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Ice in the Environment: Proceedings of the 16th IAHR International Symposium on Ice Dunedin, New Zealand, 2nd6th December

2002 International Association of Hydraulic Engineering and Research

DYNAMIC ICE FORCES CAUSED BY CRUSHING FAILURE


Qianjin Yue1, Xiangjun Bi1, Xi Zhang 1 and Tuomo Karna2

ABSTRACT The dynamic ice forces and structure vibrations caused by crushing failure of ice were investigated by full-scale tests conducted on a cylindrical compliant monopod platform in Bohai Bay, China. The tests displayed three ice force modes distinguished by ice speed, which cause structure quasi-static, steady-state or random vibrations. Analysis showed that the mechanism of each ice force mode takes place in ductile, ductile-brittle transition and brittle failure, respectively. The failure processes of each ice force mode during the loading and unloading phases are analyzed.

INTRODUCTION It is well known that ice could induce slender vertical structure vibrations and that periodical forces are formed because of ice failure. However, the failure processes of ice interacting with a vertical structure are so complex that we are still hardly able to describe them. Timco (1986) and Blanchet et al.(1988) pointed that many different failure modes such as bending, shear, buckling and crushing etc., could take place depending on the contacting conditions. The focus of this research is on the crushing failure, since it is not only the most common case in narrow structures of the Bohai Bay (Yue and Bi, 2000), but believed to be cause biggest force and therefore induce severe vibrations as well. Moreover, crushing failure could induce steady-state vibrations. The mechanism of dynamic ice force formation in crushing is not very clear though. Different hypotheses have been put forward to model ice force crushing failure (Blenkarn, 1970; Paton, 1968; Michel, 1976; Neil, 1976). Sodhi (1988), Maattanen (1988), Jordaan (2001) have summarized the early and recent research. Based on the field tests on a lighthouse and channel marker, Engelbretson (1977) and Karna(1990) indicated that different vibration modes could be induced depending on the ice speed. Yue and Bi (2000, 2001) reported that two kinds of vibrations, i.e. steady-state and random vibrations, took place on the offshore platforms of Bohai Bay at intermediate and high ice speed. In this paper, more careful observations were conducted on a monopod structure such that vibration responses, ice forces and ice speed were recorded simultaneously and continuously. From the tests, three kinds of dynamic ice force and
1 2

DUT State Key Lab. of Structural Analysis of Industrial Equipment, China VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland , Finland

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vibration modes in crushing failure were discovered. Furthermore, the mechanism of ice force in each mode was analyzed. TEST SET-UP The tests were conducted on a monopod structure, which was designed for mooring oil tankers for JZ9-3 oil fields located in the north part of Bohai Bay. Sensors were deployed just to investigate the ice forces and ice-induced vibrations. Normally, the ice thickness is about 10 to 50 cm. The ice velocity in this area is controlled by tidal current and strong seasonal wind. The ice speed could reach nearly 1 m/s. The structure and test arrangement is shown in Fig. 1. Several accelerometers, strain gauges, and ice load panels were installed to measure the responses and ice forces. Twelve ice load panels were used in order to investigate ice force variations in time and space. As the ice load panels were segmented in twelve individual parts, the ice force in different areas of the contact zone could be obtained simultaneously. From these synchronized signals, it was possible to judge whether the ice failed simultaneously in the whole contact zone or not. Figure 2 shows the detailed arrangement of panels.

   
    

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Fig. 1: Test setup on Jz9-3 MDP2.

Fig. 2: Ice load panels for direct ice force measurements.

The water depth is about 7 m and the ice load panel was installed in the position about 2m above the sea level. The height of the platform is 18 m from the sea bed with 1.5 m in diameter. Including the thickness of the ice load panel, the diameter in measuring ice force is 1.78 m. The valid area covered for measurement is 1.2 m in height and an angle of 110

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Video cameras were set on top of the structure to monitor the ice failure process, ice speed and thickness. A computer-controlled data-sampling system was developed so that the data could be recorded simultaneously without interruption during the test. The data-sampling system is shown in Fig. 3. THE MEASUREMNTS OF ICE FORCES AND VIRATIONS Two kinds of failure fashions, crushing and buckling, were observed during the tests, but the most case is crushing and it is shown in Fig. 4. It was found that, during crushing failure, the data from the ice load panels and

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accelerometers displayed quite different features of ice forces and vibrations just because the ice speed was changing. The ice forces could be divided into three modes: quasi-static, steady-state and random vibrations. The following provides a description of the feature with the typical test data with ice thickness of about 10 cm and ice speed in the range of 0 to 50 cm/s.

Fig. 3: Data-sampling system.

Fig. 4: Crushing failure of ice sheet acting on cylindrical structure.

Quasi-static vibration Quasi-static vibration means force periods much longer than the structure period. This phenomenon was observed when the speed was very slow and occurred when the ice started to move with current alternation. The ice speed is difficult to measure when the ice moves at a very low speed. Figure 5 shows the typical response of ice force in the quasi-static stage, which revealed an ice force period of about 20 times the structure period. Apparently, the ice fails simultaneously around the circumference as the ice forces and responses keep the same steps.
Jz9-3 MDP2 2001.02.13 05:34:55
2.5

1.5 Force (ton) 1 0.5

Jz9-3 MDP2 2001.02.10 17:04:55 F11

Force (ton)
235 240

2 1.5 1 0.5
3

0
Jz9-3 MDP2 2001.02.10 17:04:55 D04

Force (ton) Disp.(mm)

2 1 0

1 Disp. (mm) 0.5 0 -0.5 -1 210 215 220 225 Time (Sec) 230

2 1 0 -1 -2 191 191.5 192 192.5 193 193.5 194 194.5 195

Time (Sec)

Fig. 5: Quasi-static ice force and the response of structure.

Fig. 6: Steady state vibrations of structure and ice forces.

Steady-state vibrations With the ice speed increased to about 2-4cm/s, the steady-state vibration appeared as shown in Fig.6. The amplitudes of response remain nearly constant. From the data recorded by different panels, it was also found that the ice failed simultaneously around

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the circumference. From this figure, it can be seen that the ice force remains in phase with the response. This stage could remain for a long period. Such a state was once recorded for about 10 min. in the Jz20-2MS platform, as shown in Fig.7, during which the ice speed changed slightly. That main the ice force is locked in the structure.

       


Fig. 7: Ice-induced steady-state vibration.

Random vibrations When the ice moves faster, the vibration transform from steady-state to random vibration state. Figure 8 shows the random vibration and ice force records. Compared to quasi-static and steady-state conditions, the ice forces in the random stage consists of different frequencies, so-called wind band, in the frequency domain. ANALYSIS OF DYNAMIC ICE FORCES The tests on the monopod illustrate three dynamic ice force modes when the ice speed changes from low to high. There is no doubt that the behaviour of the loading rate sensitivity of the ice in compression is the essential reason that explains the ice force transformation. In fact, many previous papers have discussed the issue of the rate sensitivity of ice forces. In this paper, only the mechanism of dynamic ice force transformation based on full-scale tests is discussed. It is known that, under compressive loading conditions, failure of ice could change from ductile to brittle. This property will influence the failure behaviour of the ice sheet when it interacts with a vertical slender structure.
Jz9-3 MDP2 2001.01.17 08:35:04 F07

2 Force (ton) 1.5 1 0.5 0

Jz9-3 MDP2 2001.01.17 08:35:04 D01 0.4

Disp. (mm )

0.2 0 -0.2 -0.4 15 25 35 Time (Sec) 45 55

Fig.8 Random vibration and ice force

Fig.9 Ice interacts with cylindrical structure

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The strain rate of an ice sheet near the interface could be approximately expressed as: v v (1) ice = ice str l0 Here ice is strain rate of ice nearby the interface, vice , vstr represent the speed of ice and structure respectively; l0 is the nominal deformation length as show in Fig. 9. The velocity of the structure is approximately written as: v str = Astr cos(t ) Here Astr is the displacement amplitude of structure vibration at water level, and angle frequency of the structure.

(2) is the

When the structure moves forward, the relative speed of the ice decreases and the strain rate of the ice decreases. When the structure moves backward, the strain rate increases. It is supposed that this alternation of loading rate makes dynamic ice forces transmit from one mode into another. Quasi-static vibrations At a slow ice speed, when structure moves forwards the relative speed makes the loading rate lower. Ice deforms with creep behaviour, and the stress of the ice increases with the deformation of the structure until it reaches a balance. The deformation of the structure and stress of the ice reach their maximum at that loading rate. The maximum deformation of the structure is: c ( )t i D str = (3) K str Here, is the stress field factor, c ( ) is the compression strength of ice in

corresponding strain rate. str , K str are the structures maximum deformation and static stiffness, ti is ice thickness, and D is the diameter of the structure. When the ice reaches the maximum strength, the structure has stored a large amount of strain energy, and the structure starts moving backward. The speed of the structure will Max T T reach the maximum value v str is the total displacement of the = Astr . , here Astr structure during the loading phase. At this time the backward speed of the structure is much faster than the ice speed. The loading rate increases faster and will make the ice break into pieces and clear up in a short time. From Fig. 5, the time of delay vibration is much longer than the ice force period. It was also found that the ice failure in this stage is simultaneous. Under this condition, the global peak ice force could be obtained from maximum deformation of the structure. FT = str .K str (4) But we could not determine global ice force in this test as we did not get total displacement of the structure. This work will be in next years plan.
Steady-state vibrations Karna and Turnen (1989) noticed and analyzed the phenomenon of ice-induced

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steady-state vibration. They indicated that the relative speed is the essential role to model the vibration. This paper gives a more detailed description. With the ice speed increasing, about 2 to 4 cm/s, the average loading rate of the ice is also increased and will reach the ductile-brittle transition zone. Yue (2000, 2001) gave an explanation of ice-induced steady-state vibrations. The micro-cracks activities of ice in the ductile-brittle transition zone play the key role in the formation of steady-state vibrations. When the structure moves forwards, the loading rate of the ice just slows down, but near the ductile-brittle transition point dense micro cracks are formed. Many researchers have described this phenomenon (e.g., Schulson 1992; Sanderson 1988). When the ice strength reaches the maximum value, the structure arrives at its farthest position and starts to return. As ice was severe damaged with dense cracks, the ice fails into powder and the structure could clarify the ice as exactly the same quantity as the distance of moving back. For this reason, the ice could keep the same amplitude and period. It was found that the ice force keeps in phase with the structure as shown in Fig. 6.
Random vibrations With the ice moving faster, the steady-state vibration changes into random vibration. It is believed that, as the ice speed is very fast, the loading rate, either in the forward or backward stage of the structure movement, is very high and makes the ice fail in the brittle mode. The breaking period and amplitude is random. There are a lot of papers describing the failure process of ice crushing in brittle failure. We will not discuss the detail failure process in this paper. What we want to supplement from the ice load panels data are the descriptions of the characteristics of the ice force curve. Figure 8 is the response and ice forces history. We could find the ice force variations because of the failure size of ice sheet. By statistic analysis, we can obtain more detailed information of ice failure and ice force. This is the future work being planned. CONCLUSIONS The dynamic ice force modes and related vibrations of compliant cylindrical structures under crushing failure are investigated. The test results show that there are three dynamic ice force modes occurring in different ice speed ranges. The analysis of the mechanism of these three modes demonstrates that the movements of the structure play an important role for ice force modes changes. Figure 10 shows the rate sensitivity of ice strength and dynamic ice force modes. It is found that relative ice speed of ice and structure could make the ice fail in three ways: ductile, ductile and brittle transition, and brittle, which correspond to dynamic ice forces causing the quasi-static, steady-state and random vibration respectively.

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Fig. 10: The strain rate sensitivity of ice strength and ice force modes The test data from ice load panels also revealed that dynamic ice force constitutes only a small part of the total force, which means the structure always vibrates around its dynamic equilibrium position, but not at its static equilibrium position. A more detailed analysis of each of the ice force modes will be provided in the near future to obtain newer information.
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Sanderson, T.J.O. Ice Mechanics. Graham and Trotman, Ltd. UK (1988). Schulson, E. The Brittle Compressive Fracture of Ice. Acta Metallurgica et Materialia 38(10): 19631976 (1990). Sodhi, D.S. Ice-induced vibrations of structures. In IAHR Ice Symposium, Vol. 2, Sapporo (1988) 625657. Timco, G.W. Indentation and penetration of edge-loaded freshwater ice sheets in the brittle range. In Proc. of 5th Conf, on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, Tokyo (1986). Yue, Q.J. and Bi, X.J. Full-scale tests and analysis of dynamic interaction between ice sheet and conical structures. In Proc. of 14th International Association for Hydraulic Research (IAHR), Vol. II, Symposium on Ice, Potsdam (1998). Yue, Q.J. and Bi, X.J. Ice-induced jacket structure vibrations in Bohai Sea. J. of Cold Regions Engineering [ASCE] 14(2): 8192 (2000).

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