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Amplifier with the Buffer configuration

Abstract
In this paper we present a design of a cmos amplifier with the buffer configuration which operates at 1.8V power supply. Here we are making to design the op amp as a buffer which drives as a 5pf capacitive load. The proposed design produces an open loop gain of 50dB and Unity Gain Bandwidth of 10MHz in UMC 0.18micron technology. The op amp designed is a single stage differential amplifier. The differential amplifier plays an excellent performance as input amplifier and application with the possibility of feedback to the input. The differential amplifier circuit is characterised in terms of self bias capability, common mode rejection, voltage gain and the unity gain bandwidth product.

Specification
Vdd : 1.8V +/- 10% ; Temp : -40 C to 125 C Vin CM : 1.2V Buffer Configuration : Gain factor of 1 Accuracy(Offset) : +/-5mV, Setting Time : 80ns Load Cap : 2pF DC Gain : 50dB, UGB : 10MHz The buffer amplifier is one that provides electrical impedance transformation from one circuit to another There are two types of the buffer 1. Voltage buffer: It is used to transfer a voltage from a first circuit, having a high output impedance level, to a second circuit with a low input impedance level. If the voltage is transferred unchanged (the Av =1), the amplifier is a unity gain buffer or voltage follower because the output voltage tracks the input voltage.

2.

Current buffer: It is used to transfer a current from a first circuit, having a low output impedance level, to a second circuit with a high input impedance level.

Since we are driving the low output impedance we go for the voltage buffer. Operational amplifier with the moderate gain, high output swing and the reasonable gain bandwidth product we go for the single stage op amp. The different types of single stage op amp 1. 2. 3. 4. Differential amplifier Cascaded amplifier Operational transconductance amplifier Folded cascaded amplifier

According to our specification we choose to design the single stage differential amplifier. The differential amplifiers are used to amplify analog as well as digital signals, and can be used in various implementable applications so as to provide an output from the amplifier in desired response to the differential inputs. CMOS based differential amplifiers are used for various VLSI applications because a number of advantages can be derived from these types of amplifiers, as compared to single-ended amplifiers. These amplifiers are used where linear amplification with minimum distortion is desired. The common mode feedback is accomplished by the use of a common mode feedback circuit that monitors the two differential amplifier output lines and provides a feedback signal that adjusts the amplifier's bias current, thereby rejecting the unwanted common mode signals on the amplifier's output. In choosing the architecture of the amplifier, following parameters are kept in the design 1.High dynamic range of the amplifier 2. Fast settling time of the amplifier

Objectives
1. Understand the buffer configuration in differential amplifier. 2. Understand the characteristics and applications of the differential amplifier.

Motivation
To design the amplifier as a buffer to achieve the high open loop gain and the high output voltage swing and to drive the load capacitance