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2.1 Steps in the Instructional Design Process There are six basic steps in instructional design: 1) Analyze your learners and the learning context. 2) Define your learning outcomes (knowledge-attitudes-skills). 3) Structure the learning content. 4) Select the learning materials or resources. 5) Design the learning activities. 6) Determine the modes of assessment. In performing each step, an instructional designer seeks to answer the following basic questions:

1) Who are our learners? What do they already know and how do they learn best? 2) What do we want our learners to learn? Why? 3) How do we structure the learning to achieve our learning objectives? 4) What learning resources are appropriate, effective, and available? 5) What strategies will we use to ensure that effective learning takes place? What combination of activities will enable the learners to achieve the learning objectives? 6) How do we know whether the learners are learning/have learned what they are supposed to learn? How do we assess learning? Although they are listed in sequence, each step in the instructional design process has implications not only for the steps that follow but also for previous steps. In doing one step, it is important to refer back not just to the immediately preceding step but even to the earliest steps in the process (see Figure 1). Also, while it is always adviseable to begin with analyzing the target learners, an instructional designer could work on the steps in any sequence. For example, the modes of assessment could be determined immediately after the learning outcomes have been set, or the two steps can be performed in tandem.

Step 1: Analyze your learners and the learning context. In section 1 of this handbook we did a preliminary analysis of the Academys target audience. We listed some of their general characteristics and we concluded that adult learning principles should be applied in the design of training programs for them. A finer analysis of learners involves an assessment of their training needs. You can accomplish this through a quick survey of your training learners several weeks before the actual training dates so that you can use the results as basis for planning the training sessions. Such a survey could aim to acquire a profile of the target training learners in terms of their ICT skills and their familiarity with topics covered by the Academy of ICT Essentials for Government Leaders module series. The results of this short structured survey should enable you to plan the sequence of topics to be covered in your training program, how much time to allot to each topic, and what instructional strategy to adopt for each topic.

You can also fine-tune your target learning outcomes on the basis of the participant survey results. Step 2: Define your learning outcomes. Each of the Academy modules specifies its target learning outcomes. However, you will need to structure or organize these learning outcomes, and in some cases reformulate them, for the training program you are planning. Note that learning outcomes are expressed using verbs that refer to observable or measurable learner behavior on the part of training learners. Such behavior signals or demonstrates that learners have achieved the target learning outcome. In addition, in continuing professional development programs it is always good to set higher order thinking skills as learning outcomes. Benjamin Blooms taxonomy of cognitive or thinking skills is useful in identifying such outcomes.

In more recent versions of Blooms taxonomy, evaluation is at a lower level than synthesis, or creation, which is considered the most high-level cognitive skill. It is important to specify target learning outcomes to allow learners to benchmark their own performance, or the extent to which they are meeting

the target learning outcomes. This in turn is in keeping with Thiagis law of self-direction. Step 3: Structure the learning content. In the Notes to Teachers at the back of each Academy module are suggestions on which module topics to cover for training sessions of varying duration. But depending on your analysis of your target learners for a particular training program, you could create your own menu of module topics, including combinations of topics from several modules. Step 4: Select the learning materials or resources. The modules are themselves an important learning resource for any national training program on the Academy. So are the slide presentations for each module that are available on the APCICT Virtual Academy (http://ava.unapcict.org/). National Academy teachers are encouraged to translate and customize these slide presentations to suit their own training needs and purposes. Box 2 lists some tips for customizing the slide presentation. An important reason for making use of different types of training resources is the fact that learners learn in different ways (the law of individual differences). Some learn best from text materials while others learn best from audio-visual materials. Hence the value of multimedia resources. Step 5: Design the learning activities. According to Thiagi, effective instruction has three components: 1. Content related to the instructional objectives 2. Activities that require learners to process the content and to provide a response 3. Feedback to learners to provide reinforcement for desirable responses and remediation for undesirable responses In equation form: EFFECTIVE LEARNING = CONTENT + (ACTIVITY + FEEDBACK) Learning activities are key to promoting active learning, which in turn is much more effective than passive learning. Thus, in the training programs we design, we need to pay attention to designing learning activities that learners will find engaging and from which they will learn in the most

effective way possible the key concepts and principles that form the core of the training program. For a lecture to be effective, it must first of all be the most appropriate means for achieving the learning outcomes (for example, the topic is something that needs to be explained by an expert). In addition, the lecturer has to be not only knowledgeable about the subject matter but also engaging, perceptive, and motivating. (Saskatoon Public Schools, 2004) And the lecture must be done in an interactive way, or in combination with short participatory activities. Interactive lectures foster active learning by getting learners to engage with the content by answering a question, interpreting a case or situation, or solving a problem. The activities are designed to allow everyone to participate, and increase their chances of retaining what they are learning through immediate practice. For instructors or lecturers, the activities provide feedback on the level and extent of understanding of the topic. (MacDonald and Teed, 2009) See Box 3 for pointers on how to make interactive lectures. Box 3 : How to make interactive lectures An interactive lecture will include lecture segments combined with activities where learners are interacting with each other and the instructor. The lecture segments should ideally: own (it is not, for example, already explained adequately in available written sources) -solving in the subject vate learners to find out more about it even after the lecture Each lecture segment should not be longer than 20 minutes. The lecture segments should be interspersed with learning activities. The interactive segments or learning activities should be short (about 10 minutes) but should involve everyone in the session. A very useful format is think-pair-share which has the follow format: 1. Ask the learners to get together in pairs. If you have an odd number of learners, allow one group of three. If necessary, have learners to move

around the room to find a partner. 2. Ask a question that requires learners to apply critical thinking skills (see below). 3. Give learners a few minutes to discuss the question and work out an answer. 4. Ask for responses from some or all of the pairs. The question should be about the topic just lectured on and can involve any or a combination of the following:

Source: MacDonald, H. and Teed, R. (2009). Interactive Lectures, Starting Point. Retrieved 18 June 2009 from http://serc.carleton.edu/introgeo/interactive/index.html. In all of the Academy modules, the Questions To Think About and Something To Do items may be used for think-pair-share segments within interactive lectures. Effective interactive lectures demonstrate a balance among the three components of effective instruction, namely, content, practice, and feedback. The importance of practice cannot be overemphasized. Teachers should design activities that give learners sufficient time and opportunity to practice new knowledge and skills (the law of practice and feedback). How much time for practice? One suggestion is 6 hours out of 8 hours of training time. (Thiagi, 2007) If that is too much for you, consider spending at least half the training time on practice activities. After all, practice makes perfect. In designing any learning activity, remember the following principles: 1) Integrate content and activity to focus on key content and foster active learning. 2) Design and implement activities that help learners to master the content and strengthen their critical thinking, creativity, problem-solving and decision-making skills.

3) Be guided by your target learning outcome/s. Choose content and learning activities according to the target learning outcomes. 4) Engage in authentic learning: Use real-life examples and simulations of real-life activities, such as making an assessment, analyzing a problem, identifying solutions, and making a proposal. 5) Help learners build on prior knowledge and professional experience and make connections between these and the training content. Design activities to get learners with varied levels of experience and expertise on the training topic. Debriefing is essential for experientially rich, emotionally intense, cognitively complex learning activities (Thiagi, 2008). It helps learners reflect on what they have been doing and derive useful insights in relation to the topic or content that is the focus of the activity.

Step 6: Determine the modes of assessment. In designing training programs, it is important to systematically and continually assess training effectiveness. By this we mean the outcomes of the training, as well as the process of training. Outcomes refer to whether the learners learned what they were supposed to learn while process refers to the training design. A widely used model for evaluating training effectiveness is Donald Kirkpatricks four-level evaluation model, which measures the following: Level 1: Reactions Level 2: Learning Level 3: Transfer Level 4: Results Reactions refer to how learners felt about the training program as a whole, as well as specific aspects of it, such as the training facilitators, topics covered, time allotment, venue, and even food. It is important to get learners reactions or emotional responses as these have an impact on how and whether they achieve the target learning outcomes. (Winfrey, 1999) Level 1 evaluation is usually done through an end-of-training questionnaire. The evaluation results are useful for interpreting learning outcomes, as well as for planning subsequent training.

OVERALL QUESTIONS ABOUT THE MODULE 1. The subject matter of the module was relevant. 2. The sequence of topics included in the module was logical. 3. The treatment of the module topics was adequate. 4. The modules level of difficulty was just right. 5. The module provided new ideas, insights, or perspectives. 6. The module developed a better understanding of major concepts and principles. 7. The module stimulated critical thinking. 8. The module fostered creative thinking. 9. The module developed knowledge and skills that can be applied in realworld settings. Measuring learning, which is level 2 in Kirkpatricks evaluation model, could also be either formative or summative. Formative assessment, which is undertaken throughout the training, is usually less formal than summative evaluation, which is done at the end of the training. Formative assessment takes place through the learning activities done in the course of the training, and its primary purpose is for the teacher to be able to facilitate learning. Summative evaluation of learning could be through formal or informal testing, or through self-assessment. At Level 3 of Kirkpatricks evaluation model, the focus of evaluation is transfer, or whether learners are able to apply in their everyday environment what they have learned from the training. Level 4 evaluation looks at results, which is defined as the impact of what the learners have learned on their productivity, efficiency, and effectiveness. This type of evaluation requires going beyond self-reports to reviewing evidence such as projects or programs proposed and/or implemented by the training learners, project outcomes achieved, and stakeholder groups reached.

DEVELOPING STS ISSUES-BASED PHYSICS CURRICULUM The development of STS issues-based physics curriculum is required to identify the strengths or shortcomings in the existing curriculum in accordance with the characteristics of STS approach. According to Prints model, curriculum development may take effect at any stage; but because it all starts with reconsidering the curriculum via STS charactaristcs, the researcher will begin with the first stage: Analysis of the situation and the upcoming stages.

1. Situation Analysis This stage aims at determining the faults and features of the present curriculum, the extent a development is needed, and the nature of these developments. Naturally, this stage takes benefits from the Curriculum Assessment Outputs (such as reports, seminars, and relevant researches). In this study, the researcher analysed the situation as follows:

a. Analysis of the results of literature review in science education in Yemen In achieving this aim, the researcher analyzed the situation of science education in Yemen by reviewing the literature in science education in Yemen. The review covered the studies in all of science education domains such as curriculum studies, pedagogy, learning activities, class administration, and students achievement.

b. Documentary Analysis

Documentary analysis was used to describe and analyze the existing curriculum. It is the systematic examination of instructional documents such as syllabus, textbooks and course evaluation results in order to identify the needs and the challenges. A documentary analysis can help the researcher to gain insight into an instructional activity or approach. Chism (1999) identifies several types of instructional documents that can be analyzed: course policy and practices, syllabus, ground rules for discussion, course guides, and course content.

The analysis of the Yemeni curriculum documents helped the researcher to identify the characteristics of the existing curriculum, and to determine the extent to which there was a need to adjust the curriculum to suit the STS approach. For instance, the statements of objectives of the existing curriculum were to be reviewed to determine the extent to which they would be in agreement with the STS approach. This procedure enabled the researcher to identify the curriculum objectives that needed modification or adding up.

To analysize the physics documents related to the Yemeni secondary curriculum, the researcher used the following procedures:

1. Developing a review plan which included: - Defining the objectives of the plan: to review documents for the physics curriculum of the secondary stage in the

Republic of Yemen, that was to determine the needs to develop a new curriculum in accordance with the STS approach. - Determining the required documents: to identify and review their relation to the physics curriculum in terms of the Yemeni curriculum framework, its objectives and content. - Determining the whereabouts of these documents, according to the rules in Yemen, "the Center for Educational Research and development, Sana'a," that is responsible for the curriculum development process. - Set a check list that reflects the objectives of the analysis, such as: i. The objectives related to STS. ii. The extent to which the science curriculum framework aligned with STS. iii. The need to add new components to the existing curriculum according to STS. iv. The components of the current curriculum, which must be reconsidered. - A time-plan for the document analysis process.

2. After deciding the objective of the analysis and the reference index that the analysis should refer to, the researcher analyzed the following: - Curriculum framework: This includes the general

philosophical framework of Education in Yemen, objectives

of education, goals of the educational grades, and objectives of teaching science. Also, it includes organizing the contents of science in Yemen and physics in the secondary grade. The researcher made sure that these curricula documents included STS characteristics such as learner-orientation level, applicability of science etc. - School textbooks: The researcher checked the following: a. Number of subjects that are STS-related b. Methods of infusion of STS issues (if available) in the book. c. The extent to which the general objectives of a books unit are STS-related.

3. The researcher implemented the plan in June 2006. Also the researcher visited the "the Centre for Educational Research and development" in Sanaa city to meet the coordinator of the development of physics curriculum at the secondary grade, and explain the researchs objectives and requirements. After that, the researcher visited the centres library and photocopied the documents available.

4. Based on the results of analyzing the Physics curriculum documents and its characteristics that were built to suit STS assigned characteristics, the researcher set out to develop the new curriculum.

2. Aims, goals and objectives Indeed, the terms outcomes and objectives have often been used interchangeably in the literature. although, a distinction between learning outcomes as being "broad statements of what is achieved and assessed at the end of a course of study", and instructional objectives as being "specific and detailed statements of educational intent" are made, the distinction between objectives and outcomes is less important than how the objectives or outcomes are constructed. They must be defined in sufficiently broad terms to include the non-quantifiable aspects of learning, yet specific enough to provide clear guidance on the expected knowledge, skills and values to be acquired at the end of the course.

The setting of goals and objectives is a critical step and as such, can be the most challenging part of curriculum development. As discussed previously, it should be informed by a situation analysis and the characteristics of STS, so that the curriculum goals and objectives adequately serve the needs of those who are affected by the curriculum.

3. Content

Determination of the content of the curriculum follows directly from the specified goals and objectives as well as the STS issues. In other words, STS issues-based curriculum developers need to consider what content is required to enable the student to achieve the objectives or outcomes. Decisions regarding what should be included and what should be excluded

from the vast scope of information available in the field, are required, considering the science concepts and STS issues.

Once the content has been determined, the organization of the content will need to be planned. For STS issues-based curriculum, a sequence developed by Aikenhead (1992) (see figure 3.4) is followed, it begins in the domain of society and STS issues, moves through the domains of technology and traditional science/ physics content, and then out again to technology. Students will make more sense out of the technology by using the science they have just learned. The teaching should end by decision-making and acts in the society.

4. Learning Activities

The choice of the type of instructional strategies and methods for the delivery of the content of the curriculum can be guided by educational theories. Educational theories, broadly categorized into behaviorist, cognitive, constructivist, and humanist approaches, provide theoretical guidance by describing the conditions and factors under which effective learning can be promoted.

Each approach has a set of assumptions about what facilitates learning as well the nature of the teacher-learner relationship. The constructivist approach, views learning as an active construction of reality brought about by the learners experiences. This approach would emphasize the importance

of exposure to many experiential opportunities to enable learning through experiencing, reflection and active experimentation.

Instructional methods can range from lectures and demonstrations to problem-based learning and high fidelity simulations. Each method has its strengths and limitations, and like any tool, an individual value is determined by how the method is used and in which context.

5. Instructional Evaluation

Assessment serves the purpose of ascertaining whether the curricular content has been learned successfully. Assessment can be defined as summative (for "pass/fail" purposes) or formative (for learning purposes). Formative assessment can also be referred to as feedback.

In designing what types of assessment methods should be used, several considerations are important. First, assessment should be matched to the intended objectives and goals of the curriculum taking into account its categories (knowledge, skills, attitudes, and the nature of science) from the aspect of STS approach. It is also important to consider whether the purpose of assessment is formative or summative.

DEVELOPING STS ISSUES-BASED MODULE

It would not be a safe assumption to think that STS is a single, coherent and well-articulated approach to science education. Rather, it is a movement with a number of different strands. Recognizing that STS instructional

materials have been developed in the developed countries and have not been directly applied in developing countries yet, the second objective of the study is to develop an STS issues-based physics curriculum.

It is evident that an STS issues-based module will be a model for the developed STS issues-based curriculum; it presents a science content area from the perspective of the student and society. It stresses the application of science facts in real world situations and empowers the student to take action.

Designing teaching plans/module is an active, creative and time consuming process, it is a process that results in a product. According to Vos (2001), many steps can be followed to develop any module, these steps include [framing the unit, the curriculum planning process, and verification and revision]. Hassard (2005) points out that there are four questions should guide the process of designing a module; they are:

1. Why we would like to teach the module? This leads to consider values and general science education goals and purposes.

2. What we would like to teach? Here we will consider the objectives of the module, and design a conceptional map to show the relationships among the major ideas of the module. 3. How can we teach? Describing the instructional plan and how to engage the students to achieve the stated learning objectives. 4. What did the students learn? the evaluation plan will help in providing information about what the students learned, and how successful was the module.

Consideing these questions, and the different steps for desgning a module or an unit of study, the resercher took the following procedures :

1. Selecting STS issues which are interesting and suitable for secondary students. These issues are based on the survey results. 2. Developing a comprehensive view of the Module to link between the selected STS issues and the scientific concepts in the light of the objectives of the developed curriculum. This step included: a) the definition of the STS theme and the related STS issues, b) concept map for the STS issues, c) the module rationale, d) the modules aims, e) learning outcomes, and f) the brainstorm session. 3. Regulating the content of the module according to the proposed STS teaching model. The researcher briefly described one or two lessons for each category in the STS module. The descriptions presented the topic of the lessons, and identified what the students would do. The proposed STS teaching model included the following instructional levels: Level I: the Orientation to the Issue. Level II: Identifying and defining the issue.

Level III: Investigating the issue. Level IV: Application.

4. Preparing the teaching Guide. This teaching guide contained the suggested teaching methods, the educational activities, and the modules' assessment to find out what the students have learned. 5. Identifying an evaluation plan for the STS module. Through this step, the researcher evaluated the developed curriculum, which includes setting criteria that will be used on evaluating the curriculum by physics teachers and specialists in science education.

Figure 4.2 presents the framework for module design and development.

Learning Objectives Scientific concept STS issues

Developing a comprehensive view of the Module


a) the definition of the STS theme b) concept map for the STS issues c) the module rationale d) the modules aims e) learning outcomes f) the brainstorm session

Regulating the content of the module

STS teaching model

Preparing the teaching Guide

Identifying an evaluation plan

Figure 4.2

Framework for Module Design and Development

EVALUATING STS ISSUES-BASED MODULE

A comprehensive curriculum should promote achievement of approved curriculum objectives and learning outcomes, support a full range of pedagogical approaches for learners of different achievement levels, and provide for cumulative building of skills that reflect the trends towards STS education. Therefore, the researcher planned to evaluate the developed curriculum through the evaluation of the developed STS issues based module.

Accordingly, after developing an STS issues-based module, it was important to ensure that the module was developed in a way which reflected the goals of STS approach. So, the aim of this phase was to evaluate the developed curriculum through the evaluation of the developed module. To do so, the researcher set a list of criteria to be used in the evaluation process of all the curriculums components. The criteria had been derived from: STS characteristics (e.g., responsibility, mutual influences of STS, relation to social issues, balance of viewpoints, decision making, responsible action, and integration of a point of view); An emphasis on societal problems and issues, relating to local and global concerns; The STS issue's definition and significance; Characteristics of the scientifically literate citizen, and features of science curriculum that meet these characteristics; Points of view of some Yemeni scientists, curriculum developers, and instructors; and

The Yemeni curriculum Goals.

This approach to curriculum materials evaluation sounded so logical for me ; it makes best use of the time available to learn. The criteria recommended on this phase were designed to help in evaluating the process of curriculum development. To decide these criteria the researcher follows these procedures: