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41Hz Audio - AI-AMP-1B

AMP1BAssemblyInstructions
RelatedSubForum:AMP1.
DISCLAIMER! Itisassumedthatyouhavethoroughknowledgeaboutelectronicsandbuildingelectricalandelectronicdevices. 41Hz.comassumesnoresponsibilityorliabilityforanyinjury,lossordamageincurredasaresultofanyuseor relianceupontheinformationandmaterialcontainedwithinordownloadedfromitswebsite.

Introduction

TheAMP1BisnotanAMP1Basic,itisamuchimprovedAMP1,stillSMD+inductorcoils.Ithasthe samespecsbutalsoanautoDCoffsetcircuitandaspeakerrelay.
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41Hz Audio - AI-AMP-1B

ThanksfororderingtheAMP! Thisdocumentwillhelpyoubuildthekit.Ithasbeenupdatedforrevision4.0boards. The boards (PCB) for AMP1B are doubleweight, doublesided copper and fully throughmetallized. This sometimesrequiresquiteapowerfulsolderingirontoheat. Somecomponentsandpadsconnectedtothegroundplanerequiresubstantialheating. Neededdocuments,availableundertheDownloadstabinyourShopaccount. Theschematics BOM(BillOfMaterals) TheTripathchipdatasheetforyourkit(TA2022)

Considerationsbeforebuilding SignalInputCapacitor Cin can be calculated once a value for Rin has been determined. Cin and Rin determine the input low frequencypole.Typicallythispoleissetbelow10Hztogiveafullaudiorange.Ciniscalculatedaccording to:

Cin=1/(2pi*F*Rin)

Rin=Inputresistorvalueinohms.Thisisdeterminedbyyourchoiceoftheinputgain,seebelow. F=Inputlowfrequencypole(typically10Hzorbelow). Normally,a1to3uFcapacitorwilldo,butyoucanchangeit:Cin(withRin)basicallyformsahighpass filter,3dBdropoffat'F'andmore below that. So, if you use a subwoofer, you could set 'F' to 200Hz, for instance. Thesuppliedcapsshouldsuffice. Selectingthegain Theamplification,orgain,oftheamplifierissetintwostages:Inputstagegainandpowerstagegain. Optimallyyoushouldmatchtheinputgaintoyoursignalsourcesignallevelandthepowerstagegaintoyour supply rail voltage. Just remember that music signals are very dynamic by nature, signal levels are approximateandimpossibletopredictaccurately. Inputstagegain Intable1youcanseesometypicalinputsignalsourcesandgainsyoucansetwiththesuppliedcomponents.
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41Hz Audio - AI-AMP-1B

Intable1youcanseesometypicalinputsignalsourcesandgainsyoucansetwiththesuppliedcomponents. The maximum recommended voltage out of the input stage is +/2V peak to peak (4Vpp = 1.41 Vrms), includingsomemargin.Athigheroutputsignals,theinputstagemayclip. The amplifier input stage in the Tripath chip is of the inverted operational amplifier type. The gain is calculatedas:

Gain=1*Rfeedback/Rin

(the'minus'impliesthesignalisinverted,notofanyconsequencehere) Ontheboard,R51+R32areRinandR43+R44areRfeedback. With the kit, there are four 20 k resistors and two 36 k supplied. With these resistor values, you can chooseoneofthreedifferentinputgains/sensitivitiesasshownintable1. Ifyouuseotherinputresistorvalues,theyshouldbeofalownoisetypeandofthe0805size. Table1.Inputstagegainsettingrecommendations
Rin,R51+R32 Rfeedback,R43+R44 InputGain Suitablesignalsource 20k 20k 36k 36k 20k 20k 1.8 1 0.56 DirectconnectionofportableMP3/CDplayerwithbuiltin volumecontrolorviaapassivevolumepot. Generaluse Preamplifierwithfairlyhighoutputsignal

Modulatorgain Themodulatorgainisthepowerstagevoltagegain. You can select this to match your power supply voltage, by selecting the value of the modulator feedback resistorsR31andR52. Table2givesthevaluesformodulatorfeedbackresistorsandtherailvoltagestheyaresuitablefor. Table2.Modulator/powerstagegain
Rmfb,R31+R52 Gain[V/V] Suitablerailvoltage 8.2k 10k 16 19.3 +/24Vto+/30V +/28Vto+/35V

Thetotalgainistheinputstagegainmultipliedbythemodulatorgain.Ifweassumeyouhaveselectedthe input stage gain, as you normally should, for a maximum of +/2Vrms output, then the maximum output voltagetothespeakerswillbe2xthemodulatorgain. Forexamplewith10kfeedbackresistors,and+/2Vfromtheinputstage,youwouldhave+/38.6Vout maximum.Youcanseethatthecalculatedmaximumoutputcanbehigherthantherailvoltage.Inreality,the outputvoltagecanonlybeashighasclosetotherailvoltage.
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outputvoltagecanonlybeashighasclosetotherailvoltage.

41Hz Audio - AI-AMP-1B

Thereforetherewillbesomeclippingofthehighestpeaksatthemaximuminputsignal. This is quite OK and assures you can reach maximum output power at near the maximum input volume setting. Ifyoudecreasethemodulatorgain,youwillnotreachmaximum power/clippingevenatmaximuminputsignal. Table3.Gainsettingsummary
Inputstagegain InputGaintoolow InputGaincorrect Inputgaintoohigh Powerstagegain Modulatorgaintoo low Modulatorgain correct Modulatorgaintoo high Outputneverreachesmaximumpower,evenwithmaximuminputsignal Outputclipsslightlywithmaximuminputsignal Outputclipsexcessivelyatfullvolume.InputstageisoperatingatlowvoltageincreasedTHD+N atlowpower Result Maximumoutputistolow.Powerstagenotfullyused. Outputfrominputstageis+/2Vpeaktopeakatfullinputvolume Inputstageclipsbeforemaximumoutputpowerisreached

Youmightwanttochangethegainsettingsdifferentlythanwhatitwillbewiththesuppliedcomponents.In the data sheet for the Tripath TA2022 chip there are more details on how to calculate the gain, but the spreadsheetinthispostwillbeveryconvenienttohelpout:Inputandmodulatorgain

Building/Assemblyinstructions
IMPORTANT Componentspackagedinashielded,aluminizedbagshouldbeconsideredESDsensitiveandshouldbehandledwith ESDcare.TheTripathchipsuseMOSFEToutputswhichbynaturearesensitivetoESD(ElectroStaticDischarge). UseESDprecautions.Preferablyworkonaconductive,groundedESDmat,andavoidtouchingthechipleadswith yourfingers.Dischargeyourselfbeforeworkingwiththecomponents.

1. First,solderallsurfacemountcomponents. They are all placed on the bottom side of the board. A component layout is included with your deliveryandbelow. TIP/OPTION youmightwanttodelayassemblyofthesmdpartsontheedgebehindtheTA2022chip(C4143,C46 49,R50,makesuretolabelthosewell!)thiswillgiveyoumorespacetosoldertheTA2022inplace.

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2. Optionally solder good screw terminals/board connectors (in Shop). If you do not use these, save cablinguntillast. 3. Soldertheconventionalresistorsandtrimofexcesswire. Whenthroughholecomponentsaresolderedproperlyonthebackoftheboard,thereshouldbesolder comingoutonthefront/topside,coveringallroundthecomponentlead. 4. Solderthefilmcapacitors 5. Solderelectrolyticcapacitors. RespectthepolarityasmarkedonthePCBs. 6. SolderL4,thesmallerverticalinductor. 7. Solderthetroughholediodes. Thetwozenerdiodesaremarkedwiththeirvoltage 8. SoldertransistorsandDILs(smaller)chipsfortheautomaticbalancing. Notetherearetwotypesoftransistors 9. Windthetoroidinductors. (TIP:cleartablefromcomponentsthe1mofwirecanactasawhip:smallsmdpartsareverydifficult tofindafterwards....) Youshoulduse44turnsofwire.Windastightasyoucan.Ifwoundtightlyyoucangetabout38turns onwirebeforecomingbacktothestartingpoint,soabout6turnswilloverlapbutthisisperfectlyOK. RelatedarticleisunderTechnicalinfo. 10. Mounttheoutputtoroids. Theyandthemountspottakealotofheat,sousethe50Wironoratleast,keepthe20Wirononthe spotalotlongerthenusual. 11. VerycarefullysoldertheTA2022chipinplace HighchanceofdesoldereingsmdpartsaroundtheTA2022pins...Theseboardholesarefairlylarge comparedtotheleaddiameterssotakecaregettingthechipstraight. TIP Therowofpinsvisibleontopofboardarebetter,safertosolderfromthetop. TIP/OPTION IfyoudidleaveoutC4143,C4649,R50,nowtheycanbeplacedcarefully. 12. Lastconnectsignalandpowerconnectors.

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13. TheJ1jumperorwireswithatogglingswitchareusedtomuteandturnontheamplifier. Ifyoudonotuseanexternalswitch,youcanpermanentlyputajumperfromthemiddleholeofJ1to theAwakesideofJ1,orusesomewire.

Componentplacement

ComponentstobeplacedonTOPofPCB.

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41Hz Audio - AI-AMP-1B

ComponentsonBOTTOMofPCB.Theseareverysmallsmd,surfacemountdevices.

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41Hz Audio - AI-AMP-1B

ComponentsonBOTTOMofPCBwithvalues. Thelightgreenisforresistors,thebrown/tan/orangeisfordifferentvaluesofcapacitors. Note1 Thereare2x100nF(104)Capswhichare100V(coloredinpink),whiletherestareonly50V. Note2 For inputgain, this amp is using the default 20k resistors for Rin & Rfeedback R51, 32 & R43, 44 respectively,asperTable1intheAI(above). Formodulatorgain,itisalsosettouse10kforRmfbR31&52,asperTable2intheAI. Additionalcomponents Thefollowingwillatsomestagebeneededtocompletetheamplifier,butisnotincludedinthekit: HEATSINK. Screwsandheatconductivepastetomounttheheatsink.Themainsourceofheatontheboardisthe Tripath chip. In most cases, if you mount the board and chip to an aluminum amplifier casing, it is sufficienttocoolthechip. However, for high power applications the heat dissipated increases and you must ensure this has adequatecooling.TheTripathchipdoesnotneedtobeinsulated,asthebackofthechipisinternally connectedtoground. HOOKUPWIRE. I recommend soldering connection wires to the board. Optionally you can fit screw/solder terminals with2.5mmspacingfortheinputsand5mmspacingforpowerandoutputs. MUTE/UNMUTESWITCHorjumper.
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MUTE/UNMUTESWITCHorjumper. Preferablywirethistoaswitchonyourpanel.Optionallyusea2.54mmjumper(50mil)ontheboard. Mutingtheampbeforepoweronminimizestheturnonthumpandisrecommended. POWERSUPPLY SMPS/transformer/battery,powerswitchandfuse. THEBOARDS Aredoubleweight,doublesidedcopper.EvenifthePCBandcomponentsaresmall,quiteapowerful soldering iron is helpful. Especially components and pads connected to the ground plane require significantheating. A temperature controlled 50W soldering iron is recommended. At the same time, applying excessive heat may damage the board, causing the copper leads to come off. Preheating the board to around 100C will make work easier and allows using a lower solder iron temperature which decreases the damagerisk. SomeinformationonhowtosolderbothSMTandholemountedcomponentsisavailableunderTech Info

41Hz Audio - AI-AMP-1B

Yourpowersupplyvoltage (justanexample)

Thepowersupplyvoltagewillinfluencethevoltagesensing.Thedefaultcomponentswillworkfrom +/20Vdcupto+/35Vdc. Thisimpliesatransformervoltageofaround2x15Vacupto2x25Vac. Abovevoltagesaredouble,i.e.ampneedsasymmetricpowersupplyasseeninPSexampleabove.(+/


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41Hz Audio - AI-AMP-1B

Abovevoltagesaredouble,i.e.ampneedsasymmetricpowersupplyasseeninPSexampleabove.(+/ isnot'about',butplusandminus) Transformerabout300VAforratedmax.power,butdependsonyourneeds.

Hookupandshielding. Switchedmodeamplifiersareabitnoisybynature,inthesensethattheyemitEMIthatisgeneratedbythe highpower,highfrequencyoutputtransistors. Thiscanbetransmittedviacablingorasradiatedintheatmosphereandpickedupbyotherequipmentlike radios, preamplifiers etc or by the amplifier inputs. It is therefore recommended that some precautions are taken. Themostimportantisthattheampishousedinametal/shieldedcasing. Propergroundingisalsoimportant. NOTE InputgroundshouldbetakentotheboardJ2connectorground,NOTtothehousingorpowersupplyground. ThespeakerreturnsshouldleadtoJ3ground,NOTtothecasingorpowersupplyground. Itisrecommendedthathookupcableforthesignalinputand+5Visshieldedandasshortaspossiblesothatit doesnotpickupnoisefromtheoutputs.Inputcablesand+5Vcablesshouldleadawayfromtheoutputsas faraspossible. Speakercableandpowercablescanbetwisted.Allcablesshouldleadtheshortestwayoutofthecasing. Formostusers,usingshieldedcablesandametalhousingprovidessufficientEMIdamping.Ifthisisnotthe case for you, for example if you get disturbances on radio receivers, damping can be used on the cables. Typically, the amplifier inputs can be decoupled with 100pF capacitors on the RCA connectors, between groundandliveorusingtwo100pFcapacitors,fromeachleadertothehousing. On the speaker outputs, capacitors of 4700pF can be placed between ground and live on the speaker connectors or from each lead connector to the metal housing. There are some Tripath application notes availableonthedownloadpageofthe41HzAudiowebsitedealingwithEMIandhowtodealwithit. Powersupply AMP1Brequiresadualrailpowersupplyplusastabilized+5V100mAsupply.Inthetoolboxsectionof thewebsite,therearesomerecommendationsforpowersuppliesbutbelowisasummary. The rail voltages can be +/20Vdc to +/35Vdc. Higher voltage gives a higher possible maximum power output. With 4 ohm speakers or 8 ohm bridged mono, +/ 31Vdc is the maximum recommended, to avoid overcurrentshutdownathighpower. TheVAratingdependsonyourapplication.Itcouldrangefrom100VAfora+/24Vsupplyconnectedtoan 8ohmspeakerupto300VAormoreforabridged8ohmssubwoofer.
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41Hz Audio - AI-AMP-1B

8ohmspeakerupto300VAormoreforabridged8ohmssubwoofer. The rail supply does not need to be stabilized. Bulk capacitors of at least 10.0000 uF per side are recommended. The+5VisusedfortheanalogueinputamplifierandtheinchipdigitalpartsoftheTA2022.Itneedstobe wellstabilizedandwellbypassed.Youcanusea7805voltageregulatororsimilarbytappingcurrentfromthe positivemainsupply. You can use a separate transformer supply to feed the 7805 The +5V should be connected using shielded cable,topreventitfrompickingupnoise.The+5Vwillnotdrawmorethanabout60mA. Yoursignalsource Your signal source signal level will influence the selection of the input sensitivity components. This is describedelsewhereonthissite. Themaximumcurrent TheAMP1Bhascurrentlimitingprotectionsettoaround8A,internallyintheTA2022chip.Youcannot change this. If you have a problem with the amp muting at very high power, you should lower the supply voltage,toavoidoverloadingtheamplifierorblowingfuses. TestingandTroubleshooting

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1. Beforeconnectingpower,inspectthesolderingclosely,sothattherearenoshortcutsorsoldersplatter onthePCB. 2. PutthejumperJ1toMute 3. Groundthesignalinputs(connectIN1andIN2toAGNDonconnectorJ2).Donotconnectspeakers yet. 4. Connectapowersupplyof+/20to+/31VDC(+/35VDCabsolutemaximum).Checkthepolarityof thepowersupply.WrongpolaritywillpermanentlydestroytheTA2022chip. 5. Fortesting,use300mAfastfusesonthepowersupply. 6. The 5V supply should draw about 50 mA when the amplifier is operating. A 100 mA fast fuse is recommended. 7. MovetheJ1jumperfromMutetoAwake 8. TheLEDshouldgoafteroffandafterasecondortwoyoushouldhearaclickfromtherelay. 9. The5Vsupplyshoulddrawabout50mAwhentheamplifierisoperating 10. Checkthefuses.Iftheyhaveblown,disconnecttheboardandcheckallcomponentsandsolderjoints. 11. Measure the DCoffset on speaker outputs, should be 025mV (lower is better, 100400mV is NOT acceptable).Ifnot,checkthecircuitsonPCB,useschematic. 12. Shutoffthepower 13. Connectthespeakerwires 14. Connectasignalsource(useshieldedwires)toJ2 15. Setthevolumeverylow 16. Switchiton 17. Checkifyougetanysound. 18. IfeverythingseemsOK,switchoffpower,replacethepowersupplyfusesforlargerfusesandtryagain (The5Vfuseshouldremain100mA) 19. Fortestingatlowpowernoheatsinkisrequired. For low to medium power applications the amplifier housing may be sufficient as a heat sink. The amplifiermaydissipateabs.max.25Wofheatatfulltilt.Then,a2C/Wheatsinkisreasonable. Theheatslugonthebackofthechipisconnectedtothechipgroundanddoesnotrequireelectrically insulatedmounting,butmightbewisetodoforincaseof. 20. Enjoy!

Troubleshooting ReadarticleunderTechInfo,BuildingKits. Tips,Tweaks,Mods

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Pleasebeadvisedthatthisamplifiermoduleisa'core'module.Sosecondarycircuitsshouldbeadded,likea powersupply,inputprotection,volumecontrol,etc. AMP1xBridging UnderTechInfo,BuildingKits,readarticleabouthowtobridgetheampforMAXMONOPOWER. AMP1Brevisionhistory 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0

AMP1views(NOTAMP1B) ReadarticleunderTechInfo,Misc.forsomebuildpictures. .

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