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EVALUACIN DE CEMENTO

Bond log showing cement top


Typical Cement Bond
Log presentation
Good Formation Bond
Free pipe
CBL-VDL in free pipe (no cement).
Notice straight line and high amplitude pattern on
VDL pipe arrivals (railroad track pattern). Travel
Time curve is constant and amplitude curve reads
high. Note casing collar anomalies on travel time
and amplitude curves, and more weakly on VDL display.
Casing is still unbonded (high amplitude
Railroad tracks on early arrivals on VDL), Railroad tracks on early arrivals on VDL),
Amplitude curve reads high, BUT late
arrivals on VDL have shape and track
porosity log shape. This indicates free
pipe laying on side of borehole and
Touching formation. The VDL arrivals
with shape are the Formation arrivals.
Better casing Centralization should be
used on the next well. A cement squeeze
will improve the scene but will probably
not provide isolation on the low side of
the pipe.
Well bonded pipe (low amplitude on
early arrivals on VDL, good bond to formation (high
amplitude late arrivals with shape). Mud arrivals
would have high amplitude but no shape.
VDL on left shows poor bond but formation signal is fairly strong. When casing is put under pressure,
bond improves (not a whole lot) as seen on lower amplitude early arrivals on right hand log. This is
called a micro-annulus. Under normal oil production, the micro-annulus is not too big a problem unless
bottom hole pressure is very low. Micro-annulus is caused by dirty or coated pipe, pressuring casing
before cement is fully cured, or ridiculous pressures applied during stimulation.
When there is no CBL-VDL made
under pressure, the un-pressured
version can be used to interpret
micro-annulus. High amplitude
early arrivals (normally
Indicating poor bond) actually
Indicate good bond (with
micro-annulus) IF formation
signals are also strong.
The travel time curve is lower than baseline
(shaded areas, Track 1) indicating fast formation
arrivals. If you see fast formation, you have a
good bond to pipe and to formation. However,
you cannot use the amplitude curve (labeled
Casing Bond on this example) to calculate
attenuation, compressive strength, or bond
index, because the amplitude is measured on
the formation arrivals, not the pipe arrivals.
Centralizacin
Pozos con gas
Microanillo
Tracks 8 to 16 provide 5 segmented curves
from the impedance image broken into
9 segments around the wellbore. High activity
indicates solids, and low activity indicates fluid.
In the zone F notice how the curves have
both low impedance and low activity compared
to the data immediately above it in zone C.
Track 6 (DZ) is the variance of the
impedance map which highlights
the differences between solids
Track 3 contains a standard CBL
waveform display (WMSG).
Track 2 presents the amplitude (AMP), amplified
amplitude (AAMP), filtered cement bond index (FCBI),
as well as the computed cement bond index (FCEMBI).
Track 1 presents correlation data (GR), quality control (ECTY),
and the average impedance (ZAVG) which provides a quick
interpretation of the cement placement.
Track 7 (CEMT) shows the result of
both the impedance and variance in
determination of solids vs. fluids.
Fluids are designated as blue, while
cement is indicated by the brown color.
the differences between solids
(cement) and liquids.
The ultrasonic impedance map
(ZP) is presented in Track 5,
which indicates the impedance
of the material behind pipe.
Track 4 is the total CBL waveform
(WMSGT) which is the ACE
processing which highlights the
collar response.
waveform display (WMSG).