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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING BANGLADESH UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY COURSE NO.

: EEE 210 SIMULATION MODULE 06

Name ! "#e S$m%&a"$ ':


6a: DETERMINATION OF OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER CHARACTERISTICS 6(: LINEAR APPLICATION OF OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS

OB)ECTIVE OF 6a The objective of this module is to determine the following Op-Amp characteristics using spice simulation 1) Measurement of Open-loop Gain, AOL 2) Measurement of Open-loop Break-frequency, fo 3) Input offset olta!e, "io #) Bias currents $IB%,IB-) & Input offset current Ios ') (le)-*ate OB)ECTIVE OF 6b To investigate the different linear applications of the operational amplifier, for example in ertin! multiplier in ertin! summer .ifferential amplifier in ertin! inte!rator an. in ertin! .ifferentiator THEORY
FAMILIARI*ATION +ITH OP,AMP

+) ,) -) /) 10)

There are different types of Op-Amp ICs !ost common one is uA"#$ Its pin configuration is given below-

De!$'$"$ ' ! -.1,/$' !%'0"$ '1: P$' 1 2O!!1e" N%&&3: %ince the op-amp is the differential type, input offset voltage must be controlled so as to minimi&e offset Offset voltage is nulled by application of a voltage of opposite polarity to the offset An offset null-adjustment potentiometer may be used to compensate for offset voltage The null-offset potentiometer also compensates for irregularities in the operational amplifier manufacturing process which may cause an offset Conse'uently, the null potentiometer is recommended for critical applications %ee (Offset )ull Adjustment( for method P$' 2 2I'4e5"e6 I'/%"3: All input signals at this pin will be inverted at output pin * +ins , and - are very important .obviously/ to get the correct input signals or the op

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amp can not do its wor1 P$' 7 2N ',I'4e5"e6 I'/%"3: All input signals at this pin will be processed normally without inversion The rest is the same as pin , P$' . 2,V3: The 2- pin .also referred to as 2ss/ is the negative supply voltage terminal %upply-voltage operating range for the "#$ is -# 3 volts .minimum/ to -$4 volts .max/, and it is specified for operation between -3 and -$3 2dc The device will operate essentially the same over this range of voltages without change in timing period %ensitivity of time interval to supply voltage change is low, typically 0 $5 per volt .)ote6 7o not confuse the -2 with ground/ P$' 8 2O!!1e" N%&&3: %ee pin $ P$' 6 2O%"/%"3: Output signal(s polarity will be the opposite of the input(s when this signal is applied to the op-amp(s inverting input 8or example, a sine-wave at the inverting input will output a s'uare-wave in the case of an inverting comparator circuit P$' - 2/ 1V3: The 29 pin .also referred to as 2cc/ is the positive supply voltage terminal of the "#$ Op-Amp IC %upply-voltage operating range for the "#$ is 9# 3 volts .minimum/ to 9$4 volts .maximum/, and it is specified for operation between 93 and 9$3 2dc The device will operate essentially the same over this range of voltages without change in timing period Actually, the most significant operational difference is the output drive capability, which increases for both current and voltage range as the supply voltage is increased %ensitivity of time interval to supply voltage change is low, typically 0 $5 per volt P$' 9 2N:C3: The ():C( stands for ()ot Connected( There is no other explanation There is nothing connected to this pin, it is just there to ma1e it a standard 4-pin pac1age

Input Stage

Gain Stage

Output Stage

O/,Am/,S"a;e1

It is well 1nown that the characteristics of commercially available operational amplifiers are different from the ideal characteristics Although it is possible to use some of these non-ideal characteristics to advantage; for example the finite bandwidth and finite

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gain characteristics can be used to construct capacitor less filters and oscillators, in general the non-ideal characteristics of the operational amplifiers may degrade the circuit performance Therefore, manufacturers usually provide users with the most important parameters of the operational amplifiers Ta(&e1: T</$0a& Pe5! 5ma'0e ! O/,Am/1. uA"#$ Open-<oop =ain .db/ $0* Input offset voltage .mv/ >3 ?ias Current .nA/ >300 Offset Current .nA/ >,00 %lew @ate .2:As/ 03 8ull-power bandwidth .1C&/ $0 C!@@ .db/ 40 Input @es .!E/ , Fnity-gain ? G .!C&/ $ <!$$4 $00 ># >,30 >30 B30 $000 D0 3 $3 A730"1 $00 >3 >$3 >$3 -3 *00 $00 -00 -3

Table$ shows the typical performance of selected operational amplifiers These data, however, give the average performance of a selected type The actual performance of a particular operational amplifier may be different from its typical characteristics It is, therefore, important to 1now how to measure the operational amplifier characteristics using simple e'uipments available in any laboratory

1) Measurement of Open-loop Gain, AOL 7irect measurement of the open-loop gain is not feasible because of the large values involved Instead, measurement of open-loop gain can be carried out with the operational amplifier embedded in a negative-feedbac1 circuit %uch an arrangement is shown in 8ig *a$ Hou can obtain an expression for the output voltage 2o in terms of the input voltage 2sin and the voltage 2$ .Applying IC< at 2$, we get V =2V1,V7>10V1$'/ If we select $0@$J@,J@fJ$01K, @-J$0K

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then it is easy to show that for large values of operational amplifier gain, the overall-gain; that is with the feedbac1 loop closed will be L$0 This value is not important in itself; its significance is to assure us that there is sufficient negative feedbac1 so that reasonable values of 2 sin can be used without driving 20 to saturation levels Ghat is important is the simple relation between 2 0 and 2$; obtain this relation Clearly, it is a simple matter to measure 2 $ and 20 and hence to calculate the gain of the operational amplifier .%ee e'uation/ Open-loop =ain, AO<J Output:7ifference inputJ 2o:2Closed-loop =ain, AC<J Output:InputJ 2o:2sin )ote6 Fse very low fre'uency i e few hert& ,/ Measurement of Open-loop Break-frequency $(cut-off( or (corner( fre'uency), fo

Consider the above 8ig At relatively high fre'uencies .w r t the open-loop brea1-fre'uency/, the gain of the Op Amp can be expressed by AOL $ + 1) : )0

A=

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At the fre'uency wt corresponding to unity-gain, AJ$, )2)t, so AOL = $ + 1)t : )0 %ince we 1now that )t >> )0 AOL )t : )0 )0 )t : AOL Therefore the gain of the Op Amp can be expressed by A= AOL $ + 1AOL ) : )t

It is easy to show that, in 8ig *a, when @$J@, the gain 20:2i will be
A3 = $ $+ ,: A

%ubstituting the value of A and since A0< is very large it is easy to show that A3 = $ $ = $ + 1 ,) : )t $ + 1 , ) : )t
)t Ge can , And since we 1now the open-loop voltage gain A0<, then it is easy to calculate )0

8rom the last e'n it is obvious that the gain will drop to $ : , when )m = measure wm .hence fo/

3) Input offset olta!e, "io Gith M0N input voltage, out put of Op-Amp is not &ero, because of input offset voltage It is mo.ele. as a 7C voltage connected to the 9input !easuring the output, 2io can be calculated

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#) Bias currents $IB%,IB-) & Input offset current Ios

I?9

8rom 8ig*a#$ O 8ig*a#,, using the output voltage, bias currents can be calculated Then input offset current IosJPI?9P-P I?-P ') (le)-*ate 8rom the discussion of section .,/ we found that )tJ)0A0 Therefore, if we consider the circuit of 8ig *a,, its gain can be expressed as its gain can be expressed as
0 i

*, : *$ $ + .$ + *, : *$ / : A )t the gain can be expressed as s

Therefore, substituting for A =

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0 i

*, : *$ $ + .$ + *, : *$ / s : )t

Ghich corresponds to an amplifier with dc gain of -@,:@$ and a - d? corner fre'uency of


)t :.$ + *, / *$

Therefore, if we measure the fre'uency response of a closed-loop amplifier with a gain of, say, $0, the --d? fre'uency of w t:$$ would be achieved This is true only if the output voltage is 'uite small .less than a volt/ On the other hand, Op Amps are capable of providing output signal swings that approach the voltages of the power supplies used .Typical values are Q$02 for Q$3 volt power supplies/ The lar!e-si!nal frequency response of Op Amps is limite. 4y t5e sle)-rate %pecifically, there is an upper limit for the rate of change of the output voltage with time This upper limit is called slew-rate This slew-rate limiting causeNs distortion in large-signal output sine waves %pecifically, as the fre'uency of the sine wave is increased, its slope, which is highest at the &ero crossings, increases until that slope e'uals the Op Amp slew-rate Increasing the fre'uency further will obviously result in a distorted output To measure the slew-rate, consider the circuit shown in 8ig *a3 If the input voltage is a s'uare wave of ,0 2 pea1-to-pea1 .here we assume that the dc supply voltage of the Op amp is Q$32 i e the ,02 p-to-p represents the maximum output voltage of the op amp/ and if we 1eep the fre'uency at, say $ IC&, then the output will be as shown in 8ig *a3; notice the effect of slew-rate The slew-rate can be easily measured from the output It is given by "0 6(* 20 vi

20 vi 9 v0 20 v0 T%@ 8ig *a3 +) Op-Amp Linear Operation CIRCUIT SETUP FOR LINEAR OPERATION

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+@OCR7F@R% 1) Measurement of Open-loop Gain, AOL 7raw the circuit shown in 8ig *a$ in +%pice schematics Fse uA"#$ as Op-amp module %et the input voltage 2sin at 3C&, $2 pea1 %et the transient and run simulation 8rom the probe output determine the rms values of 2o and 2- A-J 2orms: 2-rms )ow AO<J,0S<O=$0.A-/ d? Compare this value with Ta(&e1

,/ Measurement of Open-loop Break-frequency $(cut-off( or (corner( fre'uency), fo 7raw the circuit shown in 8ig *a, in +%pice schematics %et the input voltage 2AC at $2 %elect AC %weep from Se"%/ A'a&<1$1 %elect sweep from $ C& to $ =C& in 7ecade mode, with ,0 +ts:decade !ar1 the fre'uency where output is $ : , This is fm )ow ftJ,fm Fse value of AO< to calculate f 0 f t : AOL

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3) Input offset olta!e, "io

7raw the circuit shown in 8ig *a- in +%pice schematics .@ , is used to minimi&e the effect if Ios / @un simulation and mar1 2o )ow "io =

"o $ +* f

*$

#) Bias currents $IB%,IB-) & Input offset current Ios mar1 2o$ mar1 2o, ') (le)-*ate 7raw the circuit shown in 8ig *a3 in +%pice schematics %et the input voltage to a s'uare wave of ,0 2 pea1-to-pea1, $1C& %elect transient from Se"%/ A'a&<1$1 @un simulation and mar1 2o , T%@ 7raw the circuit shown in 8ig *a#$ in +%pice schematics @un simulation and

" "io I B = o$ *f
7raw the circuit shown in 8ig *a#, in +%pice schematics @un simulation and

" "o , I B + = io *i
Input offset current I os = I B + I B

" (le)rate = o 6(*

+) Linear Applications 7raw the circuits shown in 8ig *b$T3 in +%pice schematics %et the input voltages as suggested in Ta(&e2 %elect transient from Se"%/ A'a&<1$1 @un simulation and mar1 outputs

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@oughly fill up Ta(&e 2

Ta(&e2: L$'ea5 A//&$0a"$ ' O%"/%"1. CI@CFIT 1. I'4e5"$'; M%&"$/&$e5 @i J$1, @f J$1,$01,$001 2iJ,v p-p %in, $1C& 7raw Output @f J$01

@f J$1

@f J$001

2. I'4e5"$'; S%mme5 @f J$1,$01,$001 2$J,v pp, $1C&.rec/ 2,J,v pp, $1C&.tri/ 7. D$!!e5e'"$a& Am/&$!$e5 .as %ubtractor/ If @,:@$J @#:@- then 2oJ @,:@$.2, - 2$/ 2$ J,v pp, $1C& .rec/ 2, J,v pp, $1C& .tri/ .. I'4e5"$'; I'"e;5a" 5 2iJ ,v pp, $1C&

@f J$1

@f J$01

@f J$001

%elect @Ns for unsaturated 2o

%elect @Ns for saturated 2o

%elect @Ns for %ubtracted 2o

Out put 8or 2iJ2sin

Out put 8or 2iJ2rec

Out put 8or 2iJ2tri

8. I'4e5"$'; D$!!e5e'"$a" 5 2iJ ,v pp, $1C&

Out put 8or 2iJ2sin

Out put 8or 2iJ2rec

Out put 8or 2iJ2tri

Prepared by : Yeasir Arafat, Ahmad Ehteshamul Islam, Shaikh Asif Mahmood

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