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Phytogeography: Definition, types, vegetation types of India; vegetation types of Goa.

Phytogeography: Definition, types, vegetation types of India; vegetation types of Goa.

1

Sr no.

Name of the students

Roll no

1.

SHETKAR ROHINI ROHIDAS

110706560

2.

QUADROS SWIZEL

110706601

3.

MORAIS NEIL DOMINIC ROHAN

110706708

4.

FERNANDES JOEL IGNATIUS

110708559

5.

D'COSTA LISHA

110714707

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ABSTRACT

The main aim of our assignment is to study about phytogeography, types of vegetation found

in India and in Goa. Phytogeography is the study of distribution of plant species on earth’s

surface. It is also concerned with all aspects of plant distribution, from the controls on the

distribution of individual species rangesto the factors that govern the composition of entire

communities and floras. vegetation in India include the Tropical Rain Forest, the Tropical

Deciduous Forests, the Temperate Forests and Grasslands, the Alpine and Tundra Vegetation

etc. The vegetation in Goa is tropical evergreen and semi-evergreen trees.The tropical

seasonal or semi-evergreen forests due to be found in the areas having classic monsoon

climate.

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INTRODUCTION

Phytogeography is the branch of biogeography that is concerned with the geographic

distribution of plantspecies and their influence on the earth's surface. It is also concerned with

all the aspects of the plant distribution. Natural vegetation in India include the Tropical Rain

Forest, the Tropical Deciduous Forests, the Temperate Forests and Grasslands, the Alpine

and Tundra Vegetation etc. Apart from these, there are also some other varieties of natural

vegetation in India like Himalayan Vegetation, Rain Forests of Southern India, the Desert

Region, etc. Estuarine vegetation, Strand and creek vegetation, Plateau vegetation and Semi-

evergreen and evergreen vegetation is found in Goa

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

In a research article titled Phytogeography of the Andaman--Nicobar Islands : It notes that

biological organisms of the islands are continental in origin and have evolved into the present

status from a totally balanced continental biosystem through evolution of over million years.

It cites that H. fenzlii (Kurz) K. Schum is the honey bee repellent plant species used by the

Shompen tribes for honey collection.

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CONTENTS

Sr no

Title

Pg no

1

Title

1

2

Group members

2

3

Abstract

3

4

Introduction

4

5

Review of literature

5

6

Phytogeography

7

7

Vegetation types of India

8

8

Vegetation types of Goa

13

9

Conclusion

27

10

Bibliography

28

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PHYTOGEOGRAPHY

Definition

This is defined as the origin, special relationship and distribution of plants both in time and

space.

This branch is related to geography in one hand and ecology on the other. The distribution of

plants in past geographical regions with its evolution and exploitation of its distribution in

terms of environment and other ecological aspect from this wide branch of science.

Types of phytogeography: phytogeography can be studied in two headings:

a) Descriptive phytogeography: It is related to the distribution of plant communities in

the different parts of the world. This is also termed as static phytogeography.

b) Interpretive phytogeography: It is related to explain the causes of plant distribution.

This is also termed as dynamic phytogeography.

Descriptive phytogeography.

This branch of phytogeography deals with the distribution of different vegetational zones of

the world. The vegetational floras are described in systematic way and various floristic zones

are formed by their descriptions.

a) Types of distribution. The geological factors are responsible for the distribution of

plants. The factors are divided into two broad categories; inherent and geographic.

The former are concerned mainly with the evolution of an individual as well as the

question of its relative immobility. On the other hand, the latter are again subdivided

into two main groups, the climatic factors and the barrier factors. The barriers are

characteristic areas, which according to Prof.Good “cannot be crossed by spreading

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species in the ordinary processes of its dispersal “. These factors areof greater

significance to the distribution of plants over the world than the climatic factors.

Further the various biotic factors may also influence such distributions. These are the

aspects that the plant geographers were to bear in mind while considering the question

of plants in different regions of the world.

In nature, plants are distributed in three ways, continuous, discontinuous and edemic.

Continuos distribution: This type of distribution is observed when plants are distributed

throughout in one climate without any temperature without any interruption. Poa, Phragmites,

Chenopodium are the examples of continuos distribution.

Disontinuos distribution: this type of distribution is observed when plants are distributed in

more than one area separated by wide gaps and the plants have no capacity to disperse from

one place to another. The process of discontinuos distribution is sustantiated by theories of

land bridge and theories of continental drift. In the first theory it is believed that in Malaya

and Australia as there are common plant species in Paleozoic era, there are land bridges

which got submerged into sea water. In this way, the common plants are distributed in two

places with large gap in between. In the second case, there are uniformity of plant distribution

in a single super continent in the Paleozoic era. This super continent (Pangaea) broke into

northern Laurasia and southern Gondwanaland. The two continents give rise to Eurasia.

Greenland and North America and the Gondwanaland formed India. South America

Australia, Antartica etc. The land masses are separated and their plants show uniformity of

structures. These are plants like Nothofagus, Adansonia etc. Which occur in South America

and South Africa. These are the examples of discontinuos distribution.

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Endemic distribution: This type of distribution shows the presence of a type of a plant in a

small region only. Examples are Gingko biloba, Metasequoia, Sequoia etc.

Interpretive Phytogeography

The branch deals with causes of the distribution pattern in plant vegetation. There are some

principles of interpretive phytogeography. According to Law (1951) there are 13 principles

which are grouped into (a) environment (b) plant responses (c) migration and (d)

perpetuation.

Principles of phytogeography

a) Principles concerning the environment, according to which the climate has primary

control, and the edaphic control is secondary, and the biotic factor are also important.

It is also assumed that the climate, as well as the relations of land and sea, has

changed in the past.

b) Principles concerning plant responses, according to which ranges of plant are limited

by tolerances of different plant functions towards climatic, edaphic and biotic factors,

and that different ontogenic phases, have different tolerances.

c) Principles concerning the migration of floras and climaxes, which state that great

migrations have taken place in the past and are still taking place, and that migrations

result from transport and establishment of migrules.

d) Principles concerning the perpetuation and evolution of floras and climaxes ,

according to which perpetuation depends upon migration and liability to transmit

favourable variation to the offspring , and evolution and natural selection ,

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NATURAL VEGETATION IN INDIA

Natural vegetation in India is influenced by a few factors like topography, soil, amount of

rainfall and temperature. Natural vegetation in India can be classified in different ways,

according to their position, atmosphere, weather condition etc.

Types of Natural Vegetation in India

Some of the common characteristics of various types of natural vegetation in India include

the Tropical Rain Forest, the Tropical Deciduous Forests, the Temperate Forests and

Grasslands, the Alpine and Tundra Vegetation etc. Apart from these, there are also some

other varieties of natural vegetation in India like Himalayan Vegetation, Rain Forests of

Southern India, the Desert Region, etc.

Tropical Rain Forests

The tropical rain forests play an important role in natural vegetation in India. These types of

forests include the tropical evergreen forests and tropical semi-evergreen forests and they are

mostly found in places where there is plenty of rainfall and sunshine throughout the year.

is plenty of rainfall and sunshine throughout the year. Growth of the trees is usually at

Growth of the trees is usually at its best where rainfall is in surplus of

200 cm, with a short dry season. Therefore, these forests are called as

Archetypal Rain-Forests. Such regions are limited within rainy slopes of

the Western Ghats, plains of West Bengal and Orissa and North-eastern

India.

Trees grow very briskly in these forests and attain sublime heights of

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about 60 m and above. The number of species in these forests, like ebony, mahogany and is

rosewood,vast and assorted to utilise them commercially.

Tropical Deciduous Forests

Another variety of natural vegetation in India can be found in the tropical deciduous forests.

They are called as deciduous as they cast leaves for about 6 to 8 weeks in summer. They are

also called the monsoon forests with all their grandeur and beauty. This is so because they

form a natural cover approximately all over India, especially within regions having 200 and

75 cm of annual rainfall.

Most of the tropical deciduous forests are found in the state of Kerala in India. Apart from

Kerala, these forests can be found in the eastern slopes of Western Ghats and also in the

north-eastern parts of the peninsular plateau and in the valleys of the Himalaya mountains.

The tropical deciduous forests are pretty substantial, cost-effective and they demand a lot of

maintenance, as they are less resistant to fire. These forests can be divided into moist and dry

deciduous forests.

Moist Deciduous Forests

The moist deciduous forests are most commonly found on the eastern slopes of the Western

Ghats. They are also found in the north-eastern part of the peninsula that is in the region of

Chota Nagpur plateau, covering east Madhya Pradesh, south Bihar and west Orissa. They are

also widespread along the Shiwaliks in the northern India. Some of the important trees found

in these forests include Indian teak tree, Sal, and sandalwood.

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Thorn Forests and Shrubs The Thorn Forests and Shrubs offer another kind of natural vegetation

Thorn Forests and Shrubs

The Thorn Forests and Shrubs offer another kind of

natural vegetation in India. These forests are mainly

found in dry places where the annual rainfall is less

than 70 cm. They are stretched over the north-western part of India, from Saurashtra in the

south to Punjab plains in the north.

In the east, the thorn forests and shrubs extend towards northern Madhya Pradesh (primarily

Malwa Plateau) and south-west Uttar Pradesh, covering Bundelkhand plateau. Dispersed

trees with long roots, broadened in a radial pattern are the most familiar features of the trees

in these forests. These forests slowly die away into scrubs and thorny bushes comprising the

classic desert vegetation. Some of the most valuable plant species found in these forests

include Babul, Kikar and coarse Grasses.

in these forests include Babul, Kikar and coarse Grasses. Tidal or Mangrove Forests The tidal forests

Tidal or Mangrove Forests

The tidal forests provide another variety of natural vegetation in India. They can be found

along the coasts and rivers and they are enshrouded by mangrove trees that can live in both

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fresh and salt water.

Sundari is a renowned mangrove tree, mainly found in the tidal forests and it is after this tree

that the name Sundarban has been entitled to the forested parts of the Ganga-Brahmaputra

delta.

Temperate Forests and Grasslands

Natural vegetation in India can be found in the temperate forests and grasslands, as well.

Various types of plants are found in the Himalayas in relation to the varying altitudes. The

broad-leaved evergreen trees usually grow between altitudes of 1 km and 2 km. The trees like

oak, chestnut and maple belong to this category.

On the other hand, the coniferous trees like pine, deodar, silver fir and spruce are grown

between altitudes 1.5 km and 3 km. They are mainly found in the southern slopes of the

Himalayas. The temperate grasslands are also commonly seen at higher altitudes in these

regions.

Alpine and Tundra Vegetation

Alpine and Tundra Vegetation is another kind of natural vegetation in India. Vegetation

growing at altitudes above 3.6 km MSL is usually known as Alpine Vegetation and it can be

noticed that with the increment of the altitude, the plants show stunted growth. The trees like

Silver Fir, Pine, Juniper and Birch belong to this category. The Alpine Grasslands are mainly

found at higher altitudes in this region. The people belonging to the tribal groups like Gujjar

and Bakarwal make extensive use of this region. The vegetations like Lichen and Mosses are

also found in high altitudinal regions.

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Himalayan Vegetation

The Himalayan vegetation is one of the major kinds of natural vegetation in India. The thick

tropical forests in the eastern region of India have a sharp distinction with the pine and

coniferous woodlands of the western Himalayas. The evergreen forests, with mainly high

alpine meadows nearer the snowline, usually have more of temperate forests in the lower

elevations. The plant named Chir Pine grows throughout the northwest Himalayas, with the

exception of Kashmir. The other plants like Chilgoza, Oak, Maple, Ash etc. also grow

abundantly in the Inner Himalayas. The rain-soaked foothills of the Himalayas are covered

with deciduous trees, shrubs, fern and grass and the Brahmaputra Valley also have patches of

tea plantations and fluorescent-green rice fields.

Rain Forests of Southern India

The rain forests of Southern India are contributing hugely to the natural vegetation in India.

The most luxuriant rain forests lie on the south-western coast, in the state of Kerala. Here the

lagoons are canopied by coconut trees and lead to the longest uninterrupted stretch of rain

forests in the country. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands and the state of Arunachal Pradesh

are some of the other regions with well preserved rain forests in India. Apart from that, dense

Sandal, Teak and Sisoo forests also flourish on the Karnataka plateau. On the other hand, the

dry Telengana plateau in Andhra Pradesh offers only thorny scrub and wild Indian Wild Date

Desert Region

Natural vegetation in India can be found in the desert region of India also. The Thar Desert in

India presents a wonderful picture of natural vegetation in India. The trees in this desert are

short and stout, and stunted by the scorching sun. Some of the most common trees in this

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region include Cacti, Reunjha, Khejra, Kanju, Ak etc.

All these varieties of forests and areas significantly contribute to the natural vegetation in

India. But there are several problems like deforestation, over-grazing, Jhum cultivations,

which needs to be addressed in order to protect and conserve the natural vegetation in India.

The Government of India is taking several steps such as the Van Mahatsov programme,

planting new tress every year etc. Moreover, the Government has also taken various steps to

spread awareness about the need for conservation and has educated the general civilians

about the several measures that need to be adopted in order to protect the natural vegetation

in India.

VEGETATION IN GOA

Although Goa is the smallest state in India, it is rich in flora and fauna. Goa flora and fauna

are diverse in nature. The smallest state of India is situated on the western shores of the

country in the Konkan territory. The Western Ghats have the greatest divert of plant life,

including areas of jungle (which can be seen around Dudhsagar Falls and BhagwanMahavir

Wildlife Sanctuary), The vegetation here is, for the most part, tropical evergreen, although

there evergreen although there are large areas of cane & bamboo and semi-evergreen trees.

large areas of cane & bamboo and semi-evergreen trees. On the lower slopes of the Ghats,

On the lower slopes of the Ghats, thinner, dry soil supports

lateritic semi-evergreen forests. In many places (for example,

Cotigao wildlife Sanctuary) the arid nature of the leads to

savanna like vegetation. In the less dry patches of the lower

slopes, imbers such as teak are grown.

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The principal foodgrain cultivated in the state is rice. Ragi, pulses, and other food grains are

cultivated as well. The major cash crops in Goa are Cashewnuts ,Coconuts ,Sugarcane,

Arecanuts ,Fruits such as mangos, pineapples, and bananas .The state of Goa is home to

abundant woodlands, encompassing more than 1,424 km 2 .The major forest products in the

state of Goa are Maratha barks ,Bamboo sticks ,Bhirand and Chillar barks . In this state,

coconut trees are seen everywhere other than the places with higher altitude. A big variety of

broad-leafed plants such as sal, teak, mango trees, and cashew is seen. Popular fruits found in

this area are ,Mangos ,Jackfruits ,Black-berry, also known as podkoam in Konkani language

and Pineapples The jungles of the state are full of herbs and medicinal trees. The state tree of

Goa is the Asan.

Goa's wet evergreen forests generally occupy about 250 sq. km. which are found in different

areas in deep ravines and steep hills. These forests are mainly on the eastern border of Goa,

close to the steep, rocky slopes of the Western Ghats. With these regions receiving heavy

rainfall, the soils are shallow since they tend to be easily eroded. During the pre Liberation

period, the Portuguese kept these forests as 'A' class classified ones for purposes of soil

conservation and regulation of water flows. Also, these areas being somewhat inaccessible

and coupled with high elevation and rocky territory, the wet evergreen forests had low value

timber content. Among these Goan wet evergreens, only two really could be termed as

'gregarious species' viz. Syzgiumcumini and Mimusops elegi.

In their virgin state, Goa's moist deciduous forests

include leaf-shedding species, teak and bamboos, the

latter being an excellent source of long-fibre material

for pulp. Essentially, these forests can be classified

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the latter being an excellent source of long-fibre material for pulp. Essentially, these forests can be

into four categories viz. (1) High value (2) Medium value (3) Average value and (4) Low

value timber. During the time of the Portuguese rule, 400 forest out of a total of nearly 800

sq.km. Of moist deciduous forest had been classified as teak-bearing areas and treated as

being available for commercial timber sales. However, despite the absence of user-rights,

considerable illegal, unsupervised over-cutting took place resulting in considerable damage to

these forests, leaving behind stumps and malformed trees. Added to this, were the dumping

of mining waste which contributed to the degradation of these forests.

The rugged Western Ghats make it an ideal haven for many species of birds and animals and

also provide a corridor for migration. The Western Ghats called the Sahyadris in Goa extend

for a total of 600 kms in Goa of their total length of 3702 kms. The widest belt of forests

along the Western Ghats is in Goa and neighbouring Karnataka state. The coastal areas

provide the tropical backdrop.

On the lower slopes of the Ghats, thinner, dry soil supports lateritic semi-evergreen forests. In

many places (for example, Cotigao wildlife Sanctuary) the arid natures of the leads to

savanna like vegetation. In the less dry patches of the lower slopes, timbers such as teak are

grown.

In the midland region the lateritic rock is extremely close to the surface and the soil is too

thin in many places to support much more grass and scrub. Where possible, cashew trees

significant cash crops which withstand the hot dry conditions, have been laid out in large

plantations.

Beneath the canopy of the coconut palms and mango trees, the tall, slender areca nut palms

(which provide betel nuts for paan – a mixture chewed for its mildly intoxicating effect and

as a digestive) are grown. These shelter an incredible variety of fruits trees and spice plants,

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ranging from pineapples to bananas, and pepper to cinnamon. Although many of these plants

are indigenous to Goa, other was introduced by the Portuguese, including rubber trees,

Pineapples and chillies. The coastal region has a similarly wide range of flora. The saline

conditions support a substantial area of mangroves (estimated at a total area of 20 sq km).

Along the coast, coconut palms, perhaps the most useful of all trees grown in Goa,

predominate. Another distinctive feature in the area is the large banyan trees that often

provide a shady meeting spot in each village.

Medical Plants:

Goa is a region which is rich in medicinal plants. The Gazetteer of India relating to the then

Union Territory of Goa, Daman and Diu (1979 edition) lists no less than 57 different

medicinal plants that grow in Goa. The following table gives an illustrative list of the

medicinal plants of Goa and the wide variety of diseases for which they are useful when

medical treatment is to be given. Goa has other types of plant life which could broadly be

categorized thus:

Estuarine vegetation of mangrove along swampy river banks, strand and Greek vegetation

along the coastal belt, Plateau vegetation along undulating terrain and foothills, open scrub

jungle, moist deciduous forests which are found around Tudal, But-pal, Molem, Codal,

Valpoi and/Anmodeghat, semi-evergreen and evergreen vegetation along the upper ghats,

evergreen forests, hydrophites, the free floating as well as marshy plants, grasslands in the

plains of Goa, economic and medicinal plants which include timber and the medicinal plants

which were briefly described earlier. The grasslands of Goa harbour have economic fodder

grasses while the medicinal plants also include Rauvolfia serpentina, Rubia cordifolia,

Gloriosasu-perba and many other such medicinal plants.

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Name

Useful for treatment of

 

Alstoniascholaris

Ulcers, dyspepsia, skin diseases, liver problems.

 
 

Paralysis, rheumatism, skin diseases, diabetes, "Black water"

Cassia fistula

fever.

Ficusreligiasa

scabies, cracked /inflammed soles of feet.

 

Magniferaindica

Bleeding piles, diptheria, skin disease.

 
 

Kidney

disorders,

piles,

fistular

sores,

urinary

diseases,

Mimosa pudica

abscesses.

 
 

Dyspepsia,

vertigo,

coma,

sore

throat

parapytic

affection,

Piper nigrum

alopacia and urticaria.

 

Tectonagrandis

Dyspepsia, heartburn, headache, diuresis skin itch.

 
 

Mild

laxative,

enlarged

spleen,

urinary

disorders,

intestinal

Terminaliachebula

worms.

 

Rheumatism,

biliousness,

spermatorrhoea,

jaundice,

bone

Tinosporacordifolia

fractures.

 
 

Boils,

abscesses,

inflammation

of

gums,

mild

laxative,

Zizyphusjujuba

expectorant.

 
 

Catarrhal

fever,

rheumatism,

enlarged

spleen,

sprains,

Vitexnegundo

inflammatory swellings of joints, cholera an haemorrhages.

 

Treatment of gonorrhoea, vaginal diseases, dysentry, bleeding

Accaciaarabica

from bites of leeches; and also as an expectorant.

 

Strychnosnux

Debility,

worms,

hysteria,

mental

emotions,

insomnia,

vomica

spasmodic diseases, sexual impotence and bronchitis.

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Round worms, tape worms, thread worms, toothache, rheumatic

pains, eye diseases.

Erythrinaindica

Structure of the plant community at pale and sirigao villages:

The type of forest in Western Ghats has been categorised broadly as the monsoon forest. The

point must be made clear that there are wide variations in monsoon climatic regime and also

wide variations in vegetation response, the vegetation ranges from luxuriant forest in wetter

areas with short relatively dry season, to open woodland, where the rainy season is short, total

annual rainfall is on low side, where the rainfall trends to be variable in both its amount and

incidence.

The tropical seasonal or semi-evergreen forests due to be found in the areas having classic

monsoon climate. It shows potentially evergreen type of physiognomy, with more or less

uniform floral composition. The climax vegetation in this region called evergreen biome

forest. Evergreen plant species easily noticed are: Alistonia scholaris, Garcinia indica,

tamarindus indica, syzgium cumini and mangifera indica as trees.

Some of the families of cultivated plant species only found at pale and sirigao

1)

Family: Ophioglossaceae

Ophioglossumcostatum R. Br. Rao (1986) Fl. G. Dam.Diu, Dadra &Nagarhav.

2:521. Ophioglossumfibrosumschum.

Small fern less than 20cm in height, erect found an open loamy gravel soils. Rhizome large,

round, tuberous with numerous fibrous roots.Stipe or stalk very short with sterile segment

close to base.Fronds thick and fleshy.Venetation indistinct except when dry, reticulate with

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forked vein lets. The midrib is prominent consisting of single main vein or 2-3 strong central

veins which run parallel. Location: chowgule’s mines slopes-pale.

2)

Family: Marsileaceae (Marseleaminuta L.)

A well differentiated herb like fern, semi aquatic with a slender creeping rhizome. The

rhizome (stoloniferous in habit) is indefinite in growth. Fronds are borne at nodes,

compound; the lamina is divided into four small usually equal pinne. The fronds are circinate

in bud condition often covered with numerous unbranched multicellular hairs, with smooth

margin, toothed. Sporocarp have both megasporangia& microsporangia, bean shaped in

outlook. Location: Tiska-Pale on small marshy area. Fr: April-may.

Flowering plants:

1. Family: mimosaceae

Mimosa pudica L. Gamble (1919) Fl. Madras 1:298

Diffused or decumbent, Prickly herb. Leaves highly sensitive to touch, bipinnate, Leaflets 12-

14 pairs.Flowers polygamous, calyx minute, corolla pink, four lobed.Stamen 4, pink.

Location: Chinchinum, Velge forest edges along the roadside-Pale. Fr: September-January.

2. Family: Apocynaceae

Alistonia scholaris (L.) R. Br. Cooke (1906) Fl. Bombay 2:194. EchitesScholaris L.

Large tree leaves whorled, 4-7 per nodes, oblong-elliptic to oblanceolate, Cymes terminal &

lateral, calyx glandular, and stamens inserted near mouth. Ovaries separate, fruit thin.

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Location: on slopes of chowgules mines and at ambegal plains. Sirigao on slopes of

chowgules mines.

Types of Forests found in Goa:

As per Champion and Seth (1968) Classification of Forest types of India, the forests of Goa

fall in the following types:-

(A) Estuarine vegetation consisting of mangrove species along narrow muddy banks of

rivers.

(B)

Strand vegetation along the coastal belts.

(C)

Plateau vegetation confined especially to the low altitude

a. Open scrub jungle.

b. Moist mixed deciduous forests.

c. Secondary moist mixed deciduous forests.

d. Sub-tropical Hill forests.

(D) Semi-evergreen and evergreen forest limited to patches along the high altitude

a. Semi-evergreen forests.

b. Lateritic Semi-evergreen forests.

c. Evergreen forests.

(A) Estuarine vegetation of mangroves along swampy river banks: - This type occurs in

isolated small patches along the banks of Mandovi and Zuari rivers and other salt water

streams. Botanically this zone is characterized by peculiar root formations (stilt roots of

Rhizophora, pneumatophores in Avicennia, knee root in Bruguieraetc). The mangroves are

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found in the division mainly at Durbhat, Panaji, Agassaim and Cortalim. The above

categories of vegetation occur from sea level to 100m.

(B) Strand and creek vegetation along the coastal belt: - Most of the coastal regions of Goa

is rocky with projecting ridges. The strand vegetation is limited to a few patches of narrow

strip bordering the Arabian Sea. The vegetation along the south bank of the river Mandovi

near Panaji belongs to this category. Tree species mainly found are Pongamiapinnata, and

Pandanustectorius. Many herbaceous species such as Neanotisrheedei, lphigeniaindica,

Begonia crenata, Mitreolaoldenlandioides, Habenariagrandifloriformis,

Tricholepisglaberrima, Trichidesma sp. are found along rocky creeks and projecting ridges

facing the coast.

(C) Plateau vegetation along undulating terrain and hills: A major portion of the vegetation

in Goa belongs to this category, which is further divided into two types’ viz. (a) Open Scurb

jungle and (b) Moist deciduous forests.

(a) Open scrub jungle: This type of vegetation occurs from Panaji to Cortalim and from

Bicholim to Sanquelim. Anacardiumoccidentale is found on an extensive scale. The

vegetation is mainly composed of dry deciduous elements such as Carissa congesta,

Hollarrhenapubescens, Lantana camara, Calycopteris floribunda, Vitexnegundo and species

of Calotropis, Ziziphus, Cassia, Ixora, Acacia, Terminalia and Crotalaria.

(b) Moist mixed deciduous forests: - This is the main forest type, found in Goa, covering

more than half of the forest areas. In North Goa Division, this type occurs around Tudal.

Butpal, Molem, Codal, AbicheGol near Valpoi, and Anmodeghat. Predominant species are

Terminaliacrenulata, T. belerica, T. paniculata, Lagerstroemia parviflora, Adina cordifolia, A.

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procera, Dilleniapentagyna, Semicarpusanacardium, Mallotusphilippensis and

Stereospermumcolais.

(c) Secondary moist mixed deciduous forests:-Trees found in this type are knotty and of

coppice origin. A few trees of primary origin are found scattered. Such type is found mainly

in areas of Cumeri cultivation and in other areas affected by biotic interferences. The main

species found are Terminaliacrenulata, T. chebula, Adina cordifolia, Alstoniascholaris,

Lanneacoromandelica, Bombaxceiba, Careyaarborea and Dilleniapentagyna.

(d) Sub-tropical Hill forests: - These forests have formed due to “Kumeri” cultivation in the

past. Syzygium cuminii and Cinnamomum verum are of common occurrence. Caryota urens

is the most common palm in this type of forest. In the second storey, Carvia callosa

(Strobilanthescallosus), are found.

(D) Semi-evergreen and evergreen vegetation along upper ghats:

(a) Semi-evergreen forests: - This type occurs intermingling between tropical evergreen and

moist deciduous forest mostly above 500 m.s.l. and is found at Molem, Butpal and Nadquem.

Species composition is of Artocarpus hirsutus, A. gomezianus, Calophyllum spp., Garcinia

indica, and Diospyros Montana and Macranga peltata.

(b) Lateritic Semi-evergreen forests: - This type of Forests is found on shallow dry lateritic

soils. Xylia xylocarpa is the prominent tree species with other associates like, Pterocarpus

marsupium, Grewia tiliifolia, Terminalia paniculata, Careya arborea.

(c) Evergreen forests: - This type occurs in deep gorges and depressions and also along the

nallahs and streams in the Ponda-Amboli-Rambhat belt. The main species are Calophyllum

calaba, Garciniagummi-gutta, Diospyrus ebenum, Mangifera indica, Persea Macrantha,

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Mimusops elengi, Syzygium cumini, Litsea coriacea, Ficusspp.etc. Osmunda regilis, the royal

fern, which is rare in the peninsular India, is also found in this type of forest.

Some of the well known plantations in Goa are as follows:

Mangal Plantation

Cradled in the foothills of the Western Ghats that run through Goa is Mangal Plantation near

Quepem, in area rich in archaeological sites, ancient groves and fabulous bio-diversity.

Pascoal Farms

Set in the hills of the Mandovi River is the Pascoal Spice Farm at Khandepar, rich in the

abundance and diversity of its plants.

Rustic Plantation

This is a magnificient countryside sanctuary of nearly 100 acres of rural farmland nestled in

the valley beneath the foothills of Western Ghats, situated in the north east part of Goa.

Savoi Plantation

Located near the village of SavoiVerem, 10 km north of Ponda, Savoi Plantation is one of the

oldest and largest tropical spice plantations in Goa situated right on the banks of the Mandovi

River and is a treat to visit.

Abyss

Also located near SavoiVerem, Abyss is set amidst sky-kissing mountains with picturesque

beautiful surroundings with hundreds of medicinal herbs on the property and is developed on

organic farming basis.

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The use of exotic tree species such as Australian acacia in such afforestation programmes is

anathema, as they may not serve as good hosts to indigenous Journalinsect species and in turn

not meet the requirements of insectivorous and frugivorous birds changing the microclimates

of specialized flora and fauna as reported earlier (Watve 2003).

Types of Forests found in Goa

The forests of Goa are typical of the Western Ghats (Southern Maharashtra and Karnataka). There is

diversity in the forests due to the variation in altitude, aspect, soil characters, slope etc. As per

Champion and Seth (1968) Classification of Forest types of India, the forests of Goa fall in the

following types:-

(1) Estuarine vegetation consisting of mangrove species along narrow muddy banks of rivers

(2) Strand vegetation along the coastal belts

(3) Plateau vegetation confined especially to the low altitude

(4) Semi-evergreen and evergreen forest limited to patches along the high altitude

(1)Estuarine vegetationof mangroves along swampy river banks:

This type occurs in isolated small patches along the banks of Mandovi and Zuari rivers and

other salt water streams. Botanically this zone is characterized by peculiar root formations

(stilt roots of Rhizophora, pneumatophores in Avicennia, knee root in Bruguieraetc). The

mangroves are found in the division mainly at Durbhat, Panaji, Agassaim and Cortalim. The

above categories of vegetation occur from sea level to 100m.

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(2)Strand and creek vegetation along the coastal belt:

Most of the coastal regions of Goa is rocky with projecting ridges. The strand vegetation is

limited to a few patches of narrow strip bordering the Arabian Sea. The vegetation along the

south bank of the river Mandovi near Panaji belongs to this category. Tree species mainly

found are Pongamiapinnata, Thespesia pupulnea, Calophyllum inophyllum, Cerberamanghas

and Pandanustectorius. Many herbaceous species such as Neanotisrheedei, lphigenia indica,

Begoniacrenata,Mitreolaoldenlandioides, Habenariagrandifloriformis, Tricholepisglaberrima,

Trichidesma sp. are found along rocky creeks and projecting ridges facing the coast.

(3)Plateau vegetation along undulating terrain and hills:

A major portion of the vegetation in Goa belongs to this category, which is further divided

into two types viz. (a) Open Scurb jungle and (b) Moist deciduous forests.

(a) Open scrub jungle :

This type of vegetation occurs from Panaji to Cortalim and from Bicholim to Sanquelim.

Anacardiumoccidentale is found on an extensive scale. The vegetation is mainly composed of

dry deciduous elements such as Carissa congesta, Hollarrhena pubescens, Lantana camara,

Calycopteris floribunda, Woodfordia fruticosa, Grewia abutilifolia, Vitex negundo and

species of Calotropis, Ziziphus, Cassia, Ixora, Acacia, Albizia, Terminalia and Crotalaria.

(b) Moist mixed deciduous forests :

This is the main forest type, found in Goa, covering more than half of the forest areas. In

North Goa Division, this type occurs around Tudal. Ordofind, Butpal, Molem, Codal,

AbicheGol near Valpoi, and Anmodeghat. Predominant species are Terminalia crenulata, T.

belerica,

T.

paniculata,

Lagerstroemia parviflora,

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Adina

cordifolia,

Albizialebbeck,

A.

procera, Mitragyna parvifolia, Holopteliain tegrifolia, Trewianu diflora, Dillenia pentagyna,

Semicarpusana cardium, Mallotus philippensis and Stereospermum colais.

(4)Semi-evergreen and evergreen vegetation along upper ghats:

(a) Semi-evergreen forests :- This type occurs intermingling between tropical evergreen and

moist deciduous forest mostly above 500 m.s.l. and is found at Ambochegol, Molem, Butpal

and Nadquem. Species composition is of Artocarpushirsutus, A. gomezianus, Calophyllum

spp.,Sterculiaguttata, Kydiacalycina, Lagerstroemia microcarpa, Pterospermumdiversifolium,

Garciniaindica, Diospyros Montana and Macrangapeltata.

(b) Lateritic Semi-evergreen forests : - This type of Forests is found on shallow dry lateritic

soils.

Xyliaxylocarpa

is

the

prominent

tree

species

with

other

associates

like,

Pterocarpusmarsupium,Grewiatiliifolia,Terminaliapaniculata,Schleicheraoleosa,Careyaarbore

a ,Brideliaretusa and Strychnosnux-vomica.

(c) Evergreen forests:- This type occurs in deep gorges and depressions and also along the

nallahs

and

streams

in

the

Ponda-Amboli-Rambhat

belt.

The

main

species

are

Calophyllumcalaba,

Garciniagummi-gutta,

Canariumstrictum,

Myristicaspp.,Knemaattenuata,

Chroisophyllumacuminata,

Lophopetalumwightianum,

Palaquiumellipticum,

Artocarpusgomezians,

Diospyrusebenum,

Mimusopselengi,

Hopeaponga,

Oleadioica,

Mangiferaindica,

Hydnocarpuspentendra,

PerseaMacrantha,

Syzygiumcumini,

Holigarnaarnotiana, Litseacoriacea, Carallia, brachiata, Mallotusphilipprnsis, Ficusspp.etc.

Osmundaregilis, the royal fern, which is rare in the peninsular India, is also found in this type

of forest.

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CONCLUSION

The current trend in the region to encroach on plateau after plateau for mega projects doesn’t

augur well for the conservation of biodiversity. Before it is too late, there is a need for

identifying a reasonable number of plateaus in the region as protected sites and systematic

studies on their flora and fauna carried out, such that the original lateritic mosaic with

grassland patches and indigenous trees are left intact.

Open areas with herbaceous vegetation and grasses, many of them being endemic are

characteristic features of the lateritic plateaux. These open areas are of utmost importance for

the bird population as they provide better visibility for vigilance from their predators and free

movement towards food procurement. Therefore, the extensive afforestation programmes in

these open grassland areas are to be discouraged as they might do away with native and

endemic herbaceous vegetation because of their canopy cover. Even if afforestation with tree

species is felt necessary it should be done in isolated patches/islands without interfering with

the open areas on a large scale.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Book reference

S.G. Torne & H.N. Nyabuto,.“Vegetation studies of Goa’’ Printed by

GajendrasinghGahlot at shiva offset press, Dehra Dun, India.(2-280)

Gurcharan singh “plant systematics” printed by oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt

. Ltd , New Delhi , India (464-465)

Net reference

Retrieved on 28/11/12

Retrieved on 1/12/12

Retrieved on 1/12/12

Retrieved on 9/12/12

Retrieved on 10/12/12

Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | March 2012 | 4(3): 2444–2453

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