
Name Default Description
imax 1.4 I> [p.u.]
vmin 0.8 Minimum Voltage [p.u]
timeimax 1 Trip time for I>> [s]
R1 0.009 Resistance Zone1 [p.u.]
X1 0.09 Reactance Zone1 [p.u.]
timezone1 0.1 Time for Zone 1 [s]
R2 0.01615 Resistance Zone2 [p.u.]
X2 0.1615 Reactance Zone2 [p.u.]
timezone2 0.4 Time for Zone 2 [s]
R3 0.02892 Resistance Zone3 [p.u.]
X3 0.2892 Reactance Zone3 [p.u.]
timezone3 0.8 Time for Zone 3 [s]
ArgDir 15 ArgDir
ArgNegRes 25 ArgNegRes
R 0.001 Series Resistance of the Line [p.u.]
X 0.1 Series Reactance of the Line [p.u.]
inOsciR R3 Oscillation Detection Resistance innerZone [p.u.]
inOsciX X3 Oscillation Detection Reactance innerZone [p.u.]
OsciR 0.1*R3 Oscillation Detection Resistance innerZone + .. [p.u.]
Appendix B Source Code Page 96

OsciX 0.1*X3 Oscillation Detection Reactance innerZone+... [p.u.]
osci1 0.045 Time for first Oscillation [s]
osci 0.015 Time for the following Oscillations [s]
breakeropen 0.05 Time for opening the breaker [s]
ReclosingTime 0.6 Auto Reclosing Time [s]
NumberofReclosing 1 Number of Reclosings
resettime 5 Time to wait that AR is reset
SIL SIL
resetoscillationtime 5 Time that have to pass before oscillation is reset [s]

Relays.Relay.DistanceRelay.OvercurrentDetectionwithDirection
timeinvers

Information
This Overcurrent Protection is the backup protection for the distance Relay.
The characteristic has an inverse trip characteristic. For more Information have a look at the
Overcurrent Relay Models.

Parameters
Name Default Description
imax 1.4 I> [p.u.]
R3 0.02892 Resistance Zone3 [p.u.]
X3 0.2892 Reactance Zone3 [p.u.]
timeimax 0.5 Trip time for I>> [s]
ArgDir 15 ArgDir
ArgNegRes 25 ArgNegRes
R 0.0 Series Resistance [p.u.]
Appendix B Source Code Page 97

X 0.1 Series Reactance [p.u.]
k1 0.7 settable inverse time factor
i 3 1 normal inverse, 4 long time inverse

Appendix B Source Code Page 98

Relays.Relay
Protection Relays


Relays.Relay.PilinkwithDistanceRelay

Information
This model combines two Relays with a Line element.
The maximum load current is calculated with the SIL and the St. Clairs Curves.

Both Relays are directional Relays and "look" into the line.
The transmission line connects both units and trips the second breaker if one detects a failure.

Parameters
Name Default Description
imax1 1.4 I> Relay1 [p.u.]
vmin1 0.8 Minimum Voltage Relay1 [p.u]
timeimax1 1 Trip time for I>> Relay1 [s]
R11 0.8*X11 Resistance Zone1 Relay1 [p.u.]
X11 0.9*X Reactance Zone1 Relay1 [p.u.]
timezone11 0.1 Time for Zone 1 Relay1 [s]
R21 0.8*X21 Resistance Zone2 Relay1 [p.u.]
Appendix B Source Code Page 99

X21 1.2*X Reactance Zone2 Relay1 [p.u.]
timezone21 0.4 Time for Zone 2 Relay1 [s]
R31 1.2*R21 Resistance Zone3 Relay1 [p.u.]
X31 0.2892 Reactance Zone3 Relay1 [p.u.]
timezone31 0.8 Time for Zone 3 Relay1 [s]
ArgDir1 15 ArgDir
ArgNegRes1 25 ArgNegRes
inOsciR1 R31 Oscillation Detection Resistance innerZone Relay1 [p.u.]
inOsciX1 X31 Oscillation Detection Reactance innerZone Relay1 [p.u.]
OsciR1 0.01*R31 Oscillation Detection Resistance Zone1 + .. Relay1 [p.u.]
OsciX1 0.01*X31 Oscillation Detection Reactance Zone1+... Relay1 [p.u.]
osci11 0.045 Time for first Oscillation Relay1 [s]
osci1 0.015 Time for the following Oscillations Relay1 [s]
breakeropen1 0.05 Time for opening the breaker Relay1 [s]
ReclosingTime1 0.6 Auto Reclosing Time Relay1 [s]
NumberofReclosing1 1 Number of Reclosings Relay1
imax2 1.4 I> Relay2 [p.u.]
vmin2 0.8 Minimum Voltage Relay2 [p.u]
timeimax2 1 Trip time for I>> Relay2 [s]
R12 0.8*X12 Resistance Zone1 Relay2 [p.u.]
X12 0.9*X Reactance Zone1 Relay2 [p.u.]
timezone12 0.1 Time for Zone 1 Relay2 [s]
R22 0.8*X22 Resistance Zone2v [p.u.]
X22 1.2*X Reactance Zone2 Relay2 [p.u.]
timezone22 0.4 Time for Zone 2 Relay2 [s]
R32 1.2*R22 Resistance Zone3 Relay2 [p.u.]
X32 0.2892 Reactance Zone3 Relay2 [p.u.]
Appendix B Source Code Page 100

timezone32 0.8 Time for Zone 3 Relay2 [s]
ArgDir2 15 ArgDir
ArgNegRes2 25 ArgNegRes
inOsciR2 R32 Oscillation Detection Resistance innerZone Relay2 [p.u.]
inOsciX2 X32 Oscillation Detection Reactance innerZone Relay2 [p.u.]
OsciR2 0.01*R32
Oscillation Detection Resistance Zone1 22+ .. Relay2
[p.u.]
OsciX2 0.01*X32 Oscillation Detection Reactance Zone1+2... Relay2 [p.u.]
osci12 0.045 Time for first Oscillation Relay2 [s]
osci2 0.015 Time for the following Oscillations Relay2 [s]
breakeropen2 0.05 Time for opening the breaker Relay2 [s]
ReclosingTime2 0.6 Auto Reclosing Time Relay2 [s]
NumberofReclosing2 1 Number of Reclosings Relay2
R 0.001 Series Resistance of the Line [p.u.]
X 0.1 Series Reactance [p.u.]
B 0.1 Shunt Susceptance [p.u.]
G 0.0 Shunt Conductance [p.u.]
resetoscillationtime 5 Time that have to pass before oscillation is reset [s]
resettime 5 Time to wait that AR is reset
Voltagebase 400 Voltage Base in kV [p.u]
Resistancebase 0.03 Ohm per km
SIL 1/(sqrt(X/B)) SIL

Appendix B Source Code Page 101

Relays.Relay.Pilinkwithselfexpiredfault
Pilink with shunt fault model

Information
The model of the Pilink with a shunt fault is realised using the Pilink
models and the ideal breaker models.
At time FaultTime, the breaker B3 closes and the ground fault becomes active
for the duration of FaultDuration seconds, after which the line is disconnected
at both ends. The ground fault location is determined by alpha, where alpha=0
corresponds to a fault located at T1 and alpha=1 to a fault location at T2.
For numerical reasons the fault and pilink impedance may not be exactly zero,
and alpha not be equal to 0 or 1.

Parameters
Name Default Description
R 0.0 Series Resistance [p.u.]
X 0.1 Series Reactance [p.u.]
B 0.1 Shunt Susceptance [p.u.]
G 0.0 Shunt Conductance [p.u.]
FaultTime 1 Time of fault occurrence [s] [s]
Appendix B Source Code Page 102

FaultDuration 0.05 Duration of fault [s]
alpha 0.5 Position of Fault
FaultR 1e-5 Fault Resistance [p.u.]
FaultX 0 Fault Reactance [p.u.]

Relays.Relay.FaultedPilinkwithDistanceRelay

Information
The fault in this model can be controlled. The start and stop time can be adjusted.

The rest is the same as in "PilnkwithDistanceRelay".

Parameters
Name Default Description
imax1 1.4 I> Relay1 [p.u.]
vmin1 0.8 Minimum Voltage Relay1 [p.u]
timeimax1 1 Trip time for I>> Relay1 [s]
R11 0.8*X11 Resistance Zone1 Relay1 [p.u.]
X11 0.9*X Reactance Zone1 Relay1 [p.u.]
timezone11 0.1 Time for Zone 1 Relay1 [s]
R21 0.8*X21 Resistance Zone2 Relay1 [p.u.]
X21 1.2*X Reactance Zone2 Relay1 [p.u.]
timezone21 0.4 Time for Zone 2 Relay1 [s]
Appendix B Source Code Page 103

R31 0.8*X31 Resistance Zone3 Relay1 [p.u.]
X31 0.2892 Reactance Zone3 Relay1 [p.u.]
timezone31 0.8 Time for Zone 3 Relay1 [s]
ArgDir1 15 ArgDir
ArgNegRes1 25 ArgNegRes
inOsciR1 R31 Oscillation Detection Resistance innerZone Relay1 [p.u.]
inOsciX1 X31 Oscillation Detection Reactance innerZone Relay1 [p.u.]
OsciR1 0.01*R31 Oscillation Detection Resistance Zone1 + .. Relay1 [p.u.]
OsciX1 0.01*X31 Oscillation Detection Reactance Zone1+... Relay1 [p.u.]
osci11 0.045 Time for first Oscillation Relay1 [s]
osci1 0.015 Time for the following Oscillations Relay1 [s]
breakeropen1 0.05 Time for opening the breaker Relay1 [s]
ReclosingTime1 0.6 Auto Reclosing Time Relay1 [s]
NumberofReclosing1 1 Number of Reclosings Relay1
imax2 1.4 I> Relay2 [p.u.]
vmin2 0.8 Minimum Voltage Relay2 [p.u]
timeimax2 1 Trip time for I>> Relay2 [s]
R12 0.8*X12 Resistance Zone1 Relay2 [p.u.]
X12 0.9*X Reactance Zone1 Relay2 [p.u.]
timezone12 0.1 Time for Zone 1 Relay2 [s]
R22 0.8*X22 Resistance Zone2v [p.u.]
X22 1.2*X Reactance Zone2 Relay2 [p.u.]
timezone22 0.4 Time for Zone 2 Relay2 [s]
R32 0.8*X32 Resistance Zone3 Relay2 [p.u.]
X32 0.2892 Reactance Zone3 Relay2 [p.u.]
timezone32 0.8 Time for Zone 3 Relay2 [s]
ArgDir2 15 ArgDir
Appendix B Source Code Page 104

ArgNegRes2 25 ArgNegRes
inOsciR2 R32 Oscillation Detection Resistance innerZone Relay2 [p.u.]
inOsciX2 X32 Oscillation Detection Reactance innerZone Relay2 [p.u.]
OsciR2 0.01*R32
Oscillation Detection Resistance Zone1 22+ .. Relay2
[p.u.]
OsciX2 0.01*X32 Oscillation Detection Reactance Zone1+2... Relay2 [p.u.]
osci12 0.045 Time for first Oscillation Relay2 [s]
osci2 0.015 Time for the following Oscillations Relay2 [s]
breakeropen2 0.05 Time for opening the breaker Relay2 [s]
ReclosingTime2 0.6 Auto Reclosing Time Relay2 [s]
NumberofReclosing2 1 Number of Reclosings Relay2
R 0.0 Series Resistance [p.u.]
X 0.1 Series Reactance [p.u.]
B 0.1 Shunt Susceptance [p.u.]
G 0.0 Shunt Conductance [p.u.]
FaultTime 1 Time of fault occurrence [s] [s]
ClearTime 0.07 Fault Clearing Time [s] [s]
RecloseTime 1e60 Time of Reclosing [s] [s]
alpha 0.5 Position of Fault
FaultR 1e-5 Fault Resistance [p.u.]
FaultX 0 Fault Reactance [p.u.]
resetoscillationtime 5 Time that have to pass before oscillation is reset [s]
resettime 5 Time to wait that AR is reset
Voltagebase 400 Voltage Base in kV [p.u]
Resistancebase 0.03 Ohm per km
SIL 1/(sqrt(X/B)) SIL


Appendix B Source Code Page 105

Relays.Relay.PilinkwithselfexpiredfaultwithDistanceRelay

Information
This model is a combination of PilinkwithDistanceRelay and Pilinkwithselfexpiredfault.

Parameters
Name Default Description
imax1 1.4 I> Relay1 [p.u.]
vmin1 0.8 Minimum Voltage Relay1 [p.u]
timeimax1 1 Trip time for I>> Relay1 [s]
R11 0.8*X11 Resistance Zone1 Relay1 [p.u.]
X11 0.9*X Reactance Zone1 Relay1 [p.u.]
timezone11 0.1 Time for Zone 1 Relay1 [s]
R21 0.8*X21 Resistance Zone2 Relay1 [p.u.]
X21 1.2*X Reactance Zone2 Relay1 [p.u.]
timezone21 0.4 Time for Zone 2 Relay1 [s]
R31 1.2*R21 Resistance Zone3 Relay1 [p.u.]
X31 0.2892 Reactance Zone3 Relay1 [p.u.]
timezone31 0.8 Time for Zone 3 Relay1 [s]
ArgDir1 15 ArgDir
ArgNegRes1 25 ArgNegRes
inOsciR1 R31 Oscillation Detection Resistance innerZone Relay1 [p.u.]
inOsciX1 X31 Oscillation Detection Reactance innerZone Relay1 [p.u.]
Appendix B Source Code Page 106

OsciR1 0.01*R31 Oscillation Detection Resistance Zone1 + .. Relay1 [p.u.]
OsciX1 0.01*X31 Oscillation Detection Reactance Zone1+... Relay1 [p.u.]
osci11 0.045 Time for first Oscillation Relay1 [s]
osci1 0.015 Time for the following Oscillations Relay1 [s]
breakeropen1 0.05 Time for opening the breaker Relay1 [s]
ReclosingTime1 0.6 Auto Reclosing Time Relay1 [s]
NumberofReclosing1 1 Number of Reclosings Relay1
imax2 1.4 I> Relay2 [p.u.]
vmin2 0.8 Minimum Voltage Relay2 [p.u]
timeimax2 1 Trip time for I>> Relay2 [s]
R12 0.8*X12 Resistance Zone1 Relay2 [p.u.]
X12 0.9*X Reactance Zone1 Relay2 [p.u.]
timezone12 0.1 Time for Zone 1 Relay2 [s]
R22 0.8*X22 Resistance Zone2v [p.u.]
X22 1.2*X Reactance Zone2 Relay2 [p.u.]
timezone22 0.4 Time for Zone 2 Relay2 [s]
R32 1.2*R22 Resistance Zone3 Relay2 [p.u.]
X32 0.2892 Reactance Zone3 Relay2 [p.u.]
timezone32 0.8 Time for Zone 3 Relay2 [s]
ArgDir2 15 ArgDir
ArgNegRes2 25 ArgNegRes
inOsciR2 R32 Oscillation Detection Resistance innerZone Relay2 [p.u.]
inOsciX2 X32 Oscillation Detection Reactance innerZone Relay2 [p.u.]
OsciR2 0.01*R32
Oscillation Detection Resistance Zone1 22+ .. Relay2
[p.u.]
OsciX2 0.01*X32 Oscillation Detection Reactance Zone1+2... Relay2 [p.u.]
osci12 0.045 Time for first Oscillation Relay2 [s]
Appendix B Source Code Page 107

osci2 0.015 Time for the following Oscillations Relay2 [s]
breakeropen2 0.05 Time for opening the breaker Relay2 [s]
ReclosingTime2 0.6 Auto Reclosing Time Relay2 [s]
NumberofReclosing2 1 Number of Reclosings Relay2
R 0.0 Series Resistance [p.u.]
X 0.1 Series Reactance [p.u.]
B 0.1 Shunt Susceptance [p.u.]
G 0.0 Shunt Conductance [p.u.]
FaultTime 1 Time of fault occurence [s] [s]
FaultDuration 0.05 Duration of fault [s]
alpha 0.5 Position of Fault
FaultR 1e-5 Fault Resistance [p.u.]
FaultX 0 Fault Reactance [p.u.]
resetoscillationtime 5 Time that have to pass before oscillation is reset [s]
resettime 5 Time to wait that AR is reset
Voltagebase 400 Voltage Base in kV [p.u]
Resistancebase 0.03 Ohm per km
SIL 1/(sqrt(X/B)) SIL

Relays.Relay.SILTable
Table look-up in one dimension (matrix/file)

Information
The base for this data set are the "St. Clairs" Curves. More Information:

Dunlop R. D., Gutman R.: ?Analytical Development Of Loadability Characteristics For EHV
And UHV Transmission Lines?, IEEE Transaction on Power Apparatus and Systems, VOL.
PAS-98, No. 2 March/April 1979, p.606-613

Appendix B Source Code Page 108

Parameters
Name Default Description
tableName "NoName"
table name on file or in
function usertab(optional)
fileName "NoName"
file where matrix is stored
(optional)
icol[:] {2}
columns of table to be
interpolated
table[:, :]
[0.0, 3; 80.0, 3; 97, 2.7; 112, 2.5; 130, 2.3; 180, 2;
225, 1.7; 290, 1.4; 354, 1.25; 420, 1.1; 480, 1; 515,
0.9; 645, 0.8; 740, 0.7; 960, 0.65]
table matrix (grid = first
column)

Relays.Relay.PilinkwithDistanceRelay1

Information
This model combines two Relays with a Line element.
The maximum load current is calculated with the SIL and the St. Clairs Curves.

Both Relays are directional Relays and "look" into the line.
The transmission line connects both units and trips the second breaker if one detects a failure.

The difference between PilinkwithDistanceRelay and PilinkwithDistanceRelay1 is, that the
overcurrent protection in PilinkwithDistanceRelay1 uses a current depended trip characteristic
(see Overcurrent Relays).


Appendix B Source Code Page 109

Parameters
Name Default Description
imax1 1.4 I> Relay1 [p.u.]
vmin1 0.8 Minimum Voltage Relay1 [p.u]
timeimax1 1 Trip time for I>> Relay1 [s]
R11 0.8*X11 Resistance Zone1 Relay1 [p.u.]
X11 0.9*X Reactance Zone1 Relay1 [p.u.]
timezone11 0.1 Time for Zone 1 Relay1 [s]
R21 0.8*X21 Resistance Zone2 Relay1 [p.u.]
X21 1.2*X Reactance Zone2 Relay1 [p.u.]
timezone21 0.4 Time for Zone 2 Relay1 [s]
R31 1.2*R21 Resistance Zone3 Relay1 [p.u.]
X31 0.2892 Reactance Zone3 Relay1 [p.u.]
timezone31 0.8 Time for Zone 3 Relay1 [s]
ArgDir1 15 ArgDir
ArgNegRes1 25 ArgNegRes
inOsciR1 R31 Oscillation Detection Resistance innerZone Relay1 [p.u.]
inOsciX1 X31 Oscillation Detection Reactance innerZone Relay1 [p.u.]
OsciR1 0.01*R31 Oscillation Detection Resistance Zone1 + .. Relay1 [p.u.]
OsciX1 0.01*X31 Oscillation Detection Reactance Zone1+... Relay1 [p.u.]
osci11 0.045 Time for first Oscillation Relay1 [s]
osci1 0.015 Time for the following Oscillations Relay1 [s]
breakeropen1 0.05 Time for opening the breaker Relay1 [s]
ReclosingTime1 0.6 Auto Reclosing Time Relay1 [s]
NumberofReclosing1 1 Number of Reclosings Relay1
imax2 1.4 I> Relay2 [p.u.]
vmin2 0.8 Minimum Voltage Relay2 [p.u]
Appendix B Source Code Page 110

timeimax2 1 Trip time for I>> Relay2 [s]
R12 0.8*X12 Resistance Zone1 Relay2 [p.u.]
X12 0.9*X Reactance Zone1 Relay2 [p.u.]
timezone12 0.1 Time for Zone 1 Relay2 [s]
R22 0.8*X22 Resistance Zone2v [p.u.]
X22 1.2*X Reactance Zone2 Relay2 [p.u.]
timezone22 0.4 Time for Zone 2 Relay2 [s]
R32 1.2*R22 Resistance Zone3 Relay2 [p.u.]
X32 0.2892 Reactance Zone3 Relay2 [p.u.]
timezone32 0.8 Time for Zone 3 Relay2 [s]
ArgDir2 15 ArgDir
ArgNegRes2 25 ArgNegRes
inOsciR2 R32 Oscillation Detection Resistance innerZone Relay2 [p.u.]
inOsciX2 X32 Oscillation Detection Reactance innerZone Relay2 [p.u.]
OsciR2 0.01*R32
Oscillation Detection Resistance Zone1 22+ .. Relay2
[p.u.]
OsciX2 0.01*X32 Oscillation Detection Reactance Zone1+2... Relay2 [p.u.]
osci12 0.045 Time for first Oscillation Relay2 [s]
osci2 0.015 Time for the following Oscillations Relay2 [s]
breakeropen2 0.05 Time for opening the breaker Relay2 [s]
ReclosingTime2 0.6 Auto Reclosing Time Relay2 [s]
NumberofReclosing2 1 Number of Reclosings Relay2
R 0.001 Series Resistance of the Line [p.u.]
X 0.1 Series Reactance [p.u.]
B 0.1 Shunt Susceptance [p.u.]
G 0.0 Shunt Conductance [p.u.]
resetoscillationtime 5 Time that have to pass before oscillation is reset [s]
Appendix B Source Code Page 111

resettime 5 Time to wait that AR is reset
Voltagebase 400 Voltage Base in kV [p.u]
Resistancebase 0.03 Ohm per km
SIL 1/(sqrt(X/B)) SIL

Relays.Relay.PilinkwithselfexpiredfaultwithDistanceRelay1

Information
This model is a combination of PilinkwithDistanceRelay and Pilinkwithselfexpiredfault.

Parameters
Name Default Description
imax1 1.4 I> Relay1 [p.u.]
vmin1 0.8 Minimum Voltage Relay1 [p.u]
timeimax1 1 Trip time for I>> Relay1 [s]
R11 0.8*X11 Resistance Zone1 Relay1 [p.u.]
X11 0.9*X Reactance Zone1 Relay1 [p.u.]
timezone11 0.1 Time for Zone 1 Relay1 [s]
R21 0.8*X21 Resistance Zone2 Relay1 [p.u.]
X21 1.2*X Reactance Zone2 Relay1 [p.u.]
timezone21 0.4 Time for Zone 2 Relay1 [s]
R31 1.2*R21 Resistance Zone3 Relay1 [p.u.]
X31 0.2892 Reactance Zone3 Relay1 [p.u.]
Appendix B Source Code Page 112

timezone31 0.8 Time for Zone 3 Relay1 [s]
ArgDir1 15 ArgDir
ArgNegRes1 25 ArgNegRes
inOsciR1 R31 Oscillation Detection Resistance innerZone Relay1 [p.u.]
inOsciX1 X31 Oscillation Detection Reactance innerZone Relay1 [p.u.]
OsciR1 0.01*R31 Oscillation Detection Resistance Zone1 + .. Relay1 [p.u.]
OsciX1 0.01*X31 Oscillation Detection Reactance Zone1+... Relay1 [p.u.]
osci11 0.045 Time for first Oscillation Relay1 [s]
osci1 0.015 Time for the following Oscillations Relay1 [s]
breakeropen1 0.05 Time for opening the breaker Relay1 [s]
ReclosingTime1 0.6 Auto Reclosing Time Relay1 [s]
NumberofReclosing1 1 Number of Reclosings Relay1
imax2 1.4 I> Relay2 [p.u.]
vmin2 0.8 Minimum Voltage Relay2 [p.u]
timeimax2 1 Trip time for I>> Relay2 [s]
R12 0.8*X12 Resistance Zone1 Relay2 [p.u.]
X12 0.9*X Reactance Zone1 Relay2 [p.u.]
timezone12 0.1 Time for Zone 1 Relay2 [s]
R22 0.8*X22 Resistance Zone2v [p.u.]
X22 1.2*X Reactance Zone2 Relay2 [p.u.]
timezone22 0.4 Time for Zone 2 Relay2 [s]
R32 1.2*R22 Resistance Zone3 Relay2 [p.u.]
X32 0.2892 Reactance Zone3 Relay2 [p.u.]
timezone32 0.8 Time for Zone 3 Relay2 [s]
ArgDir2 15 ArgDir
ArgNegRes2 25 ArgNegRes
inOsciR2 R32 Oscillation Detection Resistance innerZone Relay2 [p.u.]
Appendix B Source Code Page 113

inOsciX2 X32 Oscillation Detection Reactance innerZone Relay2 [p.u.]
OsciR2 0.01*R32
Oscillation Detection Resistance Zone1 22+ .. Relay2
[p.u.]
OsciX2 0.01*X32 Oscillation Detection Reactance Zone1+2... Relay2 [p.u.]
osci12 0.045 Time for first Oscillation Relay2 [s]
osci2 0.015 Time for the following Oscillations Relay2 [s]
breakeropen2 0.05 Time for opening the breaker Relay2 [s]
ReclosingTime2 0.6 Auto Reclosing Time Relay2 [s]
NumberofReclosing2 1 Number of Reclosings Relay2
R 0.0 Series Resistance [p.u.]
X 0.1 Series Reactance [p.u.]
B 0.1 Shunt Susceptance [p.u.]
G 0.0 Shunt Conductance [p.u.]
FaultTime 1 Time of fault occurrence [s] [s]
FaultDuration 0.05 Duration of fault [s]
alpha 0.5 Position of Fault
FaultR 1e-5 Fault Resistance [p.u.]
FaultX 0 Fault Reactance [p.u.]
resetoscillationtime 5 Time that have to pass before oscillation is reset [s]
resettime 5 Time to wait that AR is reset
Voltagebase 400 Voltage Base in kV [p.u]
Resistancebase 0.03 Ohm per km
SIL 1/(sqrt(X/B)) SIL

Documentation generated by Dymola




Bibliography Page 114

Bibliography
[1] Feier B, Dr. Fickert L.: Strungen und Schutz in elektrischen Anlagen,
Laborunterlagen, TU-GRAZ, Austria 2002
[2] Dr. Fickert L: Strungen und Schutz in elektrischen Anlagen, Lecture notes, TU-
GRAZ, Graz, Austria, 2001
[3] Dr. Reichelt D.: Schutz von elektrischen Netzen und Komponenten, Lecture notes,
ETH-Zrich, Zrich, Schweiz 2001,
http://www.eeh.ee.ethz.ch/downloads/academics/courses/35-528_schutz.pdf
[4] Datasheets of Relay ABB RXEDK, 316*4, 521, RAGIK, SPCD 3D53, 509
Alstom PU 321, PF 352, EPAC
Siemens 7RW600, 7SA522, 7S3511, 7SD511, 7UM511, 7SA522
SEG XN2
[5] Muckenhuber, Elektrische Anlagen, Lecture Notes, TU-Graz, Graz, Austria 2001
[6] Jonsson, M.: Line Protection and Power System Collapse, Department of Electric
Power Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gteborg, Sweden 2001,
http://www.elkraft.chalmers.se/Publikationer/EKS.publ/Abstract/jonssonLic.pdf
[7] Gremmel Hennig: ABB Calor Emag Taschenbuch - Schaltanlagen, ABB Calor Emag
Schaltanlagen AG Mannheim, 10. Auflage, Mannheim 1999
[8] Arnesen O., Faanes H.: Elektriske Kraftsystemer Del2, Norges Tekniske Hgskole,
Trondheim, Norway 1995
[9] ABB, Numerischer Leitungsschutz Type REL 316*4, ABB Power Automation AG,
Baden, Schweiz, 2000
[10] Anderson P.M: Power System Protection, IEEE Press power engineering series, New
York, 1998, ISBN: 0-7803-3427-2
[11] Lohage L.: Refurbishment of protection for the Swedish trunkline power system,
CIGR SC 34 Colloquium, Antwerpen, Belgium, 1993
[12] Siemens, Elektronische Netzschutztechnik, Ausgabe Dez. 1986, 2. Auflage
Bibliography Page 115

[13] IEEE Guide for Protective Relay Application to Transmission Lines, Std C37.113-
1999, New York, 2000, ISBN 0-7381-1832-x
[14] Warrington, C.: Protective Relays, Vol. 1, Chapman & Hall Ltd., 1968, 380 p.
[15]
ABB, Application Manual Rel 511*2.3, Line distance protection terminal, ABB
Automation Products AB, Substation Automation Division, Vsters, Sweden, 2001
http://www.abb.com/substationautomation
[16] UCPTE, Summary of the current operating principles of the UCPTE, 2000,
http://www.ucte.org/pdf/Publications/2000/Important_3.pdf
[17] WECC Coordinated Off-Nominal Frequency Load Shedding and Restoration Plan,
Underfrequency Issues Work Group, 1997,
http://www.wecc.biz/documents/policy/OFFNOMLOAD&RESTORATION.pdf
[18] CIGRE SCTF 38.02.19, System Protection Schemes in Power Networks, CIGRE
[19] DVG, Network and System Rules of the German Transmission System Operators,
Heidelberg, Germany, May 2000, http://www.dvg-
heidelberg.de/extern/DVG/res.nsf/files/GridCode-Net-May2000.pdf/$file/GridCode-
Net-May2000.pdf
[20] 9
th
Meeting of the European Electricity Regulatory Forum, UCTE Paper, Appendix 1,
Rome, 2002,
http://europa.eu.int/comm/energy/en/elec_single_market/florence9/position_paper/ucte/
appendix1.pdf
[21] Rehtanz C., Bertsch J., Wide Area Measurement and Protection System for Emergency
Voltage Stability Control, Switzerland, Baden, 2002
http://www.transmission.bpa.gov/orgs/opi/Power_Stability/EmergVoltStabControlReht
anz.pdf
[22] Clements K. A., Woodzell G. W., Burchett R. C.: A new method for solving equality-
constrained power system static-state estimation, IEEE Transaction on Power Systems,
Vol. 5, No. 4, November 1990
[23] Rehtanz C., Basic Function of a Wide Area Protection System and Special
Applications for Voltage Instability, ABB internal paper, 2001
Bibliography Page 116

[24] Otter M, Elmqvist H.: Modelica Language, Libraries, Tools, Workshop and EU-
Project RealSim, German Aerospace Center, Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany and
Dymasim AB, Lund, Sweden, 2001
http://www.modelica.org/documents/ModelicaOverview14.pdf
[25] Larsson M,: ObjectStab - A Modelica Library for Power System Stability Studies,
Lund, Sweden, 2000,
http://www.modelica.org/library/ObjectStab/modelicaworkshop.pdf
[26] ABB, RAIDK, RAIDG, RAPDK and RACIK Phase overcurrent and earth fault
protection, Users Guide, ABB Automation Products AB, Substation Automation
Division, Vsters, Sweden, 1999
[27] Glover J. D., Sarma M.: Power System Analysis & Design, PWS Publishing
Company, Boston, USA, 1993, ISBN: 0-53493-960-0
[28] Andersson G.: Elektrische Energiesysteme, Lecture notes, ETH-Zrich, Zrich,
Schweiz 2002, http://www.eeh.ee.ethz.ch/downloads/academics/courses/35-122.pdf
[29] Dunlop R. D., Gutman R.: Analytical Development Of Loadability Characteristics For
EHV And UHV Transmission Lines, IEEE Transaction on Power Apparatus and
Systems, VOL. PAS-98, No. 2 March/April 1979, p.606-613
[30] CIGR. TF 38-02-08 Long Term Dynamics Phase II, 1995
[31]
Agneholm E.: The Restoration Process following a major Breakdown in a Power
System, Department of Electric Power Engineering, Chalmers University of
Technology, Gteborg, Sweden 1996,
http://www.elkraft.chalmers.se/Publikationer/EKS.publ/Abstract/Agneholm_Lic.pdf
[32] Larsson, Mats: Coordinated Voltage Control in Electric Power Systems, Doctoral
Thesis, Lund University, Sweden, 2000
http://www.iea.lth.se/publications/point/Theses/pdf_files/LTH-IEA-1025.pdf
[33] D. Prasetijo, W. R. Lachs, D. Sutanto: A new load shedding scheme for limiting
underfrequency, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 9, no. 3, p. 1371-78,
August 1994
[34] Larsson M., Rehtanz C.: Predictive Frequency Stability Control based on Wide-area
Phasor Measurement, IEEE Power Engineering Society Summer Meeting, July 2002
Bibliography Page 117

[35] Centeno V., Phadke A.G.: An Adaptive Out-Of-Step Relay, IEEE Transaction on
Power Delivery, vol. 12, no. 1, p. 61-71, January 1997
[36] Phadke A.G.: Hidden Failures in Protection Systems, Power Systems and
Communications Infrastructures for the future, Beijing, September 2002
[37] Yu C.-S., Lui C.-W.: A New PMU-Based Fault Location Algorithm for Series
Compensated Lines, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 17, no. 1, p.33-45,
January 2002
[38] Chen C.-S., Lui C.-W.: A New Adaptive PMU Based Protection Scheme for
Transposed/Untransposed Parallel Transmission Lines, IEEE Transactions on Power
Delivery, vol. 17, no. 2, p. 395-404, April 2002
List of Tables Page 118

List of Tables
Table 1: Overview of Protection [2], [3], [4] ............................................................................. 7
Table 2: UFLS in different networks [16], [17], [18], [19]...................................................... 29
Table 3: Possible Interaction WAMS - relays.......................................................................... 33
Table 4: Overcurrent characteristics ........................................................................................ 38
Table 5: Time-table for the Fault on Line 4021-4042 in Case A............................................. 52
Table 6: Time-table for the Fault on Line 4032-4044.............................................................. 53
Table 7: Time-table for Fault on double Line 9_16................................................................. 56
Table 8: Time-table of Generator Tripping.............................................................................. 57
Table 9: Time-table of Line Fault on Line L1112 ................................................................... 58
List of Figures Page 119

List of Figures
Figure 1: Overcurrent Trip Characteristic................................................................................ 10
Figure 2: Coordination of Overcurrent Relays......................................................................... 10
Figure 3: R-X diagram for a distance relay (MHO-Relay) ...................................................... 13
Figure 4: Principle of Distance Protection ............................................................................... 14
Figure 5: Basic types of distance relays ................................................................................... 15
Figure 6: Distance function characteristic [9] .......................................................................... 16
Figure 7: Oscillations in a 2-machine network [9]................................................................... 17
Figure 8: Oscillation Detection ................................................................................................ 18
Figure 9: In principle the connection of a distance relay......................................................... 20
Figure 10: Current infeed ......................................................................................................... 22
Figure 11: Current outfeed....................................................................................................... 23
Figure 12: Double line.............................................................................................................. 23
Figure 13: PSGuard.................................................................................................................. 30
Figure 14: Model for state calculation ..................................................................................... 31
Figure 15: Distance Relay (Screenshot)................................................................................... 36
Figure 16: Powerflow direction detection................................................................................ 37
Figure 17: Example for normal inverse [26]............................................................................ 38
Figure 18: Distance relay characteristic................................................................................... 39
Figure 19: Distance protection logic ........................................................................................ 40
Figure 20: Oscillation detection logic ...................................................................................... 40
Figure 21: Autoreclosing logic................................................................................................. 42
Figure 22: Line model .............................................................................................................. 42
Figure 23: Line model (PiLink) ............................................................................................... 43
Figure 24:The Cigr Nordic32 test system. Bold lines represent 400 kV and......................... 45
Figure 25: Model from South-America.................................................................................... 47
Figure 26: Test system............................................................................................................. 48
Figure 27: Voltage at Bus 4045................................................................................................ 50
Figure 28: Current on Line 4032-4044 .................................................................................... 50
Figure 29: Impedance of Relay 4032 on Line 4032-4042 ....................................................... 51
Figure 30: Impedance of Relay 4032 on Line 4032-4044 ....................................................... 51
Figure 31: Voltage at Bus 24.................................................................................................... 54
Figure 32: Current on Line 8-14 .............................................................................................. 54
List of Figures Page 120

Figure 33: Impedance at Relay 24 on Line 16-24.................................................................... 55
Figure 34: Impedance on Relay 14 on Line 8-14..................................................................... 55
Figure 35: Current at TieLine................................................................................................... 57
Figure 36: Voltage at Bus 10.................................................................................................... 58
Figure 37: Current on Tie Line ................................................................................................ 59
Figure 38: Voltage on Bus 10 .................................................................................................. 59
Figure 39: Current on Line 4032-4042 .................................................................................... 63
Figure 40: Voltage on Bus 4045 .............................................................................................. 64
Figure 41: Current on Line 4032-4044 .................................................................................... 64
Figure 42: Impedance of Relay 4032 on Line 4032-4044 ....................................................... 65
Figure 43: Impedance of Relay 4032 on Line 4032-4042 ....................................................... 65
Figure 44: Voltage at Bus 4045................................................................................................ 66
Figure 45: Current on Line4032-4044 ..................................................................................... 66
Figure 46: Impedance of Relay 4021 on Line 4021-4042 ....................................................... 67
Figure 47: Impedance of Relay 4032 on Line 4032-4044 ....................................................... 67
Figure 48: Impedance of Relay 4032 on Line 4032-4042 ....................................................... 68
Figure 49: Voltage at Bus 4045................................................................................................ 69
Figure 50: Current on Line 4032-4042 .................................................................................... 70
Figure 51: Current on Line 4021-4042 .................................................................................... 70
Figure 52: Impedance of Relay 4032 on Line 4032-4042 ....................................................... 71
Figure 53: Impedance of Relay 4021 on Line 4021-4042 ....................................................... 71
Figure 54: Voltage at Bus 4045................................................................................................ 72
Figure 55: Current on Line 4032-4042 .................................................................................... 72
Figure 56: Impedance of Relay 4032 on Line 4032-4042 ....................................................... 73
Figure 57: Impedance of Relay 4021 on Line 4021-4042 ....................................................... 73