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SAP Basics

1. What is SAP'?
SAP is an acronym for Systeme, Anwendungen, Produkte der Dataenverarbeitung, in German, meaning Systems, Applications, and Products in Data Processing. Founded in 19 !, SAP"wit# its #ead$uarters in %a&&dorf, Germany"is t#e g&oba& market &eader in co&&aborative, inter'enter(rise business so&utions )i*e*, business software+* SAP em(&oys c&ose to ,-,--- em(&oyees wor&dwide, wit# more t#an 1--,--- insta&&ations in about ,-,--- com(anies in 1!countries* .ore t#an 1! mi&&ion (eo(&e use SAP on a dai&y basis* /#ere are more t#an !- industry's(ecific 0ndustry So&utions, known common&y as 0S )0S'1i&, 0S'2etai&, 0S'3ank, etc*+*

2. Tell Me More about (The History of) SAP.

SAP was founded by five former 03. em(&oyees, in 1972, to deve&o( a standard business a((&ication software, wit# t#e goa& of (rocessing business information in rea&'time* /#e com(any, SAP Gmb4, was started in .ann#eim, Germany*

During 1973, t#e com(any re&eased its first financia& accounting software, 1 )t#e &etter 2 stands for 2ea&'/ime Processing+*

0n t#e &ate 19 -s, SAP !2 was re&eased wit# 03.s database and a dia&ogue' oriented business a((&ication*

25! was furt#er stabi&i6ed during t#e ear&y 197-s and t#e com(any came out wit# a version ca(ab&e of (rocessing business transactions in severa& &anguages and currencies to meet t#e needs of its internationa& c&iente&e*

SAP Gmb4 became SAP A" in 1977* 8ater on, t#e com(any estab&is#ed subsidiaries in countries suc# as t#e 9nited States, Sweden, Denmark, and 0ta&y*

/#e 199-s saw t#e introduction of SAP !3, wit# c&ient'server arc#itecture and G90, w#ic# ran on a&most any database, and on most o(erating systems* SAP 25: #era&ded a new era in enter(rise com(uting, moving from a main frame to a :'tier arc#itecture )Database';A((&ication';9ser interface+, w#ic# became t#e new industry standard*

3y 199#, t#e com(any #ad more t#an 9,--- insta&&ations wor&dwide* 3y t#e end of t#e 199-s, SAP #ad introduced t#e e'commerce enab&ed my SAP suite of (roducts for &everaging ever'e<(anding web tec#no&ogy*

SAP began t#e twenty'first century wit# t#e $nterprise Portal and ro&e'based access to business information*

SAP continues to evo&ve and innovate, bringing cutting'edge tec#no&ogies to business'information (rocessing* SAP #as a&ready introduced SAP %et &ea'er, w#ic# is based on =nter(rise Services Arc#itecture )=SS+ wit# a((&ication integration across diverse (&atforms for (roviding one'sto( end'to' end business (rocessing* %it# >et %eaver, com(anies can now integrate (eo(&e, information, and (rocesses*

3. What are the Solutions !urrently A"ailable fro# SAP? ?urrent&y, SAP Solutions inc&ude t#e fo&&owing@ SAP =2P SAP SAP 3usiness Suite SAP 25: and 25: =nter(rise SAP for 0ndustries

SAP <A((s

SAP So&ution .anager

$. What are the !o#%onents of the SAP &'P Solution? SAP =2P ?entra& ?om(onent )=?? A*-+ SAP S=. )Strategic =nter(rise .anagement+ )S=. A*-+

SAP cProBect Suite )ProBect and Portfo&io .anagement ,*-+

SAP S2. for =2P )S2. C*-+ SAP ?ata&og ?ontent .anagement )??. !*- for =2P !--,+ SAP 0nternet Sa&es for =2P (. What is the Si)nifi*an*e of the SAP +etWea"er

Platfor#? /#e SAP %et&ea'er (&atform a&&ows organi6ations to bui&d new business so&utions ra(id&y w#i&e rea&i6ing more business va&ue from e<isting 0/ investments* SAP >et%eaver su((orts new cross'functiona& business (rocesses and #e&(s to &ower t#e (otal )ost o* +,ners-ip .()+/ by reducing t#e need for custom integration* 0t offers com(&ete &ife cyc&e management for a&& of your a((&ications* 0t is a&so t#e foundation for $nterprise Ser'ices Arc-itecture .$AS/ and #e&(s a&ign (eo(&e, information, and business (rocesses across organi6ationa& and tec#no&ogica& boundaries* ,. What are the !o#%onents of +etWea"er ? 3y (roviding an o(en integration and a((&ication (&atform and (ermitting t#e integration of t#e =nter(rise Services Arc#itecture, SAP %et&ea'er #e&(s unify business (rocesses across tec#no&ogica& boundaries, integrating a((&ications for em(&oyees as needed, and accessing5editing sim(&e information easi&y in a structured manner* ?om(onents inc&ude@

Security

People 0ntegration .u&ti'c#anne& Access Porta& ?o&&aboration

0n*ormation 0ntegration 3usiness 0nte&&igence

B0 .Business 0ntelligence/ )ontent Dnow&edge .anagement .aster Data .anagement

Process 0ntegration 0ntegration 3roker 3usiness Process .anagement

Application Plat*orm Eava A3AP 3usiness Services ?onnectivity D3 and 1S Abstraction SAP Dnow&edge %are#ouse

1i*e )ycle 2anagement ?ustomi6ing Software ?#ange .anagement System .anagement

-. What are the !o#%onents of the SAP .usiness Suite ? SAP ?ustomer 2e&ations#i( .anagement )?2. C*-+ SAP Su((&y ?#ain .anagement )S?. C*-+ SAP Su((&ier 2e&ations#i( .anagement )S2.+ SAP S2. !- SAP ?ata&og ?ontent .anagement )S2.'.D. 1*-+ SAP Product 8ife ?yc&e .anagement SAP Product 8ife ?yc&e .anagement ,*- SAP =nvironment, 4ea&t#, and Safety !* 3 SAP P8. 2eci(e .anagement !*1 Audit .anagement SAP ?om(&iance .anagement for S1A .anagement of 0nterna& contro&s 1* SAP 8earning So&ution !*- SAP Strategic =nter(rise .anagement )S=.+ /. What are the Most 'e*ent 'eleases of the SAP '03' Solution? SAP 25: =nter(rise 2e&ease ,* SAP 25: 2e&ease ,*A?5,*A35,*C35,*-3 1. What 2n3ustry Solutions (2S) are A"ailable fro# SAP? /#ere are !! 0ndustry So&utions avai&ab&e from SAP* /#ey are@ SAP for Aeros(ace and Defense SAP for Automotive

SAP for 3anking SAP for ?onsumer Products SAP ?ontract Accounts 2eceivab&e and Payab&e SAP for Defense and Security SAP for =ngineering, ?onstruction and 1(erations SAP for Financia& Service Providers SAP for 4ea&t#care SAP for 4ig#er =ducation and 2esearc# SAP for 4ig# /ec# SAP for 0nsurance SAP for .edia SAP for .i&& Products SAP for .ining SAP for 1i& and Gas SAP for Professiona& Services SAP for Pub&ic Sectors SAP for 2etai& SAP for /e&ecommunications SAP for 9ti&ities SAP for %#o&esa&e Distribution 14. What is SAP 5A%%s ? /#e SAP 3Apps fami&y of com(osite a((&ications enab&es continuous business innovation"and (rovides t#e f&e<ibi&ity necessary to res(ond $uick&y and (rofitab&y to business c#anges* /#ey e<tend t#e va&ue of core business investments and

ma<imi6e t#e return on strategic assets@ em(&oyees, know&edge, (roducts, business re&ations#i(s, and 0/* SAP and SAP certified (artners de&iver t#ese com(osite a((&ications t#at drive s(ecia&i6ed business (rocesses, (rovide com(re#ensive business insig#ts, and focus on t#e needs of a variety of industries* A&& t#ese a((&ications combine %eb services and data from mu&ti(&e systems in an a((&ication design made (ossib&e by t#e SAP ?om(osite A((&ication Framework wit#in t#e SAP >et%eaver tec#no&ogy (&atform* /#is framework inc&udes t#e met#odo&ogy, too&s, and run'time environment to deve&o( com(osite a((&ications* 0t (rovides a consistent obBect mode& and a ric# user e<(erience, and gives deve&o(ers a (roductive way to create com(osite a((&ications on to( of a set of #eterogeneous a((&ications* 11. What are all the !o#%onents of SAP 5A%%s ? Duet SAP Document 3ui&der SAP G&oba& /rade Services

SAP <A(( .anufacturing 0ntegration and 0nte&&igence SAP <A(( 2esource and Portfo&io .anagement SAP <A(( Product Definition SAP <A(( ?ost and Fuotation .anagement SAP <A(( 0ntegrated =<(&oration and Production SAP <A(( Sa&es and 1(erations P&anning

12. What is 6no7n as 8uet ? A com(onent under SAP <A((s, Duet is a first'of'its'kind software so&ution from SAP and .icrosoft t#at enab&es users to easi&y and $uick&y interact wit# SAP

business (rocesses and data via t#eir fami&iar .icrosoft 1ffice environment* /#e resu&t of a groundbreaking co&&aboration between SAP and .icrosoft, it is t#e first Boint (roduct created by t#ese two industry &eaders and is designed to revo&utioni6e #ow 0/ workers interact wit# enter(rise a((&ications* Duet enab&es@

Budget 2onitoring4 Sc#edu&e time'critica& a&erts and notifications to monitor cost centers or interna& orders, w#ic# are de&ivered direct&y to .icrosoft 1ut&ook*

Demand Planning4 ?reate and use (&anning s#eets, as we&& as ana&y6e and manage demand (&anning data from t#e SAP System using .icrosoft =<ce&*

Duet

eporting4 Sc#edu&e re(orts to be de&ivered regu&ar&y to .icrosoft

1ut&ook, receive individua& re(orts on an as'needed basis, and view re(orts in .icrosoft =<ce&*

1ea'e 2anagement4 Add &eave re$uests as .icrosoft 1ut&ook ca&endar items t#at integrate a((rova& guide&ines in t#e SAP System and enter(rise'defined (rocesses*

Sales 2anagement4 .anage ?2. accounts and contacts, create business activities, and access sa&es ana&ytics information using .icrosoft 1ut&ook*

(eam 2anagement4 Access u('to'date information about yourse&f and em(&oyees, o(en (ositions, and organi6ationa& structures t#at are integrated from t#e SAP System into t#e .icrosoft 1ut&ook contacts area*

(ime 2anagement4 2ecord time in t#e .icrosoft 1ut&ook ca&endar, stream&ining time entry w#i&e ensuring time're(orting com(&iance in t#e SAP System*

(ra'el 2anagement4 ?reate a trave& re$uest and a trave& e<(ense re(ort in t#e SAP System using .icrosoft 1ut&ook*

13. &5%lain the SAP 8o*u#ent .uil3er. SAP Document Builder )?A'G/F'D13+ is a content'driven and cross'a((&ication so&ution for bui&ding and aut#oring com(&e< documents* As a generic too&, it can be de(&oyed wit#in internationa& organi6ations and &arge cor(orations to generate contract and bid invitation documents, banking're&ated documents, auto insurance (o&icies, rea& estate contracts, and cor(orate em(&oyment (o&icies* Gou can de(&oy SAP Document 3ui&der as a standa&one a((&ication or integrate it wit# ot#er SAP or non'SAP com(onents* For e<am(&e, you can generate business documents re$uired in a (rocurement system and store t#em in an e&ectronic data storage system* /#e SAP Document Builder su((orts you by@ Automating and stream&ining t#e document'creation (rocess* =nforcing best (ractices* 3ui&ding documents t#at ref&ect com(any's(ecific sty&es and formats from one or more regu&ation sets* Determining inc&usion or e<c&usion of c&auses based on &ega& regu&ations by means of ru&es* 1$. &5%lain the SAP Solution Mana)er. Providing centra& access to /oo&s, .et#ods, and Pre'?onfigured ?ontent, t#e SAP Solution 2anager (rovides su((ort t#roug#out t#e &ife cyc&e of so&utions"from 3usiness 3&ue(rint to ?onfiguration to Su((ort* /#e features inc&ude@

0mplementation!5pgrade o* SAP Solutions ?entra& access to ProBect /oo&s )ProBect Administration, 3usiness 3&ue(rint, ?onfiguration, /est %orkbenc#, Grou( 2o&&out /em(&ates+

?entra& management of ProBect 0nformation )2oadma(, System 8andsca(e, Documentation, etc*+ =nab&es com(aring5sync#roni6ing customi6ing in severa& SAP

com(onents

Solution 2onitoring ?entra& System Administration System 8andsca(e Ana&ysis wit# System 8eve& 2e(orting 2ea&'time System .onitoring 3usiness Process .onitoring

Ser'ices and Support Access to (rograms5services for monitoring and o(timi6ing system (erformance and avai&abi&ity to minimi6e risks*

Ser'ice Des6 So&ution Su((ort t#roug# %ork F&ow to create and manage Process5Prob&em .essages*

)-ange 2anagement /race and audit system c#anges and trans(orts t#roug# ?#ange 2e$uest .anagement*

Figure 1: SAP Solution Manager 1(. &5%lain ho7 #ySAP &'P 9inan*ial is .etter08ifferent than '03 9inan*ial A**ountin). mySAP $ P 7inancials is bui&t on t#e %et&ea'er (&atform, w#ic# is t#e foundation for service'oriented business so&utions, for de(&oying financia& (rocesses at a faster (ace* 0rres(ective of t#e business ty(e, mySAP =2P Financia&s is designed to su((ort financia& accounting re$uirements to (rovide a sing&e com(&ete (&atform to ac#ieve e<ce&&ence in accounting, (erformance management, financia& su((&y c#ain, and cor(orate governance* /#e features inc&ude@

0ndustry8Speci*ic 7inancial 2anagement .y SAP =2P Financia&s (rovides a com(re#ensive and robust ana&ytica& framework to conso&idate and5or dissect business information generated in industry so&utions or core enter(rise (rocesses@ a&& managers in a&& o(erations #ave an im(roved visibi&ity wit# a sing&e integrated so&ution*

Per*ormance 2anagement .y SAP =2P Financia&s (rovides a sing&e so&ution for t#e entire &ife cyc&e of ?or(orate Performance .anagement by de&ivering rea&'time, (ersona&i6ed measurements and metrics to im(rove business insig#t and (roductivity of non'tec#nica& users* =<ecutives, managers, and business workers wi&& now #ave access to information suc# as business statistics and 9ey Per*ormance 0ndicators )DP0+ (resented in t#e conte<t of business tasks for better insig#t and faster decision making* mySAP =2P Financia&s encom(asses@ ?onso&idated financia& and statutory re(orting P&anning, budgeting, and forecasting Strategy management and scorecards 2isk management Financia& ana&ytics

7inancial and 2anagement Accounting .y SAP =2P Financia&s #e&(s com(anies com(&y wit# g&oba& accounting standards )suc# as t#e 9nited States "enerally Accepted Accounting Principles ."AAP/ and t#e 0nternational 7inancial eporting Standards .07 S/. %it# t#e %e, 708"1 functiona&ity )2efer to F*171 for more detai&s+ you wi&& now #ave t#e abi&ity to generate financia& statements of any dimension of t#e business )unit, (rofit center, geogra(#ica& &ocation, etc*+* /#is offers greater f&e<ibi&ity to e<tend a c#art of accounts and a&&ows an easier met#od of re(orting by individua& management units and segments* /#is feature #e&(s com(anies reduce t#e com(&e<ity and costs associated wit# (ara&&e& accounting or managing a set of books by region, industry, or regu&atory re(orting statute*

)orporate "o'ernance %it# a set of a((&ications and too&s, my SAP =2P Financia&s assists in meeting t#e s(ecific re$uirements of todays financia& regu&ations suc# as t#e Sar:anes+3ley Act* Gou now #ave an intuitive mec#anism to co&&ect, document, assess, remediate, and attest to interna& contro& (rocesses and safeguards to ensure trans(arent business activity* 3y configuring contro&s and defining ru&es and to&erances for your business, you can easi&y customi6e interna& (rocesses for security, re(orting, and error (revention* 0n addition, you can now document a&& your interna& contro& (rocesses and make t#em visib&e to cor(orate e<ecutives, auditors, and regu&ators*

7inancial Supply )-ain 2anagement Provides t#e too&s to #e&( you manage your financia& su((&y c#ain and cas#' f&ow cyc&e more effective&y, t#roug# end'to'end (rocess su((ort of@ ?redit .anagement =&ectronic 3i&& Presentment and Payment ?o&&ections .anagement Dis(ute .anagement 0n'#ouse ?as# .anagement ?as# and 8i$uidity .anagement 3ank 2e&ations#i( /reasury and 2isk .anagement Processes

1,. What is an SAP Solution Ma% ? .y SAP =2P, besides su((orting your most im(ortant business (rocesses, a&so (rovides too&s to #e&( you understand #ow t#ese (rocesses work* 1ne suc# too& is t#e SAP Solution 2ap, a mu&ti'&eve& b&ue(rint of (rocesses, w#ic# #e&(s you visua&i6e,

(&an, and im(&ement a co#erent, integrated, and com(re#ensive 0/ so&ution* SAP So&ution .a(s a&so s#ow #ow various (rocesses are covered, inc&uding t#e (rocesses t#at SAP and its (artners su((ort* %it# so&ution ma(s, you $uick&y understand business so&utions and t#e business va&ue t#ey can bring* 1-. What is SAP .usiness :ne ? SAP 3usiness 1ne is t#e &ow'cost, easy'to'im(&ement business management so&ution from SAP for Sma&& and .edium =nter(rises )S.=+* 9n&ike regu&ar =2P software from SAP, t#is so&ution gives managers on'demand access to critica& rea&' time information t#roug# one sing&e system containing financia&, customer re&ations#i( management, manufacturing, and management contro& ca(abi&ities* As a resu&t, t#e so&ution enab&es ra(id em(&oyee (roductivity, w#i&e em(owering managers to make better business decisions to stay a#ead of t#e com(etition* =$ui((ed wit# a user'friend&y interface, SAP 3usiness 1ne serves as your centra& =2P #ub wit# standard interfaces to interna& and e<terna& data sources, #and#e&d com(uters, ?2. a((&ications, and ot#er &eading ana&ysis too&s* SAP 3usiness 1ne is based on t#e .icrosoft %indows (&atform making it easier to com(re#end and use* /#e a((&ication comes wit# a demo com(any, w#ic# can be used by t#e im(&ementing com(any to become fami&iar wit# functiona&ities* /#e modu&es of SAP 3usiness 1ne inc&ude@ Administration Financia&s Sa&es 1((ortunities Sa&es"A52 Purc#asing"A5P 3usiness Partners 3anking

0nventory Production .2P Service 4uman 2esources 2e(orting

ABAP and Basis 1/. What is .asis ? Basis is a co&&ection of 25: (rograms, w#ic# (rovide t#e run'time environment for A3AP5,* 0magine 3asis as somet#ing t#at is sitting in between t#e A3AP5, (rogram code and t#e com(uters o(erating system* 3asis reads A3AP5, (rogram code and inter(rets t#e same into o(erating system instructionsH wit#out 3asis you cannot e<ecute any of your A3AP5, (rograms* SAP (rovides a (&et#ora of too&s to administer 3asis, w#ic# u&timate&y #e&(s to monitor system configuration, system (erformance, and system maintenance* /#e 3asis administrator is usua&&y ca&&ed t#e 3asis ?onsu&tant* 11. &5%lain the SAP '03 Syste# Ar*hite*ture. SAP 25: is based on a :'tier )lient8Ser'er mode&, re(resented by t#e@ Database 8ayer A((&ication 8ayer Presentation 8ayer 0n a :'tier ?&ient server mode&, a&& t#e above t#ree &ayers run on t#ree different mac#ines* /#e Data:ase 1ayer consists of an 2D3.S )2e&ationa& Database .anagement System+, w#ic# acce(ts t#e database re$uests from t#e A((&ication 8ayer, and sends t#e data back to t#e A((&ication 8ayer, w#ic# in turn (asses it on to t#e Presentation 8ayer* /#e Application 1ayer or t#e server inter(rets t#e A3AP5, (rograms, receiving t#e in(uts from t#em and (roviding t#e (rocessed out(ut to t#em*

/#e Presentation Ser'er or Presentation 8ayer is w#at is insta&&ed on t#e ty(ica& workstation of a user* /#is is not#ing but t#e SAPG90, w#ic# w#en started (rovides t#e user wit# t#e interface of SAP 25: menus* /#is interface acce(ts t#e in(uts from t#e user, (asses t#em on to t#e A((&ication Server, (rocesses t#e in(uts and sends back t#e out(ut* 0f database (rocessing is re$uired, t#e A((&ication Server sends t#e detai&s to t#e Database 8ayer, receives t#e data, and t#en (rocesses it at t#e A((&ication 8ayer &eve& and sends back t#e out(ut to t#e Presentation 8ayer w#ere t#e SAPG90 may format t#e data before dis(&aying it on t#e screen*

Figure 2: SAP R/3 System Architecture 24. What is an 2nstan*e ? An 0nstance is an administrative unit t#at grou(s toget#er com(onents of an SAP 25: system or sim(&y an A((&ication Server, w#ic# #as its own set of work (rocesses* A ?&ient can contain many instances* 8oose&y defined, an instance refers to a server*

Sometimes t#e database is a&so referred to as an instance* 0n t#is case it is ca&&ed t#e )entral 0nstance. 21. What 3o you Mean by the SAP '03 Syste# ;an3s*a%e ? /#e System 1andscape, in SAP, refers to a number of systems and t#eir de(&oyment wit#in an SAP insta&&ation* /#e various systems may be designated as Deve&o(ment, /est, and Production ?&ients* 22. What is an '03 8ata 8i*tionary ? /#e Data Dictionary is a co&&ection of &ogica& structures of various obBects )/ab&es, Iiews, or Structures+ used in a((&ication deve&o(ment in SAP, w#ic# s#ows #ow t#ey are ma((ed to t#e under&ying 2D3.S in /ab&es5Iiews* 23. What is an SAP .usiness :b<e*t ? An SAP Business +:;ect is simi&ar to rea&'wor&d business obBects suc# as Sa&es 1rder, 0nvoice, =m(&oyee, etc*, w#ic# consist of various tab&es5(rograms t#at are re&ated to eac# ot#er in a business conte<t* A&& t#e business obBects are maintained in t#e B+ .Business +:;ect epository/.

Figure 3: SAP Business Object /#e various c#aracteristics of an obBect are ca&&ed Attri:utes. For e<am(&e, t#e business obBect Sa&es 1rder is c#aracteri6ed by t#e fo&&owing attributes@

Date of t#e order 0tems of t#e order Prices of various items of t#e order >ame of t#e customer to w#om t#e order be&ongs to /#e a((&ication (rogram or (rograms used by t#e system to c#ange or mani(u&ate a business obBect are known as .et#od)s+* For e<am(&e, a (rogram cou&d be used to (a) c#eck t#e avai&abi&ity of stock to de&iver, (b) trace t#e s#i(ment route, (c) c#eck t#e item (rices, (d) va&idate t#e order date, etc* So, attributes and met#ods co&&ective&y re(resent business obBects in SAP* 2$. &5%lain !lient=8e%en3ent an3 !lient=2n3e%en3ent

Tables. /#ere are certain tab&es, in SAP, w#ic# w#en c#anged wi&& not affect simi&ar tab&es in ot#er ?&ients* /#ese are known as ?&ient'De(endent tab&es* A&& ?&ient'de(endent tab&es #ave .andt as t#eir first fie&d* 1n t#e ot#er #and, if a c#ange made in one ?&ient is ref&ected in anot#er tab&e across various ?&ients, t#en suc# a tab&e is ca&&ed ?&ient'0nde(endent* 0n t#is case, t#e first fie&d of t#e tab&e wi&& not be .andt* Gou need to be e<tra carefu& w#en c#anging t#e settings or content of t#ese tab&es as t#is wi&& affect a&& t#e ?&ients* 2(. What are the 8ifferent Ty%es of A.AP0$ Pro)ra#s ? /#ere are nine ty(es of A3AP5, (rograms in SAP@

1 =<ecutab&e Programs )A3AP 2e(orts+ 0 0>?89D= Program 2 .odu&e Poo&5Dia&ogue (rograms S Sub'2outine Poo& < 0nterface Poo&

9 ?&ass Poo& ( /y(e Poo& 7 Function Grou( = JS8/ Program

2,. What are 2nternal Tables ? 0nternal (a:les are standard data ty(e obBects w#ic# e<ist on&y during t#e 2untime of an A3AP5, (rogram* /#ey are used to (erform tab&e ca&cu&ations on subsets of database tab&es and for re'organi6ing t#e contents of database tab&es according to a users need* 0nterna& tab&es fu&fi& t#e need for arrays in A3AP5,* /#ere are t#ree ty(es of interna& tab&es@

Standard (a:les wit# a &inear inde<* /#e key is a&ways non'uni$ue* Sorted (a:les wit# eit#er a uni$ue or non'uni$ue key* >as-ed (a:les )t#ey do not #ave a &inear inde<+ wit# t#e key defined a&ways as uni$ue*

2-. What is a ;o)i*al 8atabase ? A 1ogical Data:ase is a s(ecia& data'retrieva& (rogram de&ivered by SAP, wit# its own dynamic Se&ection Screens* Gou need to code on&y t#e (rocessing &ogic )G=/, ?4=?D, etc*, statements+* /#e &ogica& database consists of a read (rogram in w#ic# t#e structure of t#e &oca& database is re(roduced wit# a se&ection screen* Advantages@ ?#eck functions to va&idate t#at user in(ut is com(&ete and correct* .eaningfu& data se&ection* ?entra& aut#ori6ation c#ecks for database accesses* =<ce&&ent read access (erformance w#i&e retaining t#e #ierarc#ica& data view determined by t#e a((&ication &ogic*

2/. What are the T7o Metho3s for Mo3ifyin) SAP Stan3ar3 Tables ? Gou can modify SAP Standard (a:les using@ A((end Structures ?ustomi6ing 0>?89D=S 21. What is .8! Pro)ra##in) in SAP? BD) .Batc- Data )on'ersion/ is an automated (rocedure for transferring &arge vo&umes of e<terna& or &egacy data into t#e SAP system using batc# in(ut (rogramming* /#ere are t#ree ways to do t#is@ ?a&& /ransaction .et#od Session .et#od Direct 0n(ut .et#od 0rres(ective of t#e met#od, t#e tec#ni$ues use t#e fo&&owing ste(s@ 0dentify t#e screens of t#e transaction t#at t#e (rogram wi&& (rocess* %rite a (rogram to bui&d t#e 3D? tab&e t#at wi&& be used to submit t#e data )i*e*, te<t fi&e+ to SAP* Submit t#e 3D? tab&e to t#e system in t#e batc# mode or as a sing&e transaction by t#e ?A88 /2A>SA?/01> command* /#e ?a&& /ransaction met#od cannot be used w#en you want to (rocess mu&ti(&e transactions* 0nstead, use t#e 3D?'insert function to ac#ieve t#is* 34. What is the .AP2 ? /#e BAP0 .Business Application Programming 0nter*ace/ is SAPs standardi6ed a((&ication interface for integrating t#ird (arty a((&ications wit# SAPs business (rocesses and data t#ereby (roviding an entry into t#e 25: system* A 3AP0 may be

used to create a business obBect or to c#ange t#e attributes of a business obBect* >ote t#at t#e assignment of a 3AP0 to a business obBect is a&ways 1'to'1* A 3AP0 =<(&orer #e&(s you to move around t#e co&&ection of 3AP0s in t#e system, w#ic# is grou(ed bot# #ierarc#ica&&y and a&(#abetica&&y* For eac# 3AP0 in t#e e<(&orer, you are (rovided wit# severa& tabs for detai&s, documentation, too&s, and (roBects )to create new 3AP0s+*

Figure : BAP! "#$lorer A 3AP0 can@ ?reate a Purc#ase 1rder ?#ange a Purc#ase 2e$uisition ?reate a ?ustomer Dis(&ay an 0nvoice

31. What is A;& ? A1$ .Application 1in6 $na:ling/ is used to su((ort t#e construction and o(eration of distributed a((&ications, t#roug# t#e e<c#ange of data messages ensuring

data consistency across &oose&y cou(&ed SAP a((&ications, using bot# sync#ronous and async#ronous communications wit#out t#e need for a centra& database* A8= is com(rised of t#ree &ayers@ A((&ication services Distribution services ?ommunication services A8= #e&(s to@ Distribute a((&ications across severa& SAP systems, suc# t#at

centra&i6ed5decentra&i6ed functions can o(erate in t#e same com(any area* .aintain and distribute master data e&ements from a centra& system* .aintain and distribute contro& data obBects from a centra& system wit# t#e sync#roni6ed configuration data )im(ortant to decentra&i6e functions yet kee( t#em integrated+* 8ink 25! and 25: systems*

8ink SAP and e<terna& systems, via 0Docs )0ntermediate Documents+*

32. 2s SAP >2 2nten3e3 to 'e%la*e A;& ? .ost A8= so&utions are custom bui&t wit# very &itt&e re'usabi&ity and sca&abi&ity* /#e introduction of SAP =0 a&ong wit# t#e >et%eaver tec#no&ogy re(&aces A8= wit# out'of'bo< functiona&ity avai&ab&e in SAP J0* 33. What is an '9! ? A emote 7unction )all . 7)/ is a ca&& to a function modu&e running in a system different from t#e ca&&ing'system* /#e remote function can a&so be ca&&ed from wit#in t#e same system )as a remote ca&&+, but usua&&y t#e ca&&ing'system and t#e ca&&ed'system wi&& be in different systems* An 2F? #e&(s to take care of t#e fo&&owing communication@

?ommunications between two inde(endent SAP systems* ?&ient'server communications between an e<terna& ?&ient and an SAP system acting as t#e server* ?&ient'server communications between an SAP System acting as t#e ?&ient and an e<terna& server* 3$. What is :;& ? For t#e %indows front'end, SAP (rovides interfaces based on .icrosofts +:;ect 1in6ing and $m:edding /ec#no&ogy .+1$ Automation/ for embedding obBects suc# as .icrosoft =<ce& fi&es* 3(. What is a Mat*h !o3e in SAP? 2atc- )odes )now known as Searc- >elp wit# re&ease ,*A+ #e&( to searc# and retrieve data w#en t#e key of a record is not known* /#e tec#ni$ue invo&ves (a) creating a 2atc- )ode +:;ect )now known as a Searc- >elp +:;ect+ and (b) s(ecifying a 2atc- )ode 0D. /#e system #e&(s you to access t#e matc# codes )searc# #e&(+ in t#e fo&&owing ways@

Dee(ing t#e cursor in t#e fie&d, and t#en (ressing 7?.

Dee(ing t#e cursor in t#e fie&d, c&icking t#e rig#t button on t#e mouse, and t#en se&ecting (ossib&e entries* Dee(ing t#e cursor in t#e fie&d, and t#en c&icking on t#e magnifying g&ass* 3,. What is a 8rill=3o7n 'e%ort? A Drill8Do,n re(ort* /#e to(most &ist, a&so known as t#e Basic 1ist, contains t#e to('&eve& information suc# as current assets, fi<ed assets, etc*, under t#e grou(ing assets on one side of t#e eport, a&so ca&&ed an 0nteracti'e eport, is a re(ort wit# more

detai&* 0magine t#at you are &ooking at a 3a&ance S#eet, (resented as a dri&&'down

3a&ance S#eet* /#e dri&&'down functiona&ity #e&(s you se&ect a &ine item from t#e 3asic 8ist )e*g*, fi<ed assets+ and dri&&'down furt#er to a detai&ed &ist .secondary list/ w#ic# dis(&ays various com(onents of t#e fi<ed assets suc# as &and, bui&dings, mac#inery, etc* Gou may dri&&'down even furt#er by doub&ec&icking t#e bui&ding &ine, w#ic# wi&& bring u( t#e ne<t detai&ed &ist and so on* Gou wi&& be ab&e to create a dri&&'down re(ort wit# a ma<imum dri&& &eve& of !-H t#at is, inc&uding t#e 3asic 8ist you wi&& #ave a tota& of !1 &eve&s in a sing&e dri&&' down re(ort*

Figure %: &rill'(o)n re$ort 3-. What is A;? Pro)ra##in) in A.AP? SAP (rovides a set of ABAP 1ist 'ie,er .A1@/ function modu&es, w#ic# can be used to en#ance t#e readabi&ity and functiona&ity of any re(ort out(ut* /#is is (articu&ar&y usefu& in a situation w#ere t#e out(ut of a re(ort contains co&umns e<tending !CC c#aracters in &engt#* 0n suc# cases, t#is set of A8I functions can #e&( t#e user to c#oose and arrange co&umns from a re(ort out(ut and a&so save different variants for re(ort dis(&ay* /#is is very efficient for dynamica&&y sorting and arranging t#e co&umns and (rovides a wide array of dis(&ay o(tions*

3/. What is 8ynPro ? DynPro in SAP refers to Dynamic Programming re&ating to t#e screens and f&ow &ogic, w#ic# contro&s t#e (rocessing and dis(&ay of t#ese screens* 1n a broader sca&e, a screen is a&so referred to as a DynPro* 31. What is an A.AP0$ @uery ? ABAP!? Auery )a&so known as an SAP Auery or Auery+ is a (owerfu& too& used to generate sim(&e re(orts wit#out any coding* /y(ica&&y, an A3AP5, $uery is created first by defining a 5ser "roup and a 7unctional "roup* /#e functiona& grou( can eit#er be created wit# reference to a &ogica& tab&e or a database tab&e* 1nce t#e functiona& grou( is defined, t#e user grou( is assigned to t#e functiona& grou(* /#e &ast ste( is to create t#e $uery on t#e functiona& grou( t#at is generated* An A3AP5, Fuery can be used to create t#e fo&&owing t#ree ty(es of re(orts@

Basic 1ists4 2e(orts wit# basic formatting wit#out any ca&cu&ated fie&ds* Statistics4 2e(orts wit# statistica& functions suc# as average, (ercentages, etc* an6ed 1ists4 2anked &ists are used for ana&ytica& (ur(oses*

$4. What are the !o#%onents of SAPs*ri%t ? SAPscript is t#e SAP Systems own te<t'(rocessing system* SAPscri(t is tig#t&y integrated and used for many te<t'(rocessing tasks* SAP Standard Sty&es and 8ayout Sets are a&ways #e&d in ?&ient ---* 8ayout Sets are used for t#e Page 8ayout of SAPscri(t documents* A &ayout set #as t#e fo&&owing e&ements@

>eader Data4 Data re&ated to deve&o(ment )created by, deve&o(ment c&ass, etc*+ and t#e &ayout set information )w#ic# e&ements are used+ are bot# stored in t#e #eader data* A start (age must be entered #ere*

Paragrap- 7ormats4 Paragra(# formats are re$uired in &ayout sets* 4owever, t#ey are a&so used for word (rocessing in &ayout sets, for e<am(&e, to format te<t e&ements*

)-aracter 7ormats4 Gou can a&so use c#aracter formats to format te<ts or (aragra(#s* 9n&ike (aragra(# formats, #owever, t#ey are used to format te<t wit#in a (aragra(#*

&indo,s4 %indows are names and window ty(es, w#ic# are not (#ysica&&y (ositioned unti& t#ey are a&&ocated to (ages and units of measurement are s(ecified*

Pages4 Pages are defined to (rovide t#e system wit# a start and end (oint in te<t formatting*

Page &indo,s4 Page windows are t#e combination of windows and (ages, w#ere t#e dimensions of a window and its (osition on a (age are s(ecified*

$1. Why 8o We +ee3 &nhan*e#ents ? /#e standard 25: a((&ication may not offer some of t#e functiona&ity you need for a (articu&ar customer or for a (articu&ar situation* /#e 25: $n-ancement functiona&ity a&&ows you to add your own functiona&ity to SAPs standard business a((&ications or modify t#e standard one to suit t#e (articu&ar need* /#e en#ancement may be done t#roug#@

)ustomer e3its ?ustomers (otentia& re$uirements, w#ic# do not form a (art of t#e standard software, are incor(orated in t#e standard 25: as em(ty modification s#e&&s* ?ustomers can t#en fi&& t#ese wit# t#eir own coding* SAP guarantees t#at a&& suc# e<ists wi&& remain va&id across a&& future re&eases* /#e customer e<its inc&ude@ .enu =<its

Screen =<its Function .odu&e =<its Deyword =<its

ABAP!? Dictionary $lements /#ese are A3AP5, Dictionary =n#ancements )creation of tab&e a((ends+, /e<t =n#ancements )customer's(ecific keywords and documentation for data e&ements+, and Fie&d =<its )creation of additiona& coding for data e&ements+*

$2. 8ifferentiate S*reen Painter fro# Menu Painter. Screen Painter is an A3AP %orkbenc# too& used to create or modify t#e screens for your transactions* /#e screen (ainter a&&ows you to make modifications to screen attributes, t#e f&ow contro& &ogic, or t#e &ayout*

Figure *: Screen Painter

2enu Painter is a too& used to design t#e interface com(onents* Status, .enu 3ars, .enu 8ists, F'key settings, Functions, and /it&es are t#e com(onents of .enu Painter*

Figure +: Menu Painter

3ot# t#e screen (ainter and menu (ainter are gra(#ica& interfaces of A3AP5, a((&ications* $3. What is a Mo3ifi*ation Assistant ? /#e 2odi*ication Assistant is t#e too& t#at offers you su((ort w#en making modifications to t#e standard, by branc#ing to a s(ecia& modification mode w#enever you are modifying obBects from t#e standard in an A3AP workbenc# editor* 1rigina&s are initia&&y (rotected in t#is mode and can on&y be c#anged wit# t#e #e&( of t#e additiona& (us#buttons t#at are (&aced at your dis(osa&* A&& c#anges t#at you make to t#e system are &ogged wit# t#e #e&( of t#e .odification Assistant* /#is (rovides you wit# a detai&ed overview of modifications t#at is easy to read and t#at dramatica&&y reduces t#e amount of effort needed to u(grade your system* /#e .odification Assistant offers su((ort in t#e fo&&owing areas@

A3AP =ditor ?&ass 3ui&der Screen Painter .enu Painter /e<t =&ement maintenance Function 3ui&der A3AP Dictionary 0f an obBect can be edited using t#e .odification Assistant, a dia&ogue bo< a((ears t#e first time t#at you attem(t to edit t#at obBect informing you t#at editing functions are &imited in modification mode* /#is dia&ogue bo< a((ears e<act&y once (er user for eac# of t#e various kinds of trans(ort obBects* $$. What is a S%ool 'eAuest ? Spool eBuests are generated during dia&ogue or background (rocessing and

(&aced in t#e s(oo& database wit# information about t#e (rinter and (rint format* /#e actua& data is (&aced in t#e /em Se )/em(orary Se$uentia& obBects+* $(. What is the !TS ? /#e )-ange and (ransport System .)(S/ is a too& t#at #e&(s to organi6e deve&o(ment (roBects )in t#e A3AP workbenc#+ and customi6e data )in customi6ing+, and t#en move5trans(ort t#ese c#anges between t#e SAP Systems5?&ients in your system &andsca(e* An e<am(&e is moving t#e configuration settings from deve&o(ment to test and fina&&y to t#e (roduction ?&ient* /#e c#anges )suc# as t#e creation of a new ?om(any ?ode, c#anging a document ty(e, etc*+ are assigned to a trans(ort re$uest and trans(orted by t#e 3asis or System Administrator*

$,. What is a Trans%ort ? A (ransport in SAP is not#ing but t#e transfer of 25: System com(onents from one system to anot#er* /#e com(onents to be trans(orted are s(ecified in t#e obBect &ist of a trans(ort re$uest* =ac# trans(ort consists of an e<(ort (rocess and an im(ort (rocess@

/#e e3port process reads obBects from t#e source system and stores t#em in a data fi&e at t#e o(erating system &eve&*

/#e import process reads obBects from t#e data fi&e and writes t#em to t#e database of t#e target system*

/#e system maintains a trans(ort &og of a&& actions during e<(ort and im(ort* /#e transport organiCer #e&(s to manage t#e trans(orts in SAP*

Figure ,: -rans$ort Organi.er

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Bou

9in3

:ut

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Trans%orte3

Trans%ort 'eAuest ? 8ook at /ab&e (P1+" )go t#ere using t#e /ransaction ?ode S$1#+ and in(ut t#e trans(ort name in t#e ?.DS/20>G fie&d wit# KL*K $3ample4 DPED99FGGG1D $/. What is an AuthoriCation in SAP? An Aut-oriCation is t#e (rocess of giving someone (ermission to do or #ave somet#ing* 0n mu&ti'user SAP systems, a SAP 3asis Administrator defines for t#e system w#ic# users are a&&owed access to t#e system and w#at (rivi&eges of use eac# user gets )suc# as access to transactions, etc*+* $1. &5%lain the !lient *on*e%t of SAP. A )lient is t#e to('most organi6ationa& structure, w#ic# #as its own set of master records* A ?&ient is denoted by a :'c#aracter a&(#anumeric code in SAP, and is a mandatory e&ement* /#e settings made at t#e ?&ient &eve&, data maintained, etc*, are avai&ab&e across a&& t#e ?om(any ?odes* A ?&ient s#ou&d #ave at &east one ?om(any ?ode defined* SAP comes de&ivered wit# ?&ients --1 and --!, w#ic# contain a&& t#e defau&t settings* 9sua&&y, co(ying from t#e defau&t ?&ients creates additiona& and new ?&ients* /y(ica&&y, in SAP, you wi&& #ave different ty(es of ?&ientsH name&y@ 1* Deve&o(ment ?&ient !* /est ?&ient :* Production ?&ient 0n any im(&ementation, you must #ave at &east t#ree ty(es of ?&ients as mentioned above* /#ere are some com(anies w#ere you wi&& #ave more t#an t#ree* /#ese inc&ude@ Deve&o(ment ?&ient

/est ?&ient Fua&ity Assurance ?&ient /raining ?&ient Production ?&ient A De'elopment )lient is a&so ca&&ed a sand bo< ?&ient and is sometimes known as a (&ay ?&ient* /#is is t#e &ogica& (&ace in t#e SAP system w#ere you try out new configurations, write new (rograms, etc* /#is is t#e (&ace, as t#e name suggests, w#ere you can (&ay around before fina&i6ing a scenario for customi6ation* 1nce you are okay wit# t#e configuration or a new (rogram, you wi&& t#en move it manua&&y )trans(ort+ to t#e (est )lient w#ere you wi&& carry out a&& t#e tests )bot# modu&ar and integration+* /#e end'users are (rovided wit# t#e training using t#e training ?&ient* Sometimes bot# t#e test and training ?&ient are in a sing&e instance* /#e $ua&ity assurance ?&ient #e&(s wit# necessary $ua&ity c#ecks before somet#ing is ready to be (assed on to t#e (roduction ?&ient* After satisfactory resu&ts, it wi&& be trans(orted )automatica&&y+ to t#e Production )lient )a&so ca&&ed t#e "olden )lient/. Gou wi&& not be ab&e to make any modifications, manua&&y, to t#e (roduction ?&ient and t#e aut#ori6ation is very &imited because t#is ?&ient is res(onsib&e for day'to'day business transactions and any issues #ere wi&& Beo(ardi6e a&& business o(erations, w#ic# is w#y t#is is a&so ca&&ed t#e li'e ?&ient* Do not confuse t#is term wit# t#e ?&ient t#at denotes a customer in norma& business (ar&ance* (4. Ho7 *an you 9in3 the 9iel308ata Dn3erlyin) a

Transa*tion ? A common way to find t#e tec#nica& data under&ying a transaction is to (&ace your cursor in t#e fie&d, (ress t#e key 71, and t#en c&ick on t#e button (ec-nical Data

to see t#e detai&s* /#is works as &ong as you are &ooking at t#e trans(arent /ab&e* 0f t#e information is (o(u&ated from a structure, t#en t#is wi&& not #e&( you because t#e structure may be (o(u&ated from a number of sources inc&uding some inc&udes, and may a&so contain some ca&cu&ated fie&ds* 0f t#e inc&ude is in fact a tab&e, t#en c#ances are your data comes from t#at tab&e* ?#eck to see if t#ere is a &ogica& database in t#e business area you are &ooking at* 8ooking at t#e structure of t#e &ogica& database often revea&s t#e tab&es used to drive t#at business area* A&so c#eck to see if t#e fie&d name you are &ooking for is in any of t#e tab&es* 8ogica& databases can a&so be usefu& in determining #ow tab&es are &inked toget#er* Gou may a&so use ot#er met#ods )&isted be&ow+ to 6ero'in on t#e fie&d* Gou can (erform any of t#ese, in iso&ation or in combination, unti& you find w#at you are &ooking for@ Debugging SF8 /race 2un'time Ana&ysis Start t#e transaction in De:ug mode* Set a watc#'(oint for t#e structure'fie&d you are interested in* %#en t#e debugger breaks, &ook at t#e &ines Bust above t#e break' (oint* /#is wi&& s#ow w#ere t#e fie&d was (o(u&ated* /#is may be a structure, in w#ic# case you wi&& restart t#e (rocess using t#at structure as a watc#'(oint* /urn SA1 (race on, and run your transaction* Switc# t#e trace off, and e<amine t#e &og* /#is wi&& detai& t#e tab&es #it, and t#e order in w#ic# t#ey were #it* >ot a&& tab&es #it wi&& be dis(&ayedH for e<am(&e, configuration tab&es tend not to s#ow u(, as t#ey are buffered* /#e untime Analysis wi&& s#ow a&& tab&es accessed by t#e transaction*

Figure /: ABAP Runtime Analysis

(1. &5%lain ;SMW. /#e 1S2& .1egacy System 2igration &or6:enc-/ is a free SAP'based too& t#at su((orts t#e one'time or (eriodic transfers of data from non'SAP systems to SAP* /#e 8S.% can be used in conBunction wit# t#e Data (rans*er &or6:enc-* /#e 8S.% assists in organi6ing your data migration (roBect and guides you t#roug# t#e (rocess by using a c&ear se$uence of ste(s* /#e most common conversion ru&es are (redefined* 2eusab&e conversion ru&es assure consistent data conversion for different data obBects* /#e 8S.% (erforms t#e fo&&owing ste(s@ 2eads t#e &egacy data from one or severa& fi&es )suc# as s(reads#eets or se$uentia& fi&es+ ?onverts t#e data from source format to target format

0m(orts t#e data using standard interfaces .Batc- 0nput, Direct 0nput, BAP0, 0Doc, etc./

Figure 10: &ata -rans1er 2or3bench (2. Ho7 3o you Trans%ort ;SMW 8ata fro# :ne Syste# to Another? /#ere are two ways to do t#is@
1* $3port!0mport met-od. %it# t#is met#od, you #ave t#e f&e<ibi&ity of

sub(roBects or obBects t#at need to be trans(orted* 9se t#e .enu Pat# 8S.%;=<tras;=<(ort (roBect*
!* (ransport reBuest. %it# t#is met#od, you wi&& not be ab&e to se&ect t#e

obBects, and t#e (roBect as a w#o&e is trans(orted* 9se t#e .enu Pat# 8S.%;=<tras ;?reate c#ange re$uest* (3. !an Bou Trans%ort ?ariants :ne Ste%? Ges* 9se (rogram S( A%SP using /ransaction ?ode@ S=:7* ($. What is SAP+et ? /#e SAP%et 25: Front'end (rovides a remote connection to SAPs service and su((ort grou( to (rovide assistance in t#e event of an im(&ementation (roBect system or (roduction system (rob&em* Additiona&&y, t#e SAP>et 25: Front'end (rovides information on t#e &atest #ig#'(riority SAP system information, inc&uding error a&arm messages t#at #e&( you (revent (rob&ems before t#ey occur* Gou can a&so find re&ease, insta&&ation, u(grade, and migration information* /#is functiona&ity is of Multi%le Pro)ra#s in

inc&uded in t#e standard SAP 25: 3asis System* ?onnection is made using 0SD> or a &eased &ine t#roug# t#e (roBects te&ecommunications service (rovider* Pro;ect 0mplementation ((. What is ASAP ? ASAP .Accelerated SAP/ is a met#odo&ogy used in SAP for faster and cost' effective im(&ementation of SAP 25: (roBects* ASAP #e&(s to (a) reduce t#e im(&ementation time, (b) ac#ieve $ua&ity im(&ementations, and (c) make effective and efficient use of (roBect resources* ASAP integrates t#e fo&&owing t#ree com(onents@ 1* ASAP 2oadma( !* /oo&s )Fuestionnaires, tem(&ates, etc*+ :* 25: services and training )4ot&ine, =ar&y %atc#, 2emote 9(grade, Arc#iving, etc*+ ASAP oadmap is aimed at (roviding ste('by'ste( direction and guidance

t#roug#out t#e (roBect im(&ementation by (roviding a (rocess'oriented, c&ear and concise (roBect (&an* /#e roadma( meanders t#roug# t#e fo&&owing mi&estones or (#ases in t#e (roBect im(&ementation &ifecyc&e@ 1* ProBect (re(aration !* 3usiness b&ue(rint :* 2ea&i6ation ,* Fina& (re(aration C* Go'&ive, su((ort, and continuous im(rovement (,. &5%lain ASAP 'oa3#a% Phases. Pro;ect preparation is t#e first and initia& (#ase of t#e ASAP roadma( w#ere you are Bust starting t#e (roBect* Gou wi&& (erform activities suc# as (re(aration of t#e

initia& sco(e, #ig#'&eve& time&ines and (&ans, (roBect c#arters, identification of (roBect team members, (roBect kick'off, etc*

Figure 11: ASAP Roa(ma$ Business :lueprint is t#e second (#ase in t#e im(&ementation w#ere you wi&& try, identify, and document business re$uirements and goa&s to (re(are t#e foundation for future stages of t#e (roBect* 0dea&&y, you wi&& organi6e business re$uirement gat#ering works#o(s wit# t#e various business5functiona& users of t#e com(any, &ead t#em t#roug# t#e discussion wit# structured business functiona&ity $uestionnaires, understand t#eir e<isting business (rocesses, and identify and document t#eir re$uirements in t#e wake of t#is new im(&ementation* A sign'off at t#e end of t#e (#ase ensures an agreement to move forward out&ining t#e sco(e of t#e (roBect* 0t is understood t#at w#atever is e<(&icit&y stated in t#e business b&ue(rint document is t#e on&y sco(eH no im(&ied sco(e wi&& be considered for system configuration in t#e ne<t (#ase* ealiCation is t#e third (#ase w#ere t#e im(&ementing team breaks down t#e business (rocesses identified in t#e second (#ase and configures t#e SAP settings* 0nitia&&y, you wi&& do a Baseline )on*iguration, test t#e system functiona&ity and if necessary make c#anges to t#e base&ine configuration, and c&ose t#e (#ase wit# 7inal )on*iguration, signa&&ing t#at a&& t#e business (rocesses #ave been ca(tured and configured in t#e system* 7inal Preparation is t#e penultimate (#ase in t#e (roBect* /#is (#ase a&so serves to reso&ve a&& crucia& o(en issues* A go'&ive c#eck is a&so conducted to ana&y6e w#et#er t#e system #as been (ro(er&y configured* /#is (#ase is marked by t#e fo&&owing activities@

=nd'to'testing of t#e configured system )9ser Acce(tance /est"9A/+ /raining of t#e end users )9sua&&y fo&&ows t#e conce(t /rain't#e'/rainer+ System management activities )creation of users, user (rofi&es, a&&ocation of ro&es to (rofi&es, etc*+ ?ut'over )data migration activities+ An interna& #e&( desk s#ou&d be staffed and su((orted main&y by em(&oyees of t#e enter(rise* Setting u( a #e&( desk invo&ves, among ot#er t#ings, insta&&ing office and tec#nica& e$ui(ment and defining 1SS users* Prob&ems t#at cannot be so&ved by t#is interna& #e&( desk are forwarded to SAP via t#e SAP%et!+SS system* 1n successfu& com(&etion of t#is (#ase, you are ready to run your business in your (roduction system* "o81i'e and Support is t#e fina& and fifth (#ase of t#e (roBect w#ere t#e configured system is dec&ared &ive for day'to'day business use* 9sers make (roductive )&ive+ business transactions in t#e system and a&& t#e issues cro((ing u( in t#e wake of going &ive are su((orted and reso&ved by a su((ort team immediate&y* (-. ;ist the Tools for the Pro<e*t Pre%aration Phase ASAP. ASAP 2oadma( Dnow&edge ?orner ASAP .S'ProBect P&an ?'.a(s )?o&&aborative 3usiness .a(s+ Fuicksi6er Pre'?onfigured So&utions )?onnect'and'Go, Smart 0m(&ementations, etc*+ SAP Service .arket P&ace of

(/. ;ist the Tools for .usiness !ase 8e"elo%#ent ASAP. ='3usiness ?ase 3ui&der ?'.a(s (1. ;ist the Tools for Pro<e*t Mana)e#ent

in

an3

Metho3olo)y in ASAP. So&ution .anager SAP Service .arket P&ace ASAP .S'ProBect P&an ASAP 2oadma( ASAP Fuestion and Answer Database ASAP 3usiness 3&ue(rint ASAP 3PP )3usiness Process and Procedures Document+ ASAP 3P.8 )3usiness Process .aster 8ist+ ASAP 0ssue Database ASAP 0m(&ementation Assistant5Dnow&edge ?orner ,4. When 3o Bou Dse the ASAP .PM; Tool? /#e ASAP Business Process 2aster 1ist .BP21/ is used during t#e 2ea&i6ation )t#ird (#ase+ of t#e ASAP 2oadma(* ,1. &5%lain Har37are SiCin) for a SAP 2#%le#entation. ASAP (rovides a too& ca&&ed Auic6siCer, w#ic# is used to ana&y6e t#e #ardware re$uirements )of mySAP*com+ and to arrive at t#e #ardware si6ing for t#e (roBect based on your in(uts to a &ist of $uestions* /#e too& is %eb'based to make mySAP*com faster and easier* /#e Fuicksi6er #as been deve&o(ed by SAP in c&ose

coo(eration wit# a&& (&atform (artners and is free* /#e Fuicksi6er ca&cu&ates ?P9, disk, and memory resources based on t#roug#(ut numbers and t#e number of users working wit# t#e different SAP com(onents* /#e too& gives customers )and (ros(ects+ an idea of t#e system si6e re$uirements for running t#e (ro(osed work&oad, and is a&so usefu& for initia& budget (&anning* 0nitia&&y used during t#e ProBect Pre(aration and 3&ue(rinting P#ases, and anytime after t#ese (#ases w#en t#ere is a c#ange in system re$uirements, t#e too& #e&(s in arriving at t#e recommendations for #ardware de(&oyment* ,2. &5%lain ASAP .PM;. ASAP BP21s .Business Process 2aster 1ists/ are .S'=<ce& S#eets generated by t#e ASAP FMA Database for faci&itating configuration and testing of t#e system, and deve&o(ment of end'user documentation* /#ese &ists become t#e centra& re(ository from w#ic# you bui&d t#e individua& master &ists to manage t#e initia& configuration, fina& configuration, fina& end'user integration testing, and any ot#er end'user (rocedures inc&uding t#e documentation* ,3. What are .PPs in ASAP? ASAP BPP .Business Process and Procedures/ are tem(&ates t#at ty(ica&&y wa&k you t#roug# a transaction in SAP and #e&( you document t#em* /#e tem(&ates are re(&ete wit# 3est Practices or Standard Procedures for com(&eting a (articu&ar transaction, w#ic# you can customi6e for end'user training* Gou wi&& assign ASAP 3PPS to t#e ASAP 3P.8* ,$. &5%lain !=Ma%s. )82aps or )8Business 2aps .)olla:orati'e Business 2aps/ re(resent a com(re#ensive (ortfo&io of industry's(ecific and cross'industry (rocess b&ue(rints t#at s#ow you #ow t#e mySAP*com e'business (&atform can #e&( your business* /#ese ma(s define t#e activities, ro&es, system interfaces, and business documents

re$uired for inter'enter(rise co&&aboration* /#ey a&so s#ow w#ic# SAP So&utions and Services you need to make your organi6ation a tru&y co&&aborative e'business* ?'3usiness .a(s e<(&ain w#at #a((ens w#en you de(&oy e'business so&utions to integrate e<isting resources and transcend t#e borders of individua& enter(rises* /#ey give you a com(&ete (icture of t#e benefits and advantages of co&&aborative business (rocesses* ,(. What is the A3"anta)e of SAP s S#art

2#%le#entations ? Smart 0mplementations contain (re'configuration, documentation, insta&&ation, and configuration acce&erators for s(ecific mySAP com(onents* Smart 0m(&ementations (rovide too&s to assist wit# tec#nica& infrastructure (&anning, insta&&ation of necessary com(onents, system configuration and integration into an e<isting SAP system &andsca(e, and infrastructure management in a (roduction system* /#e Smart 0m(&ementation for t#e mySAP %ork(&ace inc&udes t#e fo&&owing insta&&ation and configuration features@

=asy system infrastructure configuration wit# t#e )on*iguration Assistant Automatic mySAP &or6place com(onent insta&&ation

=asy integration of mu&ti(&e com(onent systems Pre'configuration of a&& software com(onents, inc&uding t#e %eb server and 0nternet /ransaction Server )0/S+ 3asis customi6ation of t#e SAP 25: System )%ork(&ace Server+

/#e System Administration Assistant, an easy'to'use too& (roviding a com(re#ensive administration conce(t to su((ort t#e system administrator in im(ortant tasks*

,,. What is the SAP Solution Ar*hite*t ? /#e SAP Solution Arc-itect is t#e (orta& t#at integrates a&& content, too&s, and met#odo&ogies necessary for t#e so&ution'oriented eva&uation, im(&ementation, $uick ada(tation, and continuous im(rovement of t#e mySAP.com e8Business plat*orm* 0t is fu&&y integrated into t#e ?ustomer =ngagement 8ife ?yc&e )?=8+, o(en to (artner content, and an integra& (art of t#e SAP Service 0nfrastructure* 0n one (orta&, t#e SAP So&ution Arc#itect integrates@

Best Practices for mySAP*com to eva&uate, im(&ement, and e<tend e'3usiness so&utions*

/ried and tested im(&ementation too&s suc# as t#e 0mplementation "uide .02"/ and t#e (est &or6:enc-*

Access to )8Business 2aps for in'de(t# information on co&&aborative business scenarios*

/#e ASAP met#od for running mySAP*com (roBects*

An aut#oring environment wit# w#ic# customers and (artners can create t#eir own (re'configured im(&ementation so&utions*

Access to eva&uation (roducts suc# as t#e $8Business )ase Builder and t#e Solution )omposer.

/#e benefits of using t#e SAP So&ution Arc#itect inc&ude@

?onsistent access to a&& contents, too&s, and met#ods for eva&uating, im(&ementing, ada(ting, and continuous&y im(roving your mySAP*com e' business so&ution*

2a(id eva&uation and im(&ementation wit# 3est Practices for mySAP*com* /ried and tested eva&uation and im(&ementation too&s t#at #ave been en#anced s(ecifica&&y for use wit# mySAP*com*

0m(roved (roBect communication and efficiency t#roug# a centra& (orta&*

A consistent and integrated a((roac# t#at (asses t#e business'oriented (roBect definition from one (#ase to t#e ne<t* ?om(&ete a&ignment wit# t#e ASAP 2oadma(* 0nformation about u(dates, training, and c#anges via t#e SAP Service .arket(&ace* ,-. What is !onfi)uration in SAP? )on*iguration is t#e (rocess of maintaining settings )(arameters+ in t#e system to su((ort s(ecific5customi6ed business re$uirements* 2emember SAP is an a&&' encom(assing a((&ication w#ic# needs to be configured to meet your s(ecific re$uirements* ,/. What is the 2ME ? /#e 02" .0mplementation "uide/ in SAP (rovides you wit# t#e various configuration ste(s in a tree'&ike structure for easy access wit# t#e nodes at t#e bottom re(resenting t#e configuration obBects* /#is is t#e centra& re(ository for customi6ing, (roviding a ste('by'ste( guide for carrying out various activities* 3esides t#e ste(s5activities, t#e 0.G a&so contains e<(&anations concerning t#e order in w#ic# you need to make t#e customi6ations* %#en you e<ecute an activity from t#e 0.G, you are indirect&y c#anging t#e va&ues )(arameters+ in t#e under&ying tab&e*

Figure 12: SAP R/3 !M4 /#e 0.G is structured and arranged into four maBor &ogica& grou(s@
1* "eneral Settings )?ountry settings, currencies, ca&endar maintenance, time

6ones, fie&d dis(&ay c#aracteristics, etc*+


!* $nterprise Structure )Definition, assignment, consistency c#eck, etc*+ :* )ross8Application )omponents )A8=, /ime s#eet, ?A//, ?AD integration,

D.'Document .anagement, =D0, =ngineering ?#ange .anagement )=?.+, etc*+


,* 7unctional Area Settings )F0, ?1, 8ogistics, PP, P., F., etc*+

,1. &5%lain the ?arious Ty%es of 2MEs. /#e SAP e*erence 02" (rovides a&& t#e customi6ing ste(s for a&& functiona& areas

of SAP* /#is, as t#e name suggests, is t#e reference 0.G from w#ic# you may

create your own 0.G to meet t#e e<act re$uirements of t#e )1+ enter(rise and )!+ (roBect* /#e $nterprise 02" is usua&&y an e<act co(y of t#e SAP 2eference 0.G, but &imited to t#e countries w#ere t#e im(&ementation is carried out* From t#e =nter(rise 0.G, you may create your ProBect 0.G, w#ic# wi&& contain t#e a((&ication com(onents5business (rocesses re$uired in t#e current (roBect* 0t is a&so (ossib&e to create t#e Pro;ect 02" by direct&y generating it from t#e SAP 2eference 0.G* 0n t#is case, t#e country se&ection is done w#en t#e ProBect 0.Gs are created*

Figure 13: !M4 5Re1erence6 "nter$rise6 an( Project7 -4. What are All the ?arious Ways of !usto#iCin) ? Gou can customi6e SAP using@

02"4 Eust fo&&ow t#e 0.G tree, ste('by'ste(* >o tec#nica& know&edge )about tab&es, views, etc*+ is re$uired* $3ample4 /o configure t#e ?ountry ?ode, Bust fo&&ow t#e 0.G .enu Pat# Genera& settings;Set countries;Define countries*

(a:les4 Gou need to know t#e name and structure of t#e tab&es w#ere t#e (arameters are direct&y entered* /ec#nica& know&edge of customi6ab&e obBects is re$uired* $3ample4 /o configure t#e ?ountry ?ode, use transaction code@ +HG1* =nter t#e detai&s in /ab&e @I(GGJ*

-1. Why is the 2ME 'oute of !usto#iCin) &asier than the Tables 'oute? 0.G is a &ogica& way to access data from mu&ti(&e (#ysica& tab&es wit#out knowing from w#ere t#e data is f&owing* /#is is because t#ere are many transactions, w#ic# affect more t#an one tab&e* /#ere is no need to know t#e names of /ab&es and fie&ds, t#oug# it a&ways #e&(s to know about t#e maBor tab&es* 0.G offers a ste('by'ste( way of (rogressing from one activity to t#e ot#er* A&so, you can c&assify t#e activities into various views suc# as mandatory5critica&5o(tiona&, ?&ient'de(endent5?&ient'inde(endent, etc*, so t#at you can (roceed (er your re$uirements and time* Since 0.G (rovides you wit# t#e functiona& view, it becomes easier to configure and test immediate&y* -2. What is 6no7n as the Eo=;i"e !he*6 ? /#e "o81i'e )-ec6 is done Bust before you cut over to &ive )(roduction+ o(eration in a (roBect* /#is is to test w#et#er t#e system is (ro(er&y configured to meet t#e re$uirements of t#e business* /#e c#eck inc&udes detecting (rob&ems in t#e (a) SAP 25: A((&ication, (b) Database, and (c) 1(erating System* First, t#e "o8li'e )-ec6 invo&ves an ana&ysis of t#e maBor system com(onents of t#e 25: insta&&ation wit# regard to system consistency and re&iabi&ity* For t#is, SAP e<(erts &og on to your 25: system via a remote connection, ins(ect t#e configuration

of individua& system com(onents, and (rovide va&uab&e recommendations for system o(timi6ation* 3y ana&y6ing t#e individua& system com(onents before (roduction start u(, SAP can considerab&y im(rove t#e avai&abi&ity and (erformance of t#e customers &ive system* 0n addition, t#e tec#nica& a((&ication ana&ysis (rovides information on #ow to s(eed u( t#e core (rocesses wit#in 25:* Second&y, t#e transactions wit# #ig# resource consum(tion are searc#ed for and necessary adBustments are made* /#ird&y, t#e c#anges from t#e two (rior sessions are va&idated* /#is c#eck is (erformed in t#e (roductive o(eration system* After a system goes &ive, some fine tuning and e&iminating of (otentia& bott&enecks is sti&& necessary* /#is is carried out four weeks after going &ive wit# t#e 25: System* -3. When Shoul3 Bou !on3u*t .usiness Pro*ess 'e=

en)ineerin) (.P')? /y(ica&&y Business Process e8engineering .BP / needs to be com(&eted we&&

before t#e SAP im(&ementation starts* /#is wi&& #e&( to identify any im(rovements t#at can be made (rior to im(&ementation and begin t#e (rocess of c#ange wit#in t#e organi6ation* 0m(rovements t#at wi&& be system'enab&ed wi&& form (art of t#e im(&ementation and a&so #e&( t#e (roBect team to identify areas of c#ange* 4owever, it is a&so (ossib&e )but not recommended if t#ere are &arge areas re$uiring tota& (rocess re'engineering+ to do 3P2 during t#e business b&ue(rint (#ase (rovided t#e (roBect team works wit#in t#e boundary of t#e initia& sco(e (rovided* -$. What are Dser Para#eters ? SAP (rovides a way of &essening your day'to'day data entry o(erations by faci&itating defau&t entries for fie&ds, and bringing out t#e most suitab&e Display @ariant for document dis(&ay, document entry, o(en5&ine item (rocessing, etc* /#e user

(arameters, a&so known as $diting +ptions, are a boon as t#ey save time and resu&t in greater accuracy as data entry errors are e&iminated wit# t#e defau&t va&ues* Gou can, among many a&ternatives, set@ 1* /#e system to defau&t t#e e<c#ange rate from t#e first &ine item* !* A (reference so t#at t#e user does not (rocess any s(ecia& G8 transactions or foreign currency transactions* :* /#at t#e document needs to be com(&ete before it is (arked* ,* /#e system to ca&cu&ate t#e ta< com(onent on t#e net invoice and not on t#e gross* C* Gour document currency eit#er as t#e &oca& currency or as t#e one used in t#e &ast document* A* /#e system to make a currency conversion if documents are to be fetc#ed from arc#ives* * Documents to be dis(&ayed using a reference number* 7* Payment reference to be used as a se&ection item in o(en item (rocessing* 9* /o activate branc#5#ead office dia&ogue w#i&e (rocessing &ine items*

7inancial Accounting .70/


Eeneral
-(. &5%lain 9inan*ial A**ountin) (92) in SAP. /#e 70 .7inancial Accounting/ modu&e of SAP is t#e back'bone, w#ic# records, co&&ects, and (rocesses financia& transactions or information on a rea&'time basis to (rovide t#e necessary in(uts for e<terna& )statutory+ re(orting* /#e modu&e is integrated wit# ot#er modu&es )suc# as .ateria& .anagement )..+, Sa&es M Distribution )SD+, 4uman 2esources )42+, Production P&anning )PP+, ?ontro&&ing )?1+, etc*+* /#e modu&e F0 #as severa& submodu&es t#at are tig#t&y integrated* -,. What are the Sub#o3ules 7ithin 92?

708AA Asset Accounting 0ntegrated wit# F0'G8, F0'A2, F0'AP, ?1, .., PP and P., t#is modu&e manages t#e financia& side )de(reciation, insurance, etc*+ of t#e assets t#roug#out t#eir entire &ifecyc&e starting wit# (rocurement of assets and ending wit# scra((ing or sa&es*

708AP Accounts Paya:le 0ntegrated wit# F0'G8, F0'AA, F0'/2 and .., t#is submodu&e manages vendor transactions by &inking wit# materia& management, asset accounting, trave& management, etc* >otab&e is t#e (ayment (rogram for making (ayments to vendors*

708A Accounts ecei'a:le

0ntegrated wit# F0'G8, F0'AA, F0'/2, .. and SD, t#is submodu&e manages customers and receivab&es, and integrates wit# SD* 0t is we&&'known for credit management functiona&ities and t#e dunning (rogram*

708B1 Ban6 Accounting 70872 7unds 2anagement 708"1 "eneral 1edger Accounting /#is submodu&e is integrated wit# a&& ot#er submodu&es wit#in F0 and outside F0*

708S1 Special Purpose 1edger /#is submodu&e is used to (rovide t#e summary information from mu&ti(&e a((&ications at a &eve& of detai& t#at t#e user defines*

7081) 1egal )onsolidations /#is submodu&e #e&(s in t#e centra& task of combining t#e financia& o(erating resu&ts of t#e com(anies wit#in a grou( to (rovide overa&& resu&ts for t#e grou(*

708(2 (ra'el 2anagement

--. +a#e the Sub#o3ules Within 92F fro# Whi*h 92=E; Eets Si#ultaneous Postin)s. Accounts 2eceivab&e )F0'A2+ Accounts Payab&e )F0'AP+ Asset Accounting )F0'AA+ -/. +a#e Three 8istin*t !hara*teristi*s of 92=E;. .u&ti'currency ca(abi&ity F&e<ib&e rea&'time re(orting 2ea&'time transaction entries

Elobal an3 &nter%rise Settin)s 3efore getting into t#e $uestions, (&ease &ook into t#e F0 organi6ation structure de(icted be&ow* %#en moving t#roug# t#e $uestions, at any (oint in time if you need c&arification on t#e arrangement of t#e various organi6ationa& e&ements, do visit t#is (age again* /o be successfu& as an F05?1 consu&tant you need to #ave a t#oroug# gras( of t#is basic fundamenta& b&ock in SAP F05?1*

Figure 1 : F! Organi.ation Structure -1. What 3o Bou #ean by :r)aniCational Dnits in SAP? /#e +rganiCational 5nits in SAP are t#e e&ements or structures re(resenting business functions, and are used in re(orting* For e<am(&e, ?&ient )across t#e various modu&es+ ?om(any ?ode )F0+, ?ontro&&ing Area )?1+, P&ant )&ogistics+, Sa&es 1rgani6ation )SD+, Purc#asing 1rgani6ation )..+, =m(&oyee Grou( )42+, etc* /4. What are the 2#%ortant :r)aniCational Dnits in 92? 1* ?om(any !* ?om(any ?ode :* 3usiness area

/1. What is a !o#%any ? A )ompany in SAP is re(resented by a C'c#aracter a&(#anumeric code and usua&&y re(resents t#e enter(rise or t#e grou( com(any* A ?om(any can inc&ude one or more ?om(any ?odes* /#e creation of a ?om(any, in SAP, is o(tiona&*

Figure 1%: 8om$any an( 8om$any 8o(e

Figure 1*: &e1ine a 8om$any /2. What is a !o#%any !o3eF fro# a !o#%any ? A )ompany )ode in SAP is t#e sma&&est organi6ationa& unit for w#ic# you can draw individua& Financia& Statements )3a&ance S#eet and Profit M 8oss Account+ for your e<terna& statutory re(orting* 0t is denoted by a ,'c#aracter a&(#anumeric code* /#e creation of a ?om(any ?ode is mandatoryH you need to #ave at &east one ?om(any ?ode defined in t#e system, for im(&ementing F0* an3 ho7 is this 3ifferent

Figure 1+: &e1ine a 8om$any 8o(e Gou may define a ?om(any ?ode by co(ying from an e<isting one )?o(y, De&ete, ?#eck ?om(any ?ode 1(tion+*

Gou may a&so define t#e ?om(any ?ode anew )t#e second o(tion in t#e fo&&owing figure+, from scratc#*

Figure 1,: O$tions to (e1ine a 8om$any 8o(e /3. What are the 2#%ortant Elobal Settin)s for a !o#%any !o3e? Genera& data@ ?om(any ?ode ?om(any >ame ?ity Address

?urrency ?ountry 8anguage G&oba& data@ ?#art of Accounts ?redit ?ontro& Area Fisca& Gear Iariant Fie&d Status Iariant Posting Period Iariant /$. !an Bou Assi)n #ore than :ne !o#%any !o3e !o#%any ? A&& t#e ?om(any ?odes wit#in a ?om(any s#ou&d use t#e same ?#art of Accounts and t#e same Financia& Gear, t#oug# t#ey a&& can #ave different 8oca& ?urrencies* /(. What is a .usiness Area ? Business Areas corres(ond to s(ecific business segments of a com(any, and may cut across different ?om(any ?odes )for e<am(&e, (roduct &ines+* /#ey can a&so re(resent different res(onsibi&ity areas )for e<am(&e, branc# units+* /#e Business Areas are o(tiona& in SAP* to a

Figure 1/: Business Area

/#e financia& statements drawn (er business area are for interna& re(orting (ur(oses* Gou need to (ut a c#eck in t#e c#eck bo< in t#e configuration for t#e com(any for w#ic# you want to enab&e business area financia& statements*

Figure 20: "nable Business Area Financial Statements

%#en transactions are (osted in F0, you #ave t#e o(tion of assigning t#e same to a 3usiness Area so t#at t#e va&ues are (ro(er&y ca(tured for interna& financia& statements* /,. !an Bou Atta*h a .usiness Area to a Transa*tion? Ges* /#e 3usiness Area can a&so be derived from ot#er account assignmentsH for e<am(&e, cost center* 3ut to do t#is, you need to define t#e 3usiness Area in t#e master record of t#at (articu&ar cost center* /-. Ho7 3o Bou Post !ross=*o#%any !o3e .usiness Area %ostin)s? 3y using a cross'?om(any ?ode transaction, you s#ou&d be ab&e to (ost to different 3usiness Areas and cut across various ?om(any ?odes* Any number of 3usiness Area'?om(any ?ode combinations is (ossib&e* //. What is the !re3it !ontrol Area in SAP? (-e )redit )ontrol Area in SAP #e&(s administer credit management functions re&ating to customers* /#is organi6ationa& unit is used bot# in SD and F0'A2 modu&es* 3y definition, you can #ave more t#an one credit contro& area in a ?&ient,

but eac# ?om(any ?ode is assigned to one credit contro& area* 4owever, it is true t#at you can attac# many ?om(any ?odes to t#e same credit contro& area*

Figure 21: 8re(it 8ontrol Area /1. What is a !hart of A**ounts ? A )-art o* Accounts is t#e &ist of G8 accounts used in one or more ?om(any ?odes* A&& t#e G8 accounts in a c#art of accounts wi&& #ave an account number, account name, and some contro& information* /#e contro& information decides #ow t#e G8 account can be created* 14. What are all the Ma<or !o#%onents of a !hart of A**ounts ? A )-art o* Accounts inc&udes t#e fo&&owing com(onents@ ?#art of account key >ame .aintenance &anguage /#e G8 Account >umber

?ontro&&ing integration Grou( c#art of accounts )conso&idation+ 3&ock indicator 11. What is an :%eratin) !hart of A**ounts ? /#is c#art is used for day'to'day (ostings and is a&so known as an +perati'e or Standard c#art of accounts* 3ot# F0 and ?1 use a c#art of accounts* 0t is mandatory t#at t#e c#art of accounts be assigned to a ?om(any ?ode* 12. Ho7 3oes Erou% !hart of A**ounts 8iffer fro#

:%eratin) !hart of A**ounts ? /#e "roup )-art o* Accounts, a&so known as t#e )orporate )-art o* Accounts, is used for conso&idating a&& ?om(any ?odes )wit# a dissimi&ar 1(erative ?#art of Accounts+ fa&&ing under a ?om(any* /#is is t#e universe of a&&'inc&usive G8 accounts from w#ere t#e 1(erative ?#art of Accounts is derived* A ?om(any ?ode is not mandatory* 13. What is a !ountry !hart of A**ounts ? Why 3o Bou nee3 This? /#is c#art of accounts, a&so known as an Alternate )-art o* Accounts, contains t#e G8 accounts necessary to meet t#e s(ecific statutory5&ega& re$uirements of a com(any from w#ic# a ?om(any ?ode o(erates* /#e assignment of t#is c#art of accounts to a ?om(any ?ode is a&so o(tiona&* 0t is (ossib&e t#at bot# t#e o(erative and t#e country c#art of accounts are one and t#e same* 0n t#is case, you wi&& not need two different c#arts of accounts* 0n cases w#ere t#e o(erative and country c#art of accounts are different, a &ink needs to be estab&is#ed by entering t#e G8 account number from t#e ?ountry ?#art of Accounts in t#e G8 master record )under t#e ?om(any ?ode section+ of t#e 1(erative ?#art of Accounts in t#e fie&d A&ternate Account >umber*

1$. !an one !hart of A**ounts !o#%any !o3es?

be Assi)ne3 to Se"eral

Ges* 1ne c#art of accounts can be assigned to severa& ?om(any ?odes* 4owever, t#e reverse is not (ossib&eH i*e*, you wi&& not be ab&e assign more t#an one c#art of accounts to a sing&e ?om(any ?ode* 1(. What is a 9is*al Bear an3 9is*al Bear ?ariant ? A fisca& year is t#e accounting (eriod, w#ic# norma&&y s(reads over 1! mont#s* Financia& statements are drawn for a fisca& year* /#e fisca& year, in SAP, is defined as a 7iscal Hear @ariant. A&& )alendar Hear 7iscal Hear @ariants, in standard SAP, are denoted usua&&y as D1, D!, etc*

Figure 22: Fiscal 9ear :ariant /#e fisca& year may or may not corres(ond to t#e ca&endar year* 0n t#e standard SAP system, t#e >on'?a&endar Fisca& Gear Iariants are denoted I1, I!, etc*

Figure 23: Fiscal 9ear :ariant 5non'calen(ar year7 0t is a&so (ossib&e t#at t#e fisca& year may be s#orter t#an 1! mont#s, and t#is is ca&&ed a S-ortened 7iscal Hear )21, in Figure'1+*

1,. Ho7 3o Bou Assi)n a 9is*al Bear ?ariant to a !o#%any !o3e? 1ne 7iscal Hear @ariant can be assigned to one or more ?om(any ?odes*

Figure 2 : Assign Fiscal 9ear :ariant to a 8om$any 8o(e

1-. What is a Postin) Perio3 ? A fisca& year, in SAP, is divided into various Posting Periods, wit# a start and end date defined for eac# of t#ese (eriods* Any document (osting is (ossib&e on&y w#en t#e (osting (eriods are in (&ace in t#e system* >orma&&y t#ere wi&& be 1! (osting (eriods* A (osting (eriod consists of a mont# and year* 1/. Ho7 3oes the Syste# 23entify a Postin) Perio3 ? 3ased on t#e (osting date entered into t#e system w#i&e (osting a document, t#e system automatica&&y determines t#e (eriod by &ooking at t#e document date and t#e year* 4owever, for t#is to occur you s#ou&d #ave (ro(er&y defined t#e fisca& year variant*

11. What Ha%%ens 7hen you Post to Bear 244, 7hen you are in 244-? First of a&&, to (ost a document re&ating to a (revious year, say !--A w#en you are in !-- , t#e re&evant (osting (eriod s#ou&d be o(en in t#e system* %#en suc# a (osting is done, t#e system makes some adBustments in t#e background@ 1ne@ t#e carry'forward ba&ances of t#e current year, a&ready done, are u(dated in case t#e (osting affects ba&ance s#eet items* /wo@ if t#e (osting is going to affect t#e Profit M 8oss accounts, t#en t#e system adBusts t#e carried forward (rofit or &oss ba&ances to t#e 2etained =arnings account)s+* 144. What 3o you Mean by :%enin)0!losin) Perio3s? Postings in SAP are contro&&ed by t#e opening or closing of (osting (eriods* >orma&&y, t#e current (osting (eriod is o(en for document (osting and a&& ot#er (eriods are c&osed* At t#e end of t#e (eriod )mont#+, t#is (osting (eriod is c&osed and t#e new one is o(ened for (ostings* /#is way it (rovides better contro&* 0t is, #owever, (ossib&e to kee( a&& t#e (eriods or se&ect (eriods o(en* Postin)

141. What is a Postin) Perio3 ?ariant ? A Posting Period @ariant is usefu& in o(ening5c&osing (osting (eriods across many ?om(any ?odes at one time* Gou define a (osting (eriod variant and assign it to various ?om(any ?odes* Since t#e (osting (eriod variant is cross'?om(any ?ode, t#e o(ening and c&osing of t#e (osting (eriod is made sim(&e* 0nstead of o(ening and

c&osing individua&&y for different ?om(any ?odes, you Bust need to o(en or c&ose t#e (osting (eriod variant* 142. !an Bou Sele*ti"ely :%en an3 !lose a**ounts? Ges* 0t is (ossib&e to se&ective&y contro& t#e o(ening and c&osing for various ty(es of accounts* 9sua&&y, a N is mentioned in t#e to('most entry indicating t#at a&& t#e account ty(es are a&&owed for (osting* >ow, for t#e G8)S+ accounts, you wi&& need to s(ecify t#e (eriod w#ic# needs to be o(ened* /#is ensures t#at a&& t#e account ty(es are o(en for t#e current (eriod, indicated by N, and on&y t#e G8 accounts are o(en for t#e (revious (eriod* Se&ect account ty(es can a&so be o(ened or c&osed for a s(ecific (eriodH se&ect accounts wit#in an account ty(e can a&so be o(ened or c&osed* 143. Why is it not Possible to Post to a !usto#er A0! in a Pre"iously !lose3 Perio3 ? %#en you want to se&ective&y c&ose or o(en t#e (osting (eriod of some accounts )account range+, t#ere wi&& be no (rob&em wit# t#at if you are doing it for G8 accounts* 3ut, if it is a sub &edger account )suc# as t#e customer+, it #as to be ac#ieved via o(ening or c&osing t#e account interva& of t#e reconciliation account of t#at account ty(e* 14$. !an Bou :%en a Postin) Perio3 only for a Parti*ular Dser? Ges* SAP a&&ows you to o(en or c&ose t#e (osting (eriod on&y for s(ecific users* /#is can be ac#ieved by maintaining an aut-oriCation group at t#e document #eader &eve&* 14(. What is a S%e*ial Perio3 ? When 3o Bou Dse it? 3esides t#e norma& (osting (eriods, SAP a&&ows for defining a ma<imum four more (osting (eriods, w#ic# are known as Special Periods as t#ese are used for year'end

c&osing activities* /#is is ac#ieved by dividing t#e &ast (osting (eriod into more t#an one )ma<imum four+ (eriod* 4owever, a&& t#e (ostings in t#ese s(ecia& (eriods s#ou&d fa&& wit#in t#e &ast (osting (eriod* /#e s(ecia& (eriods cannot be determined automatica&&y by t#e system based on t#e (osting date of t#e document* /#e s(ecia& (eriod needs to be manua&&y entered into t#e (osting (eriod fie&d in t#e document #eader* 14,. What is the Ma5i#u# +u#ber of Postin) Perio3s in SAP? 9nder G8 accounting, you can #ave a ma<imum of 1A (osting (eriods )1! regu&ar (&us , S(ecia& Periods+* 4owever, you can #ave u( to a ma<imum of :AA (osting (eriods as is t#e case in special purpose ledgers. 14-. What is a S%e*ial Pur%ose ;e3)er ? Special Purpose 1edgers )F0'S8+ are used in re(orting* /#ese are basica&&y user' defined &edgers, w#ic# can be maintained eit#er as G8 or subsidiary ones wit# various account assignment obBects )wit# SAP'dimensions suc# as cost center, business area, (rofit center, etc*, or customer'defined dimensions suc# as region, area, etc*+* 1nce defined, t#is functiona&ity #e&(s you to re(ort at various &eve&s* 0dea&&y you co&&ect t#e information, combine it, and create t#e tota&s* /#is is somet#ing suc# as an additiona& re(orting feature, and use of t#is feature wi&& #ave no effect on t#e regu&ar functiona&ities of SAP* 14/. What ?ariations are Possible 7hen 3efinin) a 9is*al Bear ?

(-e 7iscal Hear is t-e same as a )alendar Hear

/#e fisca& year starts on Eanuary 1 and t#ere are 1! (osting (eriodsH t#e (osting (eriods corres(ond to t#e ca&endar mont#sH t#ere is no need to define eac# of t#e (osting (eriods* O$en table as s$rea(sheet Posting Period Start Date $nd Date 1 ! : , C A 1OEan 1OFeb 1O.ar 1OA(r 1O.ay 1OEun 1OEu& 7 9 111 1! 1OAug 1OSe( 1O1ct 1O>ov 1ODec :1OEan !75!9 Feb :1O.ar :-OA(r :1O.ay :-OEun :1OEu& :1OAug :-OSe( :1O1ct :-O>ov :1ODec

(-e 7iscal Hear is %+( t-e same as a )alendar Hear 0n t#is case, you need to s(ecify #ow many (osting (eriods you want and #ow t#e system s#ou&d derive t#e (osting (eriod* Since t#e (osting (eriod does not corres(ond to t#e ca&endar mont#, t#e start and end date of eac# of t#e (osting (eriods need to be maintained*

141. What is 6no7n as Bear Shift08is%la*e#ent in a 9is*al Bear? %#en t#e fisca& year is not t#e same as t#e ca&endar year, we need to define a displacement *actor for eac# of t#e (osting (eriods to correct&y identify t#e number of (osting (eriods* For e<am(&e, consider t#e fisca& year variant I: )Figure !C+* /#e fisca& year starts on A(ri& 1st and ends on .arc# :1st of t#e ne<t ca&endar year so t#e dis(&acement factor or year s#ift from A(ri& to December is -, and for Eanuary to .arc#, it wi&& be P1. 3y defining it t#is way, t#e system is ab&e to recogni6e t#e correct (osting (eriod* A (osting made on Eanuary !Ct#, !--A wi&& t#en be inter(reted as t#e 1-t# (osting (eriod in fisca& year !--C*

Figure 2%: 9ear shi1t/(is$lacement in Fiscal 9ear :ariant 114. !an you ha"e non=!alen3ar Months as Perio3s in a non=!alen3ar 9is*al Bear? Ges* /#e non8calendar *iscal year can eit#er corres(ond to ca&endar mont#s or to non'ca&endar mont#s* 0n t#e case of non'ca&endar mont#s as t#e (osting (eriods, you need to s(ecify t#e start and end date of t#ese (osting (eriods* ?onsider a fisca& year starting on A(ri& 1At#, !--C and ending on A(ri& 1Ct#, !--A* 4ere, t#e (osting (eriod'1 starts on A(ri&

1At# and ends on .ay 1Ct# and so on* >ote t#at t#e (osting (eriod'9 wi&& #ave ! dis(&acements )- and P1+ as indicated be&ow in t#e /ab&e@ O$en table as s$rea(sheet Posting Period Start Date $nd Date Hear Hear Displacement 1 ! : , C A 1AOA(r 1AO.ay 1AOEun 1AOEu& 1AOAug 1AOSe( 1AO1ct 7 9 9 111 1! 1AO>ov 1AODec 1OEan 1AOEan 1AOFeb 1AO.ar 1CO.ay 1COEun 1COEu& 1COAug 1COSe( 1CO1ct 1CO>ov 1CODec :1ODec 1COEan 1COFeb 1CO.ar 1COA(r !--C !--C !--C !--C !--C !--C !--C !--C !--C !--A P1 !--A P1 !--A P1 !--A P1

As a resu&t, a (osting made on December ! t#, !--C, as we&& as t#e (osting made on Eanuary 1,t#, !--A are correct&y identified as (ostings corres(onding to (eriod'9* 111. What is a Bear=3e%en3ent 9is*al Bear? A ca&endar year fisca& variant, w#en defined as year8dependent, is re&evant and va&id on&y for t#at year*

112. What Pre*autions shoul3 you ta6e 7hile 3efinin) a Shortene3 9is*al Bear ? >ote t#at t#e S-ortened 7iscal Hear is a&ways year'de(endent* /#is #as to be fo&&owed or (receded by a fu&& fisca& year )1! mont#s+* 3ot# t#e s#ortened and t#e fu&& fisca& year, in t#is case, #ave to be defined using a sing&e fisca& year variant* 113. Tell #e #ore about a Shortene3 9is*al Bear. As mentioned a&ready, a S-ortened 7iscal Hear is one containing &ess t#an 1! mont#s* /#is kind of fisca& year is re$uired w#en you are in t#e (rocess of setting u( a com(any, or w#en you switc# over one fisca& year )e*g*, ca&endar year+ to anot#er ty(e of fisca& year )non'ca&endar+* 11$. Ho7 3o you :%en a ne7 9is*al Bear in the Syste#? Gou do not need to o(en t#e new fisca& year as a se(arate activity* 1nce you make a (osting into t#e new fisca& year, t#e new fisca& year is automatica&&y o(ened* 1r, t#e new fisca& year is automatica&&y o(ened w#en you run t#e :alance carry8*or,ard (rogram* 4owever, you need to #ave )1+ t#e re&evant (osting (eriod a&ready o(en in t#e new fisca& year, )!+ com(&eted t#e document number range assignment if you are fo&&owing a year'de(endent number range assignment, and ):+ defined a new fisca& year variant if you fo&&ow t#e year'de(endent fisca& year variant* 11(. Ho7 3o you !arry=9or7ar3 A**ount .alan*es? 0f you #ave a&ready (osted into t#e new fisca& year, you do not need to carry8 *or,ard t#e ba&ances manua&&y* 3ut you can use t#e various carry'forward (rograms su((&ied by SAP for t#is task*

11,. !an Bou &5%lain ho7 !arry=9or7ar3 Ha%%ens in SAP? Sure* For a&& t#e 3a&ance S#eet items, t#e ba&ances of t#ese accounts are Bust carried forward to t#e new fisca& year, a&ong wit# account assignments if any* /#is a&so true for customer and vendor accounts* 0n t#e case of Profit M 8oss accounts, t#e system carries forward t#e (rofit or &oss )in t#e &oca& currency+ to t#e 2etained =arnings account, and t#e ba&ances of t#ese accounts are set to -* >o additiona& account assignments are transferred* 11-. 2s there a PrereAuisite for !arry=9or7ar3 A*ti"ity? Ges, for Profit M 8oss accounts, you s#ou&d #ave defined t#e 2etained =arnings account in t#e system* Additiona&&y, you s#ou&d #ave a&so s(ecified t#e Pro*it K 1oss Account (ype in t#e master record of eac# of t#ese for Profit M 8oss accounts* /#ere are no suc# re$uirements for G8 accounts, customer and vendor accounts* 11/. Ho7 #any 'etaine3 &arnin)s A0! *an be 8efine3? Gou can define as many etained $arnings Accounts as you need* 3ut norma&&y, com(anies use on&y one retained earnings account* 2emember, to define more t#an one, you s#ou&d use t#e (rofit M &oss account ty(e* 111. !an you ha"e Multi%le 'etaine3 &arnin)s A0!? >orma&&y it is sufficient if you use one retained earnings account* 4owever, if you are configuring for a mu&tinationa& com(any w#ere t#e &ega& re$uirements re$uire treating some of t#e ta< (rovisions different&y from ot#er countries, t#en you wi&& need more t#an one retained earnings account* 124. Ho7 3o Bou Maintain !urren*y in SAP? )urrency )t#e &ega& means of (ayment in a country+ in SAP is denoted by a :' c#aracter )urrency )ode, maintained (er 0S1 standards* =<am(&e@ 9SD )9*S*

Do&&ars+, 0>2 )0ndian 2u(ee+, G3P )Great 3ritain Pound+, etc* =ac# currency code in t#e system wi&& #ave a va&idity defined* A currency is defined in SAP using t#e 0.G (at#@ Genera& settings;?urrencies ;?#eck e<c#ange rate ty(es* 121. What is a ;o*al !urren*y ? %#en you define a ?om(any ?ode, you a&so need to mention in w#ic# currency you wi&& be maintaining t#e accounts5&edgers in financia& accounting* /#is currency is ca&&ed t#e 1ocal )urrency. /#is is a&so known as )ompany )ode )urrency. 122. What is a Parallel !urren*y ? %#en defining t#e currencies for a ?om(any ?ode, it is (ossib&e to maintain, for eac# of t#ese com(any ?odes, two more currencies in addition to t#e 8oca& ?urrency* /#ese two currencies are ca&&ed t#e Parallel )urrencies, w#ic# can be t#e@ Grou( ?urrency 4ard ?urrency G&oba& ?om(any ?urrency 0nde<'based ?urrency /o trans&ate t#e va&ues from one currency to t#e ot#er, you wi&& need to maintain an e3c-ange rate for eac# (air of t#e defined currencies in t#e system* %#en (ara&&e& currencies are defined, t#e system maintains t#e accounting &edgers in t#ese currencies as we&&, in addition to t#e &oca& currency* 123. What is a Erou% !urren*y ? /#is is t#e currency defined at t#e ?&ient &eve&*

12$. What is the Elobal !o#%any !o3e !urren*y ? /#e currency defined for t#e ?om(any )or t#e ?onso&idated ?om(any+ is ca&&ed t#e "lo:al )ompany )ode )urrency. 12(. What is an A**ount !urren*y ? %#en defining t#e G8 accounts in t#e system, you are re$uired to define a currency in w#ic# an account wi&& be maintained, and t#is is ca&&ed t#e Account )urrency. /#is is defined in t#e ?om(any ?ode area of t#e G8 master record, and is used for (ostings and account ba&ance dis(&ay* 12,. What are all the PrereAuisites for Postin) in a 9orei)n !urren*y ? /#e fo&&owing are t#e (rere$uisites you need to consider before (osting in a foreign currency@ 8oca& currency a&ready defined for t#e ?om(any ?ode )in t#e g&oba& (arameters+ Foreign currency defined in t#e currency code /ab&e =<c#ange rate defined for t#e foreign currency and t#e &oca& currency /rans&ation 2atio maintained for t#e &oca& and foreign currency 12-. Ho7 are &5*han)e 'ates Maintaine3 in SAP? An $3c-ange &eve&* 12/. What is an &5*han)e 'ate Ty%e ? ;ist so#e of the#. /#e $3c-ange ty(es inc&ude@ ate (ype is defined according to various (ur(oses suc# as ate is defined for eac# (air of currencies, and for eac# e<c#ange

rate ty(e defined in t#e system* /#e e<c#ange rate is defined at t#e document #eader

va&uation, trans&ation, (&anning, conversion, etc* /#e common&y used e<c#ange rate

Figure 2*: "#change Rate -y$es 121. What is 6no7n as the Translation 9a*tor ? /#e re&ation between a (air of currencies (er e<c#ange rate ty(e is known as t#e (ranslation 7actor. For e<am(&e, t#e trans&ation factor is 1 w#en you define t#e e<c#ange rate for t#e currencies 9SD and 0>2@

134. 2s there an &asy Way to Maintain &5*han)e 'ates in SAP? SAP offers a variety of too&s to maintain e<c#ange rates on an on'going basis* /#e too&s inc&ude@ =<c#ange 2ate S(reads 3ase ?urrency 0nversion 9se t#e SAP su((&ied (rogram, in(ut fi&e* 131. What is 6no7n as an &5*han)e 'ate S%rea3 ? /#e difference between t#e bank'buying rate and t#e bank se&&ing rate is known as t#e $3c-ange ate Spread, w#ic# remains a&most constant* %#en you maintain 7(B77GG, for (o(u&ating t#e e<c#ange rate tab&e automatica&&y from an in(ut fi&e in a mu&ti'cas# format from a commercia&&y avai&ab&e

t#e e<c#ange rate s(read, it is sufficient if you maintain t#e a'erage rate for t#at currency in $uestion in t#e system as you wi&& be ab&e to deduce t#e buying5se&&ing rate by adding5subtracting t#e s(read to5from t#e average rate* 132. &5%lain the use of 8ire*t or 2n3ire*t @uotations. 0t is (ossib&e to maintain t#e e<c#ange rates, in SAP, by eit#er of t#ese two met#ods* %#at determines t#e use of a (articu&ar ty(e of $uotation is t#e business transaction or t#e market standard )of t#at country+* SAP ado(ts two (refi<es to differentiate direct and indirect $uotes during entering5dis(&aying a transaction@ "3&ank, no (refi<* 9sed in Direct Fuotation 5"9sed in 0ndirect Fuotation %#en t#ere is no (refi< entered, )b&ank+, t#e $uotation is construed as t#e direct $uote by t#e system* Possib&e scenarios inc&ude@

/#e com(any in $uestion is main&y using t#e 0ndirect Auotation. 9se )b&ank+ as t#e (refi< for defau&t notation for indirect $uotation* 9se L as t#e (refi< for t#e rare&y used direct $uotation* 0f someone tries entering a transaction using direct $uotation, but wit#out t#e L in t#e e<c#ange rate in(ut fie&d, t#e system wi&& issue a warning*

/#e com(any in $uestion is main&y using t#e Direct Auotation. Gou do not need any s(ecific settings as t#e defau&t is t#e )b&ank+ (refi< for t#e direct $uotation, and 5 for t#e indirect $uotation* So, un&ess you make a transaction entry wit# 5 (refi<, t#e system takes a&& t#e entries as t#at of direct $uotation*

/#ere cou&d be instances w#ere you are re$uired to configure in suc# a way t#at a (refi< is mandatory irres(ective of t#e ty(e of $uotation* 0n t#is case, define t#e direct $uotation (refi< as L, and t#e indirect one as t#e system

defau&t 5 (refi<* /#is necessitates a (refi< eac# of t#e entries eit#er by L or 5* 1t#erwise, t#e user wi&& get a warning to correct t#e entry* 133. &5%lain ho7 Ta5es are Han3le3 in SAP. SAP takes care of ta< ca&cu&ation, ta< (ostings, ta< adBustments, and ta< re(orting t#roug# t#e t#ree F0 com(onentsH name&y G8, AP, and A2* /#e (rocessing of t#e fo&&owing kinds of ta<es is (ossib&e@ 1* /a< on Sa&es and Purc#ases a* 0n(ut /a<es )Purc#ase /a<+ b* 1ut(ut /a<es )Sa&es /a<+ !* Additiona& /a<es )t#ese are country s(ecific and in addition to t#e ta< on sa&es and (urc#ases+ :* Sa&es /a< ,* %it##o&ding /a< a* ?&assic %it##o&ding /a< b* =<tended %it##o&ding /a< SAP a&&ows ta<ation at t#ree &eve&s@ 1* >ationa& &eve& or federa& &eve& )=uro(e, Sout# Africa, Austra&ia, etc*+ !* 2egiona& or Burisdiction &eve& )9SA+ :* >ationa& and 2egiona& &eve& )0ndia, ?anada, 3ra6i& etc*+ 13$. Ho7 is Ta5 !al*ulate3 in SAP? SAP uses a tec#ni$ue ca&&ed )ondition 2et-od to ca&cu&ate ta<es )e<ce(t %it##o&ding /a<+ in t#e system* /#e system makes use of (a3 .)alculation/ Procedures defined in t#e system toget#er wit# t#e (a3 )odes for ca&cu&ating t#e $uantity of ta<*

1* /#e (a3 )ode is t#e starting (oint in t#e ta< ca&cu&ation* /#e ta< code is

country s(ecific, wit# every country #aving a country s(ecific /a< Procedure defined in t#e standard system, w#ic# is used as t#e tem(&ate for defining various ta< codes* /#e system uses t#e ta< code to verify t#e fo&&owing@

Figure ! @ ?ondition /y(e )/a< Processing+ a* /a< ty(e b* Amount of ta< ca&cu&ated5entered c* G8 account for ta< (osting d* ?a&cu&ation of additiona& ta< (ortion, if any
!* (a3

ates are defined for eac# of t#e ta< codes* /#e ta< rates are t#en

associated wit# (a3 (ypes, w#ic# are inc&uded in t#e ta< (rocedures* )3ecause of t#is re&ations#i(, it is tec#nica&&y (ossib&e t#at a sing&e ta< code can #ave mu&ti(&e ta< rates for various ta< ty(es*+
:* /#e ta< code is assigned to a (a3 Procedure, w#ic# is tagged to a G8 master

record* A (articu&ar ta< (rocedure is accessed w#enever t#at G8 account is used in document (rocessing*

Figure 2,: Ste$s in -a# $rocessing A /a< Procedure contains t#e fo&&owing@

StepsL /o determine t#e se$uence of &ines wit#in t#e (rocedure* )ondition (ypesL 0ndicates #ow t#e ta< ca&cu&ation mode& wi&& work )w#et#er t#e records are for fi<ed amount or (ercentages and w#et#er t#e records can be (rocessed automatica&&y, etc*+

e*erence StepsL %#ere t#e system obtains t#e amount5va&ue it uses in its ca&cu&ation )for e<am(&e, t#e base amount+

Account!Process 9eysL Provide t#e &ink between t#e ta< (rocedure and t#e G8 accounts to w#ic# ta< data is (osted* /#is #e&(s in automatic ta< account assignments* /o enab&e t#at t#ese keys #ave t#e necessary information for automatic assignment, you need to define t#e fo&&owing@
Posting 6eys )un&ess you #ave a s(ecific re$uirement, it wi&& be

sufficient to use t#e G8 (osting keys@ Debit@ ,-, ?redit@ C-+

ules to determine on w#ic# fie&ds t#e account determination is to be based )suc# as t#e ta< code or country key+

(a3 accounts to w#ic# t#e (ostings need to be made

SAP comes wit# a number of (redefined account5(rocess keys, and it is recommended t#at t#e standard keys be used*

,* /#e Access SeBuence #e&(s in identifying t#e se$uence of ?ondition /ab&es to

be used and identifying w#ic# fie&d contents are t#e criteria for reading t#e )ondition (a:les )a grou( of ?ondition /y(es+*
C* /#e ta< amount so ca&cu&ated is norma&&y (osted to t#e same side as t#e G8

(osting t#at contains t#e ta< code* %#en e<c#ange rate differences occur )due to ta< adBustments in foreign currencies+ t#ese differences are genera&&y (osted to t#e s(ecific account)s+ for e<c#ange rate differences* 4owever, it is (ossib&e to s(ecify )(er ?om(any ?ode+ t#at t#e e<c#ange rates for ta< items can a&so be entered manua&&y or determined by t#e (osting or t#e document date, and t#e resu&ting differences (osted to a s(ecia& account*

Figure !9@ Account5Process Dey for ta< (rocessing A* 25: #as a number of (redefined account keys, and it is recommended t#at t#e standard keys be used* 13(. &5%lain the !onfi)urations 'eAuire3 for Ta5es in SAP. Gou need to define t#e fo&&owing to customi6e SAP for t#is (ur(ose@
1* Base Amount *or (a3 )alculation

For eac# ?om(any ?ode you need to define w#et#er t#e Base Amount inc&udes t#e cas# discount as we&&* 0f t#e base amount inc&udes t#e discount, t#en t#e ta< base is ca&&ed "ross, ot#erwise, it is %et* Gou may a&so define a simi&ar base amount for ca&cu&ating t#e )as- Discount. /#is a&so #as to be maintained for eac# of t#e ?om(any ?odes*
!* (a3 )odes

/#e (a3 )ode is a !'digit code s(ecifying t#e (ercentage of ta< to be ca&cu&ated on t#e base amount* %#i&e defining t#e ta< code, you wi&& a&so s(ecify t#e (a3 (ype to c&assify a ta< code re&ating to eit#er 0nput (a3 or +utput (a3. /#e ta< ty(es are country s(ecific and determine #ow a ta< is ca&cu&ated and (osted*
:* (a3

ate ate is t#e (ercentage of ta< to be ca&cu&ated on a base amount* Gou

/#e (a3

wi&& be ab&e to define ta< rates for one or more ta< ty(es w#en you define a sing&e ta< code*
,* )-ec6 0ndicators

3y using t#e c#eck indicators, you configure t#e system to issue $rror!&arning 2essages w#en t#e ta< amount entered manua&&y is incorrect* 13,. What is a (Ta5) Guris3i*tion !o3e ? A <urisdiction )ode, used in countries suc# as t#e 9nited States, is a combination of t#e codes defined by ta< aut#orities* 0t is (ossib&e to define u( to four ta< &eve&s be&ow t#e federa& &eve&* /#e four &eve&s can be t#e@ Sub'city &eve& ?ity &eve& ?ountry &eve& State &eve&

3efore you can use t#e Burisdiction codes for ta< ca&cu&ation, you need to define t#e fo&&owing@ 1* Access Se$uence )to inc&ude t#e country5ta< code5Burisdiction fie&ds+ !* ?ondition /y(es )w#ic# references t#e access se$uence as defined above+ :* Eurisdiction ?odes /#e ta< rates are defined in t#e ta< code by Burisdiction* %#en (osting ta<es wit# a Burisdiction code, note t#at t#e ta<es may be entered (er Burisdiction code or (er ta< &eve&* 13-. Tell #e about the Ta5 'e%orts in SAP. SAP comes de&ivered wit# country's(ecific defau&t (a3 eports to meet your ta<'

re(orting re$uirements* 4owever, it is not uncommon to use t#ird'(arty software for t#e same (ur(ose* As a (rocess, it is recommended t#at t#e c&osing o(erations are com(&eted before running t#e ta< re(orts* /#is wi&& ensure t#at t#e system makes re&evant adBustment entries )between (ayab&es and receivab&es, e<c#ange rate differences, etc*+ so t#at t#e correct ta< amounts are re(orted* 13/. Ho7 is Master 8ata 3ifferent fro# Transa*tion 8ata ? /#ere are t#ree kinds of data residing in any SAP system@ 1* /ab&e Data !* /ransaction Data :* .aster Data (a:le Data refers to t#e customi6ed information for a (articu&ar ?&ient* /#is inc&udes data suc# as (ayment terms, discounts, (ricing, to&erance &imits, etc*, w#ic# you do not norma&&y c#ange on a day'to'day basis* (ransaction Data is t#e day'to'day recording of business information suc# as (urc#ase orders, sa&es returns, invoices, (ayments, co&&ections, etc* /#is inc&udes bot#

system'generated data )ta<, discount, etc*, automatica&&y ca&cu&ated by t#e system during document (osting+ as we&& as user'generated data* 2aster Data is t#e contro& information re$uired to decide #ow transaction data gets (osted into various accounts )suc# as customers, vendors, G8, etc*+* /#e master data is usua&&y s#ared across modu&es )for e<am(&e, customer master records are common bot# to F0 and SD in SAP+ obviating t#e need for defining it in various a((&ication areas* /#e master data remains in t#e system for fair&y a &ong (eriod* 0n t#e case of G8 .aster 2ecords, t#e data is created in two areas@
1* )-art o* Accounts Area )common to a&& ?om(any ?odes@ ?#art of accounts,

G8 account number, account name )s#ort and &ong te<t+, 35S or PM8 indicator, account grou(, etc*+*
!* )ompany )ode Area )s(ecific to t#at (articu&ar ?om(any ?ode@ ?om(any

?ode, ta< code, currency, o(en item management, &ine item dis(&ay, sort key, etc*+* 0n t#e case of t#e )ustomer!@endor 2aster areas@
1* )lient Speci*ic )genera& data suc# as account number, name, te&e(#one, bank

ecord, t#e data is created in two

information, etc*, w#ic# is common to a&& t#e ?om(any ?odes using t#is master+*
!* )ompany )ode Speci*ic )va&id on&y for t#e ?om(any ?ode, t#is inc&udes@

terms of (ayment, dunning (rocedure, reconci&iation account, sort key, sa&es area, (urc#asing information, etc*+*

131. !an Bou Post an A0! 8o*u#ent if the !re3it is not &Aual to the 8ebit ? 0n genera&, un&ess t#e debits e$ua& t#e credits in a document, you wi&& not be ab&e to (ost t#e document* 4owever, t#e system a&&ows you to (ost some of t#e documents, even if t#is not true, w#ic# inc&udes t#e fo&&owing@

%oted items4 t#is wi&& contain on&y a debit or credit* Since t#ere is no u(dating of accounting entries, t#e system wi&& a&&ow you to go a#ead wit# t#e (osting of t#ese items*

1$4. What is a 8o*u#ent in SAP? SAP is based on t#e document principle meaning t#at a document is created out of every business transaction in t#e system* /#e Document is t#e resu&t of a (osting in accounting in SAP, and is t#e connecting &ink between various business o(erations* /#ere are two ty(es of documents@
1* +riginal Documents4 t#ese documents re&ate to t#e origin of business

transactions suc# as invoices, recei(ts, statement of accounts from bank, etc*


!* Processing Documents4 /#ese inc&ude accounting documents generated

from (ostings in t#e system, re*erence documents, sample documents, etc* /#e (rocessing documents ot#er t#an t#e accounting ones are a&so known as special documents and t#ey aid in t#e sim(&ification of document entry in t#e system* =very document consists of@ A Document 4eader /wo or more 8ine 0tems 3efore attem(ting to enter a document, ca&& u( t#e re&evant document entry function as t#e system (rovides a variety of ready'made document entry tem(&ates suited to different transactions suc# as regu&ar G8 entry, customer invoice (osting, etc* /#e

detai&s entered in a document can be simu&ated and dis(&ayed before t#e document is actua&&y (osted in t#e system* Gou may a&so c#oose to (ark t#e document and (ost it &ater* 1$1. What is a 8o*u#ent Hea3er ? /#e Document >eader contains information t#at is va&id for t#e w#o&e document suc# as@ Document Date Document /y(e )?ontro& 0nformation+ Document >umber Posting Date Posting Period ?om(any ?ode 3esides t#e above, t#e document #eader a&so #as information )editab&e, &ater on+ suc# as (a) trading (artner, (b) document #eader te<t, (c) reference, (d) cross'?om(any ?ode number, etc* 1$2. What is a 8o*u#ent Ty%e ? SAP comes de&ivered wit# a number of Document (ypes, w#ic# are used in various (ostings* /#e document ty(e #e&(s to c&assify an accounting transaction wit#in t#e system, and is used to contro& t#e entire transaction and determine t#e account ty(es a (articu&ar document ty(e can (ost to* For e<am(&e, t#e document ty(e AB a&&ows you to (ost to a&& t#e accounts, w#ereas ty(e DQ a&&ows you to (ost on&y t#e customer (ayments* =very document ty(e is assigned a number range* /#e common document ty(es inc&ude@ O$en table as s$rea(sheet

Doc. (ype Description AA A3 AF DG D2 DQ J1 Asset (osting

Doc. (ype Description DG Iendor credit memo >et vendors Iendor invoice Iendor (ayment Iendor credit memo G8 account document Sam(&e document

Accounting document D> De(reciation (ostings D2 ?ustomer credit memo DQ ?ustomer invoice ?ustomer (ayment 2ecurring entry doc* DG SA J!

1$3. Ho7 is A**ount Ty%e !onne*te3 to 8o*u#ent Ty%e ? /#e Document (ype is c#aracteri6ed by a !'c#aracter code suc# as AA, DG, etc*, w#ereas an Account (ype is denoted by a 1'c#aracter code suc# as A, D, etc*, s(ecifying w#ic# accounts a (articu&ar document can be (osted to* /#e common account ty(es inc&ude@

A Assets D ?ustomer )Debtor+ 9 Iendor )?reditor+ 2 .ateria&s S G8

Figure 30: &ocument an( Account -y$es 1$$. What 3o Bou #ean by +et Postin)s ? 9sua&&y, w#en a transaction is (osted, for e<am(&e, a vendor invoice )document ty(e@ D2+, t#e system (osts t#e Gross amount wit# t#e ta< and discount inc&uded* 4owever, SAP (rovides you t#e o(tion of (osting t#ese items as >et* 0n t#is case, t#e (osting e<c&udes ta< or discounts* 2emember to use t#e s(ecia& document ty(e 9%* )Simi&ar&y, you wi&& use t#e document ty(e D% for customer invoice'>et com(ared to t#e norma& invoice (ostings for t#e customer using t#e document ty(e D *+ For using t#is net met#od of (osting you s#ou&d #ave activated t#e re$uired settings in t#e customi6ation* 1$(. &5%lain the ?arious 'eferen*e Metho3s. SAP recommends e*erence 2et-ods as a document entry too& to faci&itate faster and easier document entry into t#e system, w#en you are re$uired to enter t#e same data time and again* 3esides making t#e document entry (rocess &ess time' consuming, t#is a&so #e&(s in error'free document entry*

/#e various 2eference .et#ods used in SAP inc&ude@ 1* 2eference Documents !* Account Assignment .ode&s :* Sam(&e Documents 1$,. What is the 8o*u#ent !han)e 'ule ? /#e functiona&ity Document )-ange ules configured in t#e system maintains t#e information re&ating to w#at fie&ds can be c#angedR and under w#at circumstancesR* As you are a&ready aware, SAPs document principle does not a&&ow c#anging t#e re&evant fie&ds once a document is (ostedH any c#anges can on&y be ac#ieved t#roug# 2eversa& or additiona& (ostings* Fie&ds suc# as com(any code, business area, account number, (osting key, amount, currency, etc*, can never be c#anged once t#e document is (osted* 4owever, SAP a&&ows c#anging some of t#e fie&ds in t#e &ine items suc# as (ayment met#od, (ayment b&ock, #ouse bank, dunning &eve&, dunning b&ock, etc* /#ese can be c#anged document by document or by using mass c-ange for a number of documents in a sing&e ste(* /#e c#anges to master data are tracked and stored (er user for an audit trai&* 1$-. 8ifferentiate bet7een A**ount Assi)n#ent Mo3elF 'e*urrin) &ntriesF an3 Sa#%le 8o*u#entF Account Assignment 2odel is a reference met#od used in document entry w#en t#e same distribution of amounts to severa& ?om(any ?odes, cost centers, accounts, etc*, is fre$uent&y used* 0nstead of manua&&y distributing t#e amount among accounts or ?om(any ?odes, you may use eBui'alence num:ers for distributing bot# t#e credit and debit amounts* A cross'?om(any ?ode account assignment mode& can a&so be created*

/#e account assignment mode& may contain any number of G8 accounts* /#e G8 account items need not be com(&ete* /#e mode& can be used across severa& ?om(any ?odes, and can even inc&ude ?om(any ?odes from non'SAP systems*

Figure 31: Account Assignment Mo(el Gou can use t#e account assignment mode& w#i&e (arking a document )but you cannot use a reference document for (arking+* /#e use of account assignment mode&s is &imited to G8 accounts* 9n&ike a Sample Document, an account assignment mode& may be incom(&ete and can be com(&eted during document entry by adding or de&eting or c#anging t#e data a&ready saved in t#e mode&*

/#e ecurring $ntry origina& document is used by t#e system as a reference document for enab&ing (osting of (eriodica&&y recurring (ostings suc# as &oan re(ayments, insurance (remium (ayments, rent, etc* Since t#is document is not an accounting document, t#e account ba&ances are not affected* 0n a recurring entry origina& document, you wi&& not be ab&e to c#ange t#e (a) (osting key, (b) account, and (c) amount* /#e recurring entry documents are defined wit# a s(ecia& number

range .=1/* 9n&ike an account assignment mode&, t#ese documents cannot be used for cross'?om(any ?ode (ostings* /#e recurring entry document does not u(date transaction figures, (er se, but acts on&y as a reference and as t#e basis for creating accounting documents* /#e SAP (rogram SAP712G creates t#e accounting documents from t#e recurring entry origina& document* /#ere are two ways to set t#e e<act date w#en t#is document s#ou&d be (osted to@

Posting *reBuency4 enter t#e day of t#e mont# and t#e (eriod )in mont#s+ between two (ostings*

Sc-eduled run4 configure t#e run sc#edu&e s(ecifying t#e ca&endar days on w#ic# t#e (rogram s#ou&d (ost t#ese documents*

A Sample Document is &ike a tem(&ate, w#ic# is created and stored so t#at t#e information contained t#erein can be easi&y co(ied into new documents and (osted in t#e system* 3ut once a sam(&e document is created note t#at you wi&& not be ab&e to c#ange t#e &ine items a&ready contained in t#at documentH a&& you can do is c#ange t#e amounts in t#at sam(&e document* 3ut you can overcome t#is by defining a new sam(&e document t#at can contain ot#er &ine items or you may add new &ine items to t#e F0 document, w#ic# is created by co(ying from t#e origina& sam(&e document* Sam(&e documents #ave se(arate number ranges .=2/* 1$/. What is a ;ine 2te# ? /#e 1ine 0tems contain information re&ating to account number, amount, debit5 credit, ta< code, amount, etc* SAP a&&ows a ma<imum of 999 &ine items in a sing&e document* 3esides t#e one entered by you during an document entry, t#e system may a&so create its own &ine items ca&&ed system generated line items, suc# as ta< deductions, etc* 0rres(ective of t#e number of &ine items entered, ensure t#at t#e tota& of t#ese is a&ways 6ero )t#at is, tota& debits s#ou&d e$ua& tota& credits+* 1t#erwise, t#e system wi&& not a&&ow you to (ost t#e document*

1$1. What is a Postin) Hey ? A Posting 9ey in SAP is a !'digit a&(#anumeric key t#at contro&s t#e entry of &ine items* SAP comes wit# many (osting keys for meeting t#e different business transaction re$uirements@ ?G )G8 debit+, JG )G8 credit+, G1 )customer invoice+, 11 )customer credit memo+, 21 )vendor credit memo+, 31 )vendor (ayment+, etc* /#e (osting key determines@ 1* %#at account can be (osted to !* %#ic# side of t#e account )debit or credit+ to be (osted to, and :* %#at &ayout screen needs to be used for t#at (articu&ar transaction*

0t is a norma& (ractice not to c#ange any of t#e defau&t (osting keys in t#e system, as you wou&d very rare&y re$uire additiona& (osting keys* 1(4. 8ifferentiate bet7een the Par6in) an3 the Hol3in) of 8o*u#ents. /#e Par6ing o* a Document in SAP is one of t#e two preliminary postings )t#e ot#er being t#e 4o&ding of documents+ in t#e system and refers to t#e storing of incom(&ete documents in t#e system* /#ese documents can &ater be ca&&ed on for com(&etion and (osting* %#i&e (arking a document, t#e system does not carry out t#e mandatory va&idity c#ecking* /#e system does not a&so carry out any automatic (ostings )suc# as creating ta< &ine items+ or ba&ance c#ecks* As a resu&t, t#e transaction figures )account ba&ances+ are not u(dated* /#is is true in t#e case of a&& financia& transactions e<ce(t in t#e area of ( 8)2 .)as- management/ w#ere (arked documents wi&& u(date t#e transactions*

/#e (arking of documents can be used to (ark data re&ating to customers, vendors, or assets )ac$uisition on&y+* %#en a cross'?om(any ?ode document is (arked, on&y one document is created in t#e initia& ?om(any ?odeH w#en t#is (arked document is (osted a&& ot#er documents re&evant for a&& ot#er ?om(any ?odes wi&& a&so be created* 4owever, it is to be noted t#at su:stitution functiona&ity cannot be used wit# document (arking, as substitution is activated on&y on transaction (rocessing* /#e added advantage is t#at a document (arked by an accounting c&erk can be ca&&ed on for com(&etion by someone e&se* /#e (arked documents can be dis(&ayed individua&&y or as a &ist from w#ere t#e re$uired document can be se&ected for com(&etion and (osting* /#e number of t#e (arked document is transferred to t#e (osted document* /#e origina& (arked document, if necessary, can be dis(&ayed even after it #as been (osted to* During a transaction w#en you do not #ave a (iece of re$uired information, you can >old t-e Document and com(&ete it &ater* As in t#e case of (arked documents, #ere a&so t#e document does not u(date t#e transaction figures* /#e essentia& difference between t#ese two ty(es of (re&iminary (ostings can be summari6ed as fo&&ows@ O$en table as s$rea(sheet Attri:ute Par6 document >old document >o

Iiew t#e document in Ges Account Dis(&ayR ?#anges documentR to

t#e Any user can access, >o ot#er user, e<ce(t t#e creator, view, and5c#ange t#e wi&& be ab&e to access, view, and5c#ange t#e document .anua&&y entered by t#e user >ot (ossib&e document

Document numberR

System assigned

9se of data in t#e Possib&e

Attri:ute document for eva&uation (ur(osesR

Par6 document

>old document

1(1. What is an Auto#ati* Postin) ? %#en you (ost documents in SAP, t#ere are instances w#ere t#e system a&so adds some more &ine items )suc# as ta<, cas# discount, gain5&oss from foreign e<c#ange transactions, etc*+ besides t#e ones you #ave entered in t#e document* /#is #e&(s to reduce your work as t#e system ca&cu&ates t#ese automatica&&y* 4owever, you need to define accounts you want t#e system to automatica&&y (ost toH t#is wi&& ensure t#at no manua& (osting is a&&owed to any of t#ese accounts* 1(2. What is !learin) ? )learing in SAP refers to s$uaring'off o(en debit entries wit# t#at of o(en credit entries* ?&earing is a&&owed in G8 accounts maintained on an o(en item basis and in a&& customer5vendor accounts* /#e c&earing can eit#er be manua& or automatic* 0n t#e case of manual clearing, you wi&& view t#e o(en items and se&ect t#e matc#ing items for c&earing* 0n t#e case of automatic clearing, a (rogram determines w#at items need to be c&eared based on certain (re'determined o(en item se&ection criteria and (ro(oses assignments before c&earing t#ese assigned items* %#atever t#e ty(e of c&earing, t#e system creates a clearing document wit# t#e detai&s and enters t#e c&earing number against eac# of t#e c&eared o(en items* /#e clearing num:er is derived from t#e document number of t#e c&earing document* Gou wi&& a&so be ab&e to do a partial clearing w#en you are unab&e to matc# o(en items e<act&yH in t#is case, t#e ba&ance amount not c&eared is (osted as a new o(en item* Gou may a&so configure clearing tolerance and a&so define ru&es on #ow to tack&e t#e situation w#ere t#e net amount after c&earing is not 6ero )suc# as, writing off, (osting t#e difference to a se(arate c&earing difference account, etc*+*

0n t#e case of customers w#o are a&so vendors, you wi&& be ab&e to c&ear between t#ese two (rovided it is du&y configured in t#e re&evant master data )by entering t#e customer number in t#e vendor master record and t#e vendor number in t#e customer master record+* 1(3. &5%lain 'e"ersal of 8o*u#ents in SAP. 0f you need to c#ange some of t#e accounting information re&ating to an a&ready (osted document, you can on&y ac#ieve t#is by e'ersing t#e origina& document and (osting a new one wit# t#e correct information* 4owever, reversa& is (ossib&e on&y w#en@ /#e origin of t#e document is in F0 )not t#roug# SD or .., etc*+ /#e information suc# as business area, cost center, etc*, is sti&& va&id )t#at you #ave not de&eted t#ese business obBects+ /#e origina& document #as no c&eared items /#e document re&ates on&y to t#e &ine items of customer5vendor5G8 %#i&e reversing, t#e system automatica&&y se&ects t#e a((ro(riate document ty(e for t#e reversa&, and defau&ts t#e re&evant (osting keys* )2emember t#at t#e document ty(e for t#e re'ersal document wou&d #ave a&ready been configured w#en t#e document ty(e was defined in t#e configuration*+ A&so note t#at if you do not s(ecify t#e (osting date for t#e reversa& document, t#e system defau&ts to t#e (osting date of t#e origina& document* 1($. &5%lain True 'e"ersalF Ho7 is it 3ifferent fro# re)ular 'e"ersal ? As you are aware, any reversa& resu&ts in o((osite (ostings to t#e credit5debit sides of t#e origina& (osting, &eading to an increase in t#e account ba&ances and t#e tria& ba&ance is automatica&&y inf&ated on bot# t#e sides* /#is is against t#e &aw in some countries suc# as France w#ere it is re$uired t#at even after reversa&, t#ere s#ou&d not

be an increased account ba&ance* As a resu&t, SAP came out wit# (rue

e'ersal

w#ic# overcomes t#is (rob&em by negati'e postings to t#e same &ine item)s+ during reversa&* /#e account ba&ance, w#ic# was origina&&y increased, is restored to t#e actua& ba&ance during t#e reversa&@ O$en table as s$rea(sheet (ype o* e'ersal (ype o* Posting Account 1GGGGG Account 2GGGGG De:it /raditiona& 2eversa& 1rigina& Posting S!C-2eversa& /rue 2eversa& 1rigina& Posting S!C-2eversa& 1((. What is 9ast &ntry ? 0nstead of t#e regu&ar document entry screens, SAP (rovides 7ast $ntry screens for faci&itating a $uick way of entering re(etitive &ine items in a transaction* For ac#ieving t#is, you need to define a 7ast $ntry Screen 1ayout, w#ic# wi&& s(ecify w#at fie&ds you wi&& re$uire for data entry, and in w#at order* Gou may configure t#ese fast entry screen &ayouts for G8 account &ine items, credit memos, and customer5vendor invoices* =ac# of t#ese fast entry screen &ayouts wi&& be denoted by a C'c#aracter screen variant in t#e system* Fast entry screens are used in comple3 .general/ postings* SAPs en;oy postings are a&so meant for simi&ar data entry screens, but t#e difference is t#at in t#e case of fast entry you wi&& start from scratc# w#en identifying t#e fie&ds, (ositioning t#em in t#e &ine item, etc*, w#ereas in enBoy (ostings, t#e system comes wit# a&& t#e fie&ds activated and you wi&& se&ect t#e fie&ds t#at you do not want to be made avai&ab&e for data entry* PS!C-S!C-- S!C-S!C-PS!C-)redit De:it )redit S!C--

1(,. Ho7 3o Bou !reate E; A**ount Master 8ata ? "1 Account 2aster Data can be created using any one of t#e fo&&owing met#ods@ 1* .anua&&y !* ?reating wit# reference :* /#roug# Data /ransfer %orkbenc# ,* ?o(ying from e<isting G8 accounts /#e 2anual )reation of G8 account master records is bot# &aborious and time consuming* Gou wi&& resort to t#is on&y w#en you cant create master records using any of t#e ot#er met#ods &isted above* Gou wi&& fo&&ow t#e second met#od, )reating &ite*erence, w#en you are

a&ready in SAP and #ave an e<isting ?om(any ?ode )2eference ?om(any ?ode+ from w#ic# you can co(y t#ese records to a new ?om(any ?ode )/arget ?om(any ?ode+* Gou wi&& be ab&e to do t#is by accessing t#e .enu@ Genera& 8edger Accounting;G8 Accounts;.aster Data;G8 Account ?reation; ?reate G8 Accounts wit# 2eference* %#i&e doing t#is, you can co(y t#e account assignments as we&& ensuring t#at t#e integration of G8 wit# ot#er a((&ications is intact* SAP faci&itates so t#at you can (i) &imit t#e number of G8 records t#us co(ied to t#e target ?om(any ?ode, (if) create new records if necessary, and (iii) c#ange t#e account number5name* %#en your G8 accounts are in a non'SAP system and you fee& t#at t#ese accounts wi&& meet your re$uirements you wi&& t#en use t#e Data (rans*er &or6:enc- of SAP to transfer t#ese records into SAP, and c#ange t#em to suit t#e SAP environment* Since t#is wi&& not #ave Account Assignment &ogic as defined in SAP, you need to be carefu& w#en defining t#ese assignments* Gou wi&& resort to t#e &ast o(tion of )opying *rom $3isting "1 Accounts on&y w#en you fee& t#at t#ere is a ?#art of Accounts in t#e system t#at meets your re$uirements 1--T* 1t#erwise, fo&&ow t#e second met#od described above*

1(-. What is !olle*ti"e Pro*essin) of E; A**ounts? )ollecti'e Processing #e&(s you to make systematic c#anges to a number of G8 accounts in a sing&e ste(* For e<am(&e, you #ave used t#e creating ,it- re*erence met#od to create G8 accounts in a new ?om(any ?ode and you want to c#ange t#e account names as we&& as t#e G8 account ty(e )PM8 or 35S+* /#en you wi&& use t#e mass processing met-od* Gou can make c#anges to@ 1* ?#art of accounts data !* ?om(any ?ode data 9se .enu Pat#@ Accounting;Financia& accounting;Genera& &edger

accounting;.aster records;?o&&ective (rocessing* /#is can be ac#ieved in 0.G t#roug#@ Financia& Accounting;Genera& 8edger Accounting;G8 Accounts; .aster Data;G8 Account ?reation;?#ange G8 Accounts ?o&&ective&y* 2emember t#at t#e co&&ective (rocessing #e&(s on&y to edit and you cannot use t#is met#od if you need to create new master records* 1(/. What is 2n3i"i3ual Pro*essin) of E; A**ounts? 0n contrast to t#e co&&ective (rocessing of G8 accounts w#ere you edit a number of accounts in a sing&e ste(, 0ndi'idual Processing #e&(s to edit or create G8 account master records one at a time* 4ere you can edit )inc&uding dis(&ay, c#ange, b&ock, unb&ock, and de&ete+ or create a new G8 account in t#ree different ways@
1* )entrally4 Gou wi&& be editing or creating a G8 account master record in bot#

t#e ?#art of Accounts area and ?om(any ?ode area in one ste(* /#is is a&so known as one8Step "1 creation*

!* 0n t-e )-art o* Accounts area4 you first edit or create t#e record #ere before

doing it in t#e ?om(any ?ode area*

:* 0n t-e )ompany )ode area4 you edit or create t#e record #ere after it #as

been done in t#e ?#art of Accounts area*

Put toget#er, ste(s ! and : re&ate to t#e ste('by'ste( creation of G8 account master records* 1(1. 2s it Possible to !han)e an &5istin) .0S E; A0! to the PI; Ty%e? /ec#nica&&y, you wi&& be ab&e to c#ange a&& t#e fie&ds, e<ce(t t#e account number, of a G8 account in t#e ?#art of Accounts area* 4owever, in t#is (articu&ar instance w#en you c#ange t#e G8 account ty(e from 35S to PM8, make sure t#at you again run t#e ba&ance carry'forward (rogram after saving t#e c#anges so t#at t#e system corrects t#e account ba&ances suitab&y* 1,4. Why 3oesn t the Syste# allo7 Bou to !han)e the Ta5 !ate)ory in a E; A0! Master? Gou wi&& be ab&e to c#ange t#e )ompany )ode re&ated fie&ds suc# as ta< category, currency, etc*, (rovided t#at t#ere #as not been any (osting to t#ese accounts* Pay attention to t#e fo&&owing@

1* 0f you need to denote an e<isting G8 account to &ater be managed on an o(en item basis or vice versa, t#en make sure t#at t#e account ba&ance is 6ero in eit#er case* !* 0f you are trying to c#ange an e<isting reconci&iation account )to a regu&ar G8+, t#en make sure t#at t#e account #as not been (osted to* :* 0f you are attem(ting to denote an e<isting ordinary G8 account into a reconci&iation account, ensure t#at t#e account #as a 6ero ba&ance* 1,1. What is an A**ount Erou% ? /#e Account "roup )or "1 Account "roup/, a ,'c#aracter a&(#anumeric key, contro&s #ow t#e G8 account master records are created in t#e system* /#is #e&(s to grou( G8 accounts according to t#e functiona& areas to w#ic# t#ey must be&ong* Account grou( is mandatory for creating a master record* /#e same account grou(s can be used by more t#an one more ?om(any ?ode if t#ey a&& use t#e same ?#art of Accounts* =ac# G8 account is assigned to on&y one account grou(* /#e Account Grou( determines@
1* /#e num:er inter'al t#at is to be used w#i&e creating t#e master record* !* /#e screen layout t#at is to be used w#i&e creating t#e master record in t#e

?om(any ?ode area* %#i&e defining t#e account grou(s in t#e system, you a&so need to define t#e corres(onding fie&d status for eac# of t#ese grou(s* 1t#erwise, you wi&& not be ab&e to see any fie&ds as a&& t#ese wou&d be #idden by defau&t* SAP comes de&ivered wit# a number of account grou(s suc# as@

SA9+ )G8 accounts genera&+ 2A(. ).ateria&s .anagement accounts+ 70%. )8i$uid Funds accounts+

Figure 32: 4; Account 4rou$

0n most situations, you wi&& not re$uire additiona& grou(s ot#er t#an t#e ones a&ready avai&ab&e in t#e standard system* 4owever, if you need to create a new one, it is easier to co(y an e<isting one and make modifications to it instead of creating one from scratc#* 1,2. 8es*ribe +u#ber 'an)e 2nter"al. A >umber 2ange refers to a number interva& defined in t#e system so t#at w#en documents are (osted, t#e system assigns a number from t#is range* Gou wi&& define different number ranges for different document ty(es* =ac# document in SAP is uni$ue&y identified by t#e combination of (a) document number, (b) com(any code, and (c) fisca& year* /#e number range for a document ty(e can be defined@ 1* Per fisca& year or !* 9nti& a fisca& year in future* 0f defined to &ast on&y one fisca& year, t#en t#e number range needs to be defined every year* %#en number ranges are defined every year, t#e system starts from t#e first number in t#e range for t#at (articu&ar year, w#ic# #e&(s to (revent reac#ing t#e u((er &imit too fast*

Figure 33: &ocument <umber Range 0f you s(ecify t#e fisca& year as 9999, t#en t#e document number range is va&id forever )we&&, a&mostU+ and you do not #ave to do t#is e<ercise of maintaining number ranges every fisca& year* 3ut every year t#e system starts from t#e &ast number used u( in t#e (revious year and if a sma&& number range is defined for a document ty(e, you cou&d easi&y run out of t#e number range fast* /#e document numbers can eit#er be@
1* 0nternally assigned by t#e system or !* $3ternally in(ut w#en t#e same is created*

/#e number ranges can be defined in suc# a way t#at t#e system generates t#e number automatica&&y w#en a document is created* /#is is known as internal num:er assignment. 9nder t#is, t#e system stores t#e &ast number used for a document in t#e ?urrent >umber fie&d and wi&& bring u( t#e ne<t number w#en anot#er document is created* 0f e3ternal num:ering is used, t#e user needs to in(ut a document number every time a document is created in t#e system* Since t#e user su((&ies t#e number every

time, t#e subse$uent numbering may not be se$uentia&* 9n&ike an interna& numbering, t#e system does not store t#e &ast number in t#e ?urrent >umber fie&d* /#e numbers in a number range can eit#er be numeric or alp-anumeric* 0f numbers are numeric, t#e system wi&& (refi< t#e number wit# t#e re$uired 6eros to make t#e number &engt# uniform at 1- digits* 0f you are using a&(#anumeric numbering, t#en t#e number is (added wit# 6eros from t#e rig#t* 0f you are fo&&owing year's(ecific numbering, it is better not to mi< numeric and a&(#anumeric numbering for a (articu&ar document ty(e in various fisca& years* /#e system creates a minimum of one document w#en a transaction is created5com(&eted* SAP recommends fi&ing origina& documents )under t#e number of t#e (rocessing document )t#e document generated in SAP++* /#e best (ractice is to enter t#e )e<terna&+ number of t#e origina& document in t#e 2eference fie&d of t#e document created in t#e SAP system* For easy cross'reference, t#e SAP document number t#us created needs to be noted on t#e origina& document* /#e fo&&owing are t#e activities you need to com(&ete for configuring t#e number ranges (ro(er&y in t#e system@ 1* Defining t#e number ranges !* ?o(ying t#e number ranges to ?om(any ?ode)s+ :* ?o(ying t#e number ranges to fisca& year)s+

1,3. What is a S*reen ;ayout ? /#e account grou( determines w#ic# Screen 1ayout s#ou&d be used w#i&e creating a G8 account master record* For eac# of t#e account grou(s, you can define different screen &ayouts, w#ic# essentia&&y determine t#e 7ield Status of a fie&d* /#e fie&d status refers to w#et#er t#e fie&d is@
1* Suppressed )fie&d is invisib&e, #idden from dis(&ay+ !*

eBuired )dis(&ay on, entry mandatory+

:* +ptional )dis(&ay on, entry not mandatory+

Figure 3 : Fiel( Status A&& t#e above t#ree are s#own as radio buttons against eac# of t#e fie&ds in t#e screen &ayout, and you s#ou&d se&ect any one to set t#e status to t#at fie&dH by defau&t a&& t#e fie&ds are su((ressed* /#ere are two &eve&s of contro&s of fie&d status@ 1* Fie&d status at t#e account grou( &eve& !* Fie&d status at t#e activity )create5c#ange5dis(&ay+ &eve& )i*e*, at t#e transaction &eve&+* Gou may a&so #ave t#e fie&d status defined for (osting keys ),-'debit and C-'credit for t#e G8 account (ostings+* A&so remember to define t#e fie&d status for reconci&iation accounts as you wi&& not be ab&e to define any suc# status in t#e sub &edger accounts )for e<am(&e, customer or vendor+*

SAP #as bui&t'in ru&es, ca&&ed lin6 rules, to &ink t#ese two &eve&s and to decide t#e fina& status of a fie&d in t#e screen &ayout* /#e &ink ru&es a&so #e&( to overcome t#e fie&d'status setting differences arising out of different settings at t#e ?&ient &eve& )fie&d status for (osting keys+ and t#e ?om(any ?ode &eve& )fie&d status settings at t#e account grou( &eve&+* 1,$. What is a 9iel3 Status Erou% ? /#e fie&d status of an individua& fie&d or a grou( of fie&ds is marked in a 7ield Status "roup, w#ic# is t#en assigned to individua& G8 account master records* Gou may attac# fie&d status grou(s to a fie&d status variant so t#at t#e *ield status groups are used in various ?om(any ?odes*

Figure 3%: Fiel( Status :ariant 5FS:7 /#e Fie&d Status Iariant is named simi&ar to t#e ?om(any ?ode* For e<am(&e, if your ?om(any ?ode is 1---, t#e fie&d status variant is a&so named 1---, and it is assigned to t#e ?om(any ?ode*

Figure 3*: Assign a FS: to 8om$any 8o(e

1,(. What 3o you #ean by .alan*es in ;o*al !urren*y :nly? %#en you create G8 account master records, it is necessary to decide w#et#er you want an account to #ave t#e transactions u(dated on&y in &oca& currency* Gou wi&& set t#is indicator according&y in t#e ?om(any ?ode area of t#e master record* .ake sure to set t#is indicator for clearing accounts suc# as@ ?as# discount c&earing accounts G2502 c&earing accounts >ote t#at you need to set t#is indicator on for a&& t#e c&earing accounts w#ere you use t#e &oca& currency to c&ear t#e &ine items in various currencies so t#at t#e transactions are (osted wit#out (osting any e<c#ange rate difference t#at ot#erwise mig#t arise* $3ample4 ?onsider an invoice for 9SD 1,---, w#ic# on t#at day trans&ates into an amount of 0>2 ,C,--- wit# an e<c#ange rate of 0 9SDV0>2 ,C* 0magine t#at w#en t#e goods are received, t#e e<c#ange rate was 1 9SDV0>2 ,,* 0f t#e indicator is set, t#e system ignores t#e e<c#ange rate as if t#e &ine items #ave been maintained on&y in t#e &oca& currency )0>2+, and t#e items are c&eared* 0f t#e indicator is >1/ set, t#e system makes a (osting for t#e e<c#ange rate difference )0>2 1, ---+ before c&earing t#e two &ine items* 1,,. What is ;ine 2te# 8is%lay ? /o dis(&ay &ine items of an account, you need to set t#e indicator 1ine 0tem Display to on in t#at accounts master record* /#is is mandatory for customer and vendor accounts* /#e &ine items can be dis(&ayed using t#e c&assica& dis(&ay or t#e SAP 8ist Iiewer )A8I+* Gou can a&so use severa& display 'ariants to dis(&ay

various fie&ds w#en you fee& t#at t#e Standard Iariant is not meeting your re$uirements* 1,-. What is Ar*hi"in) ? Ho7 3oes it 3iffer fro# 8eletion ? Arc-i'ing refers to de&eting data from t#e documents in t#e database and storing t#e data in a fi&e, w#ic# can be transferred to an arc#iving system &ater on* Arc#iving does not (#ysica&&y de&ete t#e documents* Deletion actua&&y removes t#e documents from t#e database* /o (roceed wit# arc#iving and de&etion you need to@
1* Bloc6 (osting to t#ese arc#ived master records* !* 2ar6 )t#e master records+ *or deletion4 .ark for de&etion at t#e ?#art of

Accounts area to de&ete t#e records from a&& t#e ?om(any ?odes* 4owever, if you do not want to de&ete from a&& t#e ?om(any ?odes, but on&y from one or more ?om(any ?odes t#en do t#e same in t#e ?om(any ?ode area of t#e master record)s+*
:* Arc-i'e a&& t#e transaction figures from t#e re&evant documents* ,* ?a&& u( a s(ecia& (rogram to delete t#e records@ /#e (rogram wi&& c#eck

w#et#er t#at (articu&ar document cou&d be de&eted* 0f yes, it wi&& (roceed to arc#ive and t#en to de&etion* 1,/. Tell #e the t7o uses of .lo*6in) an A**ount. Gou may use Bloc6ing to@ 1* 3&ock an account from furt#er (ostings* !* 3&ock t#e creation of t#e account itse&f )at t#e ?om(any ?ode &eve& or ?#art of Accounts area+* 1,1. Ho7 3o Bou !onfi)ure the E; A0! for the House .an6 ? A >ouse Ban6 is defined using transaction code 7012* A :an6 6ey re(resents t#e bank* /#e #ouse bank can contain severa& accountsH for eac# of t#ese accounts you

need to maintain a G8 account* /#e bank determination, for an automatic (ayment (rogram, is configured using t#e /ransaction ?ode 7BEP*

1-4. What is an 2nter#e3iate .an6 ? 0ntermediate Ban6s are used in SAP in addition to t#e #ouse banks and (artner banks for making or receiving (ayments from business (artners abroad* /#e (ayment (rocessing, invo&ving an intermediate bank, makes use of t#e :an6 c-ain, w#ic# may consist of a #ouse bank, a (artner bank, and a ma<imum of intermediate banks* 1-1. &5%lain 2nter*o#%any Postin)s. 0ntercompany Postings arise w#en a ?om(any ?ode, for e<am(&e, in a centra&i6ed (rocurement, (ays for itse&f and on be#a&f of ot#er ?om(any ?odes* %#en (osted, t#e transaction resu&ts in t#ree documents@ )1+ one for t#e (aying ?om(any ?ode )say, 1111+ )!+ one for t#e ot#er ?om(any ?odes )say, !!!! and ,,,,+, and ):+ one for t#e intercom(any transaction itse&f* 3efore making intercom(any transactions, you need to configure bot# intercom(any (ayab&es and intercom(any receivab&es* For eac# combination of t#ese ?om(any ?odes, you wi&& be re$uired to maintain a c&earing account, w#ic# must be referenced in eac# of t#ese ?om(any ?odes* Gou wi&& a&so be ab&e to configure w#et#er you manua&&y in(ut t#e transaction number or a&&ow t#e system to automatica&&y assign t#e numbers* 0n t#e case of system'generated transaction numbers, t#is 1A'digit number consists of )1+ a 1-'digit document number )1!!!!!!!!!+ of t#e (aying ?om(any ?ode, fo&&owed by )!+ , digits re(resenting

t#is (aying ?om(any ?ode )1111+, and ):+ ! digits re(resenting t#e &ast two digits of t#e financia& year )- + )for e<am(&e, 1!!!!!!!!!1111- +* 1-2. Ho7 *an you Manually !lear :%en 2te#s ? When? 9nder 2anual )learing, you wi&& se&ect t#e o(en items, based on t#e incoming (ayment so t#at t#e se&ected o(en items are c&eared )knocked'off+* 0n cases &ike refunds from a vendor or transactions invo&ving bank sub'accounts and c&earing accounts, etc*, you wi&& use manua& c&earing* %#en c&eared, t#e system f&ags t#ese &ine items as c&eared, creates a clearing document, and enters t#e c&earing document number and c&earing date in t#ese o(en items* 3esides t#e c&earing document, t#e system may a&so generate additiona& documents in cases suc# as partial or residual processing, and for (osting t#e &oss5gain to t#e assigned G8 account* %#i&e doing t#is, if t#ere is a payment di**erence, it can be treated t#e way it is configured in t#e system@ 0f t#e difference is wit#in t#e to&erance &imit, defined in t#e system using t#e to&erance grou(s )defined at t#e ?om(any ?ode &eve&+, t#e cas# discount is adBusted or t#e system automatica&&y (osts t#e difference to a gain5&oss G8 account* %#en t#e (ayment difference e<ceeds t#e &imits of defined to&erance, t#en t#e incoming amount may be (rocessed as a (artia& (ayment )t#e origina& o(en item is not c&eared, but t#e incoming (ayment is (osted wit# a reference to t#at invoice+ or t#e difference is (osted as a residua& item )t#e origina& o(en item is c&eared and a new o(en item is created by t#e system for t#e difference amount+ in t#e system*

Gou may a&so use t#e .enu Pat#@ Accounting;Financia& Accounting; Account 2eceivab&e;Document entry;0ncoming (ayment;Post or Accounting ;Financia& Accounting;G8;Document entry;0ncoming (ayment;Post 1-3. Ho7 3o you Perfor# Perio3 !losin) in SAP? Gou do a .Period/ )losing in SAP in t#ree ste(s@ ?om(&eting t#e Pre'c&osing activities Financia& ?&osing .anageria& ?&osing 1-$. What is Pre=*losin) ? Gou need to ensure t#e fo&&owing as (art of t#e Pre8closing activities@ 1* Post a&& t#e 2ecurring =ntries for e<(enses and accrua&s* !* =nsure t#at a&& t#e interfaced (rograms #ave been run so t#at t#e re$uired data #ave been transferred to t#e system* :* Post a&& t#e de(reciation, materia& recei(ts, invoices, sa&aries, etc* 0n s#ort, ensure t#at a&& t#e transactions for t#e (eriod in $uestion #ave been du&y recorded and (osted into t#e system* 1-(. &5%lain 9inan*ial !losin). 7inancial )losing invo&ves com(&eting t#e fo&&owing activities and taking out t#e financia& statements for t#e (eriod concerned@
1*

e'aluate! egroup4

e'alue 3a&ance S#eet items managed in foreign currencies"use t#e re(ort 7SB$&GG to va&uate G8 3a&ance S#eet Accounts managed in a foreign currency* )/#e re(ort generates a 3atc# 0n(ut session to (ost t#e revenue or e<(ense resu&ting from any e<c#ange rate differences*+

?&ear 2eceivab&es or Payab&es wit# t#e e<c#ange rate difference*


Ia&uate a&& t#e 1(en 0tems using t#e re(ort SAP71GG* /#is is used to

va&uate a&& t#e o(en receivab&es and (ayab&es, using t#e (eriod'end e<c#ange rates* 4ere a&so, t#e re(ort generates a 3atc# 0n(ut session to (ost t#e entries resu&ting from any e<c#ange rate differences*

egroup G2502 using t#e (rogram

7&$ $GG to a&&ocate t#e net

ba&ance )de(ending on w#et#er t#e ba&ance is a net debit or credit+ in t#e G2502 Account to one of two G8 Accounts )created to actua&&y de(ict t#e net effect of t#e ba&ance in t#e G2502 Account+*
!* $nsure accounting accuracy4

9se t#e (rogram SAP719G to com(are t#e tota&s created by t#e system in t#e )1+ inde<es )customers, vendors, and G8+ and documents )customers, vendors, and G8+ wit# t#at of t#e )!+ account ba&ances )customers, vendors, and G8+ to ensure t#e transaction accuracy*
:*

un reBuired reports4 Generate t#e *inancial statements )ba&ance s#eet and (rofit M &oss account+ using t#e *inancial statement 'ersions. Gou may a&so generate t#e key figure5 ratio re(orts )use t#e G8 account information system+*

1-,. What is a 9inan*ial State#ent ?ersion ? A 7inancial Statement @ersion #e&(s to define t#e Financia& Statements )bot# t#e Balance S-eet and Pro*it K 1oss statements+* %#en you co(y t#e settings from an

e<isting ?om(any ?ode to a new one, you wi&& a&so be co(ying t#e financia& statement version defined for t#e source ?om(any ?ode*

Figure 3+: Financial Statement :ersions Gou may a&so define a new financia& statement version and bui&d t#e financia& statements from scratc#* Gou may create t#e financia& statements bot# for e<terna& re(orting )?om(any ?ode financia& statements+ and interna& re(orting )business area financia& statements+* Gou may a&so create t#e ba&ance s#eets for a grou( of ?om(any ?odes using F0'S8 )S(ecia& Pur(ose 8edgers+* /#e financia& statements may be defined to (rovide information from a (eriod accounting (oint of view )G8 account grou(s wise+ or a cost of sa&es (oint of view )functiona& area financia& statements+* A&& t#e above statements can be configured and defined to (rovide different &eve&s of detai&@

Figure 3,: Financial Statement :ersion=BA>S A financia& statement version can #ave a ma<imum of 1- #ierarc#y &eve&s, wit# eac# &eve& assigned wit# an item )account category+* As you go down t#e #ierarc#y, you define t#e account categories in more detai&, wit# t#e &owest &eve& being re(resented by t#e G8 accounts* /#e system dis(&ays t#e re&evant amount for eac# of t#ese items* 1--. What 2te#s are reAuire3 in a 9inan*ial State#ent ?ersion ? 0rres(ective of t#e detai&s you re$uire in a Financia& Statement Iersion, it is mandatory t#at you #ave, at &east, t#e fo&&owing items defined@
1* Assets !* 1ia:ilities

a* >et 2esu&t@ Profit b* >et 2esu&t@ 8oss


:* P!1 result )during annua& c&osing, w#en you run t#e (rogram

7B01AGG, t#e

system ca&cu&ates t#e (rofit or &oss by subtracting t#e tota& &iabi&ities from tota& assets and u(dates t#e re&evant >et 2esu&t item"Profit or 8oss+*

,* %ot assigned )(osted amounts but not yet assigned to any of t#e account

grou(s+* 1-/. Ho7 3o you ensure !orre*t .alan*es in the 9inan*ial State#ent ?ersion ? 0n order to #ave a ba&anced statement )Profit M 8oss and 3a&ance S#eet+ you need to ensure t#at t#e accounts are correct&y and com(&ete&y assigned to t#e nodes of t#e 7inancial Statement @ersion* Gou may do t#is by resorting to t#e necessary assignments at t#e account ba&ance &eve& or node ba&ance &eve&* At t#e account :alance le'el, you need to ensure t#at t#e account is s#own in two different nodes, but you wi&& turn W1>X t#e debit indicator of t#e account on one node and turn W1>X t#e credit indicator on t#e ot#er node* 0magine t#at you #ave a bank current account 1---1---* %#en you turn W1>X t#e debit indicator, t#is account s#ows on&y t#e debit ba&ances and is construed as t#e asset* 1n t#e ot#er #and, w#en t#e credit indicator is turned W1>,X t#e ba&ances on t#is node now indicate t#at you owe to t#e bank )overdraft+* Gou may a&so use t#e node8le'el assignment* 0n t#is case, t#e system uses t#e debit5credit s#ift and s#ows on&y t#e effective ba&ance at t#e node and not at t#e individua& account &eve&* 1-1. Ho7 3o you Perfor# Annual !losin) in SAP? Annual )losing is &ike any ot#er (eriod c&osing and you wi&& be (erforming a&& t#e activities t#at are re$uired for a (eriod'end'c&ose* 0n addition to t#ose activities, you wi&& a&so@ ?arry forward Iendor and ?ustomer accounts ?arry forward t#e G8 account ba&ances of a&& t#e 3a&ance S#eet items ?&ose t#e Profit M 8oss Accounts and carry forward t#e ba&ance )(rofit or &oss+ to t#e retained earnings account)s+

For a G8 account carry forward, use t#e (rogram SAP7G11* 1/4. &5%lain Mana)erial !losin). 0n 2anagerial closing you wi&&@ Do a (re&iminary ?ontro&&ing (eriod c&osing Sett&e5re'a&&ocate costs across ?ontro&&ing organi6ation Draw and review interna& re(orts 2e'o(en t#e ?ontro&&ing (eriod ?orrect and adBust t#e accounting data, if re$uired 2econci&e F0 and ?1 by running t#e F0?1 2econci&iation 8edger 2un re'adBustment (rograms to ensure t#at t#e 3usiness Areas and t#e Profit ?enters are ba&anced Draw re(orts and ana&y6e 1/1. What is the +e7 92=E; in 92 in &!!? /#e traditiona& or )lassic 708"1 accounting in F0 #as been focused on (roviding com(re#ensive e<terna& re(orting by recording a&& business transactions in t#e system* 4owever, to meet modern'day re$uirements, t#is #as now been en#anced, ca&&ed t#e %e, 708"1, and inc&udes t#e fo&&owing@

Parallel accounting4 .aintaining severa& (ara&&e& &edgers to meet different accounting (rinci(&es*

0ntegrated legal and management reporting4 9n&ike t#e traditiona& G8, t#e >ew F0'G8 enab&es you to (erform interna& management re(orting a&ong wit# &ega& re(orting* So you are in a (osition to generate Financia& Statements for any dimension )for e<am(&e, (rofit center+ in t#e business*

Segment reporting4 %it# t#e introduction of t#e Segment dimension, SAP now enab&es you to (roduce Segment 2e(orts based on 07 S .0nternational

7inancial

eporting Standards/ and t#e "APP ."enerally Accepted

Accounting Principles/ accounting (rinci(&es*

)ost o* sales accounting4 0t is now (ossib&e to (erform cost of sa&es accounting in t#e >ew F0'G8*

4owever, t#e fo&&owing functions are not yet su((orted in t#e >ew F0'G8@ /ransfer Price SDF )Statistica& Dey Figure+ =uro /rans&ation A0S )Audit 0nformation System+ Arc#iving Data 2etention /oo& /#e >ew F0'G8 needs to be activated in t#e system before you start using t#e 0.G .enu Pat# @;Financia& Accounting )>ew+';Financia& Accounting G&oba& Settings )>ew+5Genera& 8edger Accounting )>ew+* 0n t#e standard system, t#e tab&es from c&assic genera& &edger accounting ."1(G/ are u(dated as we&& as t#e tab&es in >ew F0'G8 during t#e activation* /#is enab&es you to (erform a &edger com(arison during t#e im(&ementation of >ew F0'G8 to ensure t#at your new G8 accounting #as t#e correct settings and is working correct&y* /o com(are &edgers, in ?ustomi6ing c#oose Financia& Accounting G&oba& Settings )>ew+';/oo&s';?om(are 8edgers* 0t is recommended t#at you deactivate t#e u(date of tab&es for c&assic G8 accounting once you #ave estab&is#ed t#at >ew F0'G8 is working correct&y* /o do t#is, in ?ustomi6ing c#oose Financia& Accounting G&oba& Settings )>ew+'; /oo&s' ;Deactivate 9(date of ?&assic Genera& 8edger*

Figure 3/: <e) F!'4; 1/2. &5%lain !usto#er0?en3or Master 'e*or3s. /#ere are t#ree categories of data maintained in a ty(ica& master record for a customer@ Genera& Data ?om(any ?ode Data Sa&es Area Data )for customers+5Purc#asing 1rgani6ation Data )for vendors+

Figure 0: :en(or Master=:arious &ata "eneral Data inc&udes genera& information suc# as account number, name, te&e(#one, bank information, trading (artner, vendor )if t#e customer is a&so a vendor+, grou( key, bank key, bank account, a&ternate (ayee, etc*, w#ic# are common to a&& t#e ?om(any ?odes using t#is master* )ompany )ode Data com(rises terms of (ayment, (ayment met#ods, to&erance grou(, c&earing wit# vendor, dunning data )dunning (rocedure, dunning reci(ient, dunning b&ock, dunning c&erk, etc*+, reconci&iation account, sort key, sa&es area )(urc#asing organi6ation in t#e case of vendor master+, #ead office, etc* =<ce(t for sa&es )(urc#asing+ re&ated information, a&& ot#er detai&s are usua&&y maintained for t#e finance (eo(&e w#o can a&so access t#e sa&es data w#en t#e master is maintained centra&&y*

Sales Area Data in t#e ?om(any ?ode area of a ?ustomer master record contains t#e fo&&owing@ 1rder're&ated data )sa&es district, sa&es office, sa&es grou(, customer grou(, etc*+ Price're&ated data )(ricing grou(, (ricing (rocedure, etc*+ S#i((ing data )s#i((ing strategy, de&ivery (riority, etc*+ 3i&&ing data )(ayment terms )different from t#e (ayment terms maintained at t#e ?om(any ?ode &eve&+, account assignment grou(, etc*+ Purc-asing +rganiCation Data in t#e ?om(any ?ode area of a Iendor master record contains t#e fo&&owing@

?onditions )order currency, (ayment terms, 0ncoterms, minimum order va&ue, etc*+

Sa&es data )a5c wit# Iendor+ ?ontro& data )as in t#e screen s#ot be&ow+ During creation of a master record, t#e system c#ecks for du(&icates for t#e same customer w#ic# is ac#ieved by t#e system t#roug# t#e Searc#'0d ).atc# ?ode+ configured on t#e customers address information* As in t#e case of t#e G8 account master record, t#e creation of t#e customer5 vendor master record is a&so contro&&ed by t#e Account Grou(, w#ic# is ca&&ed )ustomer Account "roup!@endor Account "roup )?PD5?PD85D2=D0580=F+ and contro&s t#e numbering of customer5vendor master records, fie&d status, w#et#er an account is a regu&ar one or a +ne8(ime account, etc*

O$en table as s$rea(sheet Acti'ity 0n Accounting )entrally

)ustomer @endor )ustomer @endor ?reate ?#ange Dis(&ay 3&ock59nb&ock FD-1 FD-! FD-: FD-C FD-1 FD-! FD-: FD-C FD-A JD-1 JD-! JD-: JD-C JD-A JD-1 JD-! JD-: JD-C JD-A

.ark for De&etion FD-A

Figure 1: Purchasing &ata

1/3. Who is an Alternate Payee ? A customer w#o (ays on be#a&f of anot#er customer is known as an Alternate Payee )or Alternate Payer+* /#oug# t#e a&ternate (ayee (ays on be#a&f of anot#er, t#e system maintains a&& t#e transaction detai&s in t#e account of t#e origina& customer* Designating a&ternate (ayee does not abso&ve t#e customer of #is5#er ob&igation for (ayment* /#e a&ternate (ayee can be maintained in ?&ient's(ecific data or in t#e ?om(any ?ode area* %#en maintained in t#e ?om(any ?ode area you can use t#at (ayer on&y in t#at ?om(any ?odeH if defined at t#e ?&ient &eve& you can use it across a&& ?om(any ?odes* /#ere are t#ree ways to se&ect t#e a&ternate (ayee w#en an invoice is (rocessed@ 1* /#e a&ternate (ayee )say, 1---+ entered in t#e customer master record is t#e one se&ected by t#e system as t#e defau&t*
!* %#en t#ere is more t#an one a&ternate (ayer )say, 1---, 19--, !1--, etc*+

defined for a sing&e customer in t#e master record )you wi&& do t#is by c&icking on t#e allo,ed payer button and create more t#an one (ayer+, you may se&ect a (ayer )say, !1--+ )ot#er t#an t#e defau&t, 1---+ w#i&e (rocessing t#e invoice* >ow t#e system wi&& ignore t#e a&ternate (ayer )1---+ coming from t#e master record* :* 0f you #ave (ut a c#eck mark in t#e individua& entries c#eck bo< in t#e a&ternate (ayer in document section in t#e customer master record, t#en t#is wi&& a&&ow you to (ro(ose a new a&ternate (ayer, say, :--- )ot#er t#an t#ose a&ready defined in t#e system+* >ow, after defining t#is a&ternate (ayer you can use it to (rocess t#e invoice* 0n t#is case, t#e a&ternate (ayer ):---+ takes (recedence over t#e (ayers )1--- and !1--+ in ste( 1 and ! above*

1/$. What is the Tra3in) Partner *on*e%t? /#e (rading Partner conce(t is used to sett&e and reconci&e inter'com(any transactions, bot# sa&es and (urc#ases* /#is is genera&&y ac#ieved by entering t#e ?om(any'0D )not t#e ?om(any ?ode+ to w#ic# a customer be&ongs in t#e trading (artner fie&d under t#e tab Account ?ontro& in t#e customer master record* Gou can do a simi&ar entry in t#e vendor master record* 1/(. &5%lain Toleran*e in Transa*tion Pro*essin). (olerances are defined in t#e system to faci&itate dea&ing wit# t#e differences arising out of accounting transactions and to instruct t#e system on #ow to (roceed furt#er* >orma&&y, you define to&erances )eit#er in abso&ute terms or in (ercentages+ beyond w#ic# t#e system wi&& not a&&ow you to (ost a document s#ou&d t#ere be a difference* 0n SAP, to&erances are defined (er ?om(any ?ode and t#ere are severa& ty(es@ =m(&oyee to&erance ?ustomer5vendor to&erance G8 account c&earing to&erance Gou wi&& define an em(&oyee to&erance grou( in t#e system and assign t#e em(&oyees to t#ese grou(s* %#i&e defining t#e to&erance grou( you wi&& s(ecify@
1* 5pper limits *or 'arious posting procedures

Amount (er document Amount (er o(en account item ?as# discount, in (ercentage
!* Permitted payment di**erences

4ow muc# over or under (ayment an em(&oyee is a&&owed to (rocess* /#is is defined bot# in abso&ute va&ues and in (ercentages*

Figure 2: F! -olerance 4rou$ 1or >sers 3esides defining t#e above two, at t#e ?om(any ?ode &eve&, you wi&& a&so define simi&ar to&erances for customer!'endor tolerance group. 1nce defined, eac# of t#e customers )vendors+ is assigned to one of t#ese grou(s* 4ere a&so, you define t#e permitted payment di**erences4

Figure 3: 8ustomer/:en(or -olerances

%#i&e (rocessing, t#e system com(ares t#e to&erance of an em(&oyee against t#e customer to&erance )or vendor to&erance or t#e G8+ and a((&ies t#e most restrictive of t#e two* 1/,. What is 8ual !ontrol in Master 'e*or3s? Dual )ontrol #e&(s to (revent unaut#ori6ed c#anges to t#e im(ortant and sensitive fie&ds in t#e master records in t#e system* )A&& suc# sensitive fie&ds are defined in t#e /ab&e (GJJ7 w#en customi6ing t#e a((&ication* And t#ese fie&ds are defined (er ?om(any ?ode and (er ?&ient*+ ?onsider, for e<am(&e, a sensitive fie&d suc# as payment :loc6 in a vendor master record* %#en a user c#anges t#is fie&ds content, t#e system re$uires anot#er user )usua&&y of #ig#er aut#ority+ to a((rove t#is c#ange and an audit trail is maintained of a&& suc# c#anges* 9n&ess Y t#e c#ange is a((roved, in t#is e<am(&e, t#is (articu&ar master is b&ocked by t#e system for considering t#e same in t#e ne<t payment run.

O$en table as s$rea(sheet Acti'ity )ustomer @endor FD-, JD-, FD-7 FD-9

Dis(&ay c#anges )accounting area+ FD-, Dis(&ay c#anges )centra&&y+ ?onfirm c#anges, individua&&y ?onfirm c#anges, in a &ist JD-, FD-7 FD-9

1/-. What is a .an6 8ire*tor in SAP? SAP stores t#e master data )detai&s suc# as bank key, bank name, bank country, bank address, and so on+ re&ating to t#e banks in t#e Ban6 Directory )/ab&e@ B%9A+* 2emember, t#e bank masters are not created in t#e a((&ication but in t#e im(&ementation side using t#e 0.G* )1f course, you can a&so create t#e bank master in t#e a((&ication side in 708( and not in F0'G8 or AP or A2*+ 4owever, if you are in t#e (rocess of creating a master record for a vendor or a customer and you enter some bank detai&s, w#ic# t#e system does not find in t#e 3ank Directory, t#en t#e system automatica&&y brings in t#e re&evant screens for you to maintain and u(date t#e bank detai&s in t#e bank directory* Gou may create t#e bank directory in two ways@
1* 2anually

)0.G

(at#@

Financia&

Accounting;3ank

Accounting;3ank

Accounts;Define 4ouse 3anks+


!* Automatically )by im(orting t#e bank detai&s using a s(ecia& (rogram+

1//. What is a House .an6 ? A >ouse Ban6 is t#e bank )or financia& institution+ in w#ic# t#e ?om(any ?ode in $uestion kee(s its money and does t#e transactions from* A #ouse bank in SAP is identified by a C'c#aracter a&(#anumeric code* Gou can #ave any number of #ouse banks for your ?om(any ?ode, and t#e detai&s of a&& t#ese #ouse banks are avai&ab&e in t#e :an6 directory.

Figure

: Ban3 (irectory

=ac# #ouse bank in t#e system is associated wit# a country 6ey )9*S*, 0>, etc*+ re(resenting t#e country w#ere t#e bank is &ocated, and a uni$ue country s(ecific code ca&&ed a bank key* /#e system makes use of bot# t#e country key and t#e bank key to identify a #ouse bank*

For eac# of t#e #ouse banks, you can maintain more t#an one bank accountH eac# suc# account is identified by an account 0DM i*e*, ?#ek1, ?#eck!, Pyb&1, etc* 4ere, ?#ek1 may denote ?#ecking account 1, Pyb&1 may denote Payab&es account 1, and so on* Gou may name t#e accounts in a way t#at it is easi&y com(re#ensib&e* /#e Account 0D is referenced in t#e customer5vendor master record and it is used in t#e (ayment (rogram by t#e system*

For eac# account 0D you wi&& a&so s(ecify t#e :an6 account num:er )ma<imum &engt# of t#is identifier is 17 c#aracters+* Gou may name t#is in suc# a way t#at it is a&so easi&y com(re#ensib&e*

For eac# bank account number so defined in t#e #ouse bank, you need to create a G8 account master record, and w#i&e doing so you wi&& incor(orate t#e #ouse bank id and t#e account id in t#at (articu&ar G8 master record*

1/1. &5%lain a Sales !y*le in SAP. A Sales )ycle com(rises a&& activities inc&uding $uotation5in$uiry, sa&es order, de&ivery, bi&&ing, and co&&ection* /#e fo&&owing are t#e various (rocesses wit#in SAP t#at com(&ete a sa&es cyc&e@

Figure %: Sales 8ycle /y(ica&&y, t#e fo&&owing are t#e documents created during a sa&es cyc&e@ 0n$uiry Fuotation Sa&es 1rder De&ivery >ote Goods 0ssue 1rder 0nvoice ?redit5Debit >ote 114. &5%lain Auto#ati* A**ount Assi)n#ent in S8. During goods issue in t#e sa&es cyc&e, t#e system is usua&&y configured to u(date t#e re&evant G8 accounts automatica&&y and to create t#e re&evant accounting documents*

/#is customi6ation in 0.G is a&so ca&&ed material account assignment and is ac#ieved t#roug# a number of ste(s as detai&ed be&ow@ 1* Determine va&uation &eve& )?om(any ?ode or (&ant+* !* Activate va&uation grou(ing code and &ink it wit# t#e c#art of accounts for eac# va&uation area* :* 8ink va&uation c&ass wit# materia& ty(e )F=2/, 4A%A, 4A83, etc*+ wit# t#e account category reference )combination of va&uation c&asses+* ,* .aintain account modification codes for movement ty(es* C* 8ink account modification codes wit# (rocess keys )transaction5event keys+* A* .aintain a G8 account for a given combination of c#art of accountsN va&uation grou(ing code N account modification code N va&uation c&asses*

Figure *: Automatic account (etermination in a sales cycle /#e (rocess of Automatic Account Determination is as fo&&ows@ 1* De(ending on t#e (&ant entered during goods issue )G0+, t#e ?om(any ?ode is determined by t#e system w#ic# in turn determines t#e re&evant ?#art of Accounts*

!* /#e (&ant t#us entered in goods issue determines t#e va&uation c&ass and t#en t#e va&uation grou(ing code* :* /#e va&uation c&ass is determined from t#e materia& master* ,* Since t#e account modification code is assigned to a (rocess key w#ic# is a&ready &inked to a movement ty(e, t#e transaction key )D0F, G33, A9., 3SJ, etc*+ determines t#e G8 account as (osting transactions are (redefined for eac# movement ty(e in inventory management* 111. &5%lain 'e"enue A**ount 8eter#ination in S8. /#e bi&&ing documents created during t#e sa&es cyc&e resu&ts in automatic (ostings to G8 accounts on t#e F0 side* 0n genera&, Account Determination is based on t#e fo&&owing five factors@ 1* ?#art of accounts !* Sa&es organi6ation :* Account assignment grou( of t#e customer ,* Account assignment grou( of t#e materia& C* Account key /#e system determines t#e c-art o* accounts from t#e com(any code in t#e :illing document, and t#e sales organiCation is determined from t#e corres(onding sales order. /#e account assignment group is taken from t#e res(ective masters of customer5materia&* /#e account 6ey #e&(s t#e user to define t#e various G8 accounts, and t#is key is assigned to t#e condition type )D1F0+ in t#e pricing procedure. /#ese "1 accounts are automatica&&y determined w#en you make t#e fo&&owing configuration in t#e system@ 1* Assigning an account determination (rocedure to a bi&&ing document ty(e !* Assigning t#is account determination (rocedure to a condition ty(e

:* Assigning t#is condition ty(e to an access se$uence ,* ?onfiguring t#e condition tab&es /ab&e --1 --! --: --, --C Descri(tion ?ustomer 5.ateria& Gr(*5AccDey ?ust* Gr(5AccDey .ateria& Gr(5Acc Dey Genera& Acc Dey ?#art of Sa&es a5c 1rg AcctAsg Gr( Acc Asgmnt A5c Dey G8 a5c

A((&ication ?ondition /y(e --1 I I I I I I I I --C I I

?ustomer gr(5.ateria& Gr(*5AccDey@ Detai&s D1F0 D1F0 D1F0 D1F0 D1F0 D1F0 D1F0 D1F0 ?1.P ?1.P ?1.P ?1.P ?1.P ?1.P ?1.P ?1.P 1--1--1--1--!--!--!--!---1 -1 -! -! -1 -1 -! -! 1111!!!!=28 =2S =28 =2S =28 =2S =28 =2S C-1!1----C-1!1----C-1!!----C-1!!----C-1:1----C-1:1----C-1:!----C-1:!-----

Acc Dey@ Detai&s D1F0 D1F0 ?1.P ?1.P 1--!--.%S !, ------.%S !, -------

O$en table as s$rea(sheet

Figure +: Re?enue account (etermination 112. :utline !re3it Mana)e#ent in SAP. )redit 2anagement #e&(s to determine credit &imits of customers, aids in t#e creation of credit c-ec6 (o&icies, as we&& as #e&(s com(anies monitor and eva&uate t#eir customers* /#is is a cross'functiona& res(onsibi&ity in SAP, covering bot# t#e Sa&es and Distribution and Financia& Accounting modu&es* As in t#e case of any automated (rocess suc# as dunning, (ayment, etc*, credit management in SAP re$uires certain (rere$uisites be defined before#and@
1* )ustomer master data #as been created bot# in SD and F0* !* )redit control area #as been defined and assigned to a ?om(any ?ode*

SAP makes use of t#e conce(t credit control area for credit management* As e<(&ained e&sew#ere, t#e credit contro& area is an organi6ationa& e&ement defined to w#ic# one or more ?om(any ?odes are attac#ed* 0n t#e case of customers defined under more t#an one ?om(any ?ode, t#ey may fa&& under different credit contro& areas* 3ut note t#at@ A ?&ient can #ave more t#an one credit contro& area, but t#e converse is not true@ one credit contro& area cannot be assigned to more t#an one ?&ient* A credit contro& area can be assigned to more t#an one ?om(any ?ode, but t#e converse is not true@ one ?om(any ?ode cannot be assigned to more t#an one credit contro& area*

Figure ,: 8lient=8re(it 8ontrol Area=8om$any 8o(e=8ustomer %#i&e defining t#e credit &imit for a customer@ Gou wi&& define a ma<imum &imit (er credit contro& area )=<am(&e@ ?redit ?ontro& Area AAAA';9SD C--,---, ?redit ?ontro& Area 3333 ';9SD !--,---+ Gou wi&& define a g&oba& ma<imum &imit for a&& credit contro& areas (ut toget#er )9SD A--,---+
:* )redit data )(er credit contro& area ma<imum &imit as we&& as t#e tota& for

a&& areas, in t#e contro& data screen+ for t#e customer #as been created*
,*

is6 categories #ave been defined and assigned to customers*

C* )redit groups )document credit grou(+ for document ty(es #ave been defined*

Document credit grou(s combine order ty(es and de&ivery ty(es for credit contro&*
A* Defined, in SD, at w#at time )w#en order is received or w#en a de&ivery is

made, etc*+ t#e credit c-ec6 s#ou&d #a((en* /#e credit management process starts w#en a sa&es order is entered in SD* 0magine t#at t#is resu&ts in e<ceeding t#e credit &imit defined for t#e customer* >ow@

a* /#e system creates t#ree comparison totals considering )1+ o(en receivab&es,

)!+ sa&es order va&ues, va&ue of goods to be de&ivered and t#e bi&&ing document va&ue from SD, and ):+ s(ecia& G8 transactions )e*g*, down (ayments and bi&&s of e<c#ange+*
b* 3ased on (a) above t#e system t#rows an )1+ error message and (revents

saving t#e order or )!+ a warning message, and t#e system does not (revent saving, but t#e order is b&ocked*
c* /#e )redit representati'e, using in*ormation *unctions )SD information

system, F0 information system, credit overview, credit master &ist, ear&y warning &ist, o&dest o(en item, &ast (ayment, customer master, account ana&ysis, etc*+, (rocesses t#is b&ocked order eit#er )1+ from t#e b&ocked SD documents &ist or )!+ t#e mai&bo<, and re&eases t#e order, if necessary* d* De&ivery is created, t#e bi&&ing document is generated and (osted, and A52 is u(dated* e* ?ustomer (ays t#e invoice and A52 is (osted* 113. What is a !re3it !he*6? A )redit )-ec6 is defined for any va&id combination of t#e fo&&owing@ ?redit contro& area 2isk category Document credit grou( 11$. 8ifferentiate Stati* !re3it !he*6 !he*6. 9nder Static )redit )-ec6, t#e system ca&cu&ates t#e credit e<(osure of a (articu&ar customer as t#e tota& of@ 1(en order )de&ivery not yet done+ fro# 8yna#i*

1(en de&ivery )va&ue of de&iveries yet to be invoiced+ 1(en bi&&ing documents )not transferred to accounting+ 1(en items )A2 item not yet sett&ed by t#e customer+ ?ustomers credit e<(osure is not to e<ceed t#e estab&is#ed credit &imit* /#e Dynamic )redit )-ec6 is s(&it into two (arts@

Static limit4 /ota& of o(en items, o(en bi&&ing, and o(en de&ivery va&ues* Dynamic limit .+pen +rder @alue/4 /#e va&ue of a&& unde&ivered and (artia&&y de&ivered orders tota&&ed and stored on a time'sca&e in t#e future )1days, 1 week, etc*+ known as a -oriCon date.

During t#e dynamic credit c#eck, t#e system wi&& ignore a&& orders beyond t#e #ori6on date* /#e sum tota& of static and dynamic &imits s#ou&d not e<ceed t#e credit &imit estab&is#ed for t#e customer* 11(. ;ist the 'e%orts in !re3it Mana)e#ent. SAP (rovides you wit# t#e fo&&owing eports in )redit 2anagement4

7D9101G ?ustomers wit# missing ?redit Data 7D9102G 2e'organi6ation of ?redit 8imit for ?ustomers 7D9103G S#ort 1verview of ?redit 8imit 7D910?G 1verview of ?redit 8imit 7D910?1 ?redit .aster S#eet 7D910?2 =ar&y %arning 8ist )of ?ritica& ?ustomers+ 7D910?3 .aster Data 8ist 7D910JG .ass c#ange of ?redit 8imit Data @9 $DG# ?#ecking 3&ocked ?redit Documents @9 $DGF ?#ecking ?redit Documents w#ic# reac# t#e ?redit 4ori6on

@9 $DG9 ?#ecking t#e ?redit Documents from ?redit Iiew @9 $D77 2e'organi6ation of SD ?redit Data 3iffer fro# 'esi3ual

11,. Ho7 3oes Partial Pay#ent Pay#ent ?

%#en (rocessing t#e incoming payment to a((&y to one or more of t#e o(en items of a customer, t#ere may be a situation w#ere t#e incoming (ayment is more t#an t#e tolerances a&&owed* 0n t#is case, you can sti&& go a#ead and (rocess t#e (ayment by resorting eit#er to a Partia& Payment or a 2esidua& (ayment* A Partial payment resu&ts in (osting a credit to t#e customers o(en item, but &eaves t#e origina& item intact* As a resu&t, no o(en item is c&eared* During (artia& (ayment, t#e system u(dates t#e in'oice re*erence and allocation fie&ds* 0n contrast to a (artia& (ayment, t#e esidual payment c&ears t#e (articu&ar o(en

item against w#ic# t#e (ayment is a((&ied* 4owever, since t#ere are not enoug# amounts to c&ear t#e entire o(en item, t#e system creates a new o(en item, w#ic# is t#e difference between t#e origina& invoice item and t#e (ayment a((&ied* >ote t#at t#e new invoice5o(en item created by t#e system wi&& #ave t#e new document date and new base&ine date t#oug# you can c#ange t#ese dates* 11-. What is Pay#ent A3"i*e ? Payment Ad'ice #e&(s in t#e automatic searc#ing of o(en items during t#e c&earing (rocess to find a matc# for an incoming (ayment* /#is is (ossib&e because you can use t#e (ayment advice number instead of s(ecifying (arameters in t#e selection screen. A ty(ica& (ayment advice may contain detai&s suc# as document number, amount, currency, reason for under(ayment, etc* /#e (ayment advices are of various categoriesH t#e first ! digits of t#e (ayment advice number #e&( to differentiate one (ayment advice from anot#er@ 3ank advice

=D0 advice 8ockbo< advice )created during t#e c&earing (rocess, avai&ab&e in t#e system w#et#er c&earing was successfu& or not+ .anua& advice Advice from a bank statement .ost of t#e (ayment advices are de&eted as soon as t#e c&earing is successfu& in t#e system* 11/. 8es*ribe ;o*6bo5 Pro*essin). 1oc6:o3 (rocessing )configured in t#e F2'/2 modu&e+ of incoming (ayments is used (redominant&y in t#e 9nited States* 4ere, t#e bank receives t#e c#ecks from customers as incoming (ayments, creates (ayment advice for eac# of t#ese customer c#eck (ayments, and informs t#e (ayee of t#e (ayment, in 3A0 fi&e format* /#is &ock bo< fi&e is sent to t#e (ayee w#o im(orts t#e detai&s into t#e system using t#is e&ectronic fi&e* /#e system u(dates t#e (ayments into t#e G8 by way of batc# in(ut (rocessing* 111. Ho7 *an 'eason !o3es Hel% 7ith 2n*o#in) Pay#ent Pro*essin)? eason )odes configured in t#e system #e&( to #and&e t#e (ayment differences of individua& o(en items in an invoice )eit#er using (ayment or advice or in t#e norma& course+* /o eac# of t#e reason codes, you wi&& define t#e (osting ru&es and t#e G8 accounts in t#e 0.G* 1nce done, w#en t#ere is a (ayment difference against a (articu&ar o(en item, t#e system &ooks for t#e reason code@

%#en t#e c-arge8o** indicator #as been set for t#at reason code, t#en t#e system (osts t#e (ayment difference to a G8 account* %#en t#is indicator is not set, t#en a new o(en item is created for t#e (ayment difference*

%#en disputed item indicator #as been set, t#en t#e system ignores t#ese &ine items w#en counting for t#e customers credit &imit*

244. What is 8unnin) in SAP? /#e SAP System a&&ows you to dun )remind+ business (artners automatica&&y* /#e system duns t#e o(en items from business (artner accounts* /#e dunning program se&ects t#e overdue o(en items, determines t#e dunning le'el of t#e account in $uestion, and creates dunning notices* 0t t#en saves t#e dunning data determined for t#e items and accounts affected* Gou can use t#e dunning (rogram to dun bot# customers and vendors* 0t may be necessary to dun a vendor in t#e case of a debit ba&ance as a resu&t of a credit memo* Dunning is administered t#roug# a Dunning Program, w#ic# uses a dunning 6ey )to &imit t#e dunning &eve& (er item+, a dunning procedure, and a dunning area )if dunning is not done at t#e ?om(any ?ode &eve&+*

Figure /: &unning @ey

241. What is a 8unnin) Pro*e3ure ? SAP comes e$ui((ed wit# a number or Dunning Procedures, w#ic# you can co(y, or you can create your own@

Figure %0: ;ist o1 &unning Proce(ures A dunning procedure contro&s@


Dunning inter'al5fre$uency "race days5minimum days in arrear >umber of dunning le'els )at &east one &eve&+

Figure C1@ Dunning 8eve&s /ransactions to be dunned 0nterest to be ca&cu&ated on t#e overdue items Dnown or negotiated &eave, if any, w#ic# needs to be considered w#en se&ecting t#e overdue items

?om(any ?ode data suc# as (a) 0s dunning (er dunning areaR (b) 0s dunning (er dunning &eve&R (c) 2eference ?om(any ?ode, (d) Dunning ?om(any ?ode, etc*

Dunning *orms!media to be se&ected for t#e dunning run

Figure %2: 8ontrol !n1ormation in a &unning Proce(ure 242. What is the 8unnin) Area ? /#e Dunning Area is o(tiona& and is re$uired on&y if dunning is not done at t#e ?om(any ?ode &eve&* /#e Dunning area can corres(ond to a sa&es division, sa&es organi6ation, etc* 243. 8es*ribe the 8unnin) Pro*ess. /#e Dunning Process invo&ves t#ree maBor ste(s@
1* .aintaining t#e parameters for t#e dunning run !* ?reating5editing t#e dunning proposal generated by t#e system :* Printing dunning notices 1* 2aintaining Dunning Parameters

As t#e first ste( in dunning, you need to maintain certain (arameters, w#ic# identify t#e current dunning run* =ntering t#e date of e<ecution and t#e

dunning run identifier is t#e starting (oint, after w#ic# you wi&& continue to maintain ot#er (arameters suc# as@ i* Dunning date to be (rinted on t#e notice ii* Document (osted u( to iii* ?om(any ?ode iv* Account restrictions )o(tiona&+ >ow, you can save t#e (arameters and dis(&ay t#e &og generated )to see if t#ere were any errors+, t#e dunning &ist )&ist of accounts and items+, and some dunning statistics )b&ocked accounts5items, etc*+*
!* )reating a Dunning Proposal

1nce sc#edu&ed, t#e dunning (rogram (re(ares t#e dunning (ro(osa& as described be&ow@ a* /#e Dunning Program determines w#ic# accounts to dun@
i* System c#ecks t#e fie&ds Dunn.procedure and 1ast dunned

in t#e customer master record to determine w#et#er t#e arrears date or t#e date of t#e &ast dunning run &ies far enoug# back in t#e (ast* ii* ?#ecks w#et#er t#e account is b&ocked for dunning according to t#e dunning b&ock fie&d in t#e customer master record*
iii* Program (rocesses a&& o(en items re&ating to t#e accounts t#us

re&eased in (ii) above t#at were (osted to t#is account on or before t#e date entered in t#e fie&d Documents posted up to.
iv* Program c#ecks a&& t#e o(en items, as re&eased in (iii) above, in an

account to decide@ 0s t#e item b&ockedR

0s it overdue according to t#e date of issue, t#e base date, t#e (ayment conditions, and t#e number of grace days grantedR
i* Program t#en (roceeds to (rocess a&& o(en items t#us re&eased in

(iv): 4ow many days t#e item is overdue %#ic# dunning &eve& for a (articu&ar o(en item
i* /#e (rogram determines t#e #ig#est dunning &eve& for t#e

account based on (v) above* /#e #ig#est dunning &eve& determined is stored in t#e master record of t#e account w#en you (rint t#e &etters* /#is dunning &eve& determines t#e dunning te<t and a s(ecia& dunning form, if defined* i* /#e (rogram t#en (roceeds to c#eck eac# account@ Does t#e customer5vendor #ave a debit ba&ance wit# regard to a&& o(en overdue items se&ectedR 0s t#e tota& amount to be dunned and t#e (ercentage of a&& o(en items more t#an t#e minimum amount and (ercentage defined in t#e dunning (rocedureR 0s t#e dunning &eve& for t#e account or t#e overdue items #ig#er t#an it was for t#e &ast dunning runR 0f not, are t#ere new o(en items to be dunned )wit# a (revious dunning &eve& of -+R 0f not, does t#e dunning (rocedure for t#is &eve& s(ecify t#at dunning be re(eatedR
a* /#e (rogram creates t#e dunning proposal list b* =dit dunning proposal list

i* Gou can edit t#e Dunning Pro(osa& to@

2aise or &ower t#e dunning &eve& of an item 3&ock an item from being dunned 3&ock an account for t#e current dunning run or remove t#e b&ock 3&ock an account in t#e master record for dunning or remove t#e b&ock 3&ock a document for dunning or remove t#e b&ock i* Gou can view t#e sam(&e (rint out to ascertain #ow t#e (rinted notice wi&& &ook )a ma<imum of 1- notices can be seen on t#e screen+*
ii* Gou may a&so dis(&ay &ogs to see t#e c#anges made in t#e

editing ear&ier, as a confirmation of w#at you wanted to c#ange in t#e systemgenerated (ro(osa& ear&ier* 0f necessary, you can go back and c#ange t#e (ro(osa&*
:* Print Dunning %otices

Gou can use a sing&e form or mu&ti(&e forms, w#ic# wi&& #ave different te<t, based on t#e dunning &eve&s* /#ere may a&so be a re$uirement to use a com(&ete&y different form for legal dunning. 1nce t#e (rint o(tion is activated, t#e (rogram (rints t#e notices, and t#e dunning re&ated information suc# as dunning &eve&, &ast dunned, etc*, are u(dated in t#e customer5vendor masters* SAP (rovides t#e o(tion of o(tica&&y arc#iving t#e notices as t#e system (rints t#e dunning notices* /#ere is a&so a (rovision to re'start t#e (rinting if it is interru(ted before com(&eting t#e (rinting* 24$. !an you 3un *usto#ers a*ross !lients in a Sin)le 8unnin) 'un ? >o* A&& t#e data (rocessing is carried out (er ?&ient*

24(. What 3ifferentiates one 8unnin) ;e"el fro# Another? /#e Dunning 1e'el determines t#e dunning te<t and )if one is re$uired+ a s(ecia& dunning form* /#e dunning (rogram determines w#at dunning &eve& s#ou&d be used in t#e dunning run* /#e dunning &eve& so determined is stored in t#e master record of t#e account w#en t#e dunning &etter is (rinted* /#e dunning &eve& may a&so determine w#et#er t#ere wi&& be some dunning c#arges* 24,. Ho7 #any 8unnin) ;e"els *an be 8efine3? Gou may define u( to nine dunning &eve&s* 0f t#ere is on&y one dunning &eve&, t#en it is ca&&ed a payment reminder.

A**ounts Payables
24-. &5%lain the A**ount Payables Sub#o3ule. Accounts Paya:les, a submodu&e under Financia& Accounting )F0+, takes care of vendor're&ated transactions as t#e modu&e is tig#t&y integrated wit# t#e (urc#asing transactions arising from t#e Procurement )ycle. /#e modu&e #e&(s in (rocessing outgoing (ayments eit#er manua&&y or automatica&&y t#roug# t#e Automatic Payment Program. 0t a&so #e&(s in @endor $'aluations. 24/. What 8o*u#ents 'esult fro# Pro*ure#ent Pro*esses ? 0n 2aterials 2anagement )..+@

P 4 Purc#ase 2e$uisition )manua& or automatic using .2P+ P+4 Purc#ase 1rder

0n 7inancial Accounting )F0+@ 0nvoice Ierification Iendor Payment )manua& or automatic+ 3ot# .. and F0 areas@ Goods 2ecei(t Gou may a&so grou( t#ese documents into )1+ 1rder documents, )!+ G2 )Goods 2ecei(t+ documents, and ):+ 02 )0nvoice 2ecei(t+ documents* %#i&e G2502 documents can be dis(&ayed bot# in .. and F0 views, t#e order documents can on&y be viewed in .. view* 241. 8es*ribe a Pur*hase !y*le. A Purc-ase )ycle or Procurement )ycle encom(asses a&& activities inc&uding (urc#ase re$uisition, (urc#ase order, goods movement, goods recei(t, invoicing,

invoice verification, (ayment to vendors, and ends wit# t#e u(dating of vendor account ba&ances*

Figure %3: Procurement 8ycle 214. What is a Pur*hase 'eAuisition (P')? A Purc-ase eBuisition, P , is t#e document t#at out&ines a com(anys

(urc#asing needs of a materia&5service from vendor)s+* A P2, ty(ica&&y an interna& document t#at can be created automatica&&y or manua&&y, identifies t#e demand for a (roduct and aut#ori6es t#e (urc#asing de(artment to (rocure it* 0n t#e automatic creation of a P2, t#is is done as a resu&t of 2 P .2aterial 7A . eBuest *or Auotation/ or direct&y to a Purc-ase +rder .P+/* 211. What is a 'eAuest for @uotation ('9@)? A 7A . eBuest *or Auotation/, w#ic# can be created direct&y or wit# reference to anot#er 2FF or a P2 or an 1ut&ine Agreement, is actua&&y an invitation to vendor)s+ to submit a $uotation for su((&ying a materia& or service* /#e 2FF wi&& contain t#e terms and conditions for su((&y* Gou may send t#e 2FF to sing&e or eBuirements Planning/* /#e P2, after identifying t#e vendor, is (rocessed furt#er to resu&t in a

mu&ti(&e vendors, and you can monitor it by sending reminders to t#ose w#o #ave not res(onded to t#e 2FF* 212. What is an :utline A)ree#ent ? An +utline Agreement, a dec&aration binding bot# t#e buyer and se&&er, is t#e buyers intention to (urc#ase a materia&5service wit# certain terms and conditions agreed to by bot# (arties* /#e essentia& difference between t#e out&ine agreement and $uotation is t#at t#e out&ine agreement does not contain detai&s suc# as de&ivery sc#edu&e or $uantities* 1ut&ine agreements can be contracts or sc-eduling agreements* 213. What is a !ontra*t ? A )ontract, a&so referred to as a Blan6et +rder, is a &ong'term &ega& agreement between t#e buyer and t#e se&&er for (rocurement of materia&s or services over a (eriod of time* /#e contract, created direct&y or wit# reference to a P252FF or anot#er contract, is va&id for a certain (eriod of time wit# start and end dates c&ear&y mentioned* /#ere are two ty(es of contracts@ Auantity )ontracts and @alue )ontracts* 21$. What is a 'elease :r3er ? A elease +rder is a (urc#ase order created against a ?ontract* /#e re&ease orders usua&&y do not contain information on $uantities or de&ivery dates and are a&so ca&&ed Blan6et eleases, )ontract eleases, or )all8+**s. 21(. What is a S*he3ulin) A)ree#ent ? A Sc-eduling Agreement is a&so a &ong'term agreement wit# t#e buyer and se&&er for (rocurement of certain materia&s or services subBect to certain terms and conditions* /#ese agreements can be created direct&y or wit# reference to ot#er documents suc# as anot#er sc#edu&ing agreement, or an 2FF or P2* /#ese

agreements #e&( in (romoting <ust80n8(ime .<0(/ de&iveries, &ess (a(erwork, t#ey reduce su((&y &ead times, and ensure &ow inventory for t#e buyer* 21,. What is a @uotation? A Auotation contains information re&ating to t#e (rice and ot#er conditions for su((&y of a materia& or a service by a vendor, and is t#e vendors wi&&ingness to su((&y t#e same based on t#ose conditions* Gou wi&& be ab&e to com(are t#e data from $uotations using a Price )omparison 1ist and wi&& #e&( in identifying t#e most reasonab&e vendor for su((&y of t#at item)s+* After you receive t#e $uotations, you wi&& ty(ica&&y enter t#e $uotation data )(ricing5de&ivery+ in 2FF* /#e SAP system can easi&y be configured to automatica&&y (rint e;ections for vendors w#ose $uotation are not se&ected* 21-. What is a Pur*hase :r3er (P:)? A Purc-ase +rder .P+/ is a &ega& contract between a vendor and a buyer concerning t#e materia&5service to be (urc#ased5(rocured on certain terms and conditions* /#e order mentions, among ot#er t#ings, t#e $uantity to be (urc#ased, (rice (er unit, de&ivery re&ated conditions, (ayment5(ricing information, etc* A P1 can be created@ 1* Direct&y or !* %it# reference to a P252FF5contract or anot#er P1* 2emember, a&& items on a P1 s#ou&d re&ate to t#e same ?om(any ?ode* 21/. What is a P: History ? /#e Purc-ase +rder >istory )P1 4istory+ &ists a&& t#e transactions for a&& t#e items in a P1 suc# as t#e G2502 document numbers*

211. Will the 92 8o*u#ent be !reate3 7ith the Pur*hase :r3er (P:)? >o* /#ere wi&& not be any document created on t#e F0 side during creation of a P1* 4owever, t#ere can be a document for (osting a commitment to a ?ost ?enter in ?1* )/#e offsetting entry is (osted at t#e time of G2*+ 224. &5%lain 92=MM 2nte)ration. 70822 0ntegration is based on t#e fo&&owing@ .ovement /y(es Ia&uation ?&ass /ransaction Deys .ateria& /y(e /#e 2o'ement (ype is t#e c&assification key indicating t#e ty(e of materia& movement )for e<am(&e, goods recei(t, goods issue, (#ysica& stock transfer+* /#e movement ty(e enab&es t#e system to find (re'defined (osting ru&es determining #ow t#e accounts in F0 )stock and consum(tion accounts+ are to be (osted and #ow t#e stock fie&ds in t#e materia& master record are to be u(dated*

Figure % : Mo?ement -y$es /#e @aluation )lass refers to t#e assignment of a materia& to a grou( of G8 accounts* A&ong wit# ot#er factors, t#e va&uation c&ass determines t#e G8 accounts

t#at are u(dated as a resu&t of a va&uation're&evant transaction or event, suc# as a goods movement* /#e va&uation c&ass makes it (ossib&e to@

Post t#e stock va&ues of materia&s of t#e same materia& ty(e to different G8 accounts*

Post t#e stock va&ues of materia&s of different materia& ty(es to t#e same G8 account*

/#e (ransaction 9ey )a&so known as t#e $'ent 9ey or Process 9ey+ a&&ows users to differentiate between various transactions and events )suc# as (#ysica& inventory transactions and goods movements+ t#at occur wit#in t#e area of inventory management* /#e transaction5event ty(e contro&s t#e fi&ing5storage of documents and t#e assignment of document numbers* /#e 2aterial (ype grou(s toget#er materia&s wit# t#e same basic attributes, for e<am(&e, raw materia&s, semi'finis#ed (roducts, or finis#ed (roducts* %#en creating a materia& master record, you must assign t#e materia& to a materia& ty(e* /#e materia& ty(e determines@ %#et#er t#e materia& is intended for a s(ecific (ur(ose, for e<am(&e, as a ?onfigurab&e .ateria& or Process .ateria&* %#et#er t#e materia& number can be assigned interna&&y or e<terna&&y* /#e >umber 2ange from w#ic# t#e materia& number is drawn* %#ic# screens a((ear and in w#at se$uence* %#ic# user de(artment data you may enter* %#at Procurement /y(e t#e materia& #asH t#at is, w#et#er it is manufactured in'#ouse or (rocured e<terna&&y, or bot#* /oget#er wit# t#e (&ant, t#e materia& ty(e determines t#e materia&s inventory management re$uirement, t#at is@ %#et#er c#anges in $uantity are u(dated in t#e materia& master record*

%#et#er c#anges in va&ue are a&so u(dated in t#e stock accounts in financia& accounting* 221. What Ha%%ensF in SAPF 7hen Bou Post a Eoo3s 'e*ei%t ? %#en you (ost a "oods eceipt ." /, t#e stock account is debited )stock $uantity increases+ and t#e credit goes to t#e " !0 (ayments to t#e vendor@ Debit@ 0nventory Account ?redit@ G2502 ?&earing Account During t#is )1+ a materia& document is created, )!+ an accounting document to u(date t#e re&evant G8 account is created, ):+ P1 order #istory is u(dated, and fina&&y ),+ t#e system enab&es you to (rint t#e G2 s&i(* 222. &5%lain 2n"oi*e ?erifi*ation (2?) in SAP. 0n'oice @eri*ication invo&ves@ 1* Ia&idating t#e accuracy of t#e invoices )$uantity, va&ue, etc*+* !* ?#ecking for b&ocked invoices )w#ic# vary to a great e<tent from t#at of t#e P1+* :* .atc#ing of invoices received from vendors wit# t#at of t#e Purc#ase 1rder5 Goods 2ecei(t* At t#is (oint in time, t#e P1 4istory is u(dated for t#e corres(onding P1 8ine 0tem)s+ of t#e matc#ed invoice* ,* Passing of matc#ed invoices to t#e F0 modu&e* /#e system (osts t#e fo&&owing entries@ Debit@ G2502 ?&earing Account ?redit@ Iendor a5c )Accounts Payab&e o(en &ine item+ )learing Account, w#ic# is t#e intermediate (rocessing account, before you actua&&y (rocess t#e vendor invoice or

?redit@ G8 2econci&iation Account /#e different scenarios in invoice verification inc&ude@


1*

G2'based 0nvoice Ierification indicator is not set in t#e P1 detai& screen@ A&t#oug# t#is setting enab&es you to (ost t#e invoice referenced to a P1 (rior to making a G2, t#e system wi&& b&ock t#e invoice for (ayment )t#is kind of (osting resu&ts in a Auantity @ariance as t#ere #as not been a G2+*

!*

G2'based 0nvoice Ierification indicator is set in t#e P1 detai& screen@ %#en t#e P1 number is referenced t#e system brings u( a&& t#e unmatc#ed items of G2 in t#e se&ection screen* Gou wi&& not be ab&e to (ost t#e invoice for its fu&& va&ue, un&ess t#e P1 #as been fu&&y received* 223. Ho7 3o Bou 8eal 7ith Ta5 7hen Bou Post an 2n"oi*e? %#en you enter an invoice, based on t#e configuration settings, t#e system c#ecks t#e /a< ?ode and ca&cu&ates t#e a((&icab&e ta< or va&idates t#e /a< Amount entered by you@
1* 2anual $ntry4 0n(ut t#e (a3 )ode and t#e (a3 Amount* /#e system wi&&

va&idate and issue a message in case it does not find t#e ta< code or if t#e amount is different*
!* Automatic $ntry4 8eave t#e /a< ?ode and /a< Amount fie&ds b&ank* ?#eck

t#e ?a&cu&ate /a< indicator* /#e system (icks u( t#e corres(onding ta< code and ca&cu&ates t#e ta< amount automatica&&y* 22$. What ?arian*es ?erifi*ation? /#e system needs to be configured (ro(er&y wit# /o&erances so t#at you are not #am(ered wit# variances w#en you try 0nvoice Ierification* Gou need to define t#e &ower and u((er &imits for eac# combination of t#e ?om(any ?ode and t#e to&erance key defined for t#e various variances* /#e system t#en c#ecks t#ese to&erance &imits 3o Bou *o#e A*ross in 2n"oi*e

and issues warnings or (revents you from (roceeding furt#er w#en you (rocess an invoice* @ariances arise because of mismatc# or discre(ancies between t#e invoice and t#e P1 against w#ic# t#e invoice #as been issued* >orma&&y you wi&& encounter@
1* Price 'ariances4 0f t#ere is a discre(ancy in invoice (rice and P1 item (rices* !* Sc-edule 'ariances4 0f t#e (&anned de&ivery date is &ater t#an t#e invoice

(ostings*
:* Auantity 'ariances4 0f t#e de&ivered $uantity )or de&ivered $uantity &ess t#e

(revious&y invoiced $uantity+ is not t#e same as t#at of t#e invoiced $uantity* %#en t#e invoiced $uantity is more t#an t#e G2, t#e system re$uires more G2s to s$uare off t#e situation* 22(. :utline ?en3or Pay#ents in the SAP Syste#. /#e (ayments to sing&e or mu&ti(&e vendors can eit#er be #and&ed in a manua& (rocess or t#roug# an Automatic Payment Program. /#e o(en &iabi&ity item created for t#e vendor during t#e invoice verification wi&& be s$uared off w#en you make t#e vendor (ayment or w#en you run t#e automatic (ayment (rogram* /#e (ayment (rogram in SAP is designed to a&&ow you to enBoy t#e ma<imum discount a&&owed by t#at vendor* 22,. &5%lain Auto#ati* Pay#ent Pro)ra#. /#e Automatic Payment Program in SAP #e&(s to (rocess (ayment transactions bot# wit# customers and vendors* A25AP5/253ank Accounting uses t#e (ayment (rogram* /#e automatic (ayment (rogram #e&(s in determining@

&-at is to :e paidN /o do t#is, you s(ecify ru&es according to w#ic# t#e o(en items to be (aid are se&ected and grou(ed for (ayment*

&-en is payment to :e carried outN /#e due date of t#e o(en items determines w#en (ayment is carried out* 4owever, you can s(ecify t#e (ayment dead&ine in more detai& via configuration*

(o ,-om t-e payment is madeN Gou s(ecify t#e (ayee )t#e vendor or t#e a&ternate (ayee as t#e case may be+*

>o, t-e payment is madeN Gou determine ru&es t#at are used to se&ect a (ayment met#od*

7rom ,-ere t-e payment is madeN Gou determine ru&es t#at are used to se&ect a bank and a bank account for t#e (ayment*

22-. &5%lain Auto#ati* Pay#ent Pro)ra# !onfi)uration. 3efore you are ready to run t#e Automatic Payment Program, t#e fo&&owing s#ou&d #ave been defined5configured in t#e system@

>ouse Ban6 and t#e corres(onding :an6 accounts* Payment 2et-ods to be used for t#e ?om(any ?ode* SAP comes wit# (redefined (ayment met#ods, bot# for A2 and AP* /#e fo&&owing (ayment met#ods are avai&ab&e for you to se&ect from de(ending on t#e re$uirements@ a* Accounts Payab&e
?#eck )S+5/ransfer5Posta& Giro transfer53i&& of e<c#ange

a* Accounts 2eceivab&e 3ank co&&ection53ank direct debit52efund by c#eck52efund by bank transfer53= (ayment re$uest

Ban6 )-ain defined, if necessary* 3ank c#ains are used to make (ayment via more t#an one bank, for e<am(&e, via t#e corres(ondence banks of t#e #ouse bank, t#e reci(ient bank, or t#e intermediary banks* Gou can define u( to t#ree banks*

Payment 7orms defined* SAP de&ivers standard forms, w#ic# can be modified, or new forms can be created for use*

Figure %%: 8ustomi.ing Automatic Payment $rogram using FBAP Gou may do most of t#e configurations by using t#e /ransaction ?ode 7BEP and branc#ing to individua& sections t#ereon* 1r you may use t#e fo&&owing /ransaction ?odes for individua&&y doing it@
1* .Sending/ )ompany )ode speci*ications

a* Sending t#e ?om(any ?ode"if ?om(any ?ode A is making (ayments on be#a&f of 3, t#en 3 is t#e Sending ?om(any ?ode* 1t#erwise, t#e sending ?om(any ?ode is considered t#e (aying ?om(any ?ode )bot# are one and t#e same+* b* /o&erance days

c* Paying ?om(any ?ode s(ecifications .inimum amounts for incoming and outgoing (ayments* Forms for (ayment advice and =D0* 3i&& of =<c#ange (arameters
!* Payment 2et-ods!)ountry and Ban6 determination

a* Payment .et#ods5?ountry Payment .et#od for outgoing5incomingR Payment .et#od c&assification .aster data re$uirements Posting detai&s"document ty(es Payment medium detai&s"Print (rograms Permitted currencies )&eave b&ank to a&&ow a&& currencies+ a* 3ank Determination 2anking 1rder Per Payment .et#od@ %#ic# bank s#ou&d be used first, second, etc* ?urrency 3i&& of =<c#ange 3ank accounts Avai&ab&e amounts Per 4ouse 3ank and Payment .et#od combination@

1ffset a5c for sub&edger (osting

Avai&ab&e funds in eac# bank ?&earing accounts for 3i&& of =<c#ange Ia&ue date ?#arge
:* Payment met-ods per )ompany )ode

a* For eac# Payment .et#od and ?om(any ?ode you need to define@ .inimum5ma<imum (ayment amounts %#et#er (ayment abroad or in foreign currency is a&&owed Payment .edia 3ank o(timi6ation
,* >ouse Ban6

22/. Ho7 3o Bou &5e*ute an Auto#ati* Pay#ent Pro)ra# ? /#e fo&&owing are t#e series of events #a((ening in t#e system w#en you try to e<ecute an Automatic Payment Program4
1* 2aintain Payment Parameters

/o start wit#, you need to maintain t#e (arameters re$uired suc# as date of e<ecution of (ayment run, (ayment run identifier, etc* 1nce t#is is done,

you need to s(ecify t#e (osting date of t#ese (ayments, t#e document date u( to w#ic# t#e (rogram s#ou&d consider t#e items, t#e (aying ?om(any ?ode, (ayment met#ods to be considered, t#e ne<t (osting date, is t#ere certain accounts w#ic# need to be e<c&uded from t#e run, etc* /#e (ayment run t#en needs to be sc#edu&ed eit#er immediate&y or at a s(ecified time5date*
!* Payment Proposal

/#e system creates a (ayment (ro(osa& based on t#e (ayment (arameters maintained in )1+ above* /#e system se&ects t#e e&igib&e +pen 0tems based on t#e fo&&owing se$uence@
a* Due date is determined via t#e Base 1ine Date and t#e (erms o*

Payment for eac# of t#e &ine items*


b* Program ca&cu&ates t#e )as- Discount Period and due date for t#e %et

Payment*
c* "race Periods are t#en added to t#is due date* d* %#ic# Special "1 accounts are to be inc&uded, based on w#at you #ave

a&ready maintained as t#e (arameters in )1+ above* e* /#e system wi&& determine w#et#er to inc&ude an item during t#e current run or for t#e future one based on t#e s(ecifications you made in )1+*
f* Bloc6ing an item*

/#e (ayment (ro(osa& can be dis(&ayed for furt#er (rocessingH t#e &og can be c#ecked to see t#e system messages, and t#e e<ce(tion &ist can be generated for furt#er eva&uation*
:* Payment Proposal

%it# t#e (ayment (ro(osa& avai&ab&e, you can now edit t#e (ro(osa& to@ a* ?#ange 4ouse 3ank, from w#at was maintained ear&ier b* ?#ange Payment .et#od, if necessary

c* ?#ange Payment Due Date to re&a< or restrict certain o(en items d* 3&ock59nb&ock &ine items
,* Payment

un

After t#e (ayment (ro(osa& #as been edited, you can run t#e Payment Program t#at creates t#e (ayment documents and (re(ares t#e data for (rinting t#e forms or creating t#e ta(e or disk* 3efore (rinting t#e forms, c#eck t#e &ogs to determine t#at t#e (ayment (rogram run was successfu&*
C* Print

un

Payment 2edium Programs use t#e data (re(ared by t#e (ayment (rogram to create forms )(ayment advice, =D0 accom(anying s#eet, etc*+ or fi&es for t#e data media* /#e data created by t#e (ayment (rogram is stored in t#e fo&&owing tab&es@ $"5> Payee or Payment .et#od data $"5P 0ndividua& 1(en 0tems data $"5D 3ank Data and Payment Amounts data Gou need to define @ariants for (rint (rograms, w#ic# need to be defined@ a* Per Payment .et#od (er country';assign a Print Program b* /o run t#e Print Program';at &east one Iariant (er Print Program (er Payment .et#od

221. !an Bou Pay a ?en3or in a !urren*y :ther than the 2n"oi*e !urren*y? %it# re&ease ,*CA, you can (ay a vendor in a currency t#at is different from t#at of t#e transaction5invoice currency* /#is is ac#ieved by entering t#e re$uired currency code direct&y in t#e o(en item* Prior to t#is re&ease, to (ay in a different currency, you #ad to manua&&y (rocess t#e (ayment* 234. What is a Pay#ent .lo*6 ? A Payment Bloc6 (revents you from (aying an o(en item of a vendor* /#e (ayment b&ock is entered in t#e Payment Bloc6 fie&d in a vendor master record or direct&y in t#e o(en &ine item* 9se t#e (ayment Bloc6 0ndicators to define t#e Payment Bloc6 may use t#e SAP de&ivered (ayment b&ock indicators )A, B, 0, easons. Gou

, etc*+ or create your

own* An indicator suc# as L is used w#en you want to ski( t#e (articu&ar account, and a b&ank indicator indicates t#at t#e account5item is free for (ayment* 4owever, for eac# of t#ese b&ock indicators, you need to configure w#et#er c#anges wou&d be a&&owed w#i&e (rocessing t#e (ayment (ro(osa&* /#en, it is a&so (ossib&e to b&ock a (ayment or re&ease a b&ocked one w#i&e (rocessing t#e Payment Proposal. Gou may a&so (ro(ose a (ayment b&ock indicator w#i&e defining /erms of Payment* 231. Ho7 3o you 'elease .lo*6e3 2n"oi*es for Pay#ents ? /#e system wi&& :loc6 an in'oice if it comes across wit# an item wit# a Bloc6ing eason. /#e b&ocking reason may be due to variances or ins(ection're&ated issues* %#en t#e system b&ocks an invoice for (ayment, t#e (ayment b&ock fie&d is c#ecked by t#e system* Gou wi&& use an 0n'oice elease (ransaction to se&ect t#e b&ocked invoices for

(rocessing furt#er* /#e re&ease of b&ocked invoices for (ayments can be #and&ed eit#er manua&&y or automatica&&y*

232. What is the A**ount Assi)n#ent !ate)ory ? /#e Automatic Account Assignment &ogic takes care of (osting to t#e correct G8 accounts for Stoc6 2aterial wit# t#e 2aterial (ype (ermitting inventory management, and t#e materia& master contains information as to w#ic# G8 account needs to be u(dated* 3ut t#ere are materia& &ine items .%on8Stoc6 materia&s+ created manua&&y in t#e Purc#ase 2e$uisition5Purc#ase 1rder51ut&ine Agreement for w#ic# someone needs to decide t#e account assignment data and manua&&y enter it in t#e Purc#ase 2e$uisition* 4ere, t#e Account Assignment )ategory determines w#ere to a&&ocate t#e costs re&ating to suc# materia&s* /#e account assignment category #e&(s you to define t#e ty(e of account assignment )Sa&es 1rder'?, ProBect' P, ?ost ?enter'D, etc*+ and w#ic# accounts are to be (osted to w#en G2502 is (osted to* 233. What is a !re3it Me#o ? A )redit 2emo is issued by a vendor w#o #as ear&ier su((&ied you some services or materia&s* /#e occasion is necessitated w#en t#e de&ivered goods are damaged or you #ave returned some of t#e goods back to t#e vendor* /#e system treats bot# t#e invoices and t#e credit memo in t#e same way, e<ce(t t#at t#e (ostings are done wit# t#e o((osite sign* 0f t#e credit memo is for t#e entire invoiced $uantity, t#e system generates t#e credit memo automatica&&y* 4owever, if t#e credit memo re&ates to a (ortion of t#e invoiced $uantity, you need to (rocess it manua&&y in t#e system* 23$. What are S%e*ial E; Transa*tions ? Special "1 (ransactions are not direct&y (osted to t#e G8 )2econci&iation Accounts+ t#oug# t#ese are re&ated to sub&edger accounts suc# as A25AP* /#e transactions to t#ese accounts are s#own se(arate&y in t#e ba&ance s#eet* /#ere are s(ecific (osting keys5indicators defined in t#e system to regu&ate t#e (ostings to t#ese items* Gou need to s(ecify a Special "1 0ndicator )suc# as a 7'Down Payment

2e$uest, A'Down Payment+ for (rocessing suc# a transaction* And t#e system wi&& make use of t#e s(ecia&&y defined (osting keys )-9'customer debit, 19'customer credit, !9'vendor debit, and :9'vendor credit+ for (osting t#ese s(ecia& G8 transactions* /#ere are t#ree ty(es of S(ecia& G8 transactions@ Free 1ffsetting =ntries )Down Payment+ Statistica& Postings )Guarantee+ >oted 0tems )Down Payment 2e$uest+

Figure %*: S$ecial 4; !n(icators 23(. 8ifferentiate 9ree :ffsettin) &ntry fro# a Statisti*al Postin). 7ree +**setting $ntry (ostings are (art of t#e regu&ar (ostings but wit# a free&y definab&e offsetting entry, and re&ate to t#e +n8Balance S-eet 0tems* 1n t#e ot#er #and, in a Statistical Posting, you wi&& a&ways be (osting to t#e same offsetting entry, and t#ese are a&& t#e +**8Balance S-eet 0tems*

23,. What is a +ote3 2te# %oted 0tems are never dis(&ayed on Financia& Statements as t#ey serve on&y as reminders of a financia& ob&igation suc# as outstanding (ayments to be made or due to us, suc# as a Do,n Payment eBuest. /#is kind of (osting does not u(date any G8 account in t#e system but #e&(s to kee( track of suc# ob&igations for easy fo&&ow' u(* /#is is a&so sometimes referred to as a 2emo $ntry. 0t is interesting to note t#at w#i&e t#e S(ecia& G8 0ndicator for a Down Payment 2e$uest is 7, you need to enter t#e indicator A as t#e target S(ecia& G8 indicator w#i&e you are in t#e Do,n Payment not u(date t#e G8* 23-. &5%lain Asset A**ountin) (92=AA). /#e Asset Accounting .708AA/ submodu&e in SAP manages a com(anys fi<ed assets, rig#t from ac$uisition to retirement5scra((ing* A&& accounting transactions re&ating to de(reciation, insurance, etc*, of assets are taken care of t#roug# t#is modu&e, and a&& t#e accounting information from t#is modu&e f&ows to F0'G8 on a rea&'time basis* eBuest $ntry Screen* %#en you (ost t#is entry, t#e system creates a one'sided memo entry for t#e customer or vendor but does

Figure %+: F!'AA integration )ith other mo(ules Gou wi&& be ab&e to direct&y (ost )t#e goods recei(t )G2+, invoice recei(t )02+, or any wit#drawa& from a ware#ouse to a fi<ed asset+ from .. or PP to F0'AA* /#e integration wit# F0'A2 #e&(s in direct (osting of sa&es to t#e customer account* Simi&ar&y, integration wit# F0'AP #e&(s in (osting an asset direct&y to F0'AA and t#e re&evant vendor account in cases w#ere t#e (urc#ase is not routed t#roug# t#e .. modu&e* Gou may ca(ita&i6e t#e maintenance activities to an asset using sett&ements t#roug# t#e P. modu&e* F0'AA and F0'G8 #as rea&'time integration w#ere a&& t#e transactions suc# as asset ac$uisition, retirement, transfer, etc*, are recorded simu&taneous&y in bot# t#e modu&es* 4owever, batc# (rocessing is re$uired to transfer t#e de(reciation va&ues, interest, etc*, to t#e F0 modu&e* /#e F0'AA and ?1 integration #e&(s in@

Assigning an asset to any of t#e )ontrolling +:;ects suc# as cost center, interna& order5maintenance order, or an activity ty(e* 0nternal +rders act as a two'way &ink to t#e F0'AA@ )i+ t#ey #e&( to co&&ect and (ass on t#e ca(ita& e<(enditure to assets, and )ii+ t#ey co&&ect t#e de(reciation5interest from F0'AA to contro&&ing obBects* )>ote t#at w#en t#ere is a situation w#ere t#e asset

master record contains an interna& order and a cost center, t#e de(reciation is always (osted to t#e interna& order and not to t#e cost center*+ /#e de(reciation and t#e interest are (assed on to t#e cost5(rofit centers* 23/. What is a ;ean 2#%le#entation in 92=AA? A 1ean 0mplementation is t#e sca&ed'down version of t#e regu&ar F0'AA configuration in 0.G, wit# minima& configuration re$uired to enab&e asset accounting* /#is is suitab&e for sma&& com(anies using t#e standard functiona&ities of asset accounting, and a&so in situations w#ere t#e Asset ?ata&og is not t#at &arge*

Figure %,: ;ean im$lementation in F!'AA Gou s#ou&d not o(t for &ean im(&ementation if@ Gou need more t#an De(reciation Areas Gou need to De(reciate 0n Foreign ?urrencies as we&& Gou #ave Grou( Assets Gou need to define your own De(reciation Deys5/ransaction /y(es5 2e(orts Gou need a Grou( ?onso&idation

231. What are the 6in3s of Assets in SAP? An asset can be a Simple Asset or )omple3 Asset* De(ending on t#e re$uirement, assets are maintained wit# Asset 2ain %um:ers and Asset Su:num:ers* A com(&e< asset consists of many Su:8AssetsM eac# of t#em identified using an asset subnumber* Gou may a&so use t#e conce(t "roup Asset in SAP* 2$4. &5%lain !o#%le5 Assets an3 Asset Subnu#bers. A )omple3 Asset in SAP is made u( of many master records eac# of w#ic# is denoted by an Asset Su:num:er. 0t is (rudent to use asset subnumbers if@ Gou need to manage t#e subse$uent ac$uisitions se(arate&y from t#e initia& one )for e<am(&e, your initia& ac$uisition was a P?, and you are adding a (rinter &ater+* Gou want to manage t#e various (arts of an asset se(arate&y even at t#e time of initia& ac$uisition )for e<am(&e, an initia& (urc#ase of a P? w#ere you create se(arate asset master records for t#e monitor, ?P9, etc*+* Gou need to divide t#e assets based on certain tec#nica& $ua&ities )keyboard, mouse, etc*+* %#en you manage a com(&e< asset, t#e system enab&es you to eva&uate t#e asset in a&& (ossib&e ways suc# as (i) for a sing&e subnumber, (if) for a&& subnumbers, and (iii) for se&ect subnumbers* 2$1. What is a Erou% asset This? A "roup Asset in SAP is a&most &ike a norma& asset e<ce(t t#at it can #ave )any number of+ su:8assets denoted by Asset Su:num:ers* /#e conce(t of grou( asset becomes necessary w#en you need to carry out de(reciation at a grou( &eve&, for some s(ecia& (ur(oses suc# as ta< re(orting* 2emember t#at SAPs way of de(reciation is a&ways at t#e individua& asset &eve&* 4ence, to manage at t#e grou( in SAP? When Bou 7ill use

&eve&, you need t#e grou( asset* 1nce you decide to #ave grou( assets, you a&so need to #ave s(ecia& de(reciation areas meant for grou( assetsH you wi&& not be ab&e de(reciate a grou( asset using a norma& de(reciation area* 9n&ike )omple3 Assets, you can de&ete a grou( asset on&y w#en a&& t#e associated subnumbers #ave been marked for de&etion* 2$2. What is a Asset Su%er +u#ber in SAP? /#e conce(t of Asset Super %um:er, in F0'AA, is used on&y for re(orting (ur(oses* 4ere, you wi&& assign a number of individua& assets to a sing&e asset number* 3y using t#is met#odo&ogy, you wi&& be ab&e to see a&& t#e associated assets wit# t#e asset su(er number as a sing&e asset )for e<am(&e, brake assemb&y &ine+ or as individua& assets )for e<am(&e, mac#inery, e$ui(ment in t#e brake assemb&y &ine+* 2$3. What is a !hart of 8e%re*iation ? Ho7 3oes it 3iffer fro# a !hart of A**ounts ? A )-art o* Depreciation contains a &ist of country's(ecific de(reciation areas* 0t (rovides t#e ru&es for t#e eva&uation of assets t#at are va&id in a given country or economic area* SAP comes su((&ied wit# defau&t c#arts of de(reciation t#at are based on t#e re$uirements of eac# country* /#ese defau&t c#arts of de(reciation a&so serve as t#e reference c#arts from w#ic# you can create a new c#art of de(reciation by co(ying one of t#e re&evant c#arts* After co(ying, you may de&ete t#e de(reciation areas you do not need* 4owever, note t#at t#e de&etion must be done before any assets are created* Gou are re$uired to assign a c#art of de(reciation to your ?om(any ?ode* 2emember t#at one ?om(any ?ode can #ave on&y one c#art of de(reciation assigned to it, even t#oug# mu&ti(&e ?om(any ?odes can use a sing&e c#art of de(reciation* /#e c#art of accounts can be g&oba&, country s(ecific, and industry s(ecific based on t#e needs of t#e business* /#e c#art of de(reciation is on&y country speci*ic* /#e c#arts are inde(endent of eac# ot#er*

O$en table as s$rea(sheet )-art o* Depreciation =stab&is#ed by F0'AA* )-art o* Accounts =stab&is#ed by F0*

A c#art of de(reciation is a co&&ection of country /#e c#art of accounts is a &ist of s(ecific de(reciation areas* G8 accounts used in a ?om(any ?ode* /#e c#art of accounts contains t#e c#art of accounts area and t#e ?om(any ?ode area* /#e c#art of de(reciation is country s(ecific* De(ending on t#e re$uirement 9sua&&y you wi&& not re$uire more t#an one c#art of you may #ave an o(erating c#art account* SAP comes de&ivered wit# many country of accounts, country s(ecific s(ecific c#arts of de(reciation as reference c#arts c#art of accounts, g&oba& c#art of w#ic# can be co(ied to create your own c#art of accounts, etc* de(reciation* 1ne ?om(any ?ode uses on&y one c#art of 1ne ?om(any ?ode uses on&y one de(reciation* c#art of accounts*

.any ?om(any ?odes, in t#e same country, can Severa& ?om(any ?odes wit#in use t#e same c#art of de(reciation* t#e same country can use t#e same c#art of accounts* 2$$. Ho7 3o Bou !reate an Asset A**ountin) !o#%any !o3e ? i* Define t#e ?om(any ?ode in F0 configuration, and assign a c#art of accounts to t#is ?om(any ?ode* ii* Assign a c#art of de(reciation to t#is ?om(any ?ode in F0'AA configuration* iii* Add necessary data for t#e ?om(any ?ode for use in F0'AA, and your asset accounting ?om(any ?ode is now ready for use*

2$(. What is 8e%re*iation ? &5%lain the ?arious Ty%es. Depreciation is t#e reduction in t#e :oo6 'alue of an asset due to its use over time )dec&ine in economic usefu&ness+ or due to &ega& framework for ta<ation re(orting* /#e de(reciation is usua&&y ca&cu&ated taking into account t#e economic li*e of t#e asset, e3pected 'alue of t#e asset at t#e end of its economic &ife .;un6! scrap 'alue/, met-od o* depreciation calculation )straig#t &ine met#od, dec&ining ba&ance, sum of year digits, doub&e dec&ining, etc*+, and t#e defined (ercentage dec&ine in t#e va&ue of t#e asset every year )!-T, or 1CT, and so on+* /#e de(reciation can eit#er be (&anned or un(&anned* Planned depreciation is one w#ic# brings down t#e va&ue of t#e asset after every (&anned (eriodH say every mont#, unti& t#e asset va&ue is fu&&y de(reciated over its &ife (eriod* %it# t#is met#od, you wi&& know w#at t#e va&ue of t#e asset at any (oint of time in its active &ife* 1n t#e contrary, unplanned depreciation is a sudden #a((ening of an event or occurrence not foreseen )t#ere cou&d be a sudden break out of a fire damaging an asset, w#ic# forces you to de(reciate fu&&y as it is no &onger usefu& economica&&y+ resu&ting in a (ermanent reduction of t#e va&ue of t#e asset* 0n SAP, you wi&& come across t#ree ty(es of de(reciation@
1* +rdinary depreciation, w#ic# is not#ing but (&anned de(reciation* !* Special depreciation, w#ic# is over and above ordinary de(reciation, used

norma&&y for ta<ation (ur(oses*


:* 5nplanned depreciation, w#ic# is t#e resu&t of reducing t#e asset va&ue due to

t#e sudden occurrence of certain events* 2$,. 8efine 8e%re*iation Areas. Fi<ed assets are va&ued different&y for different (ur(oses )business, &ega&, etc*+* SAP manages t#ese different va&uations by means of Depreciation Areas. /#ere are

various de(reciation areas suc# as book de(reciation, ta< de(reciation, de(reciation for cost'accounting (ur(oses, etc*

Figure %/: &e$reciation Area A de(reciation area decides #ow and for w#at (ur(ose an asset is eva&uated* /#e de(reciation area can be rea& or a derived one* Gou may need to use severa& de(reciation areas for a sing&e asset de(ending on t#e va&uation and re(orting re$uirements* /#e de(reciation areas are denoted by a !'c#aracter code in t#e system* /#e de(reciation areas contain t#e de(reciation terms t#at are re$uired to be entered in t#e asset master records or asset classes* SAP comes de&ivered wit# many de(reciation areasH #owever, t#e de(reciation area G1LBoo6 Depreciation is t#e maBor one*

Figure *0: &etails o1 01'Boo3 &e$reciation /#e ot#er de(reciation areas are@ 3ook de(reciation in grou( currency ?onso&idated versions in &oca&5grou( currency /a< ba&ance s#eet de(reciation S(ecia& ta< de(reciation ?ountry's(ecific va&uation )e*g*, net'wort# ta< or state ca&cu&ation+ Ia&ues5de(reciations t#at differ from de(reciation area -1 )for e<am(&e, cost' accounting reasons+ Derived de(reciation area )t#e difference between book de(reciation and country's(ecific ta< de(reciation+

2$-. Ho7 3o Bou Set u% 8e%re*iation Area %ostin)s to 92 fro# 92=AA? Gou need to define #ow t#e various de(reciation areas need to (ost to F0'G8* 0t can be any one of t#e fo&&owing scenarios@ Post de(reciation t#roug# (eriodic (rocessing* Post bot# t#e AP? )Ac$uisition and Production ?osts+ and de(reciation t#roug# (eriodic (rocessing* Post t#e AP? in rea& time but de(reciation t#roug# (eriodic (rocessing* >o va&ues are (osted* 4owever, you need to ensure t#at at &east one de(reciation area is configured to (ost va&ues automatica&&y to t#e F0'G8* >orma&&y, t#is de(reciation area wi&& be -1 )book de(reciation+* For t#e rest of t#e de(reciation areas, it may be configured t#at t#ey derive t#eir va&ues from t#is area and t#e difference t#us ca&cu&ated is automatica&&y (osted to F0'G8* /#ere may a&so be situations w#ere you may define de(reciation areas Bust for re(orting (ur(oses, and t#ese areas need not (ost to t#e G8* 2$/. What is an Asset !lass? An Asset )lass in SAP is t#e basis for c&assifying an asset based on business and &ega& re$uirements* 0t is essentia&&y a grou(ing of assets #aving certain common c#aracteristics* =ac# asset in t#e system needs to be associated wit# an asset c&ass*

Figure *1: Asset 8lass An asset c&ass is t#e most im(ortant configuration e&ement t#at decides t#e ty(e of asset )suc# as &and, bui&dings, furniture and fi<tures, e$ui(ment, assets under construction, &eased assets, &ow'va&ue assets, etc*+, t#e document number range, data entry screen &ayout for asset master creation, G8 account assignments, de(reciation areas, de(reciation terms, etc* An asset c&ass is defined at t#e ?&ient &eve& and is avai&ab&e to a&& t#e ?om(any ?odes of t#at ?&ient* /#e asset c&ass consists of@

A -eader section"contro& (arameters for master data maintenance and account determination*

A master data section"defau&t va&ues for administrative data in t#e asset master record*

A 'aluation section"contro& (arameters for va&uation and de(reciation terms*

/#e asset c&ass can be@ 3ui&dings /ec#nica& assets Financia& assets 8eased assets

Au? )assets under construction+

8ow va&ue assets 2$1. Why 3o Bou nee3 Asset !lasses ? An Asset )lass is t#e &ink between t#e asset master records and t#e re&evant accounts in t#e G8* /#e account determination in t#e asset c&ass enab&es you to (ost to t#e re&evant G8 accounts* Severa& asset c&asses can use t#e same account determination (rovided a&& t#ese asset c&asses use t#e same c#art of accounts and (ost to t#e same G8 accounts* 2(4. What is an Asset !lass !atalo) ? An Asset )lass )atalog contains a&& t#e asset c&asses in an enter(rise and is t#erefore va&id across t#e ?&ient* Since an asset c&ass is va&id across t#e ?&ient, most of t#e c#aracteristics of t#e asset c&ass are defined at t#e ?&ient &eve&H #owever, t#ere are certain c#aracteristics )suc# as t#e de(reciation key, for e<am(&e+, w#ic# can be defined at t#e c#art of de(reciation &eve&* 2(1. 2s it Possible to !reate Asset !lasses Auto#ati*ally? 1ne of t#e benefits of &ean im(&ementation configuration is t#e abi&ity to create asset c&asses automatica&&y from t#e asset G8 accounts* /#is too& se&ects on&y necessary system settings so t#at t#e asset c&asses are created automatica&&y in a very s#ort time* During t#e (rocess of creation, t#e system a&&ows you to de&ete a&& t#e e<isting obBects )i*e*, asset c&asses, number ranges, account a&&ocations, fie&d se&ections, etc*+ before creating t#e new ones* /#e (rere$uisites for automatic asset c&ass creation inc&ude@ ?om(any ?ode must be assigned to a c#art of de(reciation De(reciation areas #ave a&ready been defined G8 account number is not more t#an 7 digits )ot#erwise you need to assign t#e c&asses manua&&y+

A&so note t#at you may need to maintain t#e G8 account for accumu&ated de(reciation manua&&y* /#e system maintains t#e necessary account assignment on&y wit# regard to t#e de(reciation area -1 )book de(reciation+* 0f you need more areas, you may need to do t#at manua&&y in t#e 0.G* 2(2. What is an Asset ?alue 8ate ? /#e Asset @alue Date is t#e start date of de(reciation for t#e asset* /#e (&anned de(reciation is ca&cu&ated by t#e system based on t#is de(reciation start date and t#e se&ected de(reciation term for t#at asset* 3e carefu& wit# t#e (osting date and asset va&ue date* 3ot# dates need to be in t#e same fisca& year* 2(3. What is an Asset Master ? An Asset 2aster can be created by co(ying an e<isting asset in t#e same ?om(any ?ode or anot#er ?om(any ?odeH it can a&so be created from scratc# w#en it is done for t#e first time* Again, w#i&e creating t#e master, SAP a&&ows you to create mu&ti(&e assets in one ste(, (rovided a&& suc# assets are simi&ar )#aving t#e same asset c&ass and a&& be&onging to t#e same ?om(any ?ode+* From 2e&ease ,*C, t#e transaction codes for creating an asset master #ave been c#anged to t#e AS series instead of t#e ear&ier A/ series )for e<am(&e, create asset is code ASG1 )A(G1 before+, c#ange asset is ASG2 )A(G2 before+, and so on* 0f you are more comfortab&e wit# t#e creation of assets using t#e conventiona& screen t#an wit# t#e tab feature avai&ab&e now in t#e AS transaction series, you can do so, but you cannot find t#ese transactions under AS.>U =ac# asset master contains t#e necessary information to ca&cu&ate t#e de(reciation@ ?a(ita&i6ation date5ac$uisition (eriod De(reciation areas re&evant for t#e asset De(reciation key 9sefu& &ife5e<(ired usefu& &ife

?#ange over year, if any Scra( va&ue, if any Start date of )ordinary de(reciation+ 2($. &5%lain the T7o Ways use3 to !reate Asset Masters. ?o(y an e<isting asset as a reference for creating t#e new one* From an e<isting asset c&ass create a new asset so t#at t#is asset c&ass (rovides t#e defau&t contro& (arameters for t#e new asset* 2((. 2s it Possible to !reate Multi%le Assets in a Sin)le Transa*tion? SAP enab&es you to create mu&ti(&e )but simi&ar+ assets in one transaction* %#at you need to know is t#at a&& t#ese assets s#ou&d be&ong to t#e same asset c&ass and t#e same ?om(any ?ode* =nter t#e number of assets you need to create in t#e %um:er o* similar assets fie&d* After creating t#e assets, you wi&& be ab&e to c#ange t#e individua& descri(tions5inventory numbers w#en you are about to save t#e master records* %#en you save t#e master records, t#e system assigns a range of asset numbers*

Figure *2: 8reate multi$le assets

/#e on&y drawback of using t#is met#od of creating assets in bu&k is t#at you wi&& not be ab&e to create long te3t for any of t#ese assets* 2(,. What is the Ti#e=3e%en3ent 8ata in an Asset Master? A&& t#e cost accounting assignment're&ated data suc# as cost center, interna& orders or investment (roBects, etc*, need to be maintained as (ime8dependent Data in asset masters* Additiona&&y, t#e information re&ated to asset s-ut8do,n and s-i*t operation a&so needs to be maintained as time de(endent* SAP maintains a&& t#e time'de(endent data for t#e entire &ife s(an of t#e assets* 2(-. &5%lain Asset A*Auisition. Asset AcBuisition can be t#roug# any one of t#e fo&&owing t#ree routes@
1* $3ternal AcBuisition t-roug- Purc-ase

=<terna& ac$uisition of assets wi&& be (rimari&y from vendors, w#o are eit#er your business (artners or t#ird (arties* 0t can a&so be from your affi&iated com(anies )use (ransaction )ode4 ABEP+* /#e e<terna& asset ac$uisition can be done severa& ways@ i* /#e asset can be (osted in t#e .. modu&e* ii* /#e asset can be created in F0'AA wit# automatic c&earing of t#e offsetting entry )/ransaction ?ode@ A3Q1>+* /#is can be ac#ieved eit#er of t#e fo&&owing ways@ a* /#e (osting is made initia&&y in F0'AP and t#e c&earing account c&eared w#en t#e (osting is made to t#e asset )F0'AA+*

b* Post t#e asset wit# t#e automatic offsetting entry )F0'AA+ and t#en c&ear t#e c&earing account t#roug# a credit (osting by an incoming invoice )F0'AP+*
i* %#en not integrated wit# F0'AP, you may ac$uire t#e asset in F0'AA

wit# an automatic offsetting entry wit#out referencing a Purc#ase 2e$uisition )P2+* /#is kind of ac$uisition is necessary w#en@ a* Gou #ave not yet received t#e invoice or b* %#en t#e invoice #as a&ready been (osted in F0'AP i* %#en integrated wit# F0'AP, ac$uire t#e asset in F0'AA using an incoming invoice but wit#out a reference to a Purc#ase 1rder )P1+*
!* 0n8-ouse Production!AcBuisition

0n8-ouse Asset AcBuisition is (rimari&y t#e ca(ita&i6ation of goods5services (roduced by your com(any* /#e costs associated wit# t#e com(&ete or (artia& (roduction of t#e goods5services from wit#in t#e com(any needs to be ca(ita&i6ed into se(arate asset)s+* 9sua&&y, t#e ca(ita&i6ation is done as fo&&ows@ i* ?reate an order5(roBect )in 0nvestment .anagement+ to ca(ture t#e (roduction costs associated wit# t#e goods5services (roduced in'#ouse*
ii* Sett&e t#e order5(roBect to an Au? )Asst under ?onstruction+* iii* Distribute5Sett&e t#e Au? so created into new asset)s+* Gou wi&& be using

t#e (ransaction (ype 11G for asset ac$uisition from in'#ouse (roduction*
:* Su:seBuent AcBuisition

%#en t#e asset5vendor accounts are (osted, t#e system u(dates t#e corres(onding G8 accounts )F0'AP and F0'AA+ t#roug# re&evant account determinations* SAP uses various kinds of transaction ty(es to distinguis# t#e

different transactions* During ac$uisition t#e system makes t#e fo&&owing entries in t#e asset master data@ Date of initia& ac$uisition5(eriod and year of ac$uisition* ?a(ita&i6ation date of t#e asset* Start date for ordinary de(reciation )t#e start date is determined from t#e asset va&ue date5(eriod5year of ac$uisition+* Iendor is automatica&&y entered in t#e origin* 2(/. What are Auto#ati*ally Set in the Asset Masters 8urin) 2nitial A*Auisition ? Date of ca(ita&i6ation Ac$uisition (eriod Posting date of origina& ac$uisition De(reciation start date )(er de(reciation area+ 2(1. Why it is +e*essary to .lo*6 an Asset Master 'e*or3? 0n case you decide t#at you do not want to (ost any more ac$uisitions to an e<isting asset, t#en it is necessary for you to set t#e Bloc6 0ndicator in t#e asset master record* /#is is usua&&y t#e case wit# Au?, w#ere after t#e ca(ita&i6ation you no &onger want any furt#er additions to t#e asset* /#e b&ock indicator (revents on&y furt#er (ostings but not transfers or retirements or de(reciationH even after an asset is b&ocked, you can continue to de(reciate it as in t#e case of ot#er assets* 2,4. Ho7 3o you 8elete an Asset Master? Gou can Delete an Asset 2aster record from t#e system on&y w#en t#ere are no transactions (osted to it* /#e system wi&& not a&&ow you to de&ete t#e master record if t#ere are transactions against t#e asset, even if you reverse a&& t#e (revious transactions (ertaining to t#e asset and bring down t#e asset va&ue to 6ero* 4owever,

un&ike F0'A2, F0'AP, or F0'G8 w#ere arc-i'ing is a (rere$uisite to de&ete t#e master records, you may de&ete t#e asset master records wit#out arc#iving* %#en de&eted, t#e system a&so de&etes t#e asset number* 2,1. What is an (Asset) Transa*tion Ty%e in 92=AA? (ransaction (ypes in F0'AA identify t#e nature of an asset transaction )ac$uisition or transfer or retirement+ to s(ecify w#at is u(dated, among (a) De(reciation area, (b) Ia&ue fie&d, and (c) Asset accounts )in 35S+*

Figure *3: 5Asset7 -ransaction ty$es /#e fo&&owing are some of t#e common transaction ty(es used@

1GG Asset Ac$uisition"Purc#ase 11G Asset Ac$uisition"0n'#ouse Production 2GG Asset 2etirement"%it#out revenue 21G Asset 2etirement"%it# revenue

/#e transaction ty(e is e<tensive&y used in most asset re(orts, inc&uding t#e asset -istory s-eet, to dis(&ay t#e various asset transactions differentiated by t#e

transaction ty(es* SAP comes wit# numerous transaction ty(es, w#ic# wi&& take care of a&most a&& your re$uirements* 4owever, s#ou&d t#ere be a s(ecific case, you may a&so create your own transaction ty(e* =very transaction ty(e is grou(ed into a (ransaction (ype "roup )for e<am(&e, 1'; Ac$uisition+, w#ic# c#aracteri6es t#e various transaction ty(es )for e<am(&e, transaction ty(es 1-- and 11-+ wit#in t#at grou(* /#e system makes it (ossib&e to &imit t#e transaction ty(e grou(s t#at are associated wit# certain asset c&asses* 2,2. &5%lain Assets un3er !onstru*tion (Au!) in SAP. /#e goods and5or services (roduced, in'#ouse, can be ca(ita&i6ed into asset)s+* 3ut, t#ere are two distinct (#ases during t#is (rocess@
1* ?onstruction (#ase )Au?+

!* 9ti&i6ation (#ase )usefu& or economic &ife (#ase+ 0t t#en becomes necessary to s#ow t#e assets under t#ese two (#ases in two different ba&ance s#eet items@ /#e construction (#ase is one in w#ic# you start (roducing or assemb&ing t#e asset but it is not yet ready for economic uti&i6ation* SAP categori6es t#ese kinds of assets into a s(ecia& asset c&ass ca&&ed Assets under )onstruction .Au)/* /#e Au? is managed t#roug# a se(arate asset c&ass wit# a se(arate asset G8 account* SAP a&&ows (osting down (ayments to Au?* 0t is a&so (ossib&e to enter credit memos for Au? even after its com(&ete ca(ita&i6ation, (rovided you are managing t#is asset c&ass and a&&owing negative AP) .AcBuisition and Production )osts/* /#e 02 .0n'estment 2anagement/ modu&e #e&(s to manage interna& orders5(roBects for Au?* 0t is necessary to use t#e depreciation 6ey ---- to ensure t#at you are not ca&cu&ating any de(reciation for Au?* 3ut you can continue to #ave special ta3 depreciation and in'estment support even on t#ese assets*

2,3. Ho7 3o Bou !a%italiCe Au! in SAP? An Asset under )onstruction can be managed in two ways as far as t#e asset master is concerned@ As a norma& asset* As an asset wit# &ine item management* 8ater on, t#e Au? is ca(ita&i6ed and transferred to regu&ar asset)s+ by distribution5sett&ement* %#i&e doing so, t#e system, wit# t#e #e&( of different transaction types, segregates t#e transactions re&ating to t#e current year wit# t#at of t#e (revious years* /#e ca(ita&i6ation can be@ 1* 8um( sum ca(ita&i6ation* !* %it# &ine item sett&ement )w#en ca(ita&i6ed using &ine item sett&ement, it is not necessary to sett&e a&& t#e &ine items and 1--T in a (articu&ar &ine item+* 0n t#e case of integration wit# SAP'0. )0nvestment .anagement+, ca(ita& investments can be managed as an Au? by@ ?o&&ecting t#e (roduction costs associated wit# an order5(roBect*

Sett&ing t#e co&&ected costs to an Au?* ?a(ita&i6ing t#e Au? into new assets by distribution5sett&ement*

2,$. What 3o Bou #ean by ;o7 ?alue Assets ? SAP uses t#e term 1o, @alue Assets to denote assets t#at wi&& be de(reciated in t#e year of (urc#ase or in t#e (eriod of ac$uisition* /#is categori6ation usua&&y fo&&ows t#e statutory re$uirements of t#e country of t#e ?om(any ?ode, w#erein you define a monetary &imit and consider a&& t#ose assets fa&&ing be&ow t#e va&ue, say

S1,---, as &ow va&ue assets* Gou #ave t#e f&e<ibi&ity of managing t#ese assets eit#er on an individua& .indi'idual c-ec6/ basis or a co&&ective basis .Buantity c-ec6/* SAP uses a s(ecia& depreciation 6ey ca&&ed 8IA, and t#e e<(ected usefu& &ife of suc# an asset is considered to be one (eriod )mont#+* 2,(. &5%lain Asset Transfer in SAP. /#ere are two ty(es of Asset (rans*ers, name&y@ 1* 0nter'com(any asset transfer !* 0ntra'com(any asset transfer 0nter8company Asset (rans*er is between ?om(any ?odes, resu&ting in t#e creation of t#e new asset in t#e target ?om(any ?ode )t#e receiving one+* /#e transaction (osts t#e va&ues (er t#e (osting met#od se&ected during t#e transfer* 0n doing so t#e system@

2etires t#e asset in t#e source5sending ?om(any ?ode by asset retirement* Posts ac$uisition in t#e new5target ?om(any ?ode by asset acBuisition, and creates t#e new asset in t#e target ?om(any ?ode*

Posts inter'com(any (rofit5&oss arising from t#e transfer* 9(dates F0'G8 automatica&&y* An inter'com(any asset transfer is usua&&y necessitated w#en t#ere is a need for (#ysica&&y c#anging t#e &ocation from one com(any to t#e ot#er or t#ere is an organi6ation restructuring and t#e new asset is to be attac#ed to t#e new ?om(any ?ode* Gou may use t#e standard (rans*er @ariants su((&ied by SAP* /#e se&ection of a suitab&e transfer variant wi&& be based on t#e &ega& re&ations#i( among t#e ?om(any ?odes and t#e met#ods c#osen for transferring t#e asset va&ues* 0nter'com(any asset transfers can be #and&ed@ 0ndividua&&y using t#e norma& transaction for a sing&e asset*

For a number of assets using t#e mass trans*er.

0f you need to transfer assets cross'system, you need to use A8= functiona&ity* 0ntra8company Asset (rans*er is t#e transfer of an asset wit#in t#e same ?om(any ?ode* /#is wou&d be necessitated by@ ?#ange in t#e asset c&ass or business area, etc*

Sett&ement of an Au? to a new asset*

/ransfer of stock materia&s into an asset )by (osting a G0 to an order t#roug# .. or sett&ement of a (roduction order to an asset+* S(&itting an e<isting asset into one or more new assets*

2,,. What is a Transfer ?ariant? A (rans*er @ariant is de(endent on w#et#er t#e ?om(any ?odes invo&ved are &ega&&y de(endent or inde(endent* /ransfer variants s(ecify #ow t#e transferred asset wi&& be va&ued at t#e receiving ?om(any ?ode and t#e ty(e of transaction )ac$uisition or transfer+ used for t#e transaction*

Figure * : -rans1er ?ariant

2,-. &5%lain Asset 'etire#ent in 92=AA. Asset etirement is an integra& (art of asset management* Gou may retire an asset

by sa&e or by scra((ing* 0n t#e case of sa&es, it can be wit# revenue or wit#out revenueH again, t#e asset sa&e can be wit# t#e customer or wit#out t#e customer*

Figure *%: Asset Retirement During asset sa&es transactions, t#e system removes t#e AP) .AcBuisition and Production )osts/ and a&so t#e corres(onding accumulated depreciation, t#en t#e pro*it or loss arising from t#e sa&e is recorded in t#e system* =ven in t#e case of (artia& retirement or (artia& sa&es, t#e system records t#e (ro(ortionate gain5 &oss arising from t#e transaction* Any ta< (osting arising from t#e transaction is automatica&&y created by t#e system* SAP (rovides various ways of (osting retirement in t#e system, w#ic# inc&udes@ .ass retirement Asset retirement wit# revenue %it# customer )invo&ving integration wit# F0'A2+ Debit customer, credit assets %it#out customer Asset retirement wit#out revenue %it# customer

Debit c&earing account, credit asset Debit customer in A52, credit t#e c&earing account Asset retirement using G8 document (osting

2,/. 8es*ribe Transfer of ;e)a*y Asset 8ata to SAP. 1ne of t#e c#a&&enges in t#e im(&ementation of F0'AA is t#e transfer of 1egacy Asset Data from your e<isting systems to SAP F0'AA* /#oug# SAP (rovides mu&ti(&e o(tions and a((ro(riate too&s to carry out t#is task, you need a carefu&&y (&anned strategy for com(&eting t#is task* Gou may #ave to transfer t#e o&d asset va&ues t#roug# any one of t#e fo&&owing ways@ 3atc# data in(uts )&arge number of o&d assets+ Direct&y u(dating t#e SAP /ab&es )very &arge number of o&d assets+ .anua& entry )few o&d assets+ >orma&&y, you wi&& not #ave to use t#e manua& (rocess as it is time consuming and &aboriousH #owever, you may do t#is if you #ave a very &imited number of assets* 1t#erwise, you may use eit#er of t#e ot#er two o(tions, t#oug# batc# data in(ut wit# error #and&ing is t#e (referred way of doing it* Gou need to reconci&e t#e data transferred, if you resort to any of t#e two automatic ways of transferring t#e data* Gou may a&so use BAP0s .Business Application Programming 0nter*ace/ to &ink and (rocess t#e asset information in SAP F0'AA from non'SAP systems* /#e transfer can be done at t#e end of t#e &ast c&osed fisca& year, or during t#e current fisca& year fo&&owing t#e &ast c&osed fisca& year* Gou wi&& be ab&e to transfer bot# master data as we&& as accumu&ated va&ues of t#e &ast c&osed fisca& year* 0f re$uired,

you can a&so transfer asset transactions, inc&uding de(reciation, during t#e current fisca& year* 0t is im(ortant to note t#at t#e G8 account ba&ances of t#e o&d assets need to be transferred se(arate&y* 2,1. :utline Auto#ati* Transfer of :l3 Assets SAP (rovides you wit# t#e necessary interfaces for converting your &egacy asset data into (rescribed formats for u(&oad into t#e SAP system* /#e data trans*er ,or6:enc- a&&ows you to contro& t#e entire data transfer (rocess*

Figure **: ;egacy asset trans1er to SAP F!'AA


i* /#ese interface (rograms convert t#e data so t#at it is com(atib&e wit# SAP

data dictionary tab&es suc# as BA1(D for master data and BA1(B for transactions* 0f you #ave more t#an 1- de(reciation areas, t#en you need to c#ange t#e transfer structures for bot# BA1(D and BA1(B* ii* /#e converted data is stored in se$uentia& fi&es*
iii* 9se t#e data transfer (rogram

AA1(DG1 )for batc# in(ut+ or

AA1(D11

)direct tab&e u(date+ for transferring t#e data to SAP*


Do a test run* /#is wi&& #e&( to correct errors if any*

Do a production run, wit# a few asset records, to u(date t#e re&evant

tab&es in F0'AA* 2eset t#e va&ues in t#e asset ?om(any ?ode* ?ontinue wit# t#e (roduction run for a&& t#e assets*
iv* A&& t#e asset records wit#out errors wi&& be u(dated immediate&y t#roug#

background (rocessing in re&evant tab&es suc# as A%1>, A%1A, A%1B, A%1), etc* v* /#e records wit# errors wi&& be stored in a se(arate batc# in(ut session, w#ic# can be (rocessed se(arate&y* 2-4. What is an Asset Transfer 8ate ? /#e Asset (rans*er Date refers to t#e cut'off date for t#e transfer of o&d assets data from your e<isting system* 1nce estab&is#ed, you wi&& not be ab&e to create any o&d assets in SAP before t#is reference date* Any transaction #a((ening after t#e transfer date but before t#e actua& date of asset transfer needs to be created se(arate&y in SAP after you com(&ete t#e o&d asset transfer* 2-1. 8es*ribe Mass !han)e0Ho7 3o Bou A*hie"e this? 2ass )-ange enab&es you to make c#anges )suc# as mass retirements, c#anges to incom(&ete assets, etc*+ in F0'AA to a &arge number of asset master records at one time* /#e mass c#ange functiona&ity is ac#ieved t#roug# ,or6 lists, w#ic# are F0'AA standard tasks (re'defined in t#e system* /#ese tasks are assigned wit# work f&ow obBects, w#ic# can be c#anged according to your s(ecific re$uirements* /#e work &ists are created in severa& ways from asset master records, asset va&ue dis(&ays, from t#e asset information system, etc* /o make a mass c#ange you need to@
1* ?reate a su:stitution rule.s/ in w#ic# you wi&& mention w#at fie&ds wi&& be

c#anged* /#is ru&e wi&& consist of an identifying condition )for e<am(&e, if

t#e cost centerV1:,C+, and a ru&e to substitute new va&ues )for e<am(&e, re(&ace t#e fie&d cost center wit# t#e va&ue 1---+* !* Generate a &ist of assets t#at need to be c#anged* :* ?reate a work &ist to carry out t#e c#anges* ,* Se&ect t#e a((ro(riate substitution ru&e )defined ear&ier in ste( 1 above+* C* Process t#e work &ist* Gou may a&so re&ease it to someone e&se in t#e organi6ation so t#at #e5s#e can com(&ete t#e task* A* 2un a re(ort to verify t#e c#anges* 2-2. What is Perio3i* Pro*essin) in 92=AA? &5%lain. Periodic Processing in F0'AA re&ates to t#e tasks you need to carry out at (eriodic interva&s to (&an and (ost some transactions* /#e tasks inc&ude@ De(reciation ca&cu&ation and (osting* As you are aware, SAP a&&ows automatic (osting of va&ues from on&y one de(reciation area )norma&&y -1 'book de(reciation+* For a&& ot#er de(reciation areas, inc&uding t#e derived ones, you need to (erform t#e tasks (eriodica&&y so t#at F0 is u(dated (ro(er&y* P&anned de(reciation5interest for ?1 (rimary cost (&anning* ?&aiming and (osting of investment su((ort )eit#er individua&&y or t#roug# mass c#ange+* 2-3. What is a 8e%re*iation Hey ? De(reciation is ca&cu&ated using t#e Depreciation 9ey and 0nternal )alculation 9ey in t#e system* De(reciation keys are defined at t#e c#art of de(reciation &eve&, and are uniform across a&& ?om(any ?odes, w#ic# are attac#ed to a (articu&ar c#art of de(reciation* /#e de(reciation key contains a&& t#e contro& amounts defined for t#e ca&cu&ation of (&anned de(reciation* /#e system contains a number of (redefined

de(reciation keys )suc# as 102A, D&", D"1G, etc*+ wit# t#e contro&s a&ready defined for ca&cu&ation met#od and ty(e* A de(reciation key can contain mu&ti(&e interna& ca&cu&ation keys*

Figure *+: &e$reciation @ey 2-$. What is an 2nternal !al*ulation Hey ? 0nternal )alculation 9eys are t#e contro& indicators wit#in a de(reciation key* /oget#er wit# t#e de(reciation key, t#ese ca&cu&ation keys #e&( in determining de(reciation amounts* =ac# interna& ca&cu&ation key contains@ 1* De(reciation ty(e )ordinary or un(&anned+ !* De(reciation met#od )straig#t'&ine or dec&ining ba&ance+ :* 3ase va&ue ,* 2ate of (ercentage for de(reciation ca&cu&ation C* Period contro& for transactions )ac$uisition, retirement, etc*+ A* ?#ange'over ru&es )in case of dec&ining5doub&e dec&ining met#ods of ca&cu&ation+ * /reatment of de(reciation after usefu& &ife (eriod

2-(. What is 6no7n as a 8e%re*iation 'un in SAP? /#e Depreciation un, an im(ortant (eriodic (rocessing ste(, takes care of

ca&cu&ating de(reciation for assets and (osting t#e corres(onding transactions in bot# F0'AA and F0'G8* /#e de(reciation ca&cu&ation is usua&&y done in sessions, and t#e posting session (osts t#e different de(reciation ty(es, interest5re va&uation, and a&so writing'off5a&&ocating s(ecia& reserves* /#e de(reciation run s#ou&d be started wit# a test run before making it t#e production run, w#ic# wi&& u(date t#e system* /#e system wi&& restart a run session s#ou&d t#ere be (rob&ems in t#e ear&ier run* /#e de(reciation run needs to be com(&eted (er (eriod* During every de(reciation run, t#e system wi&& create summari6ed (osting documents (er business area and (er account determinationH no individua& (osting documents are created* 2-,. &5%lain the ?arious Ste%s in a 8e%re*iation 'un.
1* .aintain t#e (arameters for t#e de(reciation run on t#e initia& screen of t#e

/ransaction A7AB )?om(any ?ode, fisca& year, and (osting (eriod+* !* Se&ect a reason for t#e (osting run )re(eat run, (&anned (osting run, restart run, or un(&anned run+* :* Se&ect t#e a((ro(riate c#eck bo<es in t#e furt#er o(tion b&ock if you need a &ist of assets, direct F0 (osting, test run, etc* P&ease note t#at it is a good (ractice to se&ect t#e test run initia&&y, see and satisfy t#e outcome of t#e de(reciation run, t#en remove t#is c#eck bo< and go for t#e (roductive run* ,* =<ecute t#e test run )if t#e assets are &ess t#an 1-,---, you may t#en do t#e (rocessing in t#e foregroundH ot#erwise e<ecute t#e run in t#e background+* C* ?#eck t#e resu&ts dis(&ayed* A* 1nce you are convinced t#at t#e test run #as gone as e<(ected, go back to t#e (revious screen, unc#eck t#e test run c#eck bo<, and e<ecute )in t#e background+*

* ?om(&ete t#e background (rint (arameters, if (rom(ted by t#e system* Gou

may a&so decide to sc#edu&e t#e Bob immediate&y or &ater* /#e system uses t#e de(reciation'(osting (rogram AB5)>GG, for u(dating t#e assets va&ues and generating a batc# in(ut session for u(dating F0'G8* /#e (osting session (osts va&ues in various de(reciation areas, interest, and reva&uation, besides u(dating s(ecia& reserves a&&ocations and writing'off, if any* 0f t#ere are more t#an 1--,--- assets for de(reciation ca&cu&ation and (osting, you need to use a s(ecia& (rogram, AP+S(GG*
7* Process t#e batc# in(ut session created by t#e system in ste('

above* Gou

may use t#e /ransaction ?ode S23J* Again, you #ave t#e o(tion of (rocessing t#e session in t#e foreground or in t#e background* 9* System (osts t#e de(reciation in F0'G8* 2--. Ho7 3oes the Syste# !al*ulate 8e%re*iation ? 1* /#e system takes t#e de(reciation terms from t#e asset master record and ca&cu&ates t#e annua& de(reciation for t#e asset taking into account t#e usefu& &ife and t#e de(reciation key* /#e start date for de(reciation is assumed to be t#e first date of ac$uisition of t#e asset* !* /#e system may a&so ca&cu&ate ot#er va&ues suc# as interest, reva&uation, etc* :* /#e de(reciation and ot#er va&ues are ca&cu&ated for eac# of t#e de(reciation areas* 2-/. &5%lain 8eri"e3 8e%re*iation. Deri'ed Depreciation is a se(arate de(reciation area t#at is derived from two or more rea& de(reciation areas using a (re'determined ru&e* Gou may use t#is to ca&cu&ate somet#ing suc# as special reser'es or to s#ow t#e difference in va&uation between &oca& and grou( va&uation, etc* Since t#e va&ues are derived, t#e system does not store any va&ues in t#e database, but u(dates t#e derived va&ues w#enever t#ere

are c#anges in t#e rea& de(reciation area or its de(reciation terms* Gou may a&so use t#e derived de(reciation on&y for re(orting (ur(oses* 2-1. What is 6no7n as a 'e%eat 'un in the 8e%re*iation Pro*ess? A epeat un is norma&&y used at t#e end of t#e fisca& year to carry out (osting

adBustments or corrections t#at may arise due to c#anges in de(reciation terms or manua& de(reciation ca&cu&ations* 4owever, you can a&so use t#is to re(eat but wit#in t#e same (osting (eriod* /#e re(eat run a&so (rovides t#e f&e<ibi&ity to restrict t#e ca&cu&ations to s(ecific assets* 2/4. What 3oes 'estart a 8e%re*iation 'un Mean? estart Depreciation un is used on&y w#en t#ere #as been a (rob&em wit# t#e

(revious run resu&ting in t#e termination of t#at run* /o make sure t#at a&& t#e ste(s in a de(reciation run are com(&eted wit#out errors, t#e system &ogs t#e status at every stage of t#e (rocessing and (rovides error &ogs to find t#e (rob&em* /#is restart o(tion is not avai&ab&e during t#e test run mode* 2/1. What is 8e%re*iation Si#ulation ? Depreciation Simulation refers to a w#at if va&uation of assets* /#is is ac#ieved by c#anging and e<(erimenting wit# t#e (arameters re$uired for de(reciating t#e assets* /#e simu&ation #e&(s you to foresee t#e de(reciation s#ou&d t#ere be c#anges in various de(reciation terms* Gou may simu&ate to see t#e va&uation for future fisca& years* Sort 'ersions and o(tions for totals report are a&so avai&ab&e in simu&ation* /#e de(reciation simu&ation can be a((&ied to a sing&e asset or your entire asset (ortfo&io*

2/2. What is a Sort ?ersion ? A Sort @ersion defines t#e formation of grou(s and tota&s in an asset re(ort* Gou can use a&& t#e fie&ds of t#e asset master record asset grou( and5or sort criteria for defining a sort version* /#e sort version cannot #ave more t#an five sort le'els* 2/3. !an you sele*t 8ire*t 92 Postin) for a 8e%re*iation 'un ? 0f t#e c#eck bo< to enab&e Direct 70 Posting is c&icked t#en t#e system wi&& not create t#e batc# in(ut session for a de(reciation (ostingH instead, t#e F0'G8 is (osted direct&y* 3e carefu& w#en c#ecking t#e Direct F0 Posting c#eck bo< because t#ere wi&& not be an o((ortunity to correct mistakes, if any, in accounts and account assignments suc# as business area, cost obBects, etc*, w#en you e<ecute t#e de(reciation run* A&so, you wi&& not be ab&e to c#eck and correct (ostings* >ote t#at if t#is o(tion is se&ected during a de(reciation run, and if t#e run is terminated for any reason and needs to be restarted, t#is #as to be ke(t c#ecked during t#at time as we&&* /#e standard system comes wit# t#e document ty(e A7 )number range defined as e<terna& numbering+ configured to be used in batc# in(ut* 4ence, wit# t#is defau&t configuration, you wi&& get an error w#en you try a de(reciation (osting run by se&ecting t#e o(tion direct F0 (osting* Gou can, #owever, overcome t#is by not restricting t#e same F0'AA customi6ation* )9se /ransaction ?ode +BA7 and remove t#e c#eck mark from 3atc# in(ut on&y c#eck bo<*+ 2/$. &5%lain Bear !losin) in 92=AA. /#e year'end is c&osed w#en you draw t#e fina& ba&ance s#eet* 3ut, to reac# t#is stage, you need to ensure t#at t#e de(reciation is (osted (ro(er&yH you can ac#ieve t#is by c#ecking t#e de(reciation &ist and a&so t#e asset #istory s#eets* After t#is is done, draw a test ba&ance s#eet and (rofit and &oss statement and c#eck for t#e correctness of t#e de(reciation* ?orrect t#e discre(ancies, if any, wit# adBustment

(ostings* Gou need to re'run t#e de(reciation (osting (rogram if you c#ange any of t#e de(reciation va&ues* %#en you now run t#e Hear8$nd )losing Program, t#e system ensures t#at t#e fisca& year is com(&eted for a&& t#e assets, de(reciation #as fu&&y (osted, and t#ere are no errors &ogged for any of t#e assets* 0f t#ere are errors, you need to correct t#e errors before re'running t#e year'end (rogram* %#en you reac# a stage w#ere t#ere are no errors, t#e system wi&& u(date t#e &ast c&osed fisca& year, for eac# of t#e de(reciation areas for eac# of t#e assets* /#e system wi&& a&so b&ock any furt#er (ostings in F0'AA for t#e c&osed fisca& year* 0f you need to re'o(en t#e c&osed fisca& year for any adBustments (ostings or ot#erwise, ensure t#at you re'run t#e year'end (rogram so t#at t#e system b&ocks furt#er (ostings* 2/(. &5%lain Asset History Sheet. SAP comes de&ivered wit# country's(ecific Asset >istory S-eets, w#ic# meet t#e &ega& re(orting re$uirements of a s(ecific country* /#e asset #istory s#eet is an im(ortant re(ort t#at can be used eit#er as t#e year8end report or t#e intermediate re(ort w#enever you need it* Asset #istory s#eets #e&( you to free&y define t#e re(ort &ayout, #eaders, and most of t#e #istory s#eet items*

Figure *,: 8on1iguring Asset Bistory Sheet Gou may create various versions of t#e Asset 4istory S#eet@

Figure */: Asset Bistory Sheet :ersions For eac# of t#e versions, you wi&& be ab&e to define various co&umns according to your re$uirements@

Figure +0: Fiel( Positions in an Asset Bistory Sheet :ersion 2/,. What is an Asset &5%lorer ? Asset $3plorer is a #andy and convenient sing&e interface transaction t#at #e&(s you to dis(&ay asset va&ues, de(reciation detai&s, etc*, in a very user friend&y way* Gone are t#e days w#ere you #ad to move to different (ages and re'enter t#e same transaction many times to dis(&ay t#e detai&s of different assets* 9sing asset e<(&orer you #ave t#e convenience of@ .oving from one asset number to t#e ot#er effort&ess&y* Dis(&aying asset va&ues, bot# (&anned and (osted, for any number of de(reciation areas from t#e same (age but in various tab (ages* Eum(ing to t#e asset master or cost center master or G8 account master*

?a&&ing u( various asset re(orts* ?urrency converted views* 8ooking at t#e various transactions re&ating to an asset* 8ooking u( a&& t#e va&ues for different fisca& years* Distinguis#ing between rea& and derived de(reciation areas wit# two differentiating symbo&s*

Dis(&aying t#e depreciation calculation *unction, and if necessary, reca&cu&ating de(reciation*

Asset e<(&orer is designed for easy navigation, wit# t#e fo&&owing sections@
1* Asset 'alues ,indo,

/#e to('&eft area5window is t#e asset va&ues window, w#ic# is in a tree'&ike structure e<(anding to various de(reciation areas suc# as -1, -:, 1-, etc* 3y se&ecting any one of t#ese de(reciation areas, you wi&& be ab&e to view t#e va&ue of an asset in t#e asset va&ue detai&s window*
!* +:;ects related to asset ,indo,

/#is is a&so on t#e &eft'#and side of t#e dis(&ay (age, Bust be&ow t#e asset va&ues window* %it# a dri&&'down tree'&ike structure you wi&& be ab&e to navigate between cost centers and G8 accounts re&ating to t#e asset*
:* Asset 'alue detail ,indo, )wit# tab (ages+

/#is is t#e main window on t#e rig#t, usua&&y occu(ying most of t#e (age area* 4ere, you wi&& see information suc# as ?om(any ?ode, asset number se&ected, fisca& year, etc* /#is window is made of two com(onents t#at are com(&ete&y re'si6eab&e@ t#e to( area dis(&aying t#e asset va&ues and t#e bottom s#owing t#e asset transactions*

Figure +1: Asset "#$lorer 2/-. &5%lain Pro3u*tion Set=u% in 92=AA. /#e Production Set8up is a co&&ection of &ogica& ste(s in F0'AA to ensure t#at a&& t#e re$uired configuration and activities are in (&ace for making t#e asset accounting ?om(any ?ode (roductive* /#is inc&udes@
i* )onsistency c-ec6

/#is wi&& enab&e you to ana&y6e errors, if any, in F0'AA configuration in t#e c#arts of de(reciation, assignment of ?om(any ?ode to t#e c#art of de(reciation, definition of de(reciation areas, asset c&asses, G8 account assignments, etc*
ii*

eset )ompany )ode As you wi&& #ave test data, before t#e ?om(any ?ode becomes (roductive, resetting t#e com(any is necessary to de&ete a&& t#is data* >ote t#at t#is is (ossib&e on&y w#en t#e ?om(any ?ode is in test status* A&& t#e master records and va&ues wi&& be removed on&y from F0'AA* Gou need to remove a&& t#e F0 and ?1 va&ues se(arate&y as t#e resetting of t#e asset account ?om(any

?ode does not remove t#ese* 2esetting wi&& not remove any configuration settings of F0'AA*
iii*

eset posted depreciation /#is ste( is re$uired w#en t#ere #ad been errors during a (revious de(reciation run* /#is is a&so (ossib&e on&y w#en t#e asset ?om(any ?ode is in test status*

iv* Set!reset reconciliation accounts

Define t#e G8 accounts for F0'AA reconci&iation, if not done a&ready* Gou may a&so reset a&ready defined reconci&iation accounts in t#e case of wrong account assignments ear&ier*
v* (rans*er asset :alances

/ransfer t#e asset ba&ances to t#e G8 accounts t#at #ave been defined as t#e asset reconci&iation accounts*
vi* Acti'ate asset accounting )ompany )ode

/#is is t#e &ast ste( in t#e (roduction set'u(* A&& t#e (revious statuses of t#e ?om(any ?ode )test status5transfer status+ become inva&id now* >o more transfer of o&d asset data is a&&owed w#en t#e asset ?om(any ?ode becomes (roductive* )ontrolling .)+/ Eeneral !ontrollin) 2//. &5%lain !ontrollin) (!:) in SAP. SAP ca&&s managerial accounting )ontrolling and t#e modu&e is common&y known as )+. /#e ?1 modu&e is, t#us, (rimari&y oriented towards managing and re(orting cost5revenue and is main&y used in interna& decision'making* As wit# any ot#er modu&e, t#is modu&e a&so #as configuration set'u( and a((&ication functiona&ity*

/#e contro&&ing modu&e focuses on interna& users and #e&(s management by (roviding re(orts on cost centers, (rofit centers, contribution margins and (rofitabi&ity, etc* 2/1. What are the 2#%ortant :r)aniCational &le#ents of !: ? /#e im(ortant organi6ationa& structure of contro&&ing inc&udes@

+perating )oncern )t#e to('most re(orting &eve& for (rofitabi&ity ana&ysis and sa&es and marketing contro&&ing+*

)ontrolling Area )centra& organi6ation in contro&&ing, structuring interna& accounting o(erations+*

)ost )enters )&ower'most organi6ationa& units w#ere costs are incurred and transferred+*

214. What is a !ontrollin) Area ? Ho7 is it 'elate3 to a !o#%any !o3e? A )ontrolling Area is t#e centra& organi6ationa& structure in controlling .)+/ and is used in cost accounting* /#e contro&&ing area, as in t#e case of a ?om(any ?ode, is a se&f'contained cost accounting entity for interna& re(orting (ur(oses* /#e contro&&ing area is assigned to one or more ?om(any ?odes to ensure t#at t#e necessary transactions, (osted in F0, are transferred to contro&&ing for cost accounting (rocessing*

Figure +2: O$erating 8oncern6 8ontrolling Area6 an( 8om$any 8o(e

Figure +3: 8ontrolling Area=&etails 1ne contro&&ing area can be assigned one or more ?om(any ?odes* 1ne c#art of accounts can be assigned to one or more contro&&ing areas* 1ne or more contro&&ing areas can be assigned to an o(erating concern* 1ne ?&ient can #ave one or more contro&&ing areas* 211. :utline !o#%any !o3eJ!ontrollin) Area

Assi)n#ents. /#ere are two ty(es of assignments (ossib&e between t#e ?om(any ?ode and a contro&&ing area@

+ne8to8one4 4ere, one ?om(any ?ode corres(onds to one contro&&ing area* 2any8to8one4 .ore t#an one ?om(any ?ode is assigned to a sing&e contro&&ing area*

212.

&5%lain

the

8ifferent

Ty%es

of

!ontrollin)

Area0!o#%any !o3e assi)n#ents. O$en table as s$rea(sheet )ontrolling area8)ompany )ode assignment ?#art accounts of /#e c#art of accounts /#e o(erative c#art of accounts of t#e s#ou&d be t#e same ?om(any ?odes, and t#e contro&&ing area between t#e contro&&ing s#ou&d be t#e same* area and t#e ?om(any ?ode* Fisca& and (eriods+ year /#e number of s(ecia& (eriods may be different between t#e (osting (eriods s#ou&d be t#e same* A&so, t#e (eriod &imits of (osting (eriods s#ou&d be identica&* 141 assignment 14 many assignments .cross8)ompany )ode cost accounting/

variant )s(ecia& ?om(any ?ode and t#e contro&&ing area, but t#e number of (osting

?ontro&&ing area Same as t#e ?om(any Gou may use t#e same currency as t#at of currency ?ode currency* t#e ?om(any ?ode* Gou may a&so use anot#er currency in contro&&ing 1bBect currency Additiona& currency, Gou can c#oose any obBect currency if a&&

besides t#e contro&&ing t#e assigned ?om(any ?odes #ave t#e same area currency, can be currency t#at are t#e same as t#e contro&&ing used for eac# account area ?1* currency* 1t#erwise, t#e system assignment obBects in automatica&&y assigns t#e ?om(any ?ode currency to t#e account assignment obBect

)ontrolling area8)ompany )ode assignment

141 assignment

14 many assignments .cross8)ompany )ode cost accounting/

as an obBect currency* /ransaction currency A&&ocations ?ross'?om(any not (ossib&e* 213. What are the !o#%onents of !ontrollin) ? /#ere are t#ree maBor submodu&es in ?1 and eac# of t#ese submodu&es #as many com(onents as detai&ed be&ow@ ?ode ?ross'?om(any ?ode a&&ocation in ?1 is Documents are (osted in ?1 in t#e transaction currency*

cost a&&ocation in ?1 is (ossib&e*

Figure + : 8ontrolling Mo(uleCs 8om$onents ?ost =&ement Accounting ?ost ?ontro&&ing ?ost ?enter Accounting

0nterna& 1rders Activity'3ased ?osting Product ?ost ?ontro&&ing Profitabi&ity Ana&ysis Profit ?enter Accounting

Figure +%: 8ontrolling 8om$onents 21$. Why 3o Bou +ee3 !ost &le#ent A**ountin) ? )ost $lement Accounting .)+8+28)$1/ #e&(s you to c&assify costs5revenues (osted to ?1* 0t a&so (rovides you t#e abi&ity to reconci&e t#e costs between F0 and ?1* ?1'1.'?=8 (rovides t#e structure for assignment of ?1 data in t#e form of cost5revenue carriers ca&&ed cost elements or re'enue elements* 21(. &5%lain !ost !enter A**ountin). )ost )enter Accounting dea&s wit# t#e difficu&t task of managing over#eads wit#in your organi6ation* Since o'er-ead costs are somet#ing t#at you cannot direct&y associate wit# a (roduct or service, w#ic# can be difficu&t to contro&, cost center accounting (rovides you wit# t#e necessary too&s to ac#ieve t#is* 21,. What is A*ti"ity=.ase3 !ostin) ? Acti'ity8Based )osting, (o(u&ar&y known as AB), #e&(s you to view over#ead costs from t#e (oint of business (rocesses* /#e resu&t is you wi&& be ab&e to o(timi6e

costs for t#e entire business (rocess* As a sing&e business (rocess, activity'based costing wi&& cut across severa& cost centers and wi&& give you an en#anced view of t#e costs incurred* 21-. What is Pro3u*t !ost !ontrollin) (!:=P!)? Product )ost )ontrolling .)+8P)/ dea&s wit# estimating t#e costs to (roduce a (roduct5service* ?1'P? is divided into two maBor areas@ i* ?ost of materia&s ii* ?ost of (rocessing %it# ?1'P?, you can ca&cu&ate@ a* ?ost of goods manufactured )?1G.+ b* ?ost of goods so&d )?1GS+ ?1'P? is tig#t&y integrated wit# Production Planning )PP+ and 2aterials 2anagement )..+, in addition to F0* /#e functiona&ity #e&(s to@ ?a&cu&ate Standard ?osts of manufactured goods ?a&cu&ate t#e %ork'in'Progress )%0P+ ?a&cu&ate t#e Iariances, at (eriod'end Fina&i6e sett&ement of (roduct costs >ote t#at ?1'P? dea&s on&y wit# (roduction costs as it dea&s on&y wit# t#e (roduction* 21/. What is Profitability Analysis (!:=PA)? Pro*ita:ility Analysis .)+8PA/ #e&(s you determine #ow (rofitab&e )denoted by t#e contri:ution margin+ your market segments are* /#e ana&ysis is on t#e e<terna& side of t#e market* Gou wi&& be ab&e to define w#at segments, suc# as customer, (roduct, geogra(#y, sa&es organi6ation, etc*, of t#e market are re$uired for ana&y6ing

o(erating resu&ts5(rofits* %it# mu&ti'dimensiona& dri&&'down ca(abi&ity, you #ave a&& t#e f&e<ibi&ity you need for re(orting* 211. Ho7 is Profit !enter A**ountin) fro# !:=PA? 9n&ike ?1'PA w#ere t#e focus is on e<terna& market segments (rofitabi&ity, Pro*it )enter Accounting .$)8P)A/ focuses on (rofitabi&ity of interna& areas .pro*it centers/ of t#e enter(rise* Profit center accounting is used to draw interna& ba&ance s#eets and (rofit M &oss statements* Gou may use =?'P?A in (&ace of :usiness area accounting* O$en table as s$rea(sheet Attri:ute Focus 2e(orting Pro*ita:ility Analysis .)+8PA/ Pro*it )enter Accounting .$)8P)A/ =<terna& market segments Any (oint of time .argin re(orting Accounting ?ost of sa&es 0nterna& res(onsibi&ity centers During (eriod'end Profit M 8oss statements Period'based (&!=P!A) 8ifferent

3ot# ?1'PA and =?'P?A serve different (ur(oses, and are not mutua&&y e<c&usive* Gou may need t#em bot# in your organi6ation* 344. &5%lain 2nte)ration of !: :ther SAP Mo3ules. /#e ?1 modu&e is integrated wit# F0, AA, SD, .., PP, and 42@ F0 is t#e main source of data for ?1* A&& e<(enses, (osted in F0, f&ow to ?1 t#roug# t#e (rimary cost e&ements to t#e a((ro(riate cost centers* Simi&ar&y, (ostings in Asset Accounting )suc# as de(reciations+ are a&so (assed on to ?1* 2evenue (ostings in F0 wou&d resu&t in (ostings in ?1'PA and a&so in =?' P?A* 7ith its !o#%onents an3

/#e SD, .., and PP modu&es #ave many integration (oints in ?1* Goods issue )G0+ to a contro&&ing obBect or goods recei(t )G2+ from a (roduction order are some e<am(&es of integration* /#ese modu&es are tig#t&y integrated as consum(tion activities, cost of goods issued, over#ead c#arges, materia& costs, etc*, w#ic# are (assed on to (roduction obBects suc# as PP (roduction order or sa&es order* /#e %0P )%ork'in'Progress+ and t#e variances, at (eriod ends, are sett&ed to ?1'PA, ?1'P?A, and a&so to F0* 2evenues are direct&y (osted w#en you generate bi&&ing documents in SD, if t#e sa&es order is a cost obBect item* /#e 42 modu&e generates various ty(es of costs to be (osted in ?1* P&anned 42 costs can a&so be (assed on for ?1 (&anning*

Figure +*: !ntegration o1 8O com$onents )ithin an( outsi(e 8O /#e fo&&owing tab&e i&&ustrates #ow t#e various com(onents of ?1 are integrated@ )+8 +2 +'er-ead )ost )ontrolling =<terna& costs can be (osted to cost centers5interna& orders from ot#er SAP modu&es* ?ost centers can t#en a&&ocate costs to ot#er cost centers, orders, and business

(rocesses in Activity'3ased ?osting )A3?+* 0nterna& orders can sett&e costs to cost centers, ot#er interna& orders, and to business (rocesses in A3?* A3?, in turn, can (ass on costs to cost centers and orders* )+8 P) Product )ost )ontrolling Direct (ostings from F0 to cost obBects )suc# as (roduction orders+* ?osts from cost centers can be (osted to t#e (roduction orders as over#ead cost a&&ocation* ?osts sett&ed from interna& orders can be (assed on to (roduction orders* )+8 PA Statistical cost postings *rom all )+ components ?ost assessments from cost centers5A3?* ?osts sett&ed from interna& orders* Production variances from ?1'P?* O$en table as s$rea(sheet 341. What is a !ost :b<e*t ? A )ost +:;ect, a&so known as a )+ Account Assignment +:;ect, in SAP denotes a unit to w#ic# you can assign obBects* 0t is somet#ing &ike a re(ository in w#ic# you co&&ect costs, and, if necessary, move t#e costs from one obBect to anot#er* A&& t#e com(onents of ?1 #ave t#eir own cost obBects suc# as cost centers, interna& orders, etc* /#e cost obBects decide t#e nature of (ostings as to w#et#er t#ey are rea& (ostings or statistica& (ostings* A&& t#e obBects t#at are identified as statistica& (ostings are not considered cost obBects )for e<am(&e, (rofit centers+*

342. 8ifferentiate .et7een 'eal an3 Statisti*al Postin)s in !:. /#e ?1 account assignment obBects decide t#e ty(e of (ostings a&&owed* /#ey can be rea& or statistica& (ostings* eal Postings a&&ow you to furt#er a&&ocate5sett&e t#ose costs to any ot#er cost obBect in ?1, eit#er as senders or as receivers* /#e obBects t#at are a&&owed to #ave rea& (ostings inc&ude@ ?ost ?enters 0nterna& 1rders )2ea&+ ProBects )2ea&+ >etworks Profitabi&ity Segments PP"Production 1rders )make'to'order+ Statistical Postings, on t#e ot#er #and, are on&y for information (ur(oses* Gou wi&& not be ab&e to furt#er a&&ocate5sett&e t#ese statistica& costs to ot#er cost obBects* =<am(&es of suc# obBects inc&ude@ Statistica& )0nterna&+ 1rders Statistica& ProBects Profit ?enters 343. Ho7 3o Bou 8efine +u#ber 'an)es in !:? Gou wi&& be re$uired to define, for eac# of t#e contro&&ing areas, t#e %um:er anges for a&& transactions t#at wi&& generate documents in ?1* 1nce done for a contro&&ing area, you may co(y from one contro&&ing area to ot#er contro&&ing areas w#en you #ave more t#an one suc# area*

/o avoid too many documents, SAP recommends grou(ing mu&ti(&e but simi&ar transactions, and t#en assigning number ranges to t#is grou(* Furt#er, you may create different number ranges for (&an and actua& data* As in F0, t#e number ranges can be internal or e3ternal* /#e document number ranges in ?1 are inde(endent of fisca& years* 34$. Ho7 8oes Master 8ata 8iffer fro# Transa*tion 8ata in !:? /#e 2aster Data remain unc#anged over a &ong (eriod, w#ereas (ransaction Data are s#ort'term* /#e transaction data are assigned to t#e master data* /#oug# you norma&&y create t#e master data from transactions, note t#at you wi&& be ab&e to create t#ese records from t#e configuration side as we&&* %#en you need to create a &arge number of master data, you may use t#e collecti'e processing o(tion to create re&ated master records in one ste(* SAP (uts master data in grou(s for easy maintenance*

Figure ++: Master an( -ransaction &ata in 8O 0n t#e case of master data of cost center5cost e&ements5activity ty(es, once t#ey are created, you wi&& not be ab&e to c#ange t#e date* SAP ca&&s t#is feature t#e time dependency of master data* 0f necessary, you can e<tend t#e time by creating a new one and attac#ing it to t#e e<isting obBects* 0n t#e case of resources, t#e master data are time'de(endent and t#e system wi&& a&&ow you to de&ete t#ese obBects*

Statistical 9ey 7igures .S97/ are not time'de(endentH once defined t#ey are avai&ab&e in t#e system forever* 34(. What is a !ost &le#ent ? )ost $lements re(resent t#e origin of costs* /#ere are two ty(es of cost e&ements@ Primary ?ost =&ements Secondary ?ost =&ements 34,. What is a Pri#ary !ost &le#ent ? Primary )ost $lements re(resent t#e consum(tion of (roduction factors suc# as raw materia&s, #uman resources, uti&ities, etc* Primary cost e&ements #ave t#eir corres(onding G8 accounts in F0* A&& t#e e<(ense5revenue accounts in F0 corres(ond to t#e (rimary cost e&ements in ?1* 3efore you can create t#e (rimary cost e&ements in ?1, you first need to create t#em in F0 as G8 accounts* >ote t#at SAP treats re'enue elements a&so as (rimary cost e&ements in ?1 (rocessing* /#e on&y difference is t#at a&& t#e revenue e&ements are identified wit# a negative sign w#i&e (osting in ?1* /#e revenue e&ements corres(ond to t#e revenue accounts in F0 and t#ey fa&& under t#e cost element category, category -1511* 34-. What is a Se*on3ary !ost &le#ent ? Secondary )ost $lements re(resent t#e consum(tion of (roduction factors (rovided interna&&y by t#e enter(rise itse&f, and are (resent on&y in t#e ?1* /#ey are actua&&y &ike cost carriers, and are used in allocations and settlements in ?1* %#i&e creating t#ese e&ements, you need to mention t#e cost e&ement category, w#ic# can be any of t#e fo&&owing@

?ategory !1, used in internal settlements ?ategory ,!, used in assessments ?ategory ,:, used in internal acti'ity allocation

34/. What is a !ost &le#ent !ate)ory ? A&& t#e cost e&ements need to be assigned to a )ost $lement )ategory, to determine t#e transactions for w#ic# you can use t#e cost e&ements* =<am(&e@

?ategory -1, known as t#e general primary cost elements, is used in standard (rimary (ostings from F0 or .. into ?1*

?ategory !! is used to sett&e order5(roBect costs, or cost obBect costs to obBects outside of ?1 )suc# as assets, materia&s, G8 accounts, etc*+* 341. Ho7 3o you Auto#ati*ally !reate !ost &le#ents ? Gou wi&& be ab&e to create cost e&ements automatica&&y by s(ecifying t#e cost e&ement, t#e cost e&ement interva&, and t#e cost e&ement category for t#e cost e&ements* A&& t#ese are ac#ieved by creating de*ault settings* /#e creation of cost e&ements is done in t#e background* (-e primary cost elements can be created on&y w#en you #ave t#e corres(onding G8 accounts in t#e c#art of accounts of t#e ?om(any ?ode* =ven t#oug# t#e G8 account names are used as t#e names of t#e (rimary cost e&ements t#us created by t#e system, you #ave t#e o(tion of c#anging t#ese names in ?1* A&& t#e secondary cost elements are created in ?1H t#e name of t#ese cost e&ements comes from t#e cost element category* !ost !enter A**ountin) 314. 8efine !ost !enter A**ountin) (!:=:M=!!A). )ost )enter Accounting .)+8+28))A/ #e&(s you to track w#ere costs are incurred in your enter(rise* A&& t#e costs, suc# as sa&ary and wages, rent, water c#arges, etc*, incurred are eit#er assigned or (osted to a cost center*

311. What is a !ost !enter ? A )ost )enter is an organi6ationa& e&ement wit#in a controlling area* Gou may define cost centers according to your s(ecific needsH t#e most common a((roac# is to define a cost center for eac# of t#e bottom'most organi6ationa& units t#at are su((osed to manage t#eir costs* So, ty(ica& cost centers cou&d be canteen, te&e(#one, (ower, #uman resources, (roduction, etc* /#ere are ot#er ways of designing cost centersH you may create cost centers re(resenting geogra(#ica& re$uirements or res(onsibi&ity areas or activities5services (roduced, etc* After defining individua& cost centers, you wi&& assign eac# one of t#e cost centers to one of t#e cost center categories* A&& cost centers of a contro&&ing area are assigned to a standard -ierarc-y* 312. What is a !ost !enter !ate)ory ? A )ost )enter )ategory is an indicator in t#e cost center master record t#at identifies w#at kind of activities a (articu&ar cost center (erforms* SAP comes de&ivered wit# defau&t categories suc# as administration, (roduction, &ogistics, marketing, deve&o(ment, management, etc* 0f necessary, as in ot#er cases, you may create your own categories* /#e categori6ation is usefu& for assigning certain standard c#aracteristics to a grou( of cost centers (erforming simi&ar activities* SAP a&so a&&ows you to store special indicators )suc# as loc6 indicators/ for eac# of t#e cost center categories* /#ese s(ecia& indicators serve as defau&ts w#en you create a new cost center*

Figure +,: 8ost 8enter 8ategory 313. What is a Stan3ar3 Hierar*hy? A tree'&ike #ierarc#y structure grou(ing a&& t#e cost centers )of a&& t#e ?om(any ?odes be&onging to a sing&e contro&&ing area+ so defined is known as t#e Standard >ierarc-y in ?1* /#is is t#e SAP met#od of grou(ing a&& t#e cost centers in a contro&&ing area, w#ic# #e&(s in ana&y6ing t#e cost summary at t#e end of t#e nodes of t#e #ierarc#y )cost center or cost center grou(s or at t#e to( &eve&+* A cost center can be attac#ed to any number of cost center grou(s, but you cannot assign t#e same cost center more t#an once wit#in a cost center grou(*

Figure +/: Stan(ar( Bierarchy Sam$le /#e standard #ierarc#y #e&(s in easy maintenance of t#e cost centers5cost center grou(s for creation of new ones or c#anging e<isting ones* 0t su((orts drag'dro( functiona&ity*

Gou may use alternate -ierarc-ies to grou( cost centers according to your interna& re(orting re$uirements* Gou can #ave any number of a&ternate #ierarc#ies but it is mandatory t#at you #ave one standard #ierarc#y* /#e a&ternate #ierarc#y is a&so known as t#e master data group* 31$. &5%lain Postin) of !osts to !ost !enters. %#en you create accounting transitions in F05F0'AA5.., you ty(ica&&y (ost to one or more G8 accounts* %#i&e doing so, (rovided you #ave a&ready configured in suc# a way, you a&so re$uire t#e user to in(ut t#e cost center for t#at transaction, so t#at w#en t#e transaction is (osted t#e va&ues )costs+ f&ow not on&y to t#e G8 but a&so to ?1 to t#e a((ro(riate cost center* /#e system wi&& create two (osting documents@ one for F0 and anot#er for ?1* Additiona&&y, you wi&& a&so be ab&e to (ost non'financia& information suc# as direct &abor #ours from 42 or PP modu&es to cost centers in ?1* 31(. What is an A*ti"ity Ty%e ? Acti'ity (ype #e&(s you do define t#e service5action )for e<am(&e, #uman &abor, mac#ine &abor, re(air #ours, etc*+ (erformed or (rovided by a cost center* 0t forms t#e basis for a&&ocating costs to ot#er cost centers or interna& orders, etc* Gou may assign an activity ty(e to an o(eration so t#at t#ey are ref&ected in PPH a ?1 document is created wit# t#e costs of t#e o(eration a&&ocated from t#e cost center t#at (roduced t#e o(eration to a (roduction order, w#en t#e o(eration is com(&eted in PP* Gou may grou( activity ty(es into acti'ity type groups for easy maintenance* Gou need to arrive at t#e acti'ity price, w#ic# needs to be attac#ed to t#at (articu&ar activity ty(e for (&anning or recording t#e actua&* /#e activity (rice is ca&cu&ated by dividing t#e tota& costs by t#e tota& (&anned5actua& activity $uantity )#ours, units, etc*+*

0t is not necessary t#at a&& t#e cost centers #ave activity ty(es associated wit# t#em* 0f t#ere is no out(ut from a cost center, t#en t#ere wi&& be no activity ty(e for t#at cost center* 31,. Where 3o Bou Assi)n A*ti"ity Ty%e in !ost !enters? /#ere is no direct assignment* Gou (&an t#e out(ut for a cost center first by using (ransaction 9P2#* /#en, (&an t#e va&ue of t#at cost center wit# t#e budget for a (eriod in (ransaction 9PG#* P&anned Activity e<(enditure5P&anned Activity Fuantity gives t#e (&anned activity rate, w#ic# you can use to va&uate your activity confirmations in manufacturing orders* Gou can a&so define your activity (rices on your own, but you #ave to run t#e (rice reva&uation if you want to reva&uate your actua& activity (rices*

31-. What is a 'esour*e in !:? esources are goods5services, consumed by ?1 obBects suc# as cost center5interna& order5%3S e&ement, w#ic# are su((&ied )interna&&y or e<terna&&y+ to an organi6ation in order to (roduce business activities* /#e resources are used on&y in (&anning and not for tracking t#e actua&* /#ere are t#ree ty(es of resources@

/y(e B )used in base (&anning obBect+ /y(e 2 )refers to a materia&+ /y(e )e<ists on&y in ?1'1.+

31/. What is a Statisti*al Hey 9i)ure (SH9)? /#e Statistical 9ey 7igure .S97/ is used as t#e basis .tracing *actor/ for making a&&ocations .assessments!distri:utions/* /#ey are t#e statistica& data suc# as number of em(&oyees, area in s$uare meters, etc* Gou wi&& make use of a SDF w#en you are faced wit# a situation w#ere it is not (ossib&e to use any ot#er conventiona& met#od or measure to arrive at t#e s#are of costs to be a&&ocated to cost centers* Su((ose t#at you are incurring a mont#&y e<(ense of 9SD C,--- in t#e cost center cafeteria, t#e cost of w#ic# needs to be a&&ocated to ot#er cost centers* Gou can ac#ieve t#is by t#e SDF* 0magine t#at you want t#is to be a&&ocated based on t#e number of em(&oyees working in eac# of t#e ot#er cost centers suc# as administrative office )C- em(&oyees+ and t#e factory )!-- em(&oyees+* Gou wi&& now use t#e number of em(&oyees as t#e SDF for a&&ocating t#e costs* /#e fo&&owing i&&ustration #e&(s you to understand #ow SDF is used@

Figure ,0: Statistical @ey Figure

0n SDF a&&ocation, you #ave t#e f&e<ibi&ity of using two different S97 )ategoriesM name&y, (otal 'alue or 7i3ed 'alue* Gou wi&& use fi<ed va&ues in situations w#ere t#e SDF does not c#ange very often, as in t#e case of t#e number of em(&oyees, area, etc* Gou wi&& use tota& va&ues in situations w#ere t#e va&ue is e<(ected to c#ange every now and t#en, as in t#e case of (ower use or water consum(tion and t#e &ike* 311. &5%lain the Plannin) ste%s in !:=:M=!!A. /#e t#ree ste(s invo&ved in (&anning in cost center accounting inc&ude@ ?onfiguration re$uired for (&anning
?onfigure a Plan @ersion ?reate or ?o(y Plan 1ayouts ?reate Plan Pro*ile

0nsert P&an 8ayouts into P&an Profi&e 0n(utting t#e (&anned data ?om(&eting t#e (&anning activity 324. What is a Plan ?ersion ? A Plan @ersion is a co&&ection of (&anning data* /#e version contro&s w#et#er t#e user wi&& maintain (&an data or actua& data or bot#* Gou may create as many versions as you need, t#oug# SAP (rovides you wit# t#e necessary versions in t#e standard system* =ac# version #as information stored in t#e system (er fisca& year (eriod* /#e version --- is automatica&&y created for a (eriod #ori6on of five years, and is norma&&y t#e fina& version as t#is a&&ows for storing actua& information as we&&* Gou wi&& be using t#e data in version ---Y for a&& t#e (&anned activity (rice ca&cu&ation* 1nce (&anning is com(&eted, you need to &ock t#at version so t#at no one wi&& be ab&e to modify t#e (&an data*

321. What is 2nte)rate3 Plannin) in !:=:M=!!A? 0ntegrated Planning #e&(s you to transfer data from ot#er SAP modu&es suc# as PP, 42, F0'AA, etc* 0f you #ave (&anned data in t#ese modu&es and Bust transfer t#ese into ?1, wit#out making any c#anges, t#en you do not need (&an again in cost center accounting* 3efore using integrated (&anning, you need to activate t#e integration in t#e (&anning menu* >ote t#at integrated (&anning is (ossib&e on&y w#en t#ere #as been no data (&anned on t#at version before activating t#e integrated (&anning* 322. &5%lain Plan ;ayout. A Plan 1ayout is not#ing but a data entry screen or tem(&ate t#at you use to in(ut (&an data* 0n most situations, it wou&d be more t#an sufficient to use SAP su((&ied (&anning &ayoutsH #owever, you may create your own by co(ying one of t#e e<isting &ayouts and a&tering it wit# t#e #e&( of report painter* %#i&e creating a custom &ayout, note t#at you #ave t#e f&e<ibi&ity to create u( to nine lead columns )giving t#e detai&s t#e nature of t#e data associated wit# t#e va&ue co&umns+, and any number of 'alue columns )(&an data suc# as amount, unit, etc*, corres(onding to t#e &ead co&umn+*

Figure ,1: Re$ort Painter

Gou a&so #ave t#e o(tion of using .S'=<ce& s(reads#eets as t#e data in(ut screen in &ieu of t#e SAP (&an &ayoutsH but to ac#ieve t#is you need to activate t#e integrating wit# =<ce& o(tion w#i&e assigning t#e &ayout)s+ to a (&anner (rofi&e in 0.G* Gou need to define a (&an &ayout for eac# of t#e t#ree (&anning areas in ?1, name&y@ i* Primary ?ost and Activity 0n(uts ii* Activity 1ut(ut5Prices iii* Statistica& Dey Figures 323. &5%lain a Plan Profile. A Plan Pro*ile )or Planning Pro*ile+ #e&(s in contro&&ing t#e w#o&e (rocess of (&anning by &ogica&&y grou(ing t#e various (&an &ayouts toget#er* 0t determines t#e time&ine for (&anning* Gou can #ave more t#an one (&anning &ayout (er (&an (rofi&e* 3efore you actua&&y start in(utting t#e data, you need to set t#e (&an (rofi&e so t#at t#e system knows w#at &ayout needs to be used for t#e (&anning e<ercise* 32$. Ho7 3o Bou !o%y Plan 8ata another? SAP a&&ows you to co(y (&anning data, created manua&&y ear&ier, from one fisca& year to t#e ot#er or from one (eriod to a different (eriod wit#in t#e same fisca& year* Gou #ave t#e o(tion of co(ying e<isting (&an data to a future (eriod as new (&an data or co(ying actua& data from one (eriod to anot#er as (&an data* 32(. What is the re*o##en3e3 Plannin) SeAuen*eF in !:? SAP recommends t#ree ste(s in t#e (&anning* 0n a&& t#ree ste(s, t#e (&anning can be carried out manually or automatically* Gou may use assessment, distribution, and indirect activity a&&ocation or in(utted costs for (&anning* Gou can a&so #ave centraliCed planning )cost e&ement (&anning for a&& t#e cost centers+ and decentraliCed planning )(&anning for individua& cost centers+ in your organi6ation* fro# one %erio3 to

Figure ,2: Planning SeDuence 1or 8ost 8enter Accounting 32,. What are the t7o o%tions for enterin) Plan 8ata? SAP (rovides you wit# a c#oice of two o(tions to enter your (&an data* Gou may use 7orm8:ased entry or 7ree entry* 0n *orm8:ased entry, a&& you need to do is fi&& in t#e (&an data in t#e rows corres(onding to t#e c#aracteristic va&ues )cost centers, cost e&ement, etc*+ dis(&ayed on t#e screen* 3ut, in *ree entry, you #ave t#e freedom of in(utting even t#e c#aracteristic va&ues* 32-. What are 8istribution Heys ? /#e SAP system uses Distri:ution 9eys to distribute (&anned va&ues across various (eriods* %it# t#e standard distribution keys su((&ied by SAP, you wi&& be ab&e to ac#ieve t#e ty(e of distribution you need@

D91 )e$ua& distribution+ D92 )distribution as done ear&ier+ D9J )co(y va&ues to (eriod w#ere t#ere is no va&ue+

For e<am(&e, if you #ave a (&anned annua& va&ue of 1!,---, by using D91 you wi&& be ab&e to distribute 1,--- eac# as t#e mont#&y va&ues* 0f you #ad (&an va&ues for &ast year w#ic# were somet#ing &ike 1,--- for Eanuary to Eune, C-- for Eu&y, 1,C-- for

August, and 1,--- eac# for Se(tember to December, t#en by using D92, you wi&& be ab&e to co(y t#e same amounts to t#e ne<t fisca& year* D9J wi&& co(y va&ues to future (eriods on&y if t#ere are no va&ues a&ready avai&ab&e for t#ose (eriods* 32/. 8ifferentiate A*ti"ity=8e%en3ent an3 A*ti"ity=

2n3e%en3ent !osts. As you mig#t be aware of a&ready, t#ere are two ty(es of costsH name&y, 'aria:le costs and *i3ed costs* @aria:le )osts, suc# as materia& costs, factory &abor, etc*, are a&ways de(endent on an activity, and wi&& vary de(ending on t#e activity* /#e #ig#er t#e activity t#e more wi&& be t#e e<(enditure towards variab&e costs* 0n s#ort, t#ese costs are direct&y (ro(ortiona& to t#e &eve& of activity* 0n SAP ?1, t#ese costs are known as Acti'ity8 Dependent )osts. 0n contrast to t#e variab&e costs, Acti'ity80ndependent )osts or *i3ed costs do not usua&&y vary wit# t#e &eve& of activity* And you may need to incur t#ese costs irres(ective of w#et#er t#ere is an activity* ?osts suc# as costs towards security, insurance (remiums, etc*, fa&& under t#e category of fi<ed costs* 321. What is a Mi5e3 !ost ? /#ere are instances w#ere you wi&& come across a costing situation w#ere t#e costs cannot be strict&y segregated into eit#er fi<ed or variab&e costs* /#ese costs are known as semi8*i3ed costs or semi8'aria:le costs or mi3ed costs, because a (ortion of t#e tota& costs is fi<ed and t#e remaining (ortion is a variab&e cost* /#e c&assic e<am(&e is t#e c#arges for e&ectricity in a (roduction environment, w#ere t#ere is a basic minimum c#arge (ayab&e to t#e e&ectricity (rovider )or towards #eating re$uirements of t#e bui&dings+ w#ic# remains fi<ed w#et#er t#ere is some (roduction activity or not* %#en t#ere is (roduction, you wi&& use more e&ectricity, w#ic# varies wit# t#e &eve& of (roduction*

334. &5%lain Manual Pri#ary !ost Plannin). 2anual Primary )ost Planning is used to (&an for costs associated wit# t#e e<terna& (rocurement of goods and services* Gou wi&& (&an bot# fi<ed and variab&e costs, and a&so mi<ed costs, if necessary* Gou wi&& (&an costs suc# as sa&aries, wages, etc*, as activity'de(endent costsH t#e costs towards security, etc*, wi&& be (&anned as activity'inde(endent costs* Gou need to note t#at (&anning fi<ed (rimary costs is not vast&y different from t#at of (&anning for variab&e (rimary costs* %#en you (&an for t#e variab&e (rimary costs you need to mention t#e activity ty(e associated wit# t#at* Gou may furt#er break down t#is cost into fi<ed and variab&e (ro(ortions* /#e fi<ed (rimary costs or activity'inde(endent (rimary costs are (&anned using t#e (rimary cost e&ements on various cost centers, based on t#e activity (erformed on a (articu&ar cost center* Gou may use any of t#e fo&&owing SAP su((&ied (&anning &ayouts@

1O1G1L Activity'inde(endent or activity'de(endent (rimary costs 1O1G3L Activity'inde(endent costs 1O1J2L Activity'inde(endent costs )on a $uarter&y basis+ 1O1J3L ?ost'e&ement (&anning )two versions simu&taneous&y+ 1O1J?L ?ost'e&ement (&anning )(revious years actua& dis(&ayed in t#e &ead co&umn+

1O1J#L ?entra& (&anning )?ost e&ement (&anning from ?ost center (ers(ective+

331. &5%lain Auto#ati* Pri#ary !ost Plannin). SAP (rovides you wit# two ways of #and&ing Primary )osts PlanningM name&y@ 0n(utted ?osts ?a&cu&ation Distribution

0nputted )osts )alculation is used to smoot# one'time costs )bonus, incentives, etc*+ incurred by s(reading t#em over a (eriod of time t#oug# it is (osted on t#e F0 side at t#e end of t#e year* Gou again #ave two met#ods of (rocessing t#ese costs@ (i) w#en t#ere is no corres(onding costs e$uiva&ent on t#e F0 side suc# as t#e in(utted fami&y &abor or in(utted rent, etc*, and (ii) w#en t#ere is a corres(onding cost e$uiva&ent on t#e F0 side suc# as festiva& bonus, etc* Distri:ution #e&(s in (&anning (rimary costs from one cost center to t#e ot#er* /#e cost center from w#ere t#e costs are distributed is known as t#e sender )or pooled cost center or clearing cost center+ and t#e ot#er cost centers to w#ic# t#e costs are distributed or w#ere t#e costs are received are known as recei'ers* >ote t#at you wi&& be ab&e to distribute (&anned5actua& (rimary costs on&y* A&so note t#at t#e (oo&ed cost center does not incur any of t#ese costs but acts on&y as t#e c&earing center for distribution to ot#er cost centers* During t#e (rocess, you wi&& use t#e SDF or t#e regu&ar (ercentage met#od as t#e distri:ution rule for ac#ieving t#e distribution* /#e distri:ution cycle #e&(s to carry out t#e w#o&e (&anning e<ercise*

Figure ,3: &istribution 5Automatic Primary 8osts Planning7

332. &5%lain Manual Se*on3ary !ost Plannin). 2anual Secondary )ost Planning is re$uired w#en you need to (&an consum(tion $uantities of a sender cost centers (&anned activity from t#e (oint of view of t#e receiving cost center* /#e activity in(uts may be (&anned eit#er as t#e activity' de(endent costs )variab&e+ or as activity'inde(endent costs )fi<ed+* /#e activity'de(endent (rimary cost (&anning is used on&y w#en you need t#e services suc# as re(air #ours on a s(ecified activity ty(e* 1n t#e ot#er #and, you wi&& use activity'inde(endent (rimary cost (&anning w#en you need services suc# as maintenance #ours, w#ic# are not restricted to a (articu&ar activity* /#e system uses t#e (&anned ca&cu&ated activity (rice for (osting t#e secondary cost* 0t is (ossib&e to carry out manua& secondary cost (&anning for activity ty(es categori6ed as ?ategory'1 )manua& entry5manua& a&&ocation+* >ote t#at it is im(ortant t#at you (erform reconci&iation of (&anned consum(tion of an activity at t#e receiver cost center to t#e vo&ume (&anned at t#e senders &eve&H ot#erwise, you wi&& get a warning message w#en t#e system ca&cu&ates t#e activity (rice* 333. &5%lain Assess#ent in Se*on3ary !ost Plannin). Assessment is one of t#e met#ods used in automatic (&anning of secondary costs in cost center accounting* Gou wi&& ty(ica&&y use t#is met#od w#en you need to a&&ocate costs from one cost center to ot#er cost centers* /#e origina& costs, even if t#ey are (rimary, from t#e cost center are grou(ed and rec&assified as secondary w#i&e a&&ocating t#e same to ot#er cost centers )imagine t#at you are co&&ecting (rimary costs suc# as (ostage, te&e(#one, courier e<(enses, fa< c#arges, etc*, into a cost center ca&&ed 1---, now grou( t#ese costs for assessment using a secondary cost e&ement to receiver cost centers@ !--- and :---+* Gou need to define an assessment rule )eit#er (ercentage or SDFs or fi<ed amounts+ for affecting assessment* Gou wou&d #ave now noticed t#at t#is is simi&ar to t#e distribution used in (rimary cost (&anning*

So, w#y do you need an assessmentR Assessment is re$uired w#en you need to a&&ocate secondary costs, and w#en you do not need t#e detai&s you wou&d ot#erwise get from distribution* 33$. What is an Allo*ation Stru*ture ? Gou need to define or use a secondary cost e&ement, ca&&ed t#e assessment cost e&ement, w#i&e you carry out t#e assessment in automatic secondary cost (&anning* 0nstead of defining individua& assessment e&ements )for a grou( of (rimary cost e&ements+ in individua& segments, every now and t#en, you may define various assessment e&ements in an Allocation Structure, and use t#em re(eated&y*

Figure , : Assessment 5Automatic Secon(ary 8ost Planning7 33(. &5%lain Se)#ents an3 !y*les. A Segment is one (rocessing unit re$uired to com(&ete an automated a&&ocation of distribution or assessment or re(osting of (&anned5actua& costs in contro&&ing in SAP* A segment is made u( of (a) a&&ocation c#aracteristics"to identify t#e sender5receiver, (b) va&ues of t#e sender"(&an5actua&, ty(e of costs to be a&&ocated, and (c) va&ues of t#e receiver"t#e basis for a&&ocation, for e<am(&e, t#e tracing *actor suc# as SDF, (ercentages, etc* %#en you combine mu&ti(&e segments into a sing&e (rocess, t#en you ca&& t#at t#e )ycle. A ?yc&e #e&(s you to (rocess various segments in a c#ain'&ike fas#ion one after anot#er* A ?yc&e consists of #eader data )va&id for a&& Segments in a ?yc&e+ and

one or more Segments, wit# summari6ed ru&es and settings enab&ing a&&ocation* /#e Segments wit#in a cyc&e can be (rocessed iterative&y )one segment waits for t#e resu&ts of anot#er+ or non'iterative&y )a&& t#e segments are (rocessed inde(endent&y+ or cumu&ative&y )to take care of variations in receiver /racing Factors or sender amounts+* /y(ica&&y, w#en you start t#e cyc&es you wi&& start t#em in a test mode to see t#e a&&ocations before actua& (ostings* /ec#nica&&y, you can run t#e cyc&es in (roduction mode at any (oint of time, but t#e system wi&& carry out t#e a&&ocation (ostings on&y on t#e first day of a (eriod* /#e uti&ity of t#e cyc&e &ies in t#e fact t#at you can run t#ese (eriod after (eriod* 33,. What is 2terati"e Pro*essin) of !y*les? 0terati'e Processing is not#ing but t#e re(etitive (rocessing of sender5receiver re&ations#i(s unti& t#e senders entire cost is transferred to t#e receiver)s+* During iterative (rocessing, you wi&& not be ab&e to use fi<ed amounts as t#e sender ru&esH you wi&& a&so not be ab&e to define a (ercentage to remain on t#e sender* Gou wi&& be ab&e to use bot# (&an and actua& data w#i&e using t#e iteration* 33-. What is S%littin) ? &5%lain the S%littin) Stru*ture. Splitting is a (rocess used to assign activity'inde(endent (&ans5actua& costs, bot# (rimary and secondary, of a cost center to t#e individua& activity ty(es wit#in t#at cost center* 3ut t#e im(ortant re$uirement is t#at you wi&& use t#is w#en t#ere is no account assignment to t#e activity ty(es* Gou may eit#er use t#e Splitting rules or t#e $Bui'alence num:er to ac#ieve t#is* %#en you s(&it t#e costs from a cost center, t#e cost center tem(orari&y becomes more t#an one cost center for t#e (ur(ose of a&&ocation but again becomes a sing&e cost center w#en (osting #a((ens in t#e subse$uent (eriod* 0f you need to assign different cost e&ements or cost e&ement grou(s to activities in more t#an one way, t#en you need to define a Splitting Structure containing

s(&itting ru&es to determine t#e criteria of s(&itting activity'inde(endent costs to an activity ty(e* 0f you #ave created t#e s(&itting structure in customi6ing and assigned t#e same to a cost center, t#en t#e system uses t#e s(&itting structure for cost a((ortioningH ot#erwise, it wi&& use t#e e$uiva&ence number* /#e splitting rules determine t#e amount or t#e (ro(ortion of costs to be a&&ocated to various activity ty(es of a cost center and is based on t#e consum(tion of t#ese activity ty(es* /#e costs t#us a&&ocated may be a fi<ed sum, or a (ercentage, or it can even be based on t#e tracing factors or SDFs* /#e eBui'alence num:er is a basic met#od for s(&itting t#e costs w#en you manua&&y (&an for eac# of t#e activity ty(es* 3y t#is, you wi&& (&an a&& activity' inde(endent costs according to t#e e$uiva&ence numbers )t#e defau&t is 1+* 33/. What is an A*ti"ity Pri*e !al*ulation ? Gou wi&& be com(&eting t#e (&anning (rocess on&y w#en you (erform t#e Acti'ity Price )alculation, w#ic# is based on (&anned activities and costs* 3y doing t#is you are va&uating t#e (&anned secondary costs at receiving cost centers* 0f you do not want to use activity (rice t#us ca&cu&ated, you are free to use t#e political price for t#e activity ty(e* As you are aware, t#e activity (rice is used for (&anned5actua& a&&ocation and is determined by using eit#er t#e (o&itica& (rice or t#e system'ca&cu&ated activity (rice* 331. Ho7 3oes the Syste# !al*ulate the A*ti"ity Pri*e ? /#e system ca&cu&ates t#e Acti'ity Price, for eac# activity ty(e and cost center, by fo&&owing t#e under&ying ru&e@

>ote t#at t#e system wi&& continue to ca&cu&ate t#e activity (rice even if you #ave set t#e (rice indicator of an activity ty(e to t#e political price.

3$4. What is 6no7n as the Politi*al Pri*e for an A*ti"ity Ty%e? /#e Political Price is t#e (rice determined outside t#e SAP system, w#ic# is used in manua& in(ut using t#e re$uired (&anning &ayout in (&anning* 3$1. What is Allo*ation Pri*e ?arian*e? Allocation Price @ariance is t#e difference between t#e (o&itica& (rice of an activity ty(e and t#e system ca&cu&ated activity (rice of t#e same activity ty(e* 3$2. What is .u3)etin) ? 3udgeting is used to augment t#e (&anning (rocess at t#e cost'center &eve&* %#i&e (&anning is considered t#e :ottom8up a((roac#, budgeting is regarded as t#e top8 do,n met#od to contro& costs* 3udgeting usua&&y comes down from t#e to( )management+ and is used to guide t#e (&anning (rocess at t#e cost'center &eve&* >ote t#at budgeting is not integrated wit# (ostingsH you wi&& get an error w#en t#e system comes across a (osting t#at wi&& resu&t in t#e actua& va&ues e<ceeding t#e budget for t#at cost center* 3$3. What are the 8ire*t Allo*ation Metho3s of Postin) in !:? /#e Direct Allocation of (osting in ?1 may be an actua& cost entry or a transaction'based (osting* /#e actual cost entry is t#e transfer of (rimary costs from F0 to ?1, on a rea&'time basis, t#roug# t#e (rimary cost e&ements* Gou may a&so transfer transaction data by making t#e cost accounting assignment to cost obBects from ot#er modu&es suc# as F0'AA, SD, and ..@ F0'AA@ Assign assets to a cost center )to (ost de(reciation, etc*+ ..@ Assign G2 to a cost center5interna& order

SD@ Assign or sett&e a sa&es order to a cost center or interna& order >ote t#at during actua& cost entry, t#e system creates two documents* %#en you (ost t#e (rimary costs from F0 to ?1, t#e system wi&& create a document in F0 and a (ara&&e& document in ?1, w#ic# is summari6ed from t#e (oint of t#e cost obBect5e&ement* (ransaction8:ased postings are e<ecuted wit#in t#e ?1, again on a rea&'time basis, enab&ing you to #ave u(dated cost information on t#e cost centers at any (oint in time* Gou wi&& be ab&e to carry out t#e fo&&owing transaction'based (ostings in ?1@ 2e(osting 8ine items /ransactions .anua& cost a&&ocation Direct activity a&&ocation Posting of Statistica& Dey Figures Posting of sender activities 3$$. What is the 2n3ire*t Allo*ation Metho3 of Postin)s in !:? /#e 0ndirect Allocation of (ostings in ?1 may be used at t#e end of a (eriod as a (eriodic a&&ocation* /#is is done after you #ave com(&eted a&& t#e (rimary (ostings* Gou may (ost t#e fo&&owing (eriodic a&&ocations using indirect a&&ocation@ Periodic 2e(osting Distribution Assessment Accrua& ?ost ?a&cu&ation )0n(utted ?ost ?a&cu&ation+ 0ndirect Activity A&&ocation

3$(. &5%lain !: Auto#ati* A**ount Assi)n#ent. For transferring (rimary costs to ?1, on a rea&'time basis, you need to #ave Automatic Account Assignments defined in t#e system* 3y doing t#is, you wi&& a&ways be ab&e to (ost a (articu&ar cost to a s(ecified cost center* Gou can a&so use t#is assignment for automatica&&y (osting t#e e<c#ange rate differences )gain or &oss+, discount, etc*, to ?1* Gou may a&so #ave additiona& account assignment at different &eve&s suc# as@ ?ontro&&ing area5account5?om(any ?ode in t#e customi6ing ?ontro&&ing area5account5cost e&ement in t#e master record ?ontro&&ing area5account5?om(any ?ode5business area5va&uation area in customi6ing /#e system a&ways goes t#roug# t#e route of customi6ing first, t#en to t#e cost e&ement master record w#i&e accessing t#e account assignment ru&es* 3$,. Ho7 3oes ?ali3ation 3iffer fro# Substitution ? SAP uses va&idations and substitutions to c#eck t#e integrity of data entered before (osting a document* %#en you #ave bot# substitutions and va&idations defined, t#e system first com(&etes t#e substitution t#en goes on to va&idate t#e entries* >ote t#at on&y one va&idation and one substitution can be activated at a time for a contro&&ing area (er call8up point. A @alidation uses 3oo&ean &ogic for c-ec6ing any ty(e of combination of s(ecified criteria )suc# as account ty(e5cost center combination+ for ensuring t#e va&idity before a&&owing you to (ost a document* =<am(&e@

@alidation 1!--*

ule4 0f t#e cost e&ement is 1!----, t#en t#e cost center is

Document4 Gou try (osting a document containing t#e cost e&ement as 1!---- and t#e cost center is 1,--*

System

esponse4 /#e system wi&& t#row an error message after c#ecking

t#at t#e cost center va&ue does not matc# t#e cost center va&ue of t#e criteria for t#at given cost e&ement va&ue* 0n contrast to va&idation w#ic# Bust c#ecks for va&idity, su:stitution ensures t#at t#e system re(&aces a va&ue assigned to one or more fie&ds based on (redetermined criteria, using, again, Boolean logic. =<am(&e@

Su:stitution 1!--*

ule4 0f t#e cost e&ement is 1!----, t#en t#e cost center is

Document4 Gou try (osting a document containing t#e cost e&ement as 1!---- and t#e cost center as 1,--*

System

esponse4 /#e system wi&& re(&ace t#e entered cost center va&ue of

1,-- wit# t#at of t#e correct va&ue 1!--* 3$-. What is a !all=u% Point ? A )all8up Point is a (articu&ar (oint in transaction (rocessing t#at triggers an action suc# as substitution or va&idation* 3$/. What is .oolean ;o)i* ? Boolean 1ogic is based on sim(&e &ogic to determine if a given statement is true or fa&se* /#e &ogic works on t#e basic (rinci(&e t#at a statement can eit#er be true or fa&se* 0n a com(&e< statement )created using o(erators and5or5nor, etc*+ wit# many (arts, t#e &ogic goes by assigning true or fa&se from (art to (art, and t#en determines at t#e end w#et#er t#e combination is true or fa&se*

3$1. &5%lain 'e%ostin) in !ost !enter A**ountin). eposting is one of t#e transaction'based (ostings in ?ost ?enter Accounting used to rea&&ocate costs t#at were incorrect&y (osted to anot#er cost center ear&ier* A&so ca&&ed internal reposting, t#ere are two ty(es@ 8ine 0tem 2e(osting /ransaction 2e(osting 9se 1ine 0tem eposting on&y w#en a certain &ine item, from t#e origina& (osting, needs to be re(osted* 9nder t#is re(osting, at t#e end of t#e transaction, t#e system creates a new ?1 document, but kee(s t#e origina& F0 document unc#anged* 0n t#e new ?1 document created, t#e origina& F0 number is referenced* Gou wi&& resort to t#e entire (ransaction eposting w#en t#e origina& (osting was

incorrect* 4ere, t#e origina& F0 documents are not referenced to in t#e new ?1 document created, t#oug# t#e origina& F0 document remains unc#anged* 3(4. 2s Perio3i* 'e%ostin) 8ifferent fro# 'e%ostin) ? Periodic eposting, a met#od under indirect a&&ocation, is used to correct

mu&ti(&e (ostings made to cost centers during a (articu&ar (eriod* As suc#, t#is is simi&ar to multiple reposting under transaction'based (ostings* Periodic re(osting is a&so simi&ar to distri:ution, w#en you use t#is, at t#e (eriod end, to transfer a&& costs from a (oo&ed cost center to ot#er receivers* )>ote t#at t#e distribution is meant (rimari&y for cost a&&ocation, but (eriodic re(osting is meant for correcting t#e (osting errors*+ 3(1. &5%lain Manual !ost Allo*ation. 2anual )ost Allocation"one of t#e transaction'based (ostings"is used to (ost bot# (rimary and secondary actua& costs )not t#e (&anned costs+, and a&so to transfer e<terna& data* Gou may a&so use t#is to correct secondary costs t#at were incorrect&y (osted ear&ier* 0n t#e (rocess of manua& cost a&&ocation, remember t#at you can use

any ty(e of cost e&ement e<ce(t ,:, as t#is is meant e<c&usive&y for activity a&&ocation* Gou may use t#is among cost centers, interna& orders, networks, network activities, sa&es orders, sa&es order items, %3S e&ements, etc*, identifying t#ese cost obBects as senders5receivers* 3(2. What is 8ire*t A*ti"ity Allo*ation ? Direct Acti'ity Allocation"one of t#e transaction'based (ostings"is used to record activities (erformed by a cost center and to a&&ocate simu&taneous&y to receiving cost centers* Gou wi&& use t#is direct activity a&&ocation on&y w#en you know t#e activity vo&umes of bot# t#e sender and t#e receiver* 0f not known, t#en use t#e indirect acti'ity allocation at t#e (eriod end* Gou need to in(ut t#e activity $uantity, sender5receiver cost center and date to enab&e t#e system to a&&ocate t#e costsH t#e system wi&& automatica&&y determine t#e allocation cost element and t#e acti'ity price )eit#er t#e (&anned (rice or t#e actua& (rice+* /#e system mu&ti(&ies t#e activity consumed wit# t#at of t#e activity (rice to arrive at t#e a&&ocated cost* 3(3. Ho7 3o Bou !al*ulate A**rue3 !osts ? SAP (rovides two met#ods for ca&cu&ating t#e 0nputted or Accrued )osts in ?1@ /argetVActua& met#od ?ost =&ement Percent met#od 3($. 8es*ribe the 'e*on*iliation ;e3)er. /#e econciliation 1edger is used to kee( track of a&& cross'?om(any ?ode transactions between F0 and ?1, as t#ere is every c#ance t#at t#ere may be some imba&ance between t#e ?1 tota&s and F0 tota&s w#en more t#an one ?om(any ?ode is attac#ed to a contro&&ing area* /#is is because you may try to a&&ocate costs from one cost center to anot#er assigned to a different ?om(any ?ode*

/#e reconci&iation &edger records t#e ?om(any ?ode, business area, functiona& area, amount, cost obBects, cost e&ement, currency )?om(any ?ode and contro&&ing area+, etc* Gou can make reconci&iation (ostings at t#e end of a (eriod to sync#roni6e F0 and ?1 wit# t#e configuration settings to automatica&&y (ost t#e differences to F0* %#i&e configuring t#e reconci&iation &edger, you may use e3tended account assignments besides t#e norma& account assignment for automatic transfer of reconci&ed (ostings* /#e e<tended account assignment #e&(s make more com(re#ensive assignments to t#e re&evant reconci&iation accounts, wit# t#e o(tion and f&e<ibi&ity of s(ecifying any fie&d in t#e reconci&iation &edger )?om(any ?ode, cost e&ement, functiona& area, etc*+ for c#ecking t#e substitution ru&es* /o aid in determining (ossib&e reconci&iation (ostings, you can o(t for se&ecting individua& cost f&ows from a&& t#e re&evant cost f&ows* /#is is accom(&is#ed by running t#e re&evant re(ort and &ooking for t#e re&evant data b&ock )suc# as tota& cost f&ows, basic overview &ist, and detai&ed &ist+* 3((. What is ?arian*e Analysis in !:=:M=!!A? @ariance Analysis is t#e determination and inter(retation of t#e difference)s+ between t#e actua& and (&anned )target+ costs )wit#in a cost center5cost center grou(+ in cost center accounting* /#e ana&ysis is intended to (rovide im(ortant c&ues to to( management to (&an better &ater* 3(,. What are the !ate)ories of ?arian*es in !:=:M=!!A? SAP #e&(s to c&assify a&& variances into two categories@ 0n(ut Iariance 1ut(ut Iariance

3(-. &5%lain the 2n%ut ?arian*e. /#e 0nput @ariance is t#e resu&t of t#e mismatc# of amounts5$uantities of in(uts (&anned and actua&&y used* Gou wi&& be ab&e to identify t#e fo&&owing input side 'ariances in t#e system@

Auantity 'ariance"w#en t#ere is a difference between (&anned and actua& $uantity of activity consum(tion* /#e inference is t#at t#ere is some (roduction inefficiency &eading to more consum(tion or t#ere is some &oss5s#rinkage in t#e $uantities*

Price 'ariance"w#en t#ere is a difference between t#e (&anned and actua& (rice of an activity* /#e inference wi&& be t#at you may need to c#ange t#e su((&iers &ooking for &ower (rices or it is Bust a market condition*

esource .use/ 'ariance"w#en t#ere is use of an un(&anned cost e&ement or t#ere #as not been a (osting of a (&anned cost e&ement* /#e inference is t#at t#ere are some unidentified costs t#at may be (&anned in t#e ne<t (&anning cyc&e, or Bust (&ain errors in (ostings*

emaining .input/ 'ariance"t#ese are a&& misce&&aneous variances w#ere t#e system is not ab&e to categori6e a variance*

3(/. What is an :ut%ut ?arian*e ? An +utput @ariance is t#e resu&t w#en t#e actua& costs a&&ocated from a cost center differ from t#e (&anned )or target+ cost a&&ocation from t#e cost center* /#e variances on t#e out(ut side may be any one of t#e fo&&owing@

@olume 'ariance"t#is variance occurs wit# actua& and (&anned activities )in terms of activity $uantity and5or t#e activity itse&f+* 0t can arise in eit#er or bot# situations described be&ow@ Io&ume varianceVP&an Activity ?ost")Actua& Activity

FuantityLP&anned Activity Price+

Io&ume varianceVP&an Activity PriceL)P&anned Activity Fuantity" Actua& Activity Fuantity+

+utput price 'ariance"t#is variance occurs w#en t#e activity (rice used in t#e actua& a&&ocation is a (o&itica& activity (rice )manua&&y entered or (&an (rice+ differing from t#e system ca&cu&ated activity (rice )target (rice+*

+utput Buantity 'ariance"t#is kind of variance occurs on&y on t#e actua& side, w#en t#ere is a difference between t#e actua& activity $uantity )manua&&y+ entered in t#e sender cost center, and t#e actua& activity $uantity a&&ocated from t#at sender cost center*

emaining 'ariance"t#is ref&ects t#e misce&&aneous variance, at t#e cost center &eve&, identified by t#e system on t#e out(ut side but remains not categori6ed into any of t#e above t#ree ty(es* /#e (ossib&e reason can be t#at you #ave deactivated t#e out(ut variances in t#e 'ariance 'ariant configuration or t#e out(ut variance is &ess t#an t#e minor difference you #ave defined in t#e variance variant*

3(1. Ho7 3o Bou 8eal 7ith ?arian*es ? /#oug# t#e system identifies and ca&cu&ates variances, t#ey are not automatica&&y dea&t wit# by t#e system* 4ence, t#ese variances wi&& remain at t#e cost center as a period8end :alance and you need to act on t#at in one of t#e fo&&owing ways@

Gou may do actua& activity (rice ca&cu&ation to reva&ue a&& interna& a&&ocations wit# a new&y ca&cu&ated (rice )as against t#e initia& (&anned activity (rice+, and (ost t#e difference to a&& t#e cost centers w#ic# initia&&y received t#e a&&ocations* /#is wi&& #e&( you in c&earing a&& or a (ortion of out(ut (rice variances*

Gou may transfer t#e variance ba&ance to ot#er modu&es )suc# as ?1'PA+ for furt#er ana&ysis*

Gou may make additiona& automated a&&ocations wit#in ?1'1.'??A to one or more cost center* 3,4. What are All the Stan3ar3 'e%orts in !:? SAP comes de&ivered wit# a number of Standard re(orts are grou(ed under@ P&anning re(orts ?om(arison re(orts 8ine item re(orts eports in t#e ?1 modu&e* /#e

Figure 7C@ 2e(ort /ree in ?1 2e(ort for activity (rices 2e(orts for variance ana&ysis .aster data re(orts

Document dis(&ay A&& t#e re(orts are arranged in a report tree wit# a #ierarc#ica& arrangement of re(orts under various nodes* >ote t#at you wi&& not be ab&e to c#ange t#e standard re(ort tree su((&ied by SAPH if you need to you can co(y it, define your own re(orts, and t#en attac# t#ese new&y defined ones to t#e new re(ort tree you Bust defined* 3,1. What is Su##ariCation in !:? SummariCation #e&(s to condense and store t#e transaction data at t#e cost center grou( &eve&* Gou may do t#e summari6ation for t#e #ig#est node of t#e standard #ierarc#y or any of t#e a&ternate #ierarc#ies* 1nce summari6ed, you wi&& be ab&e to create a vast number of re(orts wit# re(ort run'time vast&y reduced as a&& t#e data of t#e nodes are readi&y avai&ab&e from t#e summari6ed tab&e* 2nternal :r3ers 3,2. What is an 2nternal :r3er ? An 0nternal +rder is a cost obBect used main&y for recording costs associated wit# certain events taking (&ace wit#in t#e com(any* /#e events are uni$ue suc# as marketing cam(aigns, re(airs, trade e<#ibitions etc* 9n&ike t#e cost centers w#ere you ty(ica&&y (ost on&y t#e costs, you wi&& be ab&e to (ost bot# cost and revenue information to interna& orders* Gou can (&an, monitor, co&&ect, and sett&e costs5revenue on interna& orders* /#e interna& orders can be c&assified as a Single order!0ndi'idual order or a Standing order* /#e orders can a&so be a internal order* 3,3. Ho7 3oes an 2n3i"i3ual :r3er 3iffer fro# a Stan3in) :r3er ? An 0ndi'idual .0nternal/ +rder is meant for co&&ecting and sett&ing costs of a one' time and uni$ue business activity suc# as a new (roduct &aunc#* Gou wi&& be sett&ing eal internal order or a Statistical

t#e order in fu&& at t#e end of t#e activity* /y(ica&&y, t#is ty(e of order is used for advertising cam(aigns, 2 M D costs, assets (roduced in'#ouse, etc* A Standing .0nternal/ +rder on t#e ot#er #and, is used in t#e case of re(etitive o(erations, t#e costs of w#ic# are genera&&y sma&&er com(ared to one'time orders* Gou wi&& sett&e t#e costs and form t#ese orders on a (eriodic basis )say, at t#e end of every mont#+ and wi&& kee( t#e order o(en to receive future costs* Gou wi&& use t#is ty(e of order for tracking costs on routine maintenance, te&e(#one use c#arges, etc* /#ese orders do away wit# t#e need to create a new order every time you need suc# a trackingH t#ey are simi&ar to standing instructions* 3,$. What are the Erou%s of 2nternal :r3ers? 0nternal +rders can be grou(ed into t#e fo&&owing categories5grou(s@

+'er-ead orders Associated wit# monitoring of over#ead costs incurred for a s(ecific (ur(ose suc# as tracking re(air work, (ainting t#e factory, conducting an e<#ibition, etc* 1ver#ead cost orders are used on&y in t#e ?1 area*

0n'estment orders /racking t#e costs incurred on fi<ed assets )assets under construction+ suc# as construction of a ware#ouse, etc* /#ese are a&so ca&&ed capital in'estment orders*

Accrual orders Gou wi&& use accrua& orders w#en you need to make an offsetting (osting of accrued costs to a cost center in ?1*

+rders ,it- re'enue /#ese orders #e&( you carry out cost accounting functiona&ity of SAP SD )customer orders+ w#en you #ave not im(&emented t#e SD modu&e* 3y doing t#is, you wi&& be ab&e to track costs and revenues*

3,(. Ho7 3o Statisti*al 2nternal :r3ers 8iffer fro# 'eal :r3ers ? A Statistical 0nternal +rder is used to co&&ect costs for t#e (ur(ose of information and re(orting, as t#e costs co&&ected on t#is order are never sett&ed to a cost obBect* %#en you want to create suc# an order, you wi&& be re$uired to s(ecify t#at t#e order is statistica& in its master record* 4owever, to make a (osting to t#is kind of order, you need to #ave a rea& or true cost obBect s(ecified during t#e transaction* A eal 0nternal +rder is a&ways used to sett&e costs to ot#er cost obBects* So, even if you s(ecify a rea& cost obBect w#i&e making a (osting to a rea& order, t#e system wi&& consider t#at cost obBect a statistica& one as t#e interna& order itse&f is a rea& cost obBect* Sales I 8istribution (S8) De(icted be&ow is t#e broad organi6ationa& structure of &ogistics, w#ic# wi&& #e&( you understand #ow t#e various units of SD as we&& as .. modu&es are &inked to F0@

Figure ,*: ;ogistics organi.ational structure in SAP 3,,. What are the !o#%onents of the SAP S8 Mo3ule? /#e im(ortant )omponents in SAP Sa&es M Distribution modu&e inc&ude@ .aster data

3asic functions Sa&es )inc&uding foreign sa&es and sa&es su((ort+ S#i((ing and trans(ortation 3i&&ing Sa&es su((ort 0nformation systems 3,-. What are the 2#%ortant :r)aniCational &le#ents of SAP S8? /#e im(ortant +rganiCational $lements in SAP Sa&es M Distribution inc&ude@ Sa&es organi6ation Distribution c#anne& Division Sa&es area Sa&es grou( Sa&es (erson

Figure ,+: S& Organi.ational Structure

3,/. &5%lain the Sales :r)aniCation. Ho7 it is Assi)ne3 to a Plant ? (-e Sales +rganiCation is t#e to('most organi6ationa& e&ement in SD* 0t re(resents and takes care of a&& t#e transactions re&ating to t#e se&&ing and distribution of (roducts or services* A distri:ution c-annel is assigned to one or more sa&es organi6ation* /#e customer master can be maintained wit# different sa&es organi6ation views* /#e sa&es organi6ation, identified by a ,'c#aracter code, is assigned to one or more (&ants* /#ese (&ants are, in turn, assigned to a ?om(any ?ode* So, it fo&&ows t#at any number of sales areas can be broug#t under a sing&e ?om(any ?ode* =ven t#oug# it is (ossib&e t#at you may #ave any number of sa&es organi6ations, it is recommended t#at you #ave a minimum number of t#ese units in your setu(* 0dea& recommendation is for a sing&e sa&es organi6ation (er ?om(any ?ode* 0f you are se&&ing t#e same (roduct or service from more t#an one sa&es organi6ation, t#en t#ere is a c&ear indication t#at you #ave more sa&es organi6ations defined t#an w#at wou&d idea&&y be re$uired* 3,1. What is a 8istribution !hannel ? A Distri:ution )-annel de(icts t#e c#anne& t#roug# w#ic# t#e (roducts or services reac# t#e customers after t#ey are so&d )for e<am(&e, w#o&esa&e, retai&, direct sa&es, etc*+* 2e(resented by a !'digit identifier, t#e distribution c#anne& is assigned to one or more sales areas* As a resu&t, one customer may be serviced t#roug# more t#an one distribution c#anne&* Suc# as in a sales organiCation, t#e customer master data may #ave different distribution c#anne& views* 3-4. What is a 8istribution !hain ? A Distri:ution )-ain re(resents t#e (ossib&e combinations of sales

organiCation)s+ and distri:ution c-annel)s+* 0n Figure 79, Detroit 111-'2esa&e 1C forms a distribution c#anne& and is norma&&y denoted 111-O1C*

Figure ,/: Sales o11ice=Sales grou$=Sales $erson structure 3-1. What is a 8i"ision ? A Di'ision de(icts t#e (roduct or service grou( for a range of (roducts5services* For eac# division, you may define and maintain customer's(ecific (arameters suc# as terms of (ayment, (ricing, etc* /#e division may come under one or more distribution c#anne&s*

Figure

,,:

Sales

Organi.ation=&istribution

8hannel=&i?ision

Assignment 3-2. &5%lain the Assi)n#ents A#on) :r)aniCational Dnits in S8. 1 ?om(any ?ode 1 Sa&es Area ;1 Sa&es Area 1 Distribution ?#anne& is assigned to ;1 P&ant ;1 P&ant 1 ?om(any ?ode ;1 Sa&es Area

1 ?ustomer ;1 Division O$en table as s$rea(sheet

;1 Distribution ?#anne& ;1 Distribution ?#anne&

3-3. What is a Sales Area ? A Sales Area is a combination of t#e sales organiCation, distri:ution c-annel, and di'ision* From Figure 91 you can derive sa&es area 111-O1CO-1, w#ic# in fact re(resents t#at t#e (roduct /I is so&d t#roug# t#e resa&e distribution c#anne& from sa&es organi6ation Detroit* 9sua&&y, you wi&& use sa&es areas for re(orting (ur(oses*

Figure /1: Sales Returns=Process Flo) 3-$. &5%lain Ho7 Hu#an &le#ents are :r)aniCe3 in S8. /#ere are t#ree distinct organi6ationa& units in SD from t#e #uman ang&e@ Sa&es 1ffice Sa&es Grou( Sa&es Person /#e Sales +**ice re(resents t#e geogra(#ica& dimension in sa&es and distribution* A sa&es office is assigned to a sales area* /#e staff of a sa&es office may be grou(ed into Sales "roups* /#is corres(onds to sa&es divisions* A Sales Person is assigned to a sa&es grou(* /#is assignment is done at t#e (ersonne& master record &eve&* 3-(. Where an3 Ho7 is a .usiness Area Assi)n#ent 3one? Business area assignment is done at two &eve&s@

P&ant &eve& Ia&uation area &eve& /#e business area is assigned to t#e combination of (&ant5va&uation area and t#e division* 3-,. A Plant is Assi)ne3 to Whi*h of the &ntities in the S8 :r)aniCation? A Plant is assigned to@ ?om(any ?ode ?ombination of Sa&es 1rgani6ation M Distribution ?#anne& Purc#asing 1rgani6ation 3--. Ho7 is the Shi%%in) Point 8eter#ine3 by the Syste#? /#e S-ipping Point is determined by t#e combination of s-ipping condition, loading group, and plant assigned to a s#i((ing (oint* 3-/. What are the 2#%ortant !usto#er Master 'e*or3s ? Some of t#e im(ortant customer records are@ So&d'to'Party record S#i('to'Party record 3i&&'to'Party record Payer record 3-1. What are the ?arious Se*tions of the !usto#er Master 'e*or3 ? /#e different sections in a master record are@

"eneral data

Gou wi&& be ab&e to create genera& data suc# as addresses, te&e(#ones, contact (ersons, un&oading (oints, etc*, eit#er from t#e accounting side or from t#e sa&es side*

)ompany )ode data Gou wi&& be ab&e to create data in account management )credit management, (ayment detai&s, ta<ations, insurance, etc*+ t#at (ertains to t#e ?om(any ?ode in w#ic# t#e customer is created* Gou do t#is from t#e accounting side*

Sales K Distri:ution data /#e data for (ricing, s#i((ing, etc*, comes under t#is category of information* Gou wi&& create t#is from t#e SD area* Gou can #ave data for different sa&es areas for a sing&e customer*

3/4. What is a !usto#er=Material 2nfor#ation 'e*or3 ? /#e information re&ating to a materia& t#at a((&ies on&y to a s(ecific customer is known as )ustomer82aterial 0n*ormation. /#is is not#ing but t#e descri(tion of your materia& by t#e customer, and you record t#is customer's(ecific information in t#e customer'materia& information record*

3/1. What is a Sales :r3er ? A Sales +rder is a contract between your Sa&es 1rgani6ation and a ?ustomer for su((&y of s(ecified goods and5services over a s(ecified timeframe and in an agreed u(on $uantity or unit* A&& t#e re&evant information from t#e customer master record and t#e materia& master record, for a s(ecific sa&es area, are co(ied to t#e sa&es order* /#e sa&es order may be created wit# reference to a (receding document suc# as a $uotation, t#en a&& t#e initia& data from t#e (receding document is co(ied to t#e sa&es order* /#e sa&es order contains@

+rganiCational data )sa&es organi6ation, distribution c#anne&, division, sa&es document ty(e, (ricing (rocedure, etc*+*

>eader data )so&d'to'(arty, sa&es office, sa&es grou(, (ricing date, document date, order reason, document currency, (rice grou(, sa&es district, customer grou(, s#i((ing condition, incoterms, (ayment terms, bi&&ing sc#edu&e, P1 number, etc*+*

0tem data )item category, order $uantity, materia&, batc# number, (roduct #ierarc#y, (&ant, materia& grou(, s#i((ing (oint, route, de&ivery (riority, customer materia&, item number, etc*+*

Sc-edule line data )sc#edu&e &ine, sc#edu&e &ine number, de&ivery date, order $uantity, confirmed $uantity, materia& avai&abi&ity date, &oading date, (ro(osed goods issue date, trans(ortation date, movement ty(e, s#i((ing (oint, etc*+*

3/2. &5%lain the Pro*ess 9lo7 for a Stan3ar3 Sales :r3er. Starting wit# t#e $uotation, a Standard Sales +rder goes t#roug# t#e fo&&owing (rocess@

Figure /0: Stan(ar( Sales Or(er=Process Flo) 3/3. :utline the Pro*ess 9lo7 for Sales 'eturns. Starting wit# t#e $uotation, a Sales eturn goes t#roug# t#e fo&&owing (rocess@ 3/$. 8es*ribe the Pro*ess 9lo7 for a !re3it Me#o. /#e fo&&owing diagram de(icts a ty(ica& (rocess f&ow for a )redit 2emo4

Figure /2: 8re(it Memo=Process Flo) 3/(. What are the S%e*ial Sales 8o*u#ent Ty%es ?

S+ 2us# 1rder "2 ?redit $ 2eturn 1rder 9% Fo? )Free'of'?#arge+ Subse$uent De&ivery 1rder

9 0nvoice ?orrection 2e$uest

3/,. What is the !onsi)n#ent Sto*6 Pro*ess ? 0n t#e )onsignment Stoc6 Process, you a&&ow your stock or materia& to be at t#e customers site* Gou may a&so a&&ow your stock or materia& to be made avai&ab&e at your site, but reserved for a (articu&ar customer* And you wi&& a&&ow t#e customer to se&& or consume as muc# stock as #e wants from t#is* Gou wi&& t#en bi&& t#e customer on&y for t#e $uantities t#at #e #as consumed or so&d* Gou wi&& monitor t#e consignment stock"a&so known as special stoc6"in your system customer'wise and materia&'wise* Gou wi&& use t#e standard sa&es order document ty(e 9B and standard de&ivery ty(e 17 for (rocessing a consignment sales order* 3/-. &5%lain Sales 8o*u#ent .lo*6in). Gou may be re$uired to :loc6 a s(ecific sa&es document ty(e from furt#er (rocessing, w#en you want to b&ock undesirab&e customers* Gou can ac#ieve t#is for a s(ecific customer or for a s(ecific document ty(e* Gou may a&so b&ock it, in t#e customer master record, for a sing&e sa&es area or for a&& t#e sa&es areas attac#ed to t#e customer* /#e b&ocking is done in customi6ing by assigning :loc6ing reasons to t#e sa&es document ty(es* /#en in t#e customer master record do t#e necessary document b&ock* 3//. !an Bou .lo*6 9la))e3 for 8eletion ? %#en you set t#e deletion *lag for a materia& at t#e (&ant &eve&, you wi&& sti&& be ab&e to enter an order even t#oug# t#e system wi&& warn you t#at t#e materia& #as been f&agged for de&etion* 0f you need to b&ock any transaction for a materia&, t#en you a Transa*tion for a Material that is

need to use t#e Sales Status fie&d in t#e Sales +rganiCation @ie, of t#e materia& master* 3/1. !an 2te#s in a Sales :r3er 8istribution !hannels ? >o* /#e various items in a Sales +rder s#ou&d be&ong to a sing&e distri:ution c-annel on&y* 4owever, t#e various items in a deli'ery can be&ong to different distribution c#anne&s* 314. !an the 2te#s in a .illin) 8o*u#ent 8ifferent 8istribution !hannels ? >o* /#e various items in a Billing Document s#ou&d be&ong to a sing&e distri:ution c-annel on&y* 311. 8ifferentiate .et7een a Sales Area an3 a Sales ;ine. A Sales Area is com(rised of sa&es organi6ation, distribution c#anne&, and division w#ereas a Sales 1ine is t#e combination of t#e sa&es organi6ation and t#e distribution c#anne&* 312. !an a Sales Area .elon) to 8ifferent !o#%any !o3es? >o* A Sales Area can be&ong to on&y one ?om(any ?ode* 313. What is the Stora)e ;o*ation 'ule ? /#e Storage 1ocation ule assigned in t#e De&ivery Document ty(e determines .elon) to .elon) to 8ifferent

t#e Storage 8ocation, even w#en t#e storage &ocation is entered during de&ivery creation* /#is is based on t#e fo&&owing ru&es@

2A1A4 S#i((ing Point5P&ant5Storage condition $(A4 P&ant5Situation5Storage condition 2A $4 .A8A t#en 2=/A

31$. Ho7 3o Bou !onfi)ure the Partner 8eter#ination Pro*e3ure in S8? /#e Partner Determination Procedure is configured as out&ined in t#e fo&&owing ste(s@ ?reate an account grou( ?reate and assign a number range to t#at account grou( ?reate and assign t#e (artner functions to t#e account grou( ?reate a (artner determination (rocedure Assign t#e (artner functions to t#e (artner determination (rocedure Fina&&y, assign t#e (artner determination (rocedure to t#e account grou( 31(. Where 3o Bou 8efine Dnloa3in) Points 'e*ei"in) Hours ? /#e 5nloading Points and "oods ecei'ing >ours are defined in t#e ?ustomer an3 Eoo3s

.aster;Genera& Data;9n&oading Points tab* 31,. Where 3o Bou 8efine the Ter#s of Pay#ent !usto#er? /#e (erms o* Payment for a s(ecific customer is defined in t#e ?ustomer .aster;?om(any ?ode Data;Payment /ransactions /ab, and a&so in t#e 3i&&ing Document /ab in t#e Sa&es Area Data of t#e ?ustomer .aster* Material Mana)e#ent (MM) 31-. What 9un*tions are Su%%orte3 in the SAP Material Mana)e#ent (MM)? /#e .. modu&e of SAP su((orts t#e fo&&owing functions@ .2P ).ateria& 2e$uirements P&anning+ for a

Procurement 0nventory .anagement 0nventory Ia&uation 0nvoice Ierification 31/. What is M'P ? 2 P .2aterial eBuirements Planning/ is not#ing but t#e determination of

w#ic# materia&s are re$uired, w#en and in w#at $uantities, based on current information and forecasts* 311. &5%lain the .asi* :r)aniCational Stru*ture in MM. /#e maBor +rganiCational $lements of .. inc&ude@ Purc#asing 1rgani6ation P&ant Storage 8ocation /#e Purc-asing +rganiCation is ty(ica&&y attac#ed to one ?om(any ?ode* 3ut a sing&e ?om(any ?ode can #ave one or more (urc#asing organi6ations* 1ne or more Plants are attac#ed to a (urc#asing organi6ation* 1ne or more Storage 1ocations are attac#ed to a (&ant* 1ne or more (&ants are assigned to a ?om(any ?ode, but one (&ant is attac#ed to on&y one ?om(any ?ode* De(ending on #ow t#e (urc#asing organi6ation #as been structured, you may come across t#ree ty(es of structures as detai&ed be&ow@

)ross8plant purc-asing organiCation /#e (urc#asing organi6ation caters to more t#an one (&ant of t#e same ?om(any ?ode*

Figure 9:@ ?ross'P&ant Purc#asing 1rgani6ation

Plant8speci*ic purc-asing organiCation =ac# P&ant #as it is own (urc#asing organi6ation*

Figure 9,@ P&ant's(ecific Purc#asing 1rgani6ation

)ross8company code purc-asing organiCation A sing&e (urc#asing organi6ation is res(onsib&e for t#e (rocurement activities of more t#an one ?om(any ?ode* /#e (&ants attac#ed to t#is (urc#asing organi6ation are a&so cross'?om(any ?ode* 0n t#is case, t#e (urc#asing organi6ation is not attac#ed to any of t#e ?om(any ?odesH instead, t#e various (&ants are attac#ed to t#e (urc#asing organi6ation* /#is kind of (urc#asing organi6ation is known as a central purc-asing organiCation* /#is kind of organi6ationa& structure is essentia& in t#e case of centra&i6ed (rocurement in an enter(rise*

Figure 9C@ ?ross'?om(any ?ode Purc#asing 1rgani6ation

$44. 8efine Plant in SAP. Plant in SAP can denote a manufacturing &ocation, distribution center, or a ware#ouse* %it# uni$ue numbers identifying eac# of t#e (&ants, t#oug# t#ese are a&& not a&& necessari&y financia& entities, t#ey can sti&& be &inked to a Business Area* /#e P&ant is t#e (&ace w#ere you norma&&y va&uate t#e inventory in SAP* /#e system, #owever, c#ecks for t#e inventory eit#er at t#e P&ant or P&ant5Storage 8ocation during an 1rder entry* $41. &5%lain the Stora)e ;o*ation in SAP. A sub'division of a (&ant, t#e Storage 1ocation, defines a &ocation for materia&s t#at can be a ware#ouse, bin, or a storage area of raw materia&s5%0P5finis#ed (roduct* Gou wi&& manage t#e (#ysica& inventory, materia& movement, (icking, cyc&e counting, etc*, at t#e storage'&ocation &eve&* 0n &are-ouse 2anagement, t#e storage &ocation is furt#er subdivided* $42. &5%lain the Pur*hasin) :r)aniCation in SAP. /#is refers to t#e organi6ationa& structure in SAP t#at is res(onsib&e for (rocurement of materia&s* /#e Purc-asing +rganiCation is t#e to('most organi6ationa& e&ement in .., and t#is can take any one of t#ree forms suc# as )1+ )ross8plant purc-asing organiCations )catering to more t#an one (&ant but wit#in t#e same ?om(any ?ode+, )!+ Plant8speci*ic purc-asing organiCations )wit# a 1@1 re&ations#i( wit# t#e (&ant+, and ):+ )ross8company code purc-asing organiCations )catering to more t#an one ?om(any ?ode+* =ntrusted wit# t#e activity of negotiating t#e (rice, de&ivery conditions, etc*, of materia&s from vendors, t#e Purc#asing 1rgani6ation can furt#er be subdivided into purc-asing groups*

$43. &5%lain the Pur*hasin) Erou% !on*e%t in MM. /#e Purc-asing "roup carries out t#e actua& activities of (urc#asing, and is assigned to a materia& in t#e materia& master* /#e activities of severa& (urc#asing organi6ations can be done by one (urc#asing grou(* $4$. &5%lain the ?aluation Area !on*e%t in MM. /#e va&uation of a materia& is done at t#e @aluation Area, w#ic# can eit#er be at t#e )ompany )ode &eve& or t#e Plant &eve&* /#e &eve& at w#ic# t#e va&uation needs to #a((en is defined in t#e customi6ing* >ote t#at once it is defined, you wi&& not be ab&e to c#ange it &aterU %#en t#e va&uation is at t#e ?om(any ?ode &eve&, t#en t#e va&uation of a materia& is uniform across t#e (&ants attac#ed to t#at ?om(any ?ode* 1n t#e ot#er #and, if t#e va&uation is at t#e (&ant &eve&, t#en t#e va&ue of t#e materia& is (&ants(ecific and wi&& vary from one (&ant to anot#er* 0f you are using PP .Production Planning/!2 P in your com(any, t#en t#e va&uation #as to be at t#e (&ant &eve&* $4(. What is a 9a*tory !alen3ar ? A 7actory )alendar is a ca&endar t#at is country's(ecific wit# a &ist of pu:lic -olidays )maintained via t#e >oliday )alendar+ and ,or6ing days, w#ic# are ?&ient'inde(endent* /#e factory ca&endar #e&(s in contro&&ing goods issues5recei(ts* =ac# plant is assigned a factory ca&endar, and t#e ca&endar must be activated )t#roug# ?/S functiona&ity+ before using it* $4,. &5%lain Ho7 S8 an3 MM are !onne*te3 in SAP. /#e goods5services from a plant can be so&d by one or more sales organiCations* 0t is a&so (ossib&e t#at sing&e sa&es organi6ations se&&s goods5services for severa& (&ants* %#en t#e sa&es organi6ations se&&s for more t#an one (&ant be&onging to one or more ?om(any ?odes, t#en t#is is ca&&ed inter8company sales, and wi&& re$uire you to make some s(ecia& configurations in t#e system* A sa&es organi6ation, attac#ed to a

)ompany )ode, is furt#er divided into distri:ution c-annels and di'isions in SD* A division ty(ica&&y re(resents a (roduct &ine, and is assigned to a materia& in t#e materia& master* $4-. :utline the 9un*tions Su%%orte3 by Material Master. /#e 2aterial 2aster is t#e centra& master record catering to various business functions in 8ogistics* /#e data stored in t#is master su((ort a variety of business functions and o(erations suc# as@ Production P&anning .2P Procurement 0nvoice Ierification 0nventory .anagement Product ?osting Sa&es and Distribution Fua&ity .anagement /#e data is stored, wit#in a materia& master, at different organi6ationa& &eve&s* /#e general data is va&id for a&& t#e ?om(any ?odes at t#e ?&ient &eve&* /#e (urc#asing information is va&id at t#e (&ant &eve&* /#e sales in*ormation is va&id at t#e sa&es organi6ation5distribution c#anne&* 8ast&y, w#en &are-ouse 2anagement is activated, t#e data is maintained at t#e ware#ouse number5storage ty(e &eve&* $4/. &5%lain Why a Material Master is 8i"i3e3 into ?ie7s. Since t#e information in a materia& master needs to be maintained by a number of users across severa& modu&es, SAP #as structured t#e master into a number of @ie,s for faci&itating easier access and u(dating of data* /#e views inc&ude@ 3asic Data

?&assification Sa&es Purc#asing Purc#ase 1rder te<t Accounting Foreign /rade %ork Sc#edu&ing Forecasting Storage ?osting P&ant5Storage 8ocation stock .2P $41. What 2nfor#ation is A"ailable in the A**ountin) ?ie7 of a Material Master ? /#e most im(ortant information maintained in t#e Accounting @ie, of a materia& master is t#e 'aluation class, w#ic# needs to be assigned to individua& materia&s* /#e va&uation c&ass, in turn, #e&(s in determining t#e re&evant G8 accounts for (osting va&uation're&evant transactions suc# as G2, G0, etc* Gou wi&& maintain t#e price control indicator in t#e accounting view, w#ic# enab&es determining #ow t#e stock of a materia& is to be va&ued )at Standard price .S/ or 2o'ing a'erage price .@//* $14. Why 3o Bou +ee3 Material Ty%es in MM? 1ne way to grou( materia&s is by 2aterial (ype )t#e ot#er being by 0ndustry Sector+* /#is grou(ing #e&(s determine w#at information or data is to be made avai&ab&e at t#e materia& master &eve& for a (articu&ar materia&*

/#e materia& ty(e )for e<am(&e, F=2/, 4A%A, 4A83, 214, and so on+ is used to contro&@ %#ic# Iiews can be maintained on t#e master record %#ic# Fie&ds are mandatory, o(tiona&, or for dis(&ay on&y in t#e materia& master %#at kind of Procurement is a&&owed for t#at materia& )interna& or e<terna& or bot#+ 4ow to >umber )0nterna&5=<terna&+ and w#at >umber 2ange is a&&owed %#et#er Fuantity and5or Ia&ue u(dating s#ou&d be done in a (articu&ar Ia&uation Area %#ic# G8 Accounts wi&& be (osted to )via t#e Ia&uation ?&ass+ during goods movement /#e defau&t 0tem ?ategory Grou( )SMD+ /#e defau&t Price ?ontro& 0ndicator )S or I+ and %#et#er t#e defau&t Price ?ontro& 0ndicator is c#angeab&e during materia& master maintenance $11. &5%lain the Pri*e !ontrol 2n3i*ator. /#e Price )ontrol 0ndicator is used by SAP to determine #ow a materia& wi&& be va&uated, by defau&t* /#e indicator can be set to@

Standard Price .S/ or .oving Average Price .@/

%#en you set t#e indicator to S, t#e system carries out a&& t#e in'entory postings at t#e standard (rice* /#e 'ariances movement or invoice recei(ts due to a different (rice of a materia& in goods

if any, are a&& (osted to price di**erence accounts*

As a resu&t, t#e standard (rice remains t#e same, un&ess it is c#anged intentiona&&y by manua& (rocessing* /#is wi&& be necessary on&y w#en t#e difference between t#e standard and moving average (rices becomes very &arge* )%#i&e u(dating t#e (rice difference accounts, #owever, t#e system a&so u(dates t#e moving average (rice wit# t#ese variances, so t#at you get a c#ance to adBust t#e standard (rice s#ou&d t#e difference between t#e standard and moving average (rices becomes very substantia&*+ =<am(&e@

1st April 200 0nitia& Stock @ 1--- units )Standard+ Price5unit )A+ @ SC 0nitia& Stock Ia&ue )3+ @ SC,---

20th !ay 200 Goods 2ecei(t @ 1--- units G2 Price5unit )A1+ @ SA Stock A5c )Dr*+ )?+ @ SC,--- )V1--- J SC+ Price Difference A5c )Dr*+ @ S1,--- )V1--- J S1+ /#e amount of S1,--- (osted to t#e (rice difference A5c re(resents t#e variance ref&ecting t#e difference between t#e new (rice )A1+ and t#e standard (rice )A+* G2502 A5c )?r*+ @ SA,--- )V1--- J SA+ Stock Ia&ue, now )31+ @ S1-,--- )V3N?+ )i*e*, !--- units Z SC+

2"th !ay 200 Goods 0ssue @ 1-- units

Price5unit )same as t#at of A+ @ SC 1n t#e ot#er #and, w#en you set t#e indicator to @ t#en a&& t#e goods recei(ts )G2+ wi&& be at t#e G2 va&ue* /#e system wi&& t#en adBust t#e (rice in t#e materia& master by t#e G2 (rice* 4owever, if t#ere is a difference between t#e moving average (rice of t#e materia& and t#e goods movement5invoice recei(t, t#en t#e (rice difference is moved to t#e stock account, and t#e (rice of t#e materia& in t#e materia& master is adBusted according&y* =<am(&e@

1st April 200 0nitia& Stock @ 1--- units ).oving Average+ Price5unit )A+ @ SC 0nitia& Stock Ia&ue )3+ @ SC,---

20th !ay 200 Goods 2ecei(t @ 1--- units G2 Price5unit )A1+ @ SA Stock A5c )Dr*+ )?+ @ SA,--- )V1--- J SA+ G2502 A5c )?r*+ @ SA,--- )V1--- J SA+ Stock Ia&ue, now )31+ @ S11,--- )V3N?+ )V!--- units Z SC*C-+ At t#is (oint, t#e (rice on t#e materia& master is adBusted u(ward from SC )A+ to SC*C )A!+ by t#e system automatica&&y, to ref&ect t#e new stock va&ue* >ew .oving Average Price )A!+ @ SC*C- )V315!---+

2"th !ay 200 Goods 0ssue @ 1-- units

Price5unit )A!+ @ SC*C$12. &5%lain Pri*es Maintenan*e for Materials Transferre3 fro# ;e)a*y to SAP. 3efore you transfer t#e initia& inventory from a &egacy system to SAP, you need to create t#e re&evant master data for t#e materia&s* 0f you are (&anning to maintain a standard price for t#e materia&s, t#en you wi&& create t#e materia& masters wit# S as t#e (rice contro& indictor in SAP* %it# t#is contro&, w#en you enter t#e materia& inventory, t#e system va&uates t#is stock wit# t#e standard (rice defined* 0n t#is case, you enter a new (rice and t#e system (osts t#e (rice difference )between t#e standard (rice and t#e new (rice you entered+ to a (rice difference account* Simi&ar&y, if you are (&anning to maintain a mo'ing a'erage price for materia&s, t#en you wi&& create t#e materia& masters wit# I as t#e Price ?ontro& 0ndictor in SAP* %it# t#is contro&, w#en you enter t#e materia& inventory, t#e system va&uates t#is stock wit# t#e moving average (rice defined* 0n t#is case, you enter a new (rice and t#e system adBusts t#e moving average (rice according&y* 0f you enter on&y t#e $uantity, and not any new (rice, t#e system continues to va&uate t#e stock at t#e origina& moving average (rice, and t#e (rice of t#e materia& does not c#ange* $13. What is the Material Status ? (-e 2aterial Status is a !'digit code enab&ing you to contro& t#e usabi&ity of materia& for various .. and PP a((&ications* /#is status key a&so contro&s ware#ouse management, transfers order instructions, $ua&ity ins(ection instructions, decides #ow t#e system be#aves w#en a (roduct cost estimate is created, and so on* /#e materia& status can be maintained as )1+ P&ant's(ecific materia& status, )!+ ?ross' (&ant materia& status, and ):+ Distribution materia& status*

$1$. What is the &A+ ? /#e $A% .0nternational Article %um:er/, e$uiva&ent to t#e 5P) .5ni'ersal Product )ode/ of t#e 9nited States, is an internationa& standard number for identifying a materia&, w#ic# SAP a&&ows you to assign )done in t#e =ng*5Design or 9nits of .easure screen+ to t#e materia&s* /#e =A> is norma&&y assigned to t#e manufacturer of a materia&* .ade u( of a (refi< )to identify t#e country or com(any from w#ere t#e materia& originates+, artic&e number, and a c#eck digit )ensures correctness of an =A> number so t#at no incorrect entries are scanned or entered into t#e system+* $1(. What are So#e of the Partner 9un*tions ?en3or ? /#roug# t#e definition of Partner 7unctions in t#e Iendor .aster, SAP #e&(s to designate vendors for different ro&es* /#e (artner ro&e is designated by a !'digit code*

of a

@% Iendor P0 0nvoice Presented by +A 1rdering Address "S Goods Su((&ier AE Payment 2eci(ient

A partner sc-ema )a&so known as a partner procedure+ is assigned to a 'endor account group* /#e (rocedure s(ecifies w#ic# (artner ro&es are a&&owed5mandatory5can be c#anged for a vendor master wit# t#at account grou(* Gou may assign t#ree different (artner sc#emas to an account grou(, one for eac# &eve& of (urc#asing data, i*e*, one at t#e (urc#ase organi6ation &eve&, one at t#e IS2 &eve&, and one at t#e (&ant &eve&* /#is enab&es maintaining different (artners at different organi6ationa& &eve&s*

$1,.

What

is

.at*h

in

the

!onte5t

of

.at*h

Mana)e#ent ? 2e(resenting a $uantity of materia& wit# a #omogenous set of

(ro(erties5c#aracteristics (roduced during a (articu&ar cyc&e of manufacturing, a Batc- is a subset of inventory $uantity, w#ic# cannot be re(roduced again wit# t#e same (ro(erties* A batc# is &inked to t#e classi*ication system, and you can use it on&y w#en t#e c&assification system #as been set u( (ro(er&y for :atc- management* A batc# is uni$ue for a sing&e materia&, and is uni$ue at t#e ?&ient &eve& as we&&* /#at is, you wi&& be ab&e to use a batc# number on&y once in t#e ?&ient regard&ess of t#e (&ant and materia&* /#e batc# wi&& be known on&y in t#e (&ant w#ere it was created* /#e batc# numbers can eit#er be manua&&y assigned or system generated* $1-. What are the Possible ?alues for Pro*ure#ent Ty%es ? /#e (ossib&e va&ues for Procurement (ypes are@ >o (rocurement =<terna& (rocurement 0n'#ouse (roduction 3ot# (rocurement ty(es $1/. What are the %rereAuisites for an M'P 'un ? /#e fo&&owing are t#e prereBuisites *or an 2 P un4 .2P activated Ia&id .2P data for t#e materia& Ia&id .2P ty(e Ia&id materia& status

$11. What is an M'P Area ? An 2 P Area is not an organi6ationa& structure, but a unit for w#ic# you can carry out )onsumption8:ased 2 P* /#e .2P area is used to carry out .2P for t#e com(onents (rovided to a sub'contractor* /#ere are t#ree ty(es of .2P areas t#at you wi&& come across@ .2P Area for Storage 8ocations .2P Area for Subcontracting Iendor Stock .2P Area for t#e P&ant $24. What is an M'P ;ist ? An 2 P 1ist dis(&ays t#e resu&ts of t#e &ast (&anning run* 9sing a co&&ective dis(&ay format, you wi&& be ab&e to dis(&ay (&anning detai&s for a number of materia&s for a given set of se&ection (arameters* $21. &5%lain the 'e=:r3er Point Pro*e3ure. /#e e8+rder Point is t#e &eve& of inventory t#at triggers materia& (rocurement* 1nce t#e inventory fa&&s be&ow t#is &eve&, you need to create t#e order proposal eit#er manua&&y or automatica&&y by t#e system* 0n t#e case of t#e manual re8order point (rocedure, you wi&& define t#e reorder (oint and t#e sa*ety stoc6 in t#e materia& master* 1n t#e ot#er #and, in t#e automatic re8 order point (rocedure, t#e system wi&& ca&cu&ate t#e re'order (oint and t#e safety stock based on t#e ne<t (eriods consum(tion (attern* $22. &5%lain the 2n"entory Mana)e#ent Sub#o3ule. /#e 0n'entory 2anagement submodu&e dea&s wit# t#e G25G0 of materia&s from5into t#e inventory* 0t a&so manages t#e transfer of materia&s from one storage &ocation to anot#er* As an im(ortant e&ement of .., t#is modu&e is integrated wit# SD, PP, F., and P. modu&es*

$23. What is Eoo3s Mo"e#ent ? "oods 2o'ement re(resents an event causing a c#ange in t#e stock, wit# t#e c#ange being va&ue or status, stock ty(e, or $uantity* 0t a&so re(resents t#e (#ysica& movement of stock from one &ocation to anot#er* Goods movement is c&assified into@ 2ecei(t of goods5services 0ssue of materia&s Stock transfers $2$. What is a Eoo3s 'e*ei%t ? A "oods eceipt ." / resu&ts in an increase in t#e $uantity5va&ue of t#e stock in a (&ant5ware#ouse* A G2 may be ,it-!,it-out re*erence to a Purc-ase +rder. A G2 &eads to@ A .ateria& document An Accounting document )not a&ways+ G2 S&i( (rinting G8 Account u(date ?onsum(tion Account Stock Account Fuantity u(dating Stock $uantity ?onsum(tion statistics Iendor =va&uation 1t#er u(dates )if a((&icab&e+ ?ost ?enter ProBect

A Stock /ransfer 1rder Purc#ase 1rder 4istory u(dates $2(. &5%lain the A**ountin) Si3e of E'. %#en you (ost a G2 wit# reference to a (urc#ase order@

" :e*ore 0n'oice eceipt4 A (osting wi&& be made to t#e stock account )stock va&ue increases+ An offsetting entry is made to t#e G2502 c&earing account
1nce t#e invoice is received, t#e G2502 c&earing account is

c&eared A (osting is made to t#e A5P account for t#e vendor )(ayab&es increase+

0n'oice eceipt .0 / :e*ore t-e " A (osting is made to t#e A5P account for t#e vendor )(ayab&es increase+ A (osting is made to t#e G2502 c&earing account 1nce t#e goods are received, t#e G2502 c&earing account is c&eared A (osting wi&& be made to t#e stock account )stock va&ue increases+

%#en t#e G2 is for a consumab&e materia&, t#e initia& (osting wi&& go to t#e consum(tion account )e<(ense account+ instead of a stock account* 4owever, t#e offsetting entry wi&& sti&& go to t#e G2502 c&earing account* /#e va&ue of t#e (osting to t#e stock account wi&& de(end on w#ic# ty(e of (rice contro& is being used*

$2,. What Ha%%ens 8urin) a Eoo3s 2ssue ? (-e "oods 0ssue ."0/ resu&ts in a reduction in t#e stock $uantity5va&ue* /#e G0 can be Planned )via sa&es order, (roduction order, return de&ivery, de&ivery for interna&, use etc*+ or 5nplanned )drawing a stock for a sam(&e, scra((ing, etc*+* /#e G0 resu&ts in@ ?reation of a .ateria&5Accounting document 9(date of 2eservation for t#e issue )if any+ 9(date of G8 accounts 9(date of (oints of consum(tion if a((&icab&e )cost center, (roBect, etc*+ 9(date of Stock $uantity $2-. &5%lain Sto*6 Transfers. /#e (#ysica& movement of stock between &ocations is ca&&ed a Stoc6 (rans*er, w#ic# can be wit#in a (&ant or between (&ants* Stock transfers can be carried out eit#er in a sing&e ste( or in two ste(s* /#e stock transfer may be from@ ?om(any to ?om(any P&ant to P&ant Storage 8ocation to Storage 8ocation 0f t#ere is a &ogica& c#ange in t#e stock ty(e5status, t#en t#is kind of transfer is ca&&ed a trans*er posting. /#e transfer (osting may be from@ Product to Product Fua&ity 0ns(ection to 9nrestricted 9se ?onsignment Store to Storage 8ocation

$2/. What is a Sto*6 Ty%e ? 9sed in t#e determination of avai&ab&e stock of a materia&, t#e Stoc6 (ype is t#e sub'division of inventory at a storage &ocation based on t#e use of t#at inventory* 0n SAP, t#ere are many kinds of stock ty(es@

5nrestricted .use/ stoc6 )t#e (#ysica& stock t#at is a&ways avai&ab&e at a (&ant5storage &ocation+

estricted .use/ stoc6 Auality inspection stoc6 )not counted for unrestricted use and may be made avai&ab&e for .2P+

Stoc68in trans*er Bloc6ed stoc6 )not to be counted as unrestricted stock and is not avai&ab&e for .2P+

3esides a&& of t#e above, w#ic# are a&& known as 'aluated stoc6s, you wi&& a&so come across one more ty(e ca&&ed " :loc6ed stoc6, w#ic# is a non8'aluated stoc6* (-e " 8:loc6ed stoc6 denotes a&& t#e stock acce(ted conditiona&&y from t#e vendors* /#is stock is not considered avai&ab&e for unrestricted use* Gou wi&& use t#e 2o'ement (ype 1G3 for t#e G2'b&ocked stock and 2o'ement (ype 1G1 is used for a norma& G2* $21. &5%lain 'eturn 8eli"ery. Gou wi&& use eturn Deli'ery w#en you return goods to t#e su((&ier )vendor+ for reasons suc# as damaged (ackaging, etc* >ote t#at t#e reason *or return is mandatory as t#is wi&& #e&( you, &ater on, to ana&y6e (rob&ems wit# a vendor* /#e system uses t#e 2o'ement (ype 122, and wi&& create a return deli'ery slip, w#ic# wi&& accom(any t#e goods being returned* 0f t#e return is from a G2'b&ocked stock, you need to use a different 2o'ement (ype4 1G?*

$34. What are All the ?arious Ty%es of Physi*al 2n"entory ? /#e fo&&owing are t#e different ty(es of P-ysical 0n'entory in SAP ..@

Periodic in'entory )A&& t#e stocks are (#ysica&&y counted on a key date )ba&ance s#eet date+, and a&& t#e stock movements are b&ocked during (#ysica& counting+

)ycle counting )P#ysica& counting is done at (eriodica& interva&s+ Sampling )2andom&y se&ected stocks are counted (#ysica&&y, and t#e system uses t#is information to estimate stock va&ue on a given date+

)ontinuous )Stocks are tracked continuous&y t#roug#out t#e fisca& year, wit# (#ysica& stock taking once a year, at &eastU+

$31. What is a Material ;e3)er ? A 2aterial 1edger is not#ing but a too& for inventory accounting t#at (rovides new met#ods for (rice contro& for materia& va&uation )you can store t#e materia& inventory va&ues in more t#an one currency+* 0t makes it (ossib&e to kee( t#e materia& (rice constant over a (eriod of time )say, over t#e &ife of a (roduction order+* /#e mo'ing a'erage price fie&d is used to store a (eriodic (rice* /#is (eriodic (rice stays constant and is t#e (rice used for va&uation unti& you c&ose t#e materia& &edger* At c&osing, t#e (eriodic (rice is u(dated based on t#e actua& va&ue of invoice recei(ts received for t#at materia& during t#e (eriod* $32. &5%lain S%lit ?aluation. Why is it +e*essary? Split @aluation a&&ows substocks of t#e same materia& to be managed in different stock accounts* /#is a&&ows substocks to be va&uated se(arate&y, and every transaction is carried out at t#e substock &eve&* So, w#en (rocessing a transaction, it is necessary to mention t#e substock* /#e s(&it va&uation is necessary if t#e materia& #as@ Different 1rigins

Iarious 8eve&s of Fua&ity Iarious Statuses 0t is a&so re$uired in situations w#ere you need to make a distinction between in' #ouse (roduced materia&s and materia&s (rocured e<terna&&y, or if t#ere is a distinction between different de&iveries* $33. &5%lain the .asi* Ste%s in !onfi)urin) S%lit ?aluation. /#e five basic ste(s for )on*iguring Split @aluation are@ 1* Activate S(&it Ia&uation !* Define G&oba& Ia&uation /y(es For eac# Ia&uation ty(e you need to s(ecify@ (a) w#et#er e<terna& (urc#ase orders are a&&owed, (b) w#et#er (roduction orders are a&&owed, and (c) t#e account category reference* :* Define G&oba& Ia&uation ?ategories For eac# va&uation category s(ecify@ (a) defau&t va&uation ty(e to be used w#en (urc#ase orders are created and w#et#er t#is defau&t can be c#anged, (b) defau&t va&uation ty(e to be used w#en (roduction orders are created and w#et#er t#is defau&t can be c#anged, and (c) w#et#er a va&uation record s#ou&d be created automatica&&y w#en a G2 is (osted for a va&uation ty(e for w#ic# no record yet e<ists* ,* A&&ocate Ia&uation /y(es to t#e Ia&uation ?ategories C* Define w#ic# of t#e G&oba& ?ategories5/y(es a((&y to w#ic# Ia&uation Areas

$3$.

:utline

Sto*6

?aluation

Metho3s

for

Material

'e"aluation. /#ere are t#ree met#ods wit# w#ic# you can reva&uate your stock for 3a&ance S#eet (ur(oses* 0rres(ective of t#e met#od you se&ect, you wi&& be ab&e to va&uate your stock eit#er at t#e )ompany )ode &eve& or at t#e @aluation Area &eve&@
1* 107+ .1ast80n87irst8+ut/4 /#is met#od is based on t#e assum(tion t#at t#e

materia&s received &ast were t#e ones issued5consumed first* /#e va&uation is based on t#e initia& recei(t*
!* 707+ .7irst80n87irst8+ut/4 4ere t#e assum(tion is t#at t#e materia&s received

first are t#e ones consumed5issued first* So, t#e va&uation is based on t#e most recent recei(t* /#e F0F1 met#od can a&so be used in conBunction wit# t#e lo,est 'alue met-od* 3y t#is you can determine w#et#er t#e system s#ou&d make a com(arison between t#e F0F1 determined (rice and t#e lo,est 'alue price* Gou can a&so determine w#et#er t#e F0F1 (rice s#ou&d be u(dated in t#e materia& master record*
:* 1o,est @alue 2et-od4 4ere, t#e stocks are va&ued at t#eir origina& (rice or

t#e current market (rice w#ic#ever is &ower* /#is met#od is suitab&e w#en t#e inventory needs to be va&ued to take into account materia& obso&escence, (#ysica& deterioration, or c#anges in (rice &eve&s* $3(. Ho7 8oes Auto#ati* A**ount Assi)n#ent MM? 1* G8 accounts are assigned to /ransaction Deys )3SJ, %2J, P2D, 9.G, G33, etc*+* !* /ransaction Deys identify w#ic# G8 Accounts are to be debited or credited* :* /ransaction Deys are assigned to Ia&ue Strings )for e<am(&e, %A-1+* ,* .ovement /y(es )for e<am(&e, 9-1+ are associated wit# a Ia&ue String* Wor6 in

$3,. &5%lain Auto#ati* A**ount Assi)n#ent !onfi)uration in MM. /#ere are four ste(s re$uired to com(&ete t#e Automatic Account Assignment configuration settings for ..@
1* Fina&i6e t#e 'aluation le'el. !* Activate t#e 'aluation grouping code o(tion* )For t#is you need to grou(

'aluation areas using va&uation grou(ing codes*+


:* .aintain 'aluation classes and account category re*erences and t#eir

&inkage to material types.


,* .aintain t#e "1 accounts for eac# combination of )-art o* accounts,

'aluation grouping code, 'aluation class, and transaction 6ey* Gou may use t#e automatic account determination ,iCard to com(&ete t#e configuration settings, as t#e wi6ard guides you ste('by'ste(* $3-. &5%lain the Transa*tion Heys in MM. A&so known as process 6eys, t#e (ransaction 9eys are (re'defined in t#e system to enab&e transaction (ostings in 0nventory .anagement and Accounting )0nvoice Ierification+* For eac# of t#e mo'ement types in .., t#ere is a 'alue string t#at stores t#ese (ossib&e transactions* /#e (re'defined transaction 6eys are@

BS= )used in 0nventory Postings+ & = )used in G2502 ?&earing Postings+ P D )used to (ost ?ost5Price differences+ 52B )used to (ost 2evenue5=<(enses from reva&uation+ "BB )used in offsetting entries in Stock (ostings+

BS=, & =, and P D are e<am(&es of transaction keys t#at are re&evant for a G2 wit# reference to a (urc#ase order for a materia& wit# standard (rice contro&* /#e transaction key 52B is used w#en t#e standard (rice #as c#anged and t#e movement is (osted to a (revious (eriod* 8ikewise, "BB is used to identify t#e G8 account to (ost to as t#e offsetting entry to t#e stock account )w#en not referencing a (urc#ase order+ suc# as misce&&aneous goods recei(ts, goods issues for sa&es orders wit# no account assignment, and scra((ing* $3/. Ho7 8oes the Syste# 8eter#ine the !orre*t E; a0* for a Postin)? 0magine t#at you are (osting a goods movement*

Since t#e goods movement is from a plant, and t#e (&ant is assigned to a ?om(any ?ode, t#e goods movement identifies t#e re&evant ?om(any ?ode*

As t#e )ompany )ode #as a&ready been assigned to t#e )-art o* Accounts, t#e system is ab&e to identify t#e "1 accounts*

/#e (&ant a&so determines t#e 'aluation area )and t#e o(tiona& 'aluation grouping code/*

Since eac# mo'ement type is assigned to a 'alue string w#ic# in turn is identified wit# a transaction 6ey, t#e goods movement determines t#e correct transaction key*

Pro3u*tion Plannin) (PP) $31. &5%lain Ho7 the PP Mo3ule is :r)aniCe3 in SAP. /#e PP modu&e is made u( of t#e fo&&owing components4

PP8BD 3asic Data PP8S+P Sa&es and 1(erations P&anning PP82P .aster P&anning

PP8) P ?a(acity )2e$uirements+ P&anning PP82 P .ateria& 2e$uirements P&anning PP8S7) Production 1rders PP89A% Danban PP8 $2 2e(etitive .anufacturing PP8P0 Production P&anning for Process 0ndustries PP8PDS P&ant Data ?o&&ection PP80S 0nformation Systems

$$4. &5%lain Ho7 PP is 2nte)rate3 7ith :ther Mo3ules. PP is one of t#e modu&es in SAP 25: t#at is com(&e< as t#e functions cut across many modu&es* /#e fo&&owing modu&es are tig#t&y integrated wit# PP@

)+ ?ontro&&ing 70 Financia& Accounting 22 .ateria&s .anagement SD Sa&es M Distribution PS ProBect Systems PD Personne& P&anning and Deve&o(ment

$$1. What is a .:M ? A B+2 .Bill o* 2aterial/ is not#ing but a structured &ist of com(onents )wit# t#e obBect number, $uantity, and unit of measure+ t#at go into t#e making of a (roduct or an assemb&y* De(ending on t#e industry sector, t#ey may a&so be ca&&ed recipes or &ists of ingredients* /#e structure of t#e (roduct determines w#et#er t#e bi&& of materia& is simple or very comple3*

$$2. What are the .:M !ate)ories Su%%orte3 by SAP? /#e fo&&owing are t#e various )ategories o* B+24 =$ui(ment 31. .ateria& 31. Sa&es 1rder 31. Document Structure Functiona& 8ocation 31. %3S 31. $$3. What are All the Te*hni*al Ty%es of .:M ? /#ere are two (ec-nical (ypes o* B+2 su((orted in SAP@ Iariant 31. .ateria& 31. $$$. 8ifferentiate ?ariant .:M fro# Multi%le .:M. %#i&e a @ariant B+2 grou(s toget#er severa& 31.s t#at describe different obBects )for e<am(&e, different mode&s of a car+ wit# a #ig# (ro(ortion of identica& (arts, a 2ultiple B+2 grou(s toget#er severa& 31.s t#at describe one obBect )for e<am(&e, a (roduct+ wit# different combinations of materia&s for different (rocessing met#ods* /#e Iariant 31.s are su((orted for t#e fo&&owing 31. categories@ .ateria& 31.s Document structures =$ui(ment 31.s Functiona& &ocation 31.s .u&ti(&e 31.s are on&y su((orted for .ateria& 31.s*

$$(. 2s it Possible to !on"ert a Multi%le .:M ?ariant .:M ?

into a

>o* Gou can on&y create a @ariant B+2 from a sim(&e .ateria& 31.* >o mu&ti(&e 31.s can e<ist for a materia&* $$,. What is a Wor6 !enter in PP? A &or6 )enter in PP )PP'3D'31.+ is an organi6ationa& unit t#at can be a combination of mac#ines or grou(s of craftsmen, (eo(&e, and (roduction &ines, w#erein certain o(erations are carried out to (roduce some out(ut* =ac# of t#e work centers is assigned to a cost center* A work center can be assigned to a work center in SAP'42, w#ic# wi&& enab&e assignment of em(&oyees, $ua&ifications, etc* $$-. What is a 'outin) in PP? A outing in PP )PP'3D'2/G+ is used to define t#e se$uence of o(erations )work ste(s+ and resources re$uired to (erform certain o(erations in order to (roduce a materia& wit# or wit#out reference to an order* /#e standard va&ues of (&anned time for t#e various o(erations need to be entered into t#e routing* /#ere are two different ty(es of routing@ 2outing 2ate routing )A simi&ar conce(t e<ists in PS w#ere you define a tas6 list, w#ic# is simi&ar to routing in PP*+ $$/. What are All the Sub=*o#%onents :r3ers? /#e fo&&owing are t#e Su:8components o* Production +rders )PP'SF?+@ 1rder P&anning 1rder =<ecution of Pro3u*tion

1rder ?&ose $$1. What is a Pro3u*t Hierar*hy ? 9sed in (ricing, a Product >ierarc-y is an a&(#anumeric c#aracter string consisting of a ma<imum of 17 c#aracters* 0t t#us defines t#e (roduct and its com(osition* =<am(&e@ A (roduct #ierarc#y re(resented by ---C---!---:---,---C* /#e first four c#aracters ---C cou&d indicate t#at t#e (roduct is a car* /#e ne<t four c#aracters ---! cou&d indicate t#e (&ant in w#ic# t#e car is manufactured* /#e t#ird set of c#aracters cou&d indicate t#e co&or of t#e car* /#e ne<t set may determine its engine ca(acity and so on* /#us, t#e (roduct #ierarc#y #e&(s in defining t#e (roduct com(osition* $(4. 8efine .:M Erou%. A B+2 "roup is a co&&ection of 31.s t#at &ets you describe a (roduct or a number of simi&ar (roducts* /#e va&ue in t#e 31. grou( fie&d uni$ue&y identifies t#e 31. grou(* Gou can use t#e 31. grou( as an a&ternative way of accessing t#e 31.* A 31. grou( com(rises eit#er a&& t#e a&ternatives of a mu&ti(&e 31. or a&& t#e variants of a variant 31.* %#en you create a 31. grou(, t#e system c#ecks t#e s(ecia& c#aracters you use* A(art from t#e usua& a&(#anumeric c#aracters, you can use t#e fo&&owing s(ecia& c#aracters@ ',5,[* Gou cannot use b&anks* $(1. 8efine S:P (Sales I :%erations Plannin)). Suitab&e for &ong5medium'term (&anning, wit# an aim to stream&ine a com(anys Sales and +perational Planning, S+P is a forecasting too& enab&ing you to set u( sa&es, (roduction, and ot#er su((&y c#ain targets based on e<isting, future, or

#istorica& data* S1P is most suitab&e for (&anning finis#ed goods, and not for materia& com(onent (&anning* S1P (&ans are (assed on to Demand 2anagement .D$2/ in t#e form of inde(endent re$uirements, w#ic# in turn is fed into 2PS .2aster Production Sc-eduling/ and 2 P .2aterial costing* S1P contains two a((&ication com(onentsH name&y, Standard S+P .PP8S+P/ and 7le3i:le Planning .1+810S8P1%/* /#e Standard S1P comes (re'configured wit# t#e system* F&e<ib&e (&anning can be configured in a variety of ways* $(2. What is 6no7n as 8e#an3 Mana)e#ent ? Demand 2anagement )PP'.P'D=.+ #e&(s in determining t#e re$uirement $uantities and de&ivery dates for finis#ed goods assemb&ies* 0t uses t#e planned independent reBuirements and customer re$uirements )customer re$uirements come from sa&es orders+* Planning strategies #e&( in deciding t#e kind of demand (rogram* 0f (roduction is triggered by sa&es orders, t#en it is known as 2a6e8 to+rder (roductionH if is not t#en it is known as 2a6e8to8Stoc6 (roduction* $(3. What is !a%a*ity Plannin) ? )apacity Planning aims at economic use of resources* 0t is integrated wit# SD, P., PS, and ?S* /#ere are two com(onents wit#in ca(acity (&anning@ )apacity e'aluation and )apacity le'elling* ?a(acity (&anning su((orts s#ort'term detai&ed (&anning, medium'term (&anning, and &ong'term roug#'cut (&anning* $($. &5%lain M'P (Material 'eAuire#ents Plannin)). 2 P aims to guarantee material a'aila:ilityM it is used to (rocure5(roduce t#e re$uired $uantities on time )bot# for interna& (ur(oses and for sa&es and distribution+* /#is invo&ves monitoring of stocks and, in (articu&ar, t#e automatic creation of eBuirements Planning/* /#e resu&ts of S1P can be (assed on to (rofitabi&ity ana&ysis, cost center accounting, and activity'based

(rocurement (ro(osa&s for (urc#asing and (roduction* PP'.2P assists and re&ieves .2P ?ontro&&ers )w#o are res(onsib&e for a&& t#e activities from s(ecifying w#en, w#at, ty(e, etc*, of materia& re$uirements+ in t#eir area of res(onsibi&ity* %it# t#e automatic (&anning run in .2P, it is (ossib&e to determine any s#ortages so as to create (rocurement e&ements* %it# t#e system generating messages for critica& (arts and unusua& situations, you can rework t#e (&anning resu&ts in t#e s(ecific area wit# (rob&ems* /#e materia& re$uirements can be (&anned at plant le'el or for different .2P areas* %it# .2P at t#e (&ant &eve&, t#e system adds toget#er stocks from a&& of t#e individua& storage &ocations, wit# t#e e<ce(tion of individua& customer stocks, to determine tota& (&ant stock* 0n t#e case of materia& re$uirements (&anning on an 2 P area le'el, on&y t#e stocks from t#e storage &ocations or subcontractor assigned to t#e res(ective .2P areas are taken into account* $((. What are the Three M'P Pro*e3ures ?

.ateria&s 2e$uirements P&anning .2 P/ .aster Production Sc#edu&ing .2PS/

?onsum(tion'based P&anning $(,. What is MPS (Master Pro3u*tion S*he3ulin))? =<ecuted as t#at of an .2P, 2PS is not#ing but a s(ecia& form of .2P, w#ic# aims to reduce storage costs and to increase planning sta:ility* %it# .PS you can f&ag materia&s t#at great&y inf&uence com(any (rofits or take u( critica& resources as master sc-edule items and c#eck and (&an t#em se(arate&y wit# a series of s(ecia& too&s* $(-. What is !onsu#%tion=base3 Plannin) ? 9sing (ast consum(tion data, )onsumption8:ased Planning aims at determining future re$uirements* 0n t#e (rocess, it makes use of material *orecasts or any ot#er

static (&anning (rocedures* /#e net re$uirements ca&cu&ation is triggered w#en t#e stock &eve& fa&&s be&ow a reorder point* /#e net re$uirements can a&so be ca&cu&ated by *orecast reBuirements from a #istorica& consum(tion (attern* 2iscellaneous $(/. &5%lain !ash Mana)e#ent in SAP. /#e )as- 2anagement submodu&e takes care of t#e fo&&owing by integrating bank're&ated accounting wit# t#e res(ective sub&edger accounting@ ?#eck De(osit ?as# Position ?as# ?oncentration 3ank Statement 8i$uidity Forecast ?as# ?oncentration .oney .arket $(1. What is the !ash (Mana)e#ent) Position ? /#e )as- 2anagement Position #e&(s to re(roduce t#e activities of bank accounts* %it# in(ut contro&s for (reventing data du(&ication, (ara&&e& management of foreign currencies, and wit# t#e re$uired documentation for revision of a&& (&anning activities, you wi&& be ab&e to view u('to'date activities in bank accounts and forecast cas# (osition or dai&y &i$uidity* /#e cas# management (osition is set u( using groupings, w#ic# determine t#e &eve&s and accounts to be dis(&ayed* /#e data re$uired for t#is activity is su((&ied from (a) F0 (ostings in cas# management re&evant G8 accounts, (b) (ayment advices entered manua&&y, and (c) cas#'f&ow transactions transferred from t#e /reasury .anagement modu&e* /#e data can be dis(&ayed using any of t#e fo&&owing formats@

Aggregated, eit#er as account ba&ance )D+ or as individua& va&ues of inf&ow5outf &ow)D+

For any data in t#e (ast, (resent, or future 0n increments )days, weeks, etc*+ $,4. &5%lain Erou%in)s an3 ;e"els. "roupings determine #ow to summari6e t#e data, wit# various grou(s and &eve&s defined* A "roup adds u( various bank accounts and contains a number of &eve&s* A 1e'el, t#us, denotes t#e sources of data or account transactions* 3e&ow t#e &eve&s are t#e line items, w#ic# are dis(&ayed using a &ist dis(&ay*

Figure /*: 4rou$ing Structure in 8ash Management $,1. &5%lain ;iAui3ity 9ore*ast. /#e 1iBuidity 7orecast #e&(s to re(roduce t#e activities in sub&edger accounts by (a) &inking to a&& t#e system resident data suc# as customer o(en items in a customer account, (b) recei(ts and disbursements form F05SD5.., and (c) maintaining items suc# as reversa&, document c#ange, o(en item c&earing, etc*, automatica&&y*

/#e &i$uidity forecast #e&(s to identify t#e &i$uidity trends in t#e sub&edger accounts based on t#e information on e<(ected (ayment f&ows* /#e incoming and outgoing (ayments (er o(en item, from F0'A2 and F0'AP, form t#e basis of t#e &i$uidity forecast* Gou wi&& be ab&e to branc# to F0'A2 or AP information systems from t#e &i$uidity forecast* $,2. Ho7 3o Bou Set D% !ash Mana)e#ent in SAP? 9nder customi6ing, you need to define t#e )as- 2anagement "roups and assign t#ese grou(s to planning le'els* 0n customer5vendor master records, you need to enter t#e cas# management grou(s to enab&e t#e system to transfer data between customer5vendor accounts and t#e &i$uidity forecast* /#e cas# management grou(s #e&( to differentiate customers5vendors based on certain c#aracteristics suc# as be#avior )w#et#er t#e customer takes a cas# discount+, risk )credit rating+, etc* $,3. &5%lain .an6 State#ent in !ash Mana)e#ent. Ban6 Statement )manua& or e&ectronic+ functiona&ity runs on t#e same (rinci(&e as )-ec6 Deposit Processing* >ote t#at it is not necessary for ?as# .anagement to be active for bank statement (rocessing* During (rocessing, customer (ayments )e<ce(t c#ecks+ are first (osted to t#e bank c&earing accountH t#en customer o(en items are c&eared w#en ba&ancing t#e bank c&earing account* Simi&ar&y, vendor (ayments are (osted to a bank c&earing account for outgoing (ayments w#ere t#e ba&ancing is done from t#e entries made from t#e (ayment (rogram* 1t#er (ayments suc# as bank c#arges, bank interest, etc*, are (osted to t#e res(ective G8 accounts, and t#ey wi&& not go t#roug# t#e bank c&earing accounts* 0n t#e case of unidentified (ayment transactions, you wi&& (ost t#em first to t#e bank c&earing accounts and t#en c&ear t#em w#en you #ave t#e a((ro(riate information*

$,$. What are the !onfi)urations for .an6 State#ent Pro*essin) ? 3efore you make use of t#e Ban6 Statement Processing functiona&ity in SAP, you need to #ave t#e fo&&owing defined or configured in your system@ Start Iariant Searc# 0D Processing /y(e 0nterna& 3ank Determination

Figure /+: Ban3 Statement 8on1iguration $,(. 8ifferentiate Manual !he*6 8e%osit fro# &le*troni* !he*6 8e%osit. /#e 2anual )-ec6 Deposit function enab&es you to enter a&& c#ecks received by (osting t#e entries in two ste(s@ in G8 and in sub&edger accounts* 0t a&so #e&(s to c&ear customer invoices* Gou may a&so make use of additiona& functions for additiona& (rocessing of c#ecks t#us entered* /#e $lectronic )-ec6 Deposit, in contrast to t#e manua& c#eck de(osit function, enab&es you to (rocess data even from an e<terna& data entry system (rovided t#e data is de&ivered in t#e SAP defined format* Gou wi&& be ab&e to enter c#eck de(osit detai&s e&ectronica&&y so t#at you may com(&ete and (ost individua& data &ater wit# manua& c#eck de(osit (rocessing*

$,,. &5%lain Tra"el Mana)e#ent in SAP. /#e (ra'el 2anagement submodu&e of F0, F0'/2, #e&(s you to (&an trave& and trave&'re&ated activities )suc# as ca&cu&ating tri( costs, tri( reimbursements, etc*+ for t#e enter(rises #uman resources* F0'/2 transfers t#e trave& e<(enses to t#e F0, w#ic# in turn makes use of F0'AP to reimburse em(&oyees* =m(&oyees are reimbursed for trave& e<(enses using t#e (ayment (rogram )automatic5manua&+ in Financia& Accounting* 0n order for t#e reimbursement (rocess to work, a vendor master record #as to be created for every em(&oyee w#o trave&s* 9se (ransaction P AA to automatica&&y create )t#roug# 3ac# Data in(ut+ vendor records for t#e em(&oyees* 0f you are using SAP'42, t#en you wi&& use > master data to store an em(&oyees

informationH ot#erwise, you wi&& create a mini8master record )a sca&ed down version of 42 master+ w#ere you wi&& save suc# as (ersona& information, address, bank detai&s, etc* Gou wi&& a&so define (ersona& action, trave& (rivi&eges, and trave& (references* $,-. What is a Personal A*tion ? A Personnel Action inc&udes a&& in*otypes t#at are (rocessed as (art of a (ersona& (rocedure, suc# as #iring, organi6ationa& c#ange, (romotion, and so on* /o ensure t#at no im(ortant information is forgotten, t#e re&evant infoty(es are made avai&ab&e for (rocessing one after anot#er* =ac# com(&eted action is entered in t#e action infoty(e so t#at t#e actions infoty(e #as a &og of a&& (rocedures com(&eted for t#is (erson* Personne& actions are norma&&y com(&eted in SAP'42* 0f SAP'42 is not im(&emented, F0'/I offers two actions for maintaining F0'/I mini'master records@

)reate /I mini8master records. )%#en com(&eting t#e ?reate /I mini' master record action, t#e infoty(es measures, organi6ationa& assignment, (ersona& information, and trave& (rivi&eges are made avai&ab&e*+

+rganiCational c-ange. )%#en using t#e organi6ationa& c#ange action, on&y t#e infoty(es actions and organi6ationa& assignment are made avai&ab&e*+

$,/. What is an 2nfoty%e ? 42 master data norma&&y contain &arge vo&umes of information )(ersona& as we&& as em(&oyment re&ated+ (er em(&oyee in t#e organi6ation* Since t#e data vo&ume is so &arge, t#is information is stored in data grou(s, in SAP* An 0n*otype is one suc# data grou(* )For e<am(&e, since city, street, and street number are (art of t#e address of an em(&oyees bank, t#ey are saved )a&ong wit# ot#er data+ in t#e 0nfoty(e 3ank*+

Figure /,: !n1oty$es in SAP $,1. &5%lain Tra"el Mana)er in SAP. (ra'el 2anager, in SAP, #e&(s em(&oyees #ave an overview of trave& and trave&' re&ated items5obBects )suc# as trave& re$uests, trave& (&ans, and trave& reimbursements+* 4e or s#e wi&& be ab&e to create@ A tra'el reBuest notifying t#e com(any about #is5#er fort#coming business tri(, based on t#e workf&ow configuration, w#ic# t#en moves to t#e interna& trave& office for furt#er a((rova& and (rocessing*

/#e em(&oyee )or t#e designated trave& agent of t#e com(any+ makes use of t#e obBect tra'el plan to (&an t#e detai&s of t#e trip* /#e system retrieves t#e tra'el pre*erences from t#e infoty(e and #e&(s book t#e means of trave&* /#e (ermitted tra'el e3penses are configured in t#e system and are country s(ecific* /#is configuration #e&(s in reim:ursement processing w#en t#e em(&oyee (uts t#roug# t#e trave& reimbursement c&aim to t#e interna& trave& office* After a tri( is com(&eted, t#e em(&oyee enters t#e trave& e<(enses manua&&y in t#e system or t#ey can be obtained from t#e trave& (&ans and corrected &ater* Again, SAP (rovides t#e f&e<ibi&ity so t#at trave& e<(enses can eit#er be entered by em(&oyees or by t#e trave& offices re(resentative* For reimbursement sett&ement of t#e e<(enses, t#e system determines t#e tota& amount to be (aid based on t#e trave& (&an, trave& information, sett&ement ru&es, and reimbursement records )for (revious (ayments+* /#e settlement in*ormation is sent to F0, w#ere t#e (ayment is made t#oug# F0'APs (ayment (rogram*

$-4. What is a ?alue Pri*e3 ? /#e @alue Pricer too&, in SAP'42, #e&(s to com(are t#e se&ected bookings )of a f&ig#t+ and com(ares t#e (rice of it wit# t#at of ot#er carriers, for t#e same route)s+, and recommends t#e &owest cost fares for t#e trave& (&an* $-1. What is a S*he3ule Mana)er ? /#e SAP Sc-edule 2anager #e&(s you to organi6e, e<ecute, and monitor com(&e< and re(etitive business transactions )suc# as mont#'end (rocessing+ from an easy'to' use works(ace, w#ic# resemb&es an a&&'in'one organi6er ty(e of uti&ity containing@ 9ser notes window

/ask overview window ?a&endar window Dai&y overview window /#e in*ormation ,indo, (rovides t#e detai&s of w#at and #ow you can ac#ieve t#e tasks by (roviding usefu& information wit# #y(er&inks to (rocesses and ste(s wit#in a (rocess* /#is a((ears to t#e &eft of a&& ot#er windows* De(ending on t#e re$uirement, t#is can be switc#ed'on or switc#ed'off* /#e tas6 o'er'ie, ,indo, (rovides a com(&ete dri&&'down faci&ity in a treestructure of a&& tasks entered and monitored by you* /#e tasks are grou(ed into an u((er &eve& task &ist, w#ic# can be sc#edu&ed, re&eased, and monitored using t#e dai&y overview window* 2emember t#at t#e tasks maintained in t#e task overview window need to be (ro(er&y sc#edu&ed5re&eased for e<ecutionH t#e mere &isting of tasks #ere wi&& not start a transaction or a (rogram or a re(ort* /#e daily o'er'ie, ,indo, is simi&ar to an a((ointment co&umn of any organi6er, wit# fu&&y customi6ab&e time interva&s )in increments of :- minutes, ,C minutes, etc*+* 0dea&&y, t#e tasks a((earing in t#e task &ist in t#e task overview window, w#en sc#edu&ed5re&eased, wi&& a((ear #ere against t#e a((ro(riate time s&ot* 3y se&ecting a task #ere you can monitor it using t#e monitor icon or from t#e menu* A &ook at t#is dai&y overview window, at t#e beginning of a day, wi&& remind you of t#e tasks sc#edu&ed for t#at day*

Figure //: Sche(ule Manager /#e calendar ,indo, is a ca&endar uti&ity to #e&( you organi6e* 4owever, t#is goes beyond t#e regu&ar ca&endar by dis(&aying, in different co&ors suc# as ye&&ow and green, a (articu&ar date indicating t#e status of tasks sc#edu&ed for t#at day* A green background indicates t#at everyt#ing is 1D, but a ye&&ow background indicates t#at t#ere are some warnings*

$-2. Ho7 3o Bou Dse the S*he3ule Mana)er in SAP? /#e Sc#edu&e .anager #as t-ree distinct *unctionalities bui&t in@
1* Processes

/#is functiona&ity #e&(s you to define t#e tas6 list )a&so ca&&ed a tas6 group+ and t#e individua& tas6s )a task is essentia&&y a transaction or a (rogram5re(ort+, w#ic# are &ater on sc#edu&ed5re&eased and monitored using t#e s(ecia& monitoring function* Any number of task &ists can be created and t#ese &ists are s#own in a tree format for easy navigation* A task &ist may contain anot#er task &ist or a c-ain o* tas6s wit#in and tasks are grou(ed into a task &ist*

%#i&e defining t#e task itse&f, you can maintain t#e owner of t#e task, w#en it needs to be e<ecuted, etc* /#e sc#edu&ing of tasks is a&so (ossib&e by sim(&y dragging t#em into t#e a((ro(riate time s&ots in t#e dai&y overview window* Gou may a&so use t#e ;o: ,iCard w#i&e sc#edu&ing* A task, by mere sc#edu&ing, is not started automatica&&y un&ess it is (ro(er&y released. /#e tasks5task &ists defined can be moved in t#e #ierarc#y u(5down or de&eted from a &ist* /#e tasks can a&so be documented using .S'1ffice %ord or =<ce&, etc*
!* Scenarios

/#e sc#edu&e manager gives you t-ree options for sc#edu&ing and monitoring@
a* Start transaction!program!report online and sc-edule t-e ;o:s

.tas6s/ in t-e sc-eduler4 4ere, you can create or se&ect a new task &ist in t#e sc#edu&e, enter t#ese in t#e dai&y overview, and monitor and contro& t#e tasks e<ecution in t#e monitor*
b* Start transaction!program!report online and sc-edule t-e ;o:s

.tas6s/!;o: c-ain .tas6 c-ain/4 /#is is simi&ar to (a) above e<ce(t t#at you #ave t#e o(tion of inserting a ;o: c-ain defined in *lo, de*inition into t#e task &ist*
c* Start transactions!reports online, sc-edule ;o: or ;o: c-ain, ,or68

list4 4ere, you can a&so e<ecute and monitor a com(&ete work'&ist invo&ving severa& (rocessing ste(s wit# a&& t#e ste( se$uences* 3esides sc#edu&er, monitor, and f&ow definition, you can use t#e ,or68list monitor for monitoring t#e (rocessing status*
:* >elp 7unctions

Sc#edu&e .anager su((&ements wit# usefu& functions suc# as@ 2un'time ana&ysis %orking wit# variab&es

2e&easing Bobs

Since eac# of t#e transaction 6eys is associated wit# t#e re&evant "1 accounts, t#roug# t#e va&ue string, t#e movement ty(e now identifies t#e re&evant G8 Account, and t#e transaction is (osted*

SAP (a:les 9inan*ial A**ountin) (92) O$en table as s$rea(sheet Sl. %o. Are you loo6ing *or4 1 ! : , C A Account Assignment /em(&ates for G8 Account items Account .aster )?#art of Accounts+ Accounting ?orres(ondence 2e$uests Accounting Data"A52 and A5P 0nformation System Accounting Document 4eader Accounting Document 4eader )docs from =<terna& Systems+ Accounting Document 4eader 7 9 111 1! 1: 1, 1C 1A 1 Accounting Document Segment Accounting secondary inde< for customers Accounting secondary inde< for customers"c&eared items Accounting"Secondary 0nde< for G8 Accounts (a:le D1.9 SDA1 3D12. 2F22 3DPF =3DP 3DPF 3S=G 3S0D 3SAD 3S0S

Accounting"Secondary 0nde< for G8 Accounts"c&eared items 3SAS Accounting secondary inde< for vendors Accounting secondary inde< for vendors"c&eared items Accounts 3&ocked by Dunning Se&ection Asset Accounting"3asic Functions Asset ?&ass@ De(reciation Area 3S0D 3SAD .A4> F0'A A>D3

Sl. %o. Are you loo6ing *or4 17 19 !!1 !! !: !, !C !A ! !7 !9 ::1 :! :: :, :C :A : :7 :9 ,Asset c&asses"Descri(tion Asset ?&asses"Fie&d ?ont De(endent on ?#art Asset ?&asses"Genera& Data Asset ?&asses"0nsurance /y(es Asset down (ayment sett&ement Asset 8ine 0tems Asset .aster 2ecord Segment Asset .aster 2ecord Segment Asset .aster 2ecord 9ser Fie&ds Asset Periodic Ia&ues Asset /e<ts Asset /y(e /e<t Asset /y(es Asset Ia&ue Fie&ds 3ank .aster 2ecord 3usiness Partner .aster )Genera& Data+ ?as# .anagement 8ine 0tems in Payment 2e$uests ?reate G8 account wit# reference ?redit .anagement"F0 Status data ?ustomer5Iendor 8inking ?ustomer master"genera& data ?ustomer master"(artner functions ?ustomer master"sa&es data

(a:le A>D/ A>DP A>DA A>DI A>=I A>=P A>8A A>8J A>89 A>8P A>8/ A>A/ A>A2 A>8? 3>DA 3P--FDQA /SAD D>DD D8PA D>A1 D>IP D>II

Sl. %o. Are you loo6ing *or4 ,1 ,! ,: ,, ,C ,A , ,7 ,9 CC1 C! C: C, CC CA C C7 C9 AA1 A! A: ?ustomer master"sa&es re$uest form ?ustomer .aster )?om(any ?ode+ ?ustomer .aster 3ank Detai&s ?ustomer .aster ?redit .anagement"?entra& Data ?ustomer .aster ?redit .anagement"?ontro& Area Data ?ustomer .aster Dunning Data ?ustomer .aster S(ecia& G8 /ransactions Figures ?ustomer .aster /ransaction Figures ?ustomer Payment 4istory De(reciation /erms Document 4eader Asset Posting Document 4eader for Document Parking Document 4eader Su((&ement for 2ecurring =ntry Document /y(e /e<ts Dunning Data )Account =ntries+ =&ectronic 3ank Statement 8ine 0tems Financia& Accounting 3asis G8 Account .aster )?#art of Accounts"Descri(tion+ G8 Account .aster )?#art of Accounts"Dey %ord &ist+ G8 Account .aster )?#art of Accounts+ G8 Account .aster )?om(any ?ode+ Genera& 8edger Accounting"3asic Genera& 8edger Accounting"3asic

(a:le D>ID D>31 D>3D D>DA D>DD D>3C D>?: D>?1 D>3, A>83 A>=D I3DP 3DDF /--:/ .4>D F=3=P F3AS SDA/ SDAS SDA1 SD31 F0'G F0'G

Sl. %o. Are you loo6ing *or4 A, AC AA A A7 A9 1 ! : , C A G&oba& Settings for Payment Program for Payment 2e$uests 0nde< for Iendor Ia&idation of Doub&e Documents 0nsurab&e Ia&ues )Gear De(endent+ 0nter ?om(any Posting Procedure .ain Asset >umber .anagement 2ecords for t#e Dunning Program >ame of /ransaction /y(e 1ne'/ime Account Data Document Segment Payment .edium Fi&e Payment 2e$uests Pre'numbered ?#eck Pricing ?ommunication 4eader 2un Date of a Program Secondary 0nde<, Documents for .ateria& 7 9 771 7! 7: 7, 7C 7A Settings for G8 Posting 2e(orts Substitutions /a< ?ode >ames /emSe"Administration Data /ime De(endent Asset A&&ocations /ransaction Activity ?ategory"Descri(tion /ransaction ?ode for .enu /0.> /ransaction ty(e Ia&idation5Substitution 9ser

(a:le F111 3S0P A>8% 3I12 A>84 .A4>I A/1-/ 3S=? PAG2 PAG2 P?=? D1.D F29> 3S0. F0G8 G39! /-- S 2=G9/ A>8Q A/-!/ A/-!A A/1G3-:

Sl. %o. Are you loo6ing *or4 7 77 79 991 9! 9: 9, 9C Ia&idation Iendor .aster )?om(any ?ode Section+ Iendor .aster )Genera& Section+ Iendor .aster 3ank Detai&s Iendor .aster"Dunning Data Iendor .aster Dunning Data Iendor .aster 2ecord"Purc#asing Data Iendor .aster 2ecord"Purc#asing 1rgani6ation Data Iendor .aster /ransaction Figures

(a:le G39: 8F31 8FA1 8F3D 8F3C 8F3C 8F.! 8F.1 8F?1

!ontrollin) (!:) O$en table as s$rea(sheet Sl. %o. Are you loo6ing *or4 1 ! : , C A Activity /y(e .aster Actua& 8ine 0tems for 2econci&iation Assignment of %ork ?enter to ?ost ?enter 3asic Settings for Iersions ?#aracteristic Ia&ues ?1 1bBect@ ?ontro& Data for Activity /y(e ?1 1bBect@ ?ontro& Data for ?ost ?enter 7 9 1?1 1bBect@ ?ontro& Data for Primary ?ost =&ement ?1 1bBect@ ?ontro& Data for Secondary ?ost =&ement ?1 1bBect@ ?ontro& Data for Statistica& Dey Figure (a:le ?S8A ?1F0S ?2?1 /DA-9 A9SP ?1D8 ?1DA ?1DP ?1DS ?1D2

Sl. %o. Are you loo6ing *or4 11 1! 1: 1, 1C 1A 1 17 19 !!1 !! !: !, !C !A ! !7 !9 ::1 :! :: ?1 1bBect@ Document 4eader ?1 1bBect@ 8ine 0tems )by Fisca&+ ?1 1bBect@ 8ine 0tems )by Period+ ?1 1bBect@ 8ine 0tems for Activity /y(es ?1 1bBect@ 8ine 0tems for Activity /y(e ?1 1bBect@ 8ine 0tems for Prices ?1 1bBect@ 8ine 0tems for Prices ?1 1bBect@ 8ine 0tems for SDF ?1 1bBects@ Assignment ?1 Period 8ocks ?1 Iersions ?ontro&&ing Areas ?ost ?enter5Activity /y(e ?ost ?enter5?ost =&ement ?ost ?enter .aster Data ?ost ?enter /e<ts ?ost e&ements"data de(endent on c#art of accounts ?ost e&ements"data de(endent on contro&&ing area ?ost e&ements te<ts De(endent on .ateria& and 2eceiver De(endent on .ateria& Grou( De(endent on .ateria& Distribution 2u&es Sett&ement 2u&e 1rder Sett&ement

(a:le ?13D ?1=E ?1=P ?1=P8 ?1=E8 ?1=E/ ?1=P/ ?1=E2 ?1S? DAPS /DIS /DA-1 ?SS8 ?SSD ?SDS ?SD/ ?SDA ?SD3 ?SD9 A1,1 A1,: A1,! ?1323

Sl. %o. Are you loo6ing *or4 :, :C :A : :7 :9 ,,1 ,! ,: ,, ,C ,A , ,7 ,9 CC1 C! C: C, CC CA Document 4eader ?ontro&&ing 1bBect Document 4eader for Sett&ement Document Segment@ /ransactions =?'P?A@ Actua& 8ine 0tems

(a:le 3P3D A9AD A9AI G8P?A

=?'P?A@ 1bBect /ab&e for Account Assignment =&ements G8P?1 =?'P?A@ P&an 8ine 0tems =?'P?A@ /ransaction Attributes 8ine 0tem Annua& Ia&ues ?ontro&&ing 1bBect 8ine 0tem Period Ia&ues ?ontro&&ing 1bBect 8ine 0tem /ota& Ia&ues ?ontro&&ing 1bBect 1bBect '?ontro& Data for ?ost =&ements 1bBect"?ost /ota&s for =<terna& Postings 1bBect"?ost /ota&s for 0nterna& Postings 1bBect /ab&e for 2econci&iation 8 1rder .aster Data P?A' /ota&s /ab&e Price (er ?om(any ?ode Price (er ?ontro&&ing Area Price (er ?ost ?enter Price (er ?ountry 52egion Price (er Profit ?enter Profit ?enter .aster Data /ab&e Profit ?enter .aster Data /ab&e G8P?P G8P?? 3P=E 3P=P 3P=G ?1DA ?1SP ?1SS ?1F0-1 A9FD G8P?/ A1:7 A1:A A1:! A1: A1:9 ?=P? ?=P?

Sl. %o. Are you loo6ing *or4 C C7 C9 AA1 A! A: A, Profit ?enter .aster Data Sett&ement Document@ Distribution Sett&ement Document@ 2eceiver Segment Sett&ement 2u&e for 1rder Sett&ement Sett&ement 2u&es (er De(reciation Sing&e P&an 0tems for 2econci&iation /ota&s 2ecord"2econci&iation 8edger /ota&s 2ecord for Annua& /ota& ?ontro&&ing 1bBect

(a:le ?=P?/ A9A3 A9AA ?132A A9A0 ?1F0P ?1F0/ 3PEA

Sales I 8istribution (S8) O$en table as s$rea(sheet Sl. %o. Are you loo6ing *or4 1 ! : , C A 3i&&ing Document 4eader 3i&&ing Document 0tem ?ondition for items ?ondition for transaction data (a:le I32D I32P D>1P D>1I

?ustomer .aster"?o* ?ode Data )(ayment met#od, recon* acct+ D>31 ?ustomer .aster"Dunning info ?ustomer .aster 3ank Data D>3C D>3D D>DD D>DA D>IS D>I0

7 9 111

?ustomer .aster ?redit ?ontro& Area Data )credit &imits+ ?ustomer .aster ?redit .gmt* ?ustomer .aster S#i( Data ?ustomer .aster /a< 0ndicator

Sl. %o. Are you loo6ing *or4 1! 1: 1, 1C 1A 1 17 19 !!1 !! !: !, !C !A ! !7 !9 ::1 :! :: :, ?ustomer Payment 4istory ?ustomer5Iendor 8ink ?ustomers, Genera& Data De&ivery document"#eader data De&ivery document"item data De&ivery Document 4eader data De&ivery due inde< De&ivery #eader data De&ivery item data Document F&ow 4and&ing unit"4eader tab&e 4eader Status and Administrative Data 0tem Status 1ut(ut ty(e Packing"#and&ing unit item )contents+ Partner Function key Partners Sa&es Area Data )terms, order (robabi&ity+ Sa&es document"business data Sa&es document"#eader data Sa&es document"#eader status and administrative data Sa&es document"item data Sa&es document"item status

(a:le D>3, D8PA D>A1 I3AD I3AP 80DP I=PIG 80DP 80PS I3FA I=DP I39D I39P D>ID I=P1 D>IP I3PA D>II I3DD I3AD I39D I3AP I39P

Sl. %o. Are you loo6ing *or4 :C :A : :7 :9 ,,1 ,! ,: ,, Sa&es document"(artner Sa&es document"re&ease order data Sa&es document"sc#edu&e &ine data Sa&es document f&ow Sa&es Document Sc#edu&e 8ine Sa&es 2e$uirements@ 0ndividua& 2ecords Sc#edu&e &ine #istory SD document"de&ivery note #eader S#i((ing 9nit 4eader S#i((ing 9nit 0tem )?ontent+

(a:le I3PA I383 I3=P I3FA I3=P I33= I3=4 I38D I=P1 I=DP

Materials Mana)e#ent (MM) O$en table as s$rea(sheet Sl. %o. Are you loo6ing *or4 1 ! : , C A Account Assignment in Purc#asing Document Document 4eader"2eservation Document Segment".ateria& Genera& .ateria& Data 4eader".ateria& Document 4eader"P#ysica& 0nventory Document 4e&( /e<ts for .ovement /y(es 7 9 4istory (er Purc#asing Document 8ists w#at views #ave not been created (a:le =DD> 2DPF .S=? .A2A .DPF 0DPF /1C 4 =D3= .1FF

Sl. %o. Are you loo6ing *or4 111 1! 1: 1, 1C 1A 1 17 19 !!1 !! !: !, !C !A ! !7 !9 ::1 :! .ateria& Grou(s .ateria& ?onsum(tion .ateria& Descri(tions .ateria& to 31. 8ink .ateria& Ia&uation .ovement /y(e >umber range interva&s P#ysica& 0nventory Document 0tems P&ant Data for .ateria& P&ant5.ateria& Purc#ase 2e$uisition Account Assignment Purc#ase 2e$uisition Purc#asing Document 4eader Purc#asing Document 0tem Purc#asing Grou(s Purc#asing 0nfo 2ecord"Genera& Data

(a:le /-!: .I=2 .AD/ .AS/ .3=% /1CA >20I 0S=G .A2? AC-1 =3D> =3A> =DD1 =DP1 /-!, =0>A

Purc#asing 0nfo 2ecord"Purc#asing 1rgani6ation Data =0>= 2e&ease Documentation 2eservation5de(endent re$uirements Sa&es Data for materia&s Sc#edu&ing Agreement Sc#edu&e 8ines Storage 8ocation Data for .ateria& /e<ts for Purc#asing Document /y(es =DA3 2=S3 .ID= =D=/ .A2D /1A1/

Sl. %o. Are you loo6ing *or4 :: :, :C /e<ts for Purc#asing Document /y(es Iendor .aster )?om(any ?ode+ Iendor .aster )Genera& section+

(a:le /1A1/ 8F31 8FA1

Pro3u*tion Plannin) (PP) O$en table as s$rea(sheet Sl. %o. Are you loo6ing *or4 1 ! : , C A 31. =<(&osion Structure 31. Grou( to .ateria& 31. 4eader Detai&s 31. 4istory 2ecords 31. 0tem Detai&s 31. 0tem Se&ection 31. Sub 0tems )designators+ 7 9 111 1! 1: 1, 1C 1A ?a(acity 4eader ?APP Sub'o(erations ?#aracteristic A&&ocation to ?&ass ?#aracteristic Detai& ?#aracteristic Ia&ue /e<ts ?#aracteristic Ia&ues ?#aracteristic Ia&ues ?&ass Detai& ?om(onent A&&ocation (a:le S/PF .AS/ S/D1 S/Q9 S/P1 S/AS S/P9 DAD1 P8P4 DS.8 ?A3> ?A%>/ A9SP ?A%> D8A4 P8.Q

Sl. %o. Are you loo6ing *or4 1 17 19 !!1 !! !: !, !C !A ! !7 !9 ::1 :! :: :, :C :A : :7 :9 ?onfirmation Poo& ?onfirmations"Defau&ts for ?o&&ective ?onfirmation ?onfirmations"Goods .ovements wit# =rrors ?onfirmations"4eader 0nfo for ?onfirmation Poo& ?onfirmations"0ncorrect ?ost ?a&cu&ations

(a:le AF2I AF2D AFF% AF24 AF2?

?onfirmations"Subse$uent&y Posted Goods .ovements AF%0 ?ustomer and Priority 4ierarc#y 4eader 4ierarc#y Structure 0nde(endent 2e$uirements by .ateria& 0nde(endent 2e$uirements Data 0ns(ection ?#aracteristics 0nterva&s of ?a(acity 80S".ateria& 9se 80S"2e(orting Point Statistics 80S"2un Sc#edu&e Fuantities 80S"Stock52e$uirements Ana&ysis .aintenance Package A&&ocation .ateria& A&&ocation to ?&ass .2P Document 4eader Data .2P Firming Dates .2P /ab&e Structure )no data+ 1rder 3atc# Print 2e$uests A=>2 ?244 ?24S P30. P3=D P8.D DAQG S-!A S-!7 S-!C S-9, P8%P DSSD .DDP .DFD .D/3 AF3P

Sl. %o. Are you loo6ing *or4 ,,1 ,! ,: ,, ,C ,A , ,7 ,9 CC1 C! C: C, CC CA C C7 C9 AA1 A! 1rder ?om(&etion ?onfirmations 1rder 4eader 1rder 0tem Detai& 1rder 1(erations Detai& 1rder P2/ Assignment 1rder Se$uence Detai&s P&anned 1rders P&anning Fi&e =ntries P&anning Scenario )8ong'term P&anning+ P2/ A&&ocation 2e&ations#i(s"Standard >etwork 2e(orting Point Document 8ogs 2e(orting Points"Periodic /ota&s 2eservations5De(endent 2e$uirements 2evision >umbers 2outing 4eader Detai&s 2outing 8ink to .ateria& 2outing 1(eration Detai&s 2S 4eader .aster Data /ask 8ist"Se&ection of 1(erations %orkcenter ?a(acity A&&ocation %orkcenter ?ost ?enter Assignment %orkcenter 4eader Data

(a:le AF29 AFD1 AFP1 AFI? AFF4 AFF8 P8AF .DI. P8S? P8F4 P8A3 ?=QP ?PQP 2=S3 A=10 P8D1 .AP8 P8P1 SAFD P8AS ?2?A ?2?1 ?24D

Sl. %o. Are you loo6ing *or4 A: %orkcenter /e<t

(a:le ?2/J

Sap (ransaction )odes :"er"ie7 3e&ow are some of t#e im(ortant /ransaction ?odes )/'?odes+, &isted modu&e'wise, for easy reference* /#e notab&e feature of t#ese &ists is t#e way t#ese /ransaction ?odes #ave been arranged@ it is not an a&(#abetica& &ist because suc# a &ist wou&d not #e&( if you do not know t#e /ransaction ?ode but are &ooking wit# some descri(tion in mind* /#e /ransaction ?odes are arranged based on t#eir functiona&ity or use or task so t#at it is easier to searc#* 8ook for keywords in t#e second co&umn of t#e tab&e .are you loo6ing *or/, and t#en &ook at t#e corres(onding /ransaction ?ode under t#e (8)ode co&umn* A&& t#e /ransaction ?odes are stored in t#e system in tab&es (S() and (S()(* 0t is not (ractica& to &ist a&& t#e /ransaction ?odes of SAP* As you get to know SAP, you wi&& &earn to &ook for /ransaction ?odes by going t#roug# t#e (ransaction )ode S$93* S#ou&d you want to know t#ose /ransaction ?odes t#at are not &isted in t#e fo&&owing (ages, use t#e (ransaction )ode S$93 to find t#em* 4ere is a s#ort tutoria& on #ow to &ook for /ransaction ?odes in t#e system@

1* =nter t#e 2aintain (ransaction transaction by /ransaction ?ode S=9:@

Figure 1--@ .aintain /ransaction"0nitia& Screen


!* 0f you know some information about t#e /ransaction ?ode you are &ooking for,

you may enter it in t#e /ransaction ?ode fie&d* For e<am(&e, assume t#at you are trying to &ist a&& t#e /ransaction ?odes starting wit# F* /#en you wou&d

enter FL as indicated in Figure 1-1 and c&ick t#e now bring out t#e &ist as indicated in Figure 1-!@

button* /#e system wi&&

Figure 1-1@ 8ist of /ransactions starting wit# F

Figure 1-!@ Standard Se&ection Screen to find /ransactions


:* 0f you dont know w#at /ransaction ?ode you are searc#ing for, you may sti&&

find it if you try searc#ing t#roug# t#e (ackage or a((&ication com(onents, s#ort descri(tion, etc* 0n ste('! above, instead of entering t#e searc# string in

t#e /ransaction ?ode fie&d, c&ick t#e

button and you wi&& be taken to t#e

fo&&owing Find /ransaction se&ection screen@


,* .aintain any of t#e known information under Standard Se&ections* Assume

t#at you are (&anning to searc# by A((&ication ?om(onent@ t#en c&ick t#e button to t#e rig#t of t#e A((&ication ?om(onent fie&d* >ow t#e system takes you to t#e Select Application )omponent (o('u( screen@

Figure 1-:@ Se&ect A((&ication ?om(onent C* =<(and t#e A((&ication ?om(onents tree to reac# t#e s(ecific

functiona&ity or t#e com(onent you are &ooking for* Su((ose t#at you are &ooking for /ransaction ?odes re&ating to 3asic Functions in F0'A2@

Figure 1-,@ Se&ecting t#e s(ecific A((&ication ?om(onent A* Doub&e'c&ick on F0'A2'A2, and you are taken back to t#e initia& se&ection screen@

Figure 1-C@ Standard Se&ection wit# F0'A2'A2 under A((&ication ?om(onent


* Press

, and t#e system wi&& now bring t#e &ist of /ransaction ?odes of a&&

3asic Functions under F0'A2@

Figure 1-A@ /ransaction ?odes of 3asic Functions under F0'A2

.asis I A.AP O$en table as s$rea(sheet Sl. %o. Are you loo6ing *or4 1 ! : , C A A3AP =ditor A3AP Function .odu&es A3AP 1bBects 2un'time Ana&ysis A3AP Program ana&ysis A3AP 2e(ository 0nformation System A3AP /e<t =&ement .aintenance A3AP5, Dia&ogue .odu&es 7 9 111 1! 1: 1, 1C 1A 1 17 19 !!1 A3AP5, 2e(orting A3AP5, 2e(ository 0nformation System A3AP@ =<tended Program ?#eck Ana&y6e 9ser 3uffer A((&ication 4ierarc#y 3ackground Eob 1verview 3ackground Processing Ana&ysis /oo& 3atc# 0n(ut .onitoring 3atc# 2e$uest 3usiness >avigator"?om(onent Iiew 3usiness >avigator"Process F&ow Iiew ??.S ?&ient Administration ?&ient ?o(y (8)ode S=:7 S=: S=:A8!1 S=7A S=:! S=:C SA:7 S=7C S80> S9CA S=71 S.: S.AC S.:C S.:A S3-1 S3-! S2Q8 S??, S??-

Sl. %o. Are you loo6ing *or4 !! !: !, !C !A ! !7 !9 ::1 :! :: :, :C :A : :7 :9 ,,1 ,! ,: ,, ?&ient ?o(y 8og ?&ient De&ete ?&ient =<(ort ?&ient 0m(ort ?&ient /rans(ort ?om(uter Aided /est /oo& )?A//+ ?onte<t 3ui&der

(8)ode S??: S??C S??7 S??A S??! S?A/ S=::

?onvert Data Dictionary /ab&es on Database 8eve& S=1, ?urrent ?ustomi6ing ?ustomer =n#ancement Simu&ation ?ustomer .easurement ?ustomi6ing ?ustomi6ing 1rgani6er Data Dictionary Dis(&ay Data Dictionary .aintenance Data .ode&er Data /ransfer %orkbenc# Deve&o(ment ?&ass 1verview Deve&o(ment ?oordination 0nfo System Dis(&ay and De&ete 8ocks Dis(&ay 1ut(ut 2e$uests Dis(&ay 1wn Eobs Dis(&ay SAP Directories SP2. S=9, 9S.. SP21 S=1S=1! S=11 SD11 SJDA 1G-7 S=77 S.1! SP-! S.J A811

Sl. %o. Are you loo6ing *or4 ,C ,A , ,7 ,9 CC1 C! C: C, CC CA C C7 C9 AA1 A! A: A, AC AA A Dis(&ay /ab&e ?ontent Dis(&ay 9sers Down&oad to =ar&y %atc# Dynamic .enu =ar&y'%atc# 2e(ort =n#ancements =nvironment Ana&y6er =<ecute 8ogica& ?ommands Generate =nter(rise 0.G Generate /ab&e Dis(&ay Generate /ab&e Iiew G&oba& 9ser .anager 0nsta&&ation ?#eck 0ntegrated 9ser .aintenance Eob administration Eob ana&ysis Eob sc#edu&ing 8A> ?#eck wit# Ping 8anguage 0m(ort 9ti&ity 8ist for Session .anager 8ist of SAP Servers 8oca& ?&ient ?o(y 8ock /ransactions

(8)ode S=1A S9-1D A81S.=> A8?.1D S=-! S.,9 S?PF S=1 S=C, S9.. S.!7 S9PF S.A7 S.:9 S.A 1S-1 S.80 S9C, S.C1 S??8 S.-1

Sl. %o. Are you loo6ing *or4 A7 A9 1 ! : , C A 8ogica& databases 8ogon to 1n&ine Service System )1SS+ .aintain Area .enu .aintain Aut#ori6ation Profi&es .aintain Aut#ori6ations .aintain 0nternet 9sers .aintain 8ogon Grou( .aintain .essages .aintain 1rgani6ation 8eve&s .aintain 1wn 9ser Parameters 7 9 771 7! 7: 7, 7C 7A 7 77 79 9.aintain P? %ork Directory .aintain /ec#nica& Settings )/ab&es+ .aintain /ransaction ?odes .aintain /rees in 0nformation System .aintain 9ser .aintain 9ser Parameter .ass ?#anges to 9ser .aster .ass ?#anges to 9ser .aster 2ecords .enu Painter .odification 3rowser .onitor ?urrent %ork&oad >umber 2ange 1bBects 1bBect >avigator

(8)ode S=:A 1SS1 S=,: S9-! S9-: S9-C S.8G S=91 S9P1 S9C! S1!1 S=1: S=9: S=79 S9-1 S9! S91S91! S=,1 S=9C A8-C S>21 S=7-

Sl. %o. Are you loo6ing *or4 91 9! 9: 9, 9C 9A 9 97 99 1-1-1 1-! 1-: 1-, 1-C 1-A 11-7 1-9 11111 11! 11: 18= A((&ications Performance .onitoring Performance, SAP Statistics, %ork&oad Performance@ 9(&oad5Down&oad Fueue .aintenance /ransaction Fuick'Iiewer 25: Documentation 25: 2e(ository 0nformation System 2ecord 3atc# 0n(ut 2emote ?&ient ?o(y 2e(orting@ ?#ange /ree Structure 2e(ository 3rowser 2e(ository 0nfo System 2e(ository 0nfo System SAP A&ert .onitor SAP =n#ancement .anagement SAP Fuery@ 8anguage ?om(arison SAP Fuery@ .aintain Functiona& Area SAP Fuery@ .aintain Fueries SAP Fuery@ .aintain 9ser Grou(s SAP %eb 2e(ository SAPoffice@ 0nbo< 1verview SAPoffice@ 1utbo<

(8)ode S18= S/9> S/-: A8-A S.:7 SFI0 S=A1 S=7, S4D3 S??9 S=2P S=9 S=1C S90. A8-1 S.1D SFSF-! SF-1 SF-: S.%S1GC S1-!

Sl. %o. Are you loo6ing *or4 11, 11C 11A 11 117 119 1!1!1 1!! 1!: 1!, 1!C 1!A 1! 1!7 1!9 1:1:1 1:! 1:: 1:, 1:C 1:A SAPoffice@ Private Fo&ders SAPoffice@ S#ared Fo&ders SAPoffice@ 9ser .aster SAPscri(t Font .aintenance )revised+ SAPscri(t Form SAPscri(t Format ?onversion SAPscri(t Settings SAPscri(t Sty&es SAPscri(t /rans&ation Sty&es SAPscri(t@ Form /rans&ation SAPscri(t@ Gra(#ics administration SAPscri(t@ Standard /e<ts Screen Painter S(&it'screen =ditor@ Program ?om(are S(oo& and 2e&ate Area S(oo& ?ontro& S(oo& .anagement SF8 /race Start 2e(ort 0mmediate&y System Administration Assistant System 8og System 8og Ana&ysis System .essages

(8)ode S1-: S1-, S11! S= : S= 1 S= , S= C S= ! S= S= A S= 7 S11S=C1 S=:9 SP-SP-1 SPAD S/-C S?:7 SSAA S.!1 S.!: S.-!

Sl. %o. Are you loo6ing *or4 1: 1:7 1:9 1,1,1 1,! 1,: 1,, 1,C 1,A 1, 1,7 1,9 1C1C1 1C! System /race /ab&e 4istory /ab&e .aintenance /rans(ort and ?orrection System /rans(ort .anagement System /rans(ort System Status Dis(&ay /rans(ort 9ti&ities 9(date Program Administration 9ser 1verview 9sers 8ogged 1n Iiew5/ab&e ?om(arison Iiew'c&uster .aintenance ?a&& %eb 1bBect Administration %ork Process 1verview %orkbenc# 1rgani6er )0nitia& Screen+ %orkf&ow Definition

(8)ode S/-1 1G17 S.:1 S=-1 S/.S S=S=-: S.1, S.-, A8-7 S?.P S.:, S0A?1 S.CS=-9 S%D?

9inan*ial A**ountin) (92)K !usto#iCin) O$en table as s$rea(sheet Sl. %o. Are you loo6ing *or4 1 ! : Activate Functiona& Area Substitution Activate Ia&idations A&&ocate a ?om(any ?ode to Sam(&e Account 2u&e /y(e (8)ode 133Q 13!7 13A

Sl. %o. Are you loo6ing *or4 , C A Assign ?#art of De(reciation to ?om(any ?ode Assign ?ountry to /a< ?a&cu&ation Procedure Assign =m(&oyee Grou(s to ?redit 2e(resentative Grou(s Assign G8 Accounts to 2eason ?odes 7 9 111 1! 1: 1, 1C 1A 1 17 19 !!1 !! !: !, !C !A Assign Posting Deys to Document /y(es Assign 2eference 0nterest 2ates to 0nterest 0ndicators Assign /a< ?odes for >on'/a<ab&e /ransactions Assign /reasury /ransaction /y(es to 4ouse 3anks Assign 9sers to /o&erance Grou(s Automatic Account Assignment for 0nterest ?a&cu&ation Automatic Account Assignment, ?ross'?om(any ?ode Automatic Account Assignment, .. Automatic Postings Documentation 3ank ?#ain Determination ?as# .anagement 0m(&ementation /oo& ?onfiguration@ .aintain Dis(&ay Format ?onfiguration@ S#ow Dis(&ay Format ?onfigure Days in Arrears ?a&cu&ation ?onfigure t#e ?entra& /2'?. System ?o(y ?#art of Accounts ?o(y ?#art of De(reciation ?o(y ?om(any ?ode

(8)ode 1A13 133G 13C1 13J8 1391 1371 13?8 1/CC 13C 13I1 13GA 13G? 1381 F033 FDFD FADP FADA 13:9 FFSJ 13G =?-7 =?-1

?o(y G8 Accounts from ?#art of Accounts to t#e ?om(any ?ode 13G!

Sl. %o. Are you loo6ing *or4 ! !7 !9 ::1 :! :: :, :C :A : :7 :9 ,,1 ,! ,: ,, ,C ,A , ,7 ,9 ?o(y Iendor .aster 2ecords ?reation Program ?o(y Iendor .aster 2ecords 9(&oad Program Define /reasury Grou(ings Define Additiona& 8oca& ?urrencies Define Asset ?&asses Define 3ase .et#od Define ?as# Discount Accounts Define ?as# .anagement Account >ames Define ?#eck 8ots Define ?om(any ?ode )?reate 5?#eck5De&ete+ Define ?om(any ?ode G&oba& Parameters Define ?ountries Define ?redit ?ontro& Areas Define ?redit 2e(resentative Grou(s Define ?redit 2isk ?ategories Define ?urrency /rans&ation 2atios Define ?ustomer Account Grou(s Define ?ustomer /o&erance Grou(s Define Data /ransfer 2u&es for Sam(&e Accounts Define De(reciation Dey Define Document /y(es Define Financia& Statement Iersions Define G8 Account Grou(s

(8)ode FD1C FD1A 1/1 13!! 1A1A 1AG1 13J0 1/1A F?40 1J-! 13GA 1G-1 13,C 13-! 13-1 G?2F 13D! 13A: FSD! AFA.A 13A 13C7 13D,

Sl. %o. Are you loo6ing *or4 CC1 C! C: C, CC CA C C7 C9 AA1 A! A: A, AC AA A A7 A9 1 ! Define G8 >umber 2anges Define 4ouse 3anks Define 8ine item 8ayouts Define 8ockbo< Accounts Define >umber 2ange for Payment 2e$uest Define >umber 2anges for De(reciation Postings Define >umber 2anges for .aster ?&asses Define >umber 2anges of Iendor Account Grou(s Define >umber 2anges for Iendor Account Grou(s Define Posting Deys Define Posting Period Iariant Define Posting 2u&es for =&ectronic 3ank Statement Define 2eason ?odes Define 2eference 0nterest 2ates Define Screen 8ayouts for Asset De(reciation Areas Define Sort Iariants Define Source Symbo&s, for /reasury Define S(ecia& Fie&ds Define S(ecify 0nterva&s and Posting 2u&es Define /a< Accounts Define /a< ?odes for >on'/a<ab&e /ransactions Define /a< ?odes for Sa&es 5Purc#ases Define /a< Eurisdiction ?odes

(8)ode F3>1 F01! 1 Q: 131F73. F3>1 AS-7 13AS JD>1 13,1 1331 1/C 133= 13A? A1!1 1 C 1G1S 13I9 1AG2 13,13?8 F/JP 13?P

Sl. %o. Are you loo6ing *or4 : , C A Define /o&erance Grou(s Define Iendor Account Grou(s Define Ioid 2eason ?odes for ?#ecks Define Sam(&e Account 2u&es De(reciation Deys 7 9 771 7! 7: 7, 7C 7A 7 77 79 991 9! 9: 9, 9C Determine De(reciation Areas in Asset ?&asses Define P&anning Grou(s for /reasury Dis(&ay Accounting ?onfiguration Document ?#ange 2u&es Fast =ntry Screens F0 ?onfiguration .enu )instead of 0.G+ Fie&d Status Iariants 0ntegration wit# G8 0nterest 0ndicator )Arrears 0nterest+ for 0nt* ?a&cu&ation Program 0nterna& >umber 2ange for Payment 1rders 8oans ?ustomi6ing .aintain Accounting ?onfiguration .aintain Accounting ?onfiguration .aintain 3ank ?#ains for Account ?arry'over .aintain 3ank ?#ains for 4ouse 3anks .aintain 3ank ?#ains for Partner .aintain 3ank ?#ains for Partner .aintain 3usiness Area

(8)ode 13A, 13D: F?4I 131C 1AG1 1AGQ 1/1: F3DA 13:! 1 =A 12F3 13?, A19137! F3>! FD?9 F3DF F3DP F03/9 F0349 F30P9 F03P9 1J-:

Sl. %o. Are you loo6ing *or4 9A 9 97 99 1-1-1 1-! 1-: 1-, 1-C 1-A 11-7 1-9 11111 11! 11: 11, 11C 11A 11 117 .aintain ?&ient'De(endent 9ser =<its .aintain ?urrency /rans&ation /y(e .aintain ?urrency /rans&ation /y(e .aintain ?urrency /rans&ation /y(e .aintain Dunning Procedure .aintain Fisca& Gear Iariant .aintain Functiona& Areas .aintain Dey Figures .aintain 8ockbo< ?ontro& Parameters .aintain 8ockbo< Posting Data .aintain Payment Program ?onfiguration .aintain Substitutions .aintain /e<t Determination ?onfiguration .aintain Ia&idations .a( 0nterna& 2eason ?odes to =<terna& 2eason ?odes 2ea& =state 0m(&ementation Guide 2etained =arnings Iariant Scenarios for 3ank ?#ain Determination S(ecify 2ound 9( >et 3ook Ia&uation Structure for /a< Eurisdiction ?odes /ransaction /y(es for =&ectronic 3ank Statement /rans(ort ?#art of Accounts /reasury P&anning 8eve&s

(8)ode G?J! FD0? FG0? FD0? F3.P 13!9 1D3D FD0D 13AG 13AJ F3QP GG31 F3/P GG313?S F=90 13C: F03? 1AG1 13?1 133G 13G9 1/1,

9inan*ial A**ountin) (92)K Transa*tions O$en table as s$rea(sheet Sl. %o. Are you loo6ing *or4 1 ! : , C A A5P@ Account 3a&ances A5P@ Account 8ist A5P@ 3a&ance 0nterest ?a&cu&ation A5P@ =va&uate 0nfo System A5P@ 1(en 0tems A52 Summary A52 Dunning 2un 7 9 111 1! 1: 1, 1C 1A 1 17 19 !!1 A52@ Account 3a&ances A52@ Account 8ist A52@ 3a&ance 0nterest ?a&cu&ation A52@ =va&uate 0nfo System A52@ 0nterest for Days 1verdue A52@ 1(en 0tem Sorted 8ist A52@ 1(en 0tems A52@ Periodic Account Statements Accounting =diting 1(tions (8)ode F*,! F*,F*,, F*,A F*,1 F?I1 F1CF*!: F*!F*!A F*:F*!, F*!! F*!1 F*! F3--

Accounts Detai&ed 8isting from 10 Account Accum* Audit /rai& F*C? Accumu&ated ?&assic Audit /rai&@ ?reate =<tract )2FD8=/-1+ F*C9

Accumu&ated Detai&s from 4istorica& Accum* 3a&ance Audit /rai& F*CA Accumu&ated 10 Audit /rai&@ ?reate =<tract )2FD8=/-1+ Ac$uisition from Purc#ase wit# Iendor F*C3 F'9-

Sl. %o. Are you loo6ing *or4 !! !: !, !C !A ! !7 !9 ::1 :! :: :, :C :A : :7 :9 ,,1 ,! ,: ,, Advance /a< 2eturn Arc#ive 3ank .aster Data Arc#ive ?ustomer Arc#ive /ransaction Figures Arc#iving 3ank Data Storage Arc#iving 3anks Arc#iving ?#eck Data Arc#iving G8 Accounts Arc#iving Payment 2e$uest Arc#iving Iendors Asset Ac$uisition to ?&earing Account Asset De(reciation 2un Asset =<(&orer Asset .aster ?reation Asset 2etirement from Sa&e %it# ?ustomer Asset Scra((ing Asset /ransfer Asset, ?reate Sub'Asset Automatic ?&earing@ A3AP5, 2e(ort 3a&ance S#eet' A3AP5, 2e(ort 3a&ance S#eet AdBustment@ A3AP5, 2e(orting 3a&ance S#eet5PM8 wit# inf&ation 3i&& of =<c#ange 8ist

(8)ode F*1! F-,1 F-,: F-,A FAAA FA1A F?4A FC:A F731 F-,, F'91 AFA3 A%-1 AS-1 F'9! A3AI> A39.> AS11 F*1: F*-1 F1-1 FEA: F*!C

Sl. %o. Are you loo6ing *or4 ,C ,A , ,7 ,9 CC1 C! C: C, CC CA C C7 C9 AA1 A! A: A, AC AA A 3i&& of =<c#ange Payment 3i&& of =<c#ange Payment 2e$uest Dunning 3i&& of =<c#ange Payment"4eader Data 3i&& of =<c#ange Presentation"0nternationa& 3&ock ?ustomer )Accounting+ 3&ock Iendor )Accounting+ ?as# ?oncentration ?as# Eourna& Document >umber 2ange ?as# Eourna& ?as# .anagement and Forecast"0nitia& Screen ?as# .anagement Position58i$uidity Forecast ?as# .anagement Summary 2ecords ?as# Position ?#ange 3ank ?#ange ?#eck5Payment A&&ocation ?#ange ?#eck 0nformation5?as# ?#eck ?#ange ?redit 8imits ?#ange ?urrent >umber 2ange >umber ?#ange ?ustomer )Accounting Data+ ?#ange ?ustomer ?redit .anagement ?#ange ?ustomer 8ine 0tems ?#ange Document ?#ange G8 Account 8ine 0tems

(8)ode F':A F* F',F3%= FD-C FD-C FF : F3?E?1 F3?E FF ! FF FF': FF 1 F0-! F?4/ F?4A FD!, F0FD-! FD:! F38A F3-! F38,

Sl. %o. Are you loo6ing *or4 A7 A9 1 ! : , C A ?#ange 0ntercom(any Document ?#ange 8ast AdBustment Dates ?#ange 8ine 0tems"?ustomer5Iendor5Asset5G8 ?#ange Parked Document )4eader+ ?#ange Parked Document ?#ange Payment Advice ?#ange Pricing 2e(ort ?#ange 2ecurring =ntry ?#ange 2e(ort Settings for /ransaction Figures ?#ange 2e(ort@ Settings 7 9 771 7! 7: 7, 7C 7A 7 77 79 9?#ange 2e(ort@ Settings ?#ange Sam(&e Document ?#ange Iendor )Accounting Data+ ?#ange Iendor )Accounting Data+ ?#ange Iendor 8ine 0tems ?#eck =<tract"?reation ?#eck if Documents can be Arc#ived ?#eck 2egister ?#eck 2etrieva& ?#eck /racing 0nitia& .enu ?&ear ?ustomer Down Payment ?&ear ?ustomer@ 4eader Data ?&ear G8 Account@ 4eader Data

(8)ode F39! FEA! F3-9 F3I, F3I! F3=! F583 F3D! FD0! FG0! FD0! F3.! FD-! FD-, F38! F?4J F399 F?4> F?43 F?4D F':9 F':! F'-:

Sl. %o. Are you loo6ing *or4 91 9! 9: 9, 9C 9A 9 97 99 1-1-1 1-! 1-: 1-, 1-C 1-A 11-7 1-9 11111 11! 11: ?&ear Iendor Down Payment ?&ear Iendor@ 4eader Data ?onfirm ?ustomer 0ndividua&&y )Accounting+ ?onfirm ?ustomer 8ist )Accounting+ ?onfirm Iendor 0ndividua&&y )Accounting+ ?onfirm Iendor 8ist )Accounting+ ?orres(ondence@ De&ete 2e$uests ?orres(ondence@ .aintain 2e$uests ?orres(ondence@ Print 0nterest Documents ?orres(ondence@ Print 8etters )?ustomer+ ?orres(ondence@ Print 8etters )Iendor+ ?orres(ondence@ Print 2e$uests ?reate 3ank ?reate ?#eck 0nformation ?reate ?ustomer )Accounting+ ?reate Payment Advice ?reate Payment 2uns Automatica&&y ?reate P&anning .emo 2ecord ?reate 2eference for ?#eck ?reate Iendor )Accounting Area Data+ ?redit .anagement".ass ?#ange ?redit .anagement".ass ?#ange ?redit .anagement".aster Data 8ist

(8)ode F'C, F',, FD-7 FD-9 FD-7 FD-9 F*A: F*A, F*A! F*AC F*AA F*A1 F0-1 F?4C FD-1 F3=1 F739 FFA: F?49 FD-1 F*:, FD: FDD,:

Sl. %o. Are you loo6ing *or4 11, 11C 11A 11 117 119 1!1!1 1!! 1!: 1!, 1!C 1!A 1! 1!7 1!9 1:1:1 1:! 1:: 1:, 1:C 1:A ?redit .anagement".issing Data ?redit .anagement"1verview ?redit .aster S#eet ?ustomer Account Ana&ysis ?ustomer Account 3a&ance ?ustomer 3a&ance ?onfirmation@ A3AP5, 2e(ort ?ustomer 3a&ance Dis(&ay ?ustomer 3a&ance@ Dis(&ay wit# %ork'&ist ?ustomer ?#anges )Accounting+ ?ustomer Down Payment 2e$uest ?ustomer 0nterest on Arrears@ Post )w51(en 0tems+ ?ustomer 0nterest on Arrears@ Post )w5o 1(en 0tems+ ?ustomer 0nterest on Arrears@ Post )w5o (ostings+ ?ustomer 8ine 0tems ?ustomer >oted 0tem ?ustomer5Iendor Statistics ?ustomers Dri&&down 2e(orts@ 3ackground Processing ?ustomers@ F0'SD .aster Data ?om(arison ?ustomers@ 2e(ort Se&ection ?ustomers@ 2eset ?redit 8imit Data =<tract for F0 /ransfer De&ete A52 Summary De&ete ?as#ing5=<tract Data

(8)ode F*:! F*:1 F*:C FD11 FD1F*1 FD1-> FD1->A FD-, F': F*!3 F*!A F*!? F38C> F',9 F*1A FD03 F*!D F*99 F*!7 F?11 F?I! F?4G

Sl. %o. Are you loo6ing *or4 1: 1:7 1:9 1,1,1 1,! 1,: 1,, 1,C 1,A 1, 1,7 1,9 1C1C1 1C! 1C: 1C, 1CC 1CA 1C 1C7 1C9 De&ete .anua& ?#ecks De&ete Payment Advice De&ete Payment 2un ?#eck 0nformation De&ete 2ecurring Document De&ete Ioided ?#ecks Dis(&ay Account Determination ?onfiguration Dis(&ay 3ank ?#ains for 4ouse 3anks Dis(&ay 3ank ?#ains for Partners Dis(&ay 3ank ?#anges Dis(&ay 3ank Dis(&ay ?#eck 0nformation Dis(&ay ?ustomer )Accounting Data+ Dis(&ay ?ustomer ?redit .anagement Dis(&ay ?ustomer 8ine 0tems Dis(&ay Document Dis(&ay Document 5Payment 9se Dis(&ay Dunning Procedure Dis(&ay =&ectronic 3ank Statement Dis(&ay F0 Amount Grou(s Dis(&ay F0 .ain 2o&e Definition Dis(&ay G8 Account 8ine 0tems Dis(&ay 4ouse 3anks 53ank Accounts Dis(&ay 0ntercom(any Document

(8)ode F?4F F3=A F?4D F*CA F?4= F33A F034S F03PS F0-, F0-: F?41 FD-: FD:: F38C F3-: F3-:Q F3.A FF*A F7N! F7NF38: F01: F39:

Sl. %o. Are you loo6ing *or4 1A1A1 1A! 1A: 1A, 1AC 1AA 1A 1A7 1A9 1 1 1 1 ! 1 : 1 , 1 C 1 A 1 1 7 1 9 17171 17! Dis(&ay of Payment 2e$uests Dis(&ay Parked Document Dis(&ay Payment Advice Dis(&ay Payment Document ?#ecks Dis(&ay Payment Program ?onfiguration Dis(&ay Payment 2e$uests Dis(&ay Payment 2un Dis(&ay Pricing 2e(ort Dis(&ay 2ecurring =ntry ?#anges Dis(&ay 2ecurring =ntry Dis(&ay Sam(&e Document ?#anges Dis(&ay Sam(&e Document Dis(&ay /e<t Determination ?onfiguration Dis(&ay Iendor )Accounting Data+ Dis(&ay Iendor 8ine 0tems Dis(&ay5=dit Payment Pro(osa& Document Arc#iving Document ?#anges of Parked Documents Document ?#anges Down Payment 2e$uest Down&oad Documents =nter Accrua& 5Deferra& Document =nter 3i&& of =<c#ange Payment 2e$uest

(8)ode F73S F3I: F3=: F?4! F3QA F73/ F3Q7 F58? F3D, F3D: F3., F3.: F3/A FD-: F381 F3QF-,C F3IC F3-, F', F3F, F3S1 F3%1

Sl. %o. Are you loo6ing *or4 17: 17, 17C 17A 17 177 179 19191 19! 19: 19, 19C 19A 19 197 199 !-!-1 !-! !-: !-, !-C =nter ?ustomer ?redit .emo =nter ?ustomer 0nvoice =nter G8 Account Posting =nter 0ncoming ?redit .emos =nter 0ncoming 0nvoices =nter >oted 0tem =nter 1utgoing ?redit .emos =nter 1utgoing 0nvoices =nter Payment 2e$uest =nter 2ecurring =ntry =nter Sam(&e Document =nter Statistica& Posting@ 4eader Data =nter /ransfer Posting@ 4eader Data =nter Iendor ?redit .emo =nter Iendor 0nvoice =<c#ange 2ates /ab&e .aintenance F111 ?ustomi6ing Fai&ed ?ustomer Payments F0 Account Assignment .ode& .anagement F0 Dis(&ay Structure F0 =asy Access"3anks F0 =asy Access"?ustomers F0 =asy Access"Iendors

(8)ode F'! F'!! F'-! F3AC F3AF3:1 F3 C F3 F3P1 F3D1 F'-1 F':7 F'!1 F',1 F',: F'A! F73Q F3QG FD./ F0>A F3.= FD.> FD.>

Sl. %o. Are you loo6ing *or4 !-A !!-7 !-9 !1!11 !1! !1: !1, !1C !1A !1 !17 !19 !!!!1 !!! !!: !!, !!C !!A !! !!7 F0 0nformation System F0 0nitia& ?onso&idation .enu F0 Ia&uation 2un Financia& Statements ?om(arison Financia& /ransactions Foreign ?urrency Ia&uation@ 1(en 0tems G8 Account Assignment .anua& G8 Account 3a&ance 0nterest ?a&cu&ation G8 Account 3a&ances G8 Account ?as#ed ?#ecks G8 Account 0nterest Sca&e G8 Account 8ine 0tems G8 Account 8ist G8 Accounts Arc#iving G8 Account Posting@ Sing&e Screen /ransaction

(8)ode F--F?.> F1F?1F3F! F*-C F*C: F*C! F*-7 FF*: FF[1 F38:> F*-9 F-,! F3C-

G8 Advance 2e(ort on /a< on Sa&es 5Purc#ases wit# Eurisdiction F*C0 G8 3a&ance ?arried Forward G8 3a&ance S#eet AdBustment 8og G8 ?#art of Accounts G8 ?om(act Eourna& G8 ?reate Foreign /rade 2e(ort G8 De&ete Sam(&e Documents G8 Dri&&down 2e(orts@ 3ackground Processing F*F*CF F*1F*-! F*-, F*C FG03

Sl. %o. Are you loo6ing *or4 !!9 !:!:1 !:! !:: !:, !:C !:A !: !:7 !:9 !,!,1 !,! !,: !,, !,C !,A !, !,7 !,9 !C!C1 G8 Genera& 8edger from Document Fi&e G8 G2502 ?&earing G8 1(en 0tems G8 Post 3a&ance S#eet AdBustment G8 Profitabi&ity Segment AdBustment G8 2e(ort Se&ection G8 Structured Account 3a&ances G8 9(date 3a&ance S#eet AdBustment Generate .u&ticas# Format Generate Payment 2e$uest from Advices 0m(ort =&ectronic 3ank Statement 0m(ort =&ectronic ?#eck De(osit 8ist 0m(ort Forms from ?&ient --0m(ort 8ockbo< Fi&e 0m(ort 2e(orts from ?&ient --0ncoming Payments Fast =ntry 0nvoice5?redit Fast =ntry .aintain 3i&& of =<c#ange 8iabi&ity .anua& 3ank Statement .anua& ?#eck De(osit /ransaction .ark 3ank for De&etion .ark ?ustomer for De&etion )Accounting+ .ark Iendor for De&etion )Accounting+

(8)ode F*11 F*19 F*C1 F*C= F*CF*9 F*C, F*CD F=3? F=D FF*C FF3, FD02 F83! FD0F F'!A F31F*9: FFA FFA7 F0-A FD-A FD-A

Sl. %o. Are you loo6ing *or4 !C! !C: !C, !CC !CA !C !C7 !C9 !A!A1 !A! !A: !A, !AC !AA !A !A7 !A9 ! ! 1 ! ! ! : ! , .ass 2eversa& of Documents 1n&ine ?as#ed ?#ecks 1(en 0tem 3a&ance Audit /rai&@ from Document Fi&e 1utstanding 3i&&s of =<c#ange Parameters for Automatic Payment Parameters for Payment of 2e$uest Park ?ustomer ?redit .emo Park ?ustomer 0nvoice Park Document Park Iendor ?redit .emo Park Iendor 0nvoice Payment Advice ?om(arison Payment Advice Eourna& Payment ?ard =va&uations Payment ?ards@ Sett&ement Payment 2e$uest Payment wit# Printout Post 3i&& of =<c#ange 9se Post ?o&&ection Post ?ustomer Down Payment Post Document Post =&ectronic 3ank Statement Post =&ectronic ?#eck De(osit 8ist

(8)ode F*7F?42 F*C7 FF'! F11F111 F'A F'A, F3I1 F'AA F'A: FF* FF'7 F??2 F??1 F'C9 F'17 F':: F':, F'!9 F3-1 F=3P FF3C

Sl. %o. Are you loo6ing *or4 ! C ! A ! ! 7 ! 9 !7!71 !7! !7: !7, !7C !7A !7 !77 !79 !9!91 !9! !9: !9, !9C !9A !9 Post Foreign ?urrency Ia&uation Post Forfeiting Post 4e&d Document Post 0ncoming Payments Post 8ockbo< Data Post 1utgoing Payments Post Parked Document Post Payment 1rders Post /a< Payab&e Post Iendor Down Payment Post wit# ?&earing Post wit# 2eference Document Posting Period /ab&e .aintenance Pre&iminary Posting Print ?#eck For Payment Document Print Payment 1rders 2ea&i6e 2ecurring =ntry 2econci&iation between Affi&iated ?om(anies 2ecurring =ntries@ A3AP5, 2e(ort 2eBect Parked Document 2e&ease for Payments 2enumber ?#ecks 2e(ort Painter

(8)ode F'-C F':C F311 F'-A F83P F'F3IFF*9 F3,1 F',7 F'-, F321 F'AF'AC F3QC FF*7 F3DC F*!= F*1, F3IA F31: F?4, FG2P

Sl. %o. Are you loo6ing *or4 !97 !99 :-:-1 :-! :-: :-, :-C :-A ::-7 :-9 :1:11 :1! :1: :1, :1C :1A :1 :17 :19 :!2e(ort Painter@ ?#ange Form"?ustomer 2e(ort Painter@ ?#ange Form"G8 2e(ort Painter@ ?#ange Form"Iendor 2e(ort %riter .enu 2e(rint ?#eck 2e$uest from ?orres(ondence 2eset ?&eared 0tems )Payment ?ards+ 2eset ?&eared 0tems 2eset ?&eared 0tems@ Payment 2e$uests 2eturned 3i&&s of =<c#ange Payab&e 2eversa& of 3ank'to'3ank /ransfers 2everse 3i&& 8iabi&ity 2everse ?#eck Payment 2everse ?#eck53i&& of =<c#ange 2everse ?ross'?om(any ?ode Document 2everse Document 2everse Posting for Accrued5Deferred Documents 2everse Statistica& Posting SAP 1ffice@ S#ort .essage"?reate and Send S(ecia& Pur(ose 8edger .enu Iendor Account 3a&ance Iendor 3a&ance ?onfirmation@ A3AP5, 2e(ort Iendor 3a&ance Dis(&ay

(8)ode FD0C FG0C FD0C FG2% F?4 F31! F32? F32A F73% F3%D F73I F'!F?47 F'!C F397 F3-7 F*71 F'19 F-FG.FD1F*17 FD1->

Sl. %o. Are you loo6ing *or4 :!1 :!! :!: :!, :!C :!A :! :!7 :!9 ::::1 ::! ::: ::, ::C Iendor ?as#ed ?#ecks Iendor ?#eck53i&& of =<c#ange Iendor Down Payment 2e$uest Iendor 0nterest on Arrears@ Post )w51(en 0tems+ Iendor 0nterest on Arrears@ Post )w5o 1(en 0tems+ Iendor 0nterest on Arrears@ Post )w5o Postings+ Iendor 8ine 0tems Iendor >oted 0tem Iendors Dri&&down 2e(orts@ 3ackground Processing Iendors@ ?a&cu&ate 0nterest on Arrears Iendors@ F0'.. .aster Data ?om(arison Iendors@ 2e(ort Se&ection Ioid ?#ecks Ioid 0ssued ?#eck %ire Aut#ori6ation

(8)ode FF*, F3%A F3AA F*,3 F*,A F*,? F381> F'C FD03 F*, F*,7 F*97 F?4: F?49 FF%1

Material Mana)e#ent (MM) O$en table as s$rea(sheet Sl. %o. Are you loo6ing *or4 1 ! : , A3? Ana&ysis for ?yc&e ?ounting A&&ow Postings to Previous Period Ana&ysis of 1rder Ia&ues Arc#ive5De&ete .ateria& (8)ode .03? ..2I =71> .. 1

Sl. %o. Are you loo6ing *or4 C A Arc#ive 0nfo 2ecords Arc#ive Purc#ase 2e$uisitions Arc#ive Purc#asing Documents 7 9 111 1! 1: 1, 1C 1A 1 17 19 !!1 !! !: !, !C !A ! Arc#ive 2ebate Arrangements Arc#ived Purc#ase 2e$uisitions Arc#ived Purc#asing Documents Assign and Process 2e$uisitions Assign Source to Purc#ase 2e$uisition Assign 9ser to 9ser Grou( Automatic Generation of P1s 3uyers >egotiation S#eet for .ateria& 3uyers >egotiation S#eet for Iendor ?#ange ?ontract ?#ange 0nventory ?ount ?#ange .ateria& ?#ange 1ut&ine Agreement ?#ange P#ysica& 0nventory Document ?#ange Purc#ase 1rder ?#ange Purc#ase 2e$uisition ?#ange Purc#asing 0nfo 2ecord ?#ange 2eservation ?#ange Sc#edu&ing Agreement ?#ange Iendor )Purc#asing+

(8)ode =1 =9 =97 =32 =C2 =7! =C =CA =9.=C9 =1G =1J =:!D .0-C ..-! =:! .0-! =!!> .=C!> =1! .3!! =:!8 .D-!

Sl. %o. Are you loo6ing *or4 !7 !9 ::1 :! :: :, :C :A : :7 :9 ,,1 ,! ,: ,, ,C ,A , ,7 ,9 C?#anges to Iendor =va&uation ?&ose Period ?o&&ective 2e&ease of Purc#ase 1rder ?onditions for 0ncoterms ?onditions for 0nvoicing Party ?ount5Difference ?reate ?onditions )Purc#asing+ ?reate ?ontract ?reate .ateria& ?reate >on'Stock .ateria& ?reate >on'Ia&uated .ateria& ?reate 1(erating Su((&ies ?reate 1ut&ine Agreement ?reate P#ysica& 0nventory Document ?reate Purc#ase 1rder ?reate Purc#ase 2e$uisition ?reate Purc#asing 0nfo 2ecord ?reate Fuotation ?reate 2e$uest For Fuotation ?reate 2e$uirement 2e$uest ?reate 2eservation ?reate Sc#edu&ing Agreement ?reate Source 8ist

(8)ode =AA ..PI =%C =D0 =DE .0-7 =D1 =:1D ..-1 ..>1 ..91 ..01 =:1 .0-1 =!1> .=C1> =11 =, =,1 =%1 .3!1 =:18 =-1

Sl. %o. Are you loo6ing *or4 C1 C! C: C, CC CA C C7 C9 AA1 A! A: A, AC AA A A7 A9 1 ! : ?reate Iendor )Purc#asing+ ?urrency ?#ange@ ?ontracts De&ivery Addresses Dis(&ay ?onditions )Purc#asing+ Dis(&ay .ateria& Dis(&ay .ateria& Arc#ive Dis(&ay .ateria& Dis(&ay Purc#ase 1rder Dis(&ay Purc#ase 2e$uisition Dis(&ay Purc#asing 0nfo 2ecord Dis(&ay Fuotation

(8)ode .D-1 =D2= =A> =D: ..-: .. ! 04-9 =!:> .=C:> =1: =,7

Dis(&ay Iendor =va&uation for .ateria& =A3 Dis(&ay Iendor =va&uation =nter 0nventory ?ount =nter Storage 8ocations =va&uation ?om(arison =va&uation 8ists F&ag for de&etion, immediate&y =A! .0-, ..S? =A, =AC ..-A

F&ag Purc#asing 0nfo 2ecord for De&etion =1C Goods 2ecei(t"For P1 Dnown Goods 2ecei(t"P1 9nknown Goods 2ecei(t Forecast 0nfo 2ecords Per .ateria& Grou( .3-1 .3-A =!I =1%

Sl. %o. Are you loo6ing *or4 , C A 0nfo 2ecords Per .ateria& 0nfo 2ecords Per Iendor 8ist of ?ustomer 2ebate Arrangements 8ist of Iendor 2ebate Arrangements 7 9 771 7! 7: 7, 7C 7A 7 77 79 991 9! 9: 9, 9C 9A

(8)ode =1. =18 =2C =3C

.aintain 1ut&ine Agreement Su((&ement =:, .aintain Fuota Arrangement .aintain Iendor =va&uation .arket Price .ass ?#ange of Purc#ase 1rders .ateria& 8ist .essage 1ut(ut@ Purc#ase 1rders .essage 1ut(ut@ 2FFs 1t#er Goods 2ecei(ts P#ysica& 0nventory Document 2ecount P1 ?#ange P1 ?reate"Iendor Dnown P1 ?reate"Iendor 9nknown Price ?#ange@ ?ontract Price ?#ange@ Sc#edu&ing Agreements Price ?om(arison 8ist Procurement /ransaction Purc#ase 1rder Price 4istory Purc#ase 1rder =F1 =A1 =D4 =.AS ..A=9F =9A .31? .011 .=!! .=!1 .=!C =D8 =D8 =,9 =%=1P =P1

Sl. %o. Are you loo6ing *or4 9 97 99 1-1-1 1-! 1-: 1-, 1-C 1-A 11-7 1-9 11111 11! 11: 11, 11C 11A 11 117 119

(8)ode

Purc#ase 1rders by Account Assignment =!D Purc#ase 1rders by .ateria& Grou( Purc#ase 1rders by .ateria& Purc#ase 1rders by P1 >umber Purc#ase 1rders by Iendor Purc#ase 1rders for ProBect Purc#ase 1rders for Su((&ying P&ant Fuotation Price 4istory 2e&ease ?ontract 2e&ease 1ut&ine Agreement 2e&ease Purc#ase 1rder 2e&ease Purc#ase 2e$uisition 2e&ease 2FF 2e&ease Sc#edu&ing Agreement 2eservations by Account Assignment 2eservations by .ateria& 2FFs by .ateria& Grou( 2FFs by .ateria& 2FFs by Iendor Source 8ist for .ateria& Stock 1verview /ransfer Posting Iendors %it#out =va&uation =!? =!. =!> =!8 =!E =!% =1= =:CD =:C =!9> .=C, =,C =:C8 .3!C .3!, =,? =,. =,8 =-. ..3= .313 =A?

Sl. %o. Are you loo6ing *or4 1!%eb'based P1

(8)ode =%P

Sales an3 8istribution (S8) O$en table as s$rea(sheet Sl. %o. Are you loo6ing *or4 1 ! : , C A Access se$uence Assigning Sa&es Area to Sa&es Documents /y(e 3i&&ing Due 8ist 3i&&ing .enu 3&ock ?ustomer )Sa&es+ 3&ocked SD Documents ?ance& 3i&&ing Document 7 9 111 1! 1: 1, 1C 1A 1 17 ?ance& Goods 0ssue ?#ange 3i&&ing Document ?#ange 3i&&ing Document ?#ange ?ondition ?#ange ?ontract ?#ange ?ustomer ?#ange ?ustomer )Sa&es+ ?#ange ?ustomer Price ?#ange .ateria& Price ?#ange Price 8ist ?#ange Sa&es 1rder (8)ode I51IAQ IF-, IF-ID-C ID.1 IF11 I8-9 IF-! IF-! ID1! IA,! ID-! ID-! I'C1 I',: I', IA-!

Sl. %o. Are you loo6ing *or4 19 !!1 !! !: !, !C !A ! !7 !9 ::1 :! :: :, :C :A : :7 :9 ,,1 ?#ange S#i(ment ?reate 3i&&ing Document ?reate 3usiness Partner ?reate ?ondition ?reate ?onsignee )Sa&es+ ?reate ?ontract ?reate ?ustomer ?reate ?ustomer ?reate ?ustomer )Sa&es+ ?reate ?ustomer 4ierarc#y >odes ?reate 0n$uiry ?reate 0nvoice Party )Sa&es+ ?reate 1ne'/ime ?ustomer )Sa&es+ ?reate 1rdering Party )Sa&es+

(8)ode I/-!> IF-1 IN!: ID11 I'-A IA,1 I'-9 JD-1 ID-1 I'1! IA11 I'-, I'I'-:

?reate 1utbound De&ivery wit# reference to Sa&es 1rder I8-1 ?reate Payer )?entra&&y+ ?reate Payer )Sa&es+ ?reate Fuotation ?reate 2ebate Agreement ?reate Sa&es 1rder ?reate Sa&es 1rder ?reate Sc#edu&ing Agreement ?ustomer Account ?#anges I'-7 I'-C IA!1 I311 I'-1 IA-1 IA:1 ID-,

Sl. %o. Are you loo6ing *or4 ,! ,: ,, ,C ,A , ,7 ,9 CC1 C! C: C, CC CA C C7 C9 AA1 A! A: A, ?ustomer 4ierarc#y .aintenance Define de&ivery ty(es Define Sa&es Documents /y(e )4eader+ De&ivery Due 8ist Dis(&ay ?ustomer Dis(&ay ?ustomer Dis(&ay 1rder F&ag for De&etion ?ustomer 8ist of 3&ocked SD Documents 8ist of De&iveries 8ist of 1utbound De&iveries for Goods 0ssue 8ist of 1utbound De&iveries for Picking 8ist of Sa&es Documents 8ist of Sa&es 1rders .aintain Pricing Procedure .ark ?ustomer For De&etion .aster data .enu .ateria& Determination .odify ?ustomer 1rder 2easons 1ut(ut for S#i(ments Periodic 3i&&ing Pricing Process Determination

(8)ode ID41 1I8D I1I7 I8-, ID-: JD-: IA-: ID-A ID.1 ID.C I8-AG I8-AP ID.: IA-C I5-7 ID-A IS-IDC! JD-! 1IA9 I/ I*I5-A

Sl. %o. Are you loo6ing *or4 AC AA A A7 A9 2e&ease 1rders for 3i&&ing 2e&eased SD Documents Sa&es .enu Sa&es Su((ort S#i((ing .enu /rans(ortation

(8)ode I*!: ID.! IA-I?-I8-I/--

Pro3u*tion Plannin) (PP) O$en table as s$rea(sheet Sl. %o. Are you loo6ing *or4 1 ! : , C A ?#ange 31. ?#ange 1rder ?#ange P&anned 1rder ?#ange P&anning ?a&endar ?#ange Production 8ot ?#ange Standard 2outing ?#ange %ork ?enter 7 9 111 1! 1: ?o&&ective Access of P&anning 2esu&t ?o&&ective Avai&abi&ity ?#eck ?o&&ective ?onversion of P&anned 1rder ?onvert P&anned 1rder into P2 ?ost ?enter Assignment ?rate Standard 2outing (8)ode ?S-! ?1-! .D1! .D!A .D8! ?A-! ?2-! .D,A .DIP ?1,1 .D9. ?2-A ?A-1

Sl. %o. Are you loo6ing *or4 1, 1C 1A 1 17 19 !!1 !! !: !, !C !A ! !7 !9 ::1 :! :: :, :C :A ?reate 3i&& of .ateria& )31.+ ?reate 1rder for ProBect ?reate 1rder for Sa&es 1rder ?reate 1rder wit# .ateria& ?reate 1rder wit#out .ateria& ?reate P&anning ?a&endar ?reate P&anning /y(e ?reate Product Grou( ?reate Production 8ot ?reate %ork ?enter De&ete /ask 8ist wit# Arc#iving De&ete /ask 8ist wit#out Arc#iving Dis(&ay 31. Dis(&ay 31. =<(&osion >umber Dis(&ay 1rder Dis(&ay P&anning ?a&endar Dis(&ay Production 8ot Dis(&ay Standard 2outing Dis(&ay %ork ?enter =dit 31. =<(&osion >umber =<(&ode 31. by Date Factory ?a&endar 0ndividua& Access of P&anned 1rder

(8)ode ?S-1 ?11?1-7 ?--1 ?-.D!C .?7A .?7, .D81 ?2-1 ?A99 ?A97 ?S-: .DSA ?1-: .D! .D8: ?A-: ?2-: .DSP 1PPP 1P,: .D1:

Sl. %o. Are you loo6ing *or4 : :7 :9 ,,1 ,! ,: ,, ,C ,A , ,7 ,9 CC1 C! C: C, CC CA C C7 C9 0nteractive Sing&e'item P&anning .2P 8ist .2P 8ist ?o&&ective Dis(&ay .2P 8ist .ateria& .u&ti'&eve& 31. .u&ti'&eve& ProBect P&anning .u&ti'&eve&, .ake'to'order P&anning 1rder"?reate %it# .ateria& 1rder Progress 1rder 2e(ort P&anning 2esu&t P&anning 2un 1n 8ine Print .2P 8ist Print .2P 8ist 2e(&ace %ork ?enter S#ift Se$uence Sing&e 0tem".u&ti'8eve& Sing&e 0tem"Sa&es 1rder Sing&e 0tem"Sing&e 8eve& Sing&e 0tem P&anning, ProBect Sing&e'item, .u&ti'&eve& P&anning Sing&e'item, Sing&e'&eve& P&anning

(8)ode .D,: .D-C .S-A .S-C ?S11 .DC1 .DC?1-1 ?1,A .D,? .D,C .S-1 .D8D .S8D ?27C 1P,A .S-! .SC.S-: .SC1 .D-! .D-:

Stock52e$uirement 8ist ?o&&ective Dis(&ay .S-

Sl. %o. Are you loo6ing *or4 AA1 A! A: A, AC AA A A7 Stock52e$uirements 8ist Stock52e$uirements 8ist

(8)ode .D-, .S-,

/ransfer .ateria&s to Demand .anagement .?9/ransfer to A3? /ransfer to ?ost ?enter %#ere used, %ork ?enter %ork ?enter 4ierarc#y %ork ?enter 8ist %ork ?enter 2e(orting DS1P DSPP ?A7?2-7 ?2-C ?A7-

SAP Ter#inolo)y A A.AP0$K A '4; language6 A(?ance( Business A$$lication Programming or ABAP/ 6 is the SAP $rogramming languageE A.AP &3itorK -he $rogram e(itor in SAP that hel$s you to create/test/change ABAP $rograms an( the associate( $rogram/screen elementsE A.AP @ueryK

A $rogramming tool that enables you to create re$orts )ithout any ABAP $rogramming s3ill or 3no)le(geE Base( on the 29S294 52hat'9ou'See'is'2hat'9ou'4et7 $rinci$le6 ABAP Fuery enables you to select the 1iel(s 1rom tables an( arrange them in a re$ort'layoutE 9ou may create sim$le re$orts 5Basic ;ist7 or more a(?ance( ones 5Statistic or Ran3e( ;ist7E A.! !lassifi*ationK Bel$s in grou$ing your ?en(or or materials or in?entory or any other object to classi1y into three categories6 A6 B6 an( 8E A is the most im$ortant an( 8 is the least im$ortant in the grou$E AB8 classi1ication enables you to ha?e e11ecti?e management an( monitoring base( on s$eci1ic criteriaE A**elerate3SAP (ASAP)K -he SAP )ell reno)ne( an( $ath'brea3ing metho(ology to o$timally im$lement SAP6 both ne) as )ell as the u$gra(es6 )ith a )ell'lai( out !m$lementation Roa( Ma$EC ASAP comes bun(le( )ith GAcceleratorsC that enable you to cut'(o)n the im$lementation time substantiallyE !t also comes (eli?ere( )ith tools such as G!m$lementation Assistant6C GF an( A &atabase6C etcE6 that ai( in im$lementationE A**eleratorK >se( in ASAP im$lementation metho(ology6 GAcceleratorsC are a collection o1 tem$lates6 Gho)'toC gui(es6 an( e#am$les to enable easier an( 1aster $roject im$lementationsE

A**ess SeAuen*eK >se( in 4;6 8O6 S&6 an( other mo(ules6 Access SeDuence relates to a set o1 ste$s6 in a $re'(e1ine( or(er6 accessing the 8on(ition -ables searching 1or 8on(ition Recor(s 1or $er1orming calculations 1or arri?ing at6 1or e#am$le6 ta#6 (iscount6 etcE A**ountK A re$ository hol(ing transaction 1igures )ithin an accounting unit such as 8om$any 8o(eE A**ount Allo*ationK >se( in Asset Accounting 5F!'AA76 these reconciliation accounts hel$ in $osting the business transactions automatically to F!' 4;E A**ount Assi)n#entK A s$eci1ication that tells the system )hich account nee(s to be $oste( to (uring a business transactionE A**ount Assi)n#ent !ate)oryK !n MM6 this is an i(enti1ier that s$eci1ies )hich account assignment (etails are reDuire( 1or an item 51or e#am$le6 cost center or account number7E !n 8O6 Account Assignment 8ategories (etermine the Settlement Recei?ers such as 4/; account6 8ost 8enter6 !nternal Or(er6 etcE A**ount Assi)n#ent Erou% (of the !usto#er)K

-he i(enti1ier in the 8ustomer Master recor( o1 the Payer that grou$s certain 8ustomers 5&omestic 8ustomers6 Foreign 8ustomers6 etcE7 1or GAccount AssignmentC $ur$osesE For e#am$le6 re?enue 1rom &omestic 8ustomers )oul( be $oste( to a &omestic Re?enue 4; Account6 )hereas re?enue 1rom 1oreign customers )oul( be $oste( to a Foreign Re?enue 4; AccountE A**ount Assi)n#ent Erou% (of the Material)K -he i(enti1ier in a Material Master Recor( that grou$s certain Materials 1or GAccount AssignmentC $ur$osesE A**ount=base3 Profitability AnalysisK One o1 the t)o ty$es 5the other being Perio('Base(

Pro1itability Analysis7 o1 Pro1itability Analysis6 )hich reconciles the cost an( re?enue (ata store( in accounts6 bet)een F! an( 8OE A**ount !ate)ory 'eferen*eK A combination o1 :aluation 8lassesE A**ount 8eter#inationK SAPCs automatic system 1unction to (etermine )hich accounts nee( $oste(/u$(ate( )ith the amounts (uring any $osting transaction in the systemE o1 a(justment !n 8O6 this relates to the (etermination accounts 1or reconciliation

$ostings bet)een F! an( 8O6 either manually or though automatic substitutionsE

A**ount 8eter#ination Pro*e3ureK Assigne( to a Billing &ocument -y$e6 this $roce(ure

(etermines Re?enue Account Assignment in Sales &ocumentsE A**ount 8eter#ination Ty%eK A 3ey that (etermines the Access SeDuence an( other con(itions 1or Re?enue Account &etermination in the Sales &ocumentE A**ountin) 8o*u#entK -his is the (ocument that recor(s the ?alue changes arising 1rom accounting transaction $ostingsE -he accounting (ocument contains one or more line itemsH you may ha?e u$ to /// line items in a single accounting (ocumentE A**ount Erou% (92)K S$eci1ies )hich 1iel(s are rele?ant to a master recor( an( (e1ines the <umber Range 1rom )hich numbers are selecte( 1or the master recor(E -here are 4; Account 4rou$s6 :en(or Account 4rou$s6 an( 8ustomer Account 4rou$s6 etcE6 that nee( to be (e1ine( in the systemE An Account 4rou$ nee(s to be assigne( to each o1 the master recor(sE A**ount 28K Re1ers to a uniDue6 1reely (e1inable 1i?e'character co(e assigne( to a Ban3 AccountE A**ount HeyK

A 1iel( that is assigne( to 8on(ition -y$es in the Pricing Proce(ure that enables the user to (e1ine 4; Accounts such as re?enue6 (iscounts6 or ta#esE A**ount Mo3ifi*ationK -his )ill allo) the system to $ost to accounts that are (i11erent 1rom the stan(ar( account assignmentE A**ount Mo3ifi*ation !o3eK A co(e that is use( to 1urther sub(i?i(e a -ransaction/"?ent @ey/Process @ey6 )hich is assigne( to a Mo?ement -y$eE A**ount 'e*ei"able Su##ary (A0' Su##ary)K A collection o1 all cre(it'relate( in1ormation 1rom the F!'AR that is use( 1or cre(it chec3s (uring Sales Or(er Processing 5SOP7 in the S&E !1 you ha?e a centrali.e( F! system an( a (ecentrali.e( S&6 then the A/R summary can be use1ul to re(uce the number o1 times (ata is accesse( 1rom the (atabasesE A**ount Sy#bolK A 3ey6 in F!'4;6 )hich grou$s accounts 1rom (i11erent 8harts o1 AccountsE Account Symbols are use( in Account &etermination in the Accrual "ngineE A**ount Ty%eK

Re1ers to an al$hanumeric 3ey that i(enti1ies the ty$e o1 account such as &I8ustomer6 @I:en(or6 etcE -his along )ith the account number hel$s you to i(enti1y a $articular accountE A**ounts Payable sub#o3ule (92=AP)K An integral $art o1 the Purchasing system6 this is use( to recor( an( a(minister the accounting (ata 1or all ?en(orsE A**ounts 'e*ei"able sub#o3ule (92=A')K An integral $art o1 the Sales system6 this is use( in recor(ing an( a(ministering the accounting 1or all the customersE A**rualK -he accrual conce$t to hel$s the to correct (istribute accounting

e#$enses/re?enues/$ro1it/loss

$erio(s base( on the origin o1 the amountsE A**rual !al*ulationK A metho( use( in 8O6 to e?enly s$rea( out irregularly occurring costs by (istributing them to correct $erio(sE -his hel$s to e?en out the irregular 1luctuations in business e#$ense occurrencesE A**rual &n)ineK A tool enabling calculation an( $osting o1 accrue( costs automaticallyE A**rual :r3erK

An !nternal Or(er in 8O6 use( in monitoring the $erio('base( accrual bet)een the e#$enses $oste( in F! an( accrual costs 5such as bonus $ai( to em$loyees7 (ebite( in 8OE A*Auisition an3 Pro3u*tion !osts (AP!)K AP8 is the u$$er limit 1or ?aluation o1 an asset in the Balance SheetE For all "#ternal AcDuisitions6 the AP8 is eDual to all e#$enses o1 acDuisition o1 the asset $lus inci(ental e#$enses such as commissions an( 1reight charges minus (e(uctions to the $urchase $rice such as rebates6 (iscounts6 etcE !n the case o1 G!n'house AcDuisitions6C the AP8 )ill be eDual to all $ro(uction costs an( a $ortion o1 a(ministrati?e e#$enses that can be associate( )ith that assetE A*Auisition BearK -he Fiscal 9ear in )hich the acDuisition o1 the asset ta3es $laceE A*ti"ity Ty%eK -he classi1ier in 8O6 use( to classi1y the ty$e o1 acti?ity 5such as the machine hours7 $er1orme( in a 8ost 8enterE A*ti"ity Ty%e !ate)oryK An in(icator (etermining ho) an Acti?ity -y$e is allocate( 5such as (irect allocation6 in(irect acti?ity allocation6 etcE7E A*ti"ity Ty%e Erou%K A grou$ing o1 similar Acti?ity -y$esE

A*ti"ity Ty%e Plannin)K A tool6 in 8ost 8enter Accounting6 use( to $lan the ?arious Acti?ities 5along )ith their $rice6 their ca$acity6 etcE7 to be $ro(uce( in a 8ost 8enterE A*tual !ostsK -he costs that are actually incurre(E !n 8O'P86 actual costs re$resent the total (ebits ma(e to a cost objectE A*tual !ost &ntryK -his re1ers to the trans1erring o1 $rimary costs 1rom F! to 8OE -he trans1er o1 $rimary costs occurs on a real'time basis ?ia the $rimary cost elementE A33itional A**ount Assi)n#entK -he e#tra items 5such as $ayment terms6 cost object6 $ayment metho(6 etcE7 entere( in a line item6 in a((ition to the account number6 amount6 an( $osting 3eyE A33itional ;e3)erK A le(ger (e1ine( 1or e?aluation/re$orting $ur$oses6 this )ill contain ?alues an( Duantities at a com$any or 8om$any 8o(e le?elE A3=ho* &sti#ateK A cost estimate 5in "asy 8ost Planning in 8O'P87 that (oes not nee( an object to be create( in the systemE

A3<ust#ent Metho3K Re1ers to a(justing in(i?i(ual line items on an account or the balance on the account 1or in1lationE A)ree#entK A 8ontract (e1ine( in the system6 in S&6 )ith a 8ustomerE Allo*ate3 A*tual !ostsK Relates to the cre(it o1 8ost 8enters 5an( business $rocesses7 1rom acti?ity allocations an(/or or(ers 1rom 4oo(s Recei$ts 54R7 an( SettlementsE Allo*ation !ate)oryK An in(icator6 in Acti?ity'base( 8osting 5AB876 (etermining ho) acti?ity Duantities are $lanne(/allocate(E -here are 1our allocation categories $ro?i(e( by SAP 5manual entry'manual allocation6 manual entry'no allocation6 manual entry'in(irect allocation6 an( in(irect (etermination'in(irect allocation7E Allo*ation !ost &le#entK A 8ost "lement use( in Acti?ity Allocation in 8OE Allo*ation !y*leK 8onsists o1 Bea(er &ata 5?ali( 1or all Segments in a 8ycle7 an( one or more Segments6 )ith summari.e( rules an( settings enabling allocationE -he Segments )ithin a cycle can be $rocesse( iterati?ely 5one segment )aits 1or the results o1 another7 or non'iterati?ely 5all the segments are $rocesse(

in(e$en(ently7 or cumulati?ely 5to ta3e care o1 ?ariations in recei?er -racing Factors or sen(er amounts7E Alternate .:MK One o1 the Bills o1 Materials 5BOM7 in a BOM 4rou$E Ar*hi"in)K -his is the $rocess o1 rea(ing6 remo?ing6 an( sa?ing (ata= )hich is no longer reDuire( in the system=to an Archi?e 1ileE -his hel$s in re(ucing the system loa( as the (atabase is remo?e( o1 un)ante( (ataE Once the (ata is Garchi?e(6C it can then be Mar3e( 1or &eletion an( then &elete( later onE Area MenuK A grou$ing o1 Menus containing a set o1 1unctions 1or $er1orming a $articular tas3 in a 8om$any 8o(eE Assess#entK A metho( o1 internal cost allocation 1rom a sen(er cost center to recei?er cost center/cost objects through an as Assessment 8ost "lementE -he basis o1 such an assessment )ill be on user' (e1ine( 3eys such as Statistical @ey Figures 5S@F7E !t is $ossible to trans1er a $ortion or the )hole o1 the costs o1 the sen(er cost center to the recei?ersE Asset A**ountin) (92=AA)K

One o1 the submo(ules o1 Financial Accounting6 F!'AA is actually a sub le(ger use( to ta3e care o1 all business acti?ities associate( )ith Fi#e( Asset AccountingE Asset A*AuisitionK Relates to acDuiring Fi#e( Assets6 through e#ternal means such as $urchasing or through in'house $ro(uctionE !t also (eals )ith SubseDuent AcDuisitions 5to an alrea(y ca$itali.e( asset7 an( Post 8a$itali.ation 5in a $erio( a1ter actual acDuisition7E Asset !lassK A classi1ication o1 1i#e( assets 1rom a business an( legal $oint o1 ?ie)E -he asset class hol(s the control $arameters an( (e1ault ?alues 1or (e$reciation calculation an( other master (ataE "ach asset master recor( shoul( be assigne( to one asset classE -he most common asset classes inclu(e buil(ings6 machinery6 etcE Some o1 the S$ecial Asset 8lasses are ;o)' :alues Assets6 -echnical Assets6 Assets un(er 8onstruction 5Au876 etcE Asset !lass !atalo)K A list o1 all asset classes o1 an enter$riseE -he asset class catalog is ?ali( at the 8lient le?el6 though you )ill be able to maintain certain (ata 5such as the &e$reciation @ey7 at the 8hart o1 &e$reciation le?elE Asset !atalo)K

A list o1 1i#e( assets accor(ing to branch's$eci1ic technical criteriaE Asset !o#%onentK -his is nothing but a Sub'Asset 1orming a $art o1 a 8om$le# AssetE -he asset com$onents are6 then6 (enote( by Asset Subnumbers o1 a Main Asset <umberE Asset &5%lorerK A ?ersatile tool (is$laying all transactions o1 an asset in terms o1 its ?aluesH it (is$lays both $lanne( an( $oste( ?alues o1 the assets an( their (e$reciationE Asset History SheetK A re$ort (is$laying the history o1 an asset 1rom the $oint o1 its initial ca$itali.ation or acDuisition6 (is$laying acDuisitions6 trans1ers6 retirements6 an( accumulate( (e$reciationE Asset PortfolioK -he total ?alue o1 all the 1i#e( assets use( $ermanently in an enter$riseE -he ?alue is sho)n as the balance sheet itemE Asset Subnu#berK A uniDue number )hich6 in combination )ith the Asset Main <umber6 i(enti1ies a 8om$le# AssetE !t is $ossible to use subnumbering 1or i(enti1ying the ?arious com$onents o1 a com$le# asset or subseDuent acDuisitions can be numbere( as

subnumbersE "ach subnumber has its o)n asset master recor(E Asset TransferK Re1ers to the trans1er o1 asset5s7 1rom one 8om$any 8o(e to another o1 the same grou$ com$anyE Asset Ty%eK -he classi1ication o1 1i#e( assets in a com$anyCs balance sheet is 3no)n as the Asset -y$e6 )hich is nothing but a (e1inition o1 some o1 the 1eatures o1 an Asset 8lassE Some e#am$les o1 asset ty$es inclu(e mo?able assets6 lan(s6 buil(ings6 lo)'?alue assets6 etcE Asset un3er !onstru*tion (Au!)K Au8 is a 1i#e( asset that is being constructe( or com$lete(E -hese 3in(s o1 assets are sho)n as a se$arate balance sheet item an( are ty$ically manage( using one o1 the Gs$ecial asset classesEC -he in?estment on these assets can be manage( in the 1orm o1 internal or(ers or $rojectsE Asset Bear=en3 !losin)K -his re1ers to the cut'o11 (ate a1ter the en( o1 a 1iscal yearE 9ou )ill use the asset year'en( closing $rograms that chec3 $ostings o1 asset ?alues to 4;6 (e$reciation $ostings6 an( a(herence o1 rules 1or <B: 5<et Boo3 :alue7E Assets Eoo3s 'e*ei%tK

-he acDuisition o1 ne) assets through the MM mo(ule6 )hich is integrate( )ith F!E Auto#ati* Postin)sK -he $ostings6 re$resente( by se$arate line items6 that are (one automatically by the system (uring transactions such as ta# 5out$ut/in$ut76 e#change rate (i11erences6 cash (iscounts6 etcE A"ailability !he*6K 2hene?er there is a goo(s mo?ement in MM6 the system runs an Gautomatic stoc3 chec3C that $re?ents the $hysical in?entory balances o1 those stoc3 categories 1rom becoming negati?eE Bo)e?er6 the same re1ers to a $roce(ure in PP that )ill ensure that there are enough com$onents a?ailable 1or $lanne(/$ro(uction or(ersE A"era)e 'ateK -his is the e#change rate use( 1or settlement o1 1oreign e#change transactions6 an( is the arithmetic mean bet)een the ban3 buying rate an( ban3 selling rateE