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# ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS Mathematical Logic: Propositional Logic; First Order Logic.

Probability: Conditional Probability; Mean, Median, Mode and Standard Deviation; Random Variables; Distributions; uniform, normal, exponential, Poisson, Binomia l. Set Theory & Algebra: Sets; Relations; Functions; Groups; Partial Orders; Lattic e; Boolean Algebra. Combinatorics: Permutations; Combinations; Counting; Summation; generating funct ions; recurrence relations; asymptotics. Graph Theory: Connectivity; spanning trees; Cut vertices & edges; covering; matc hing; independent sets; Colouring; Planarity; Isomorphism. Linear Algebra: Algebra of matrices, determinants, systems of linear equations, Eigen values and Eigen vectors. Numerical Methods: LU decomposition for systems of linear equations; numerical s olutions of non-linear algebraic equations by Secant, Bisection and Newton-Raphs on Methods; Numerical integration by trapezoidal and Simpson s rules. Calculus: Limit, Continuity & differentiability, Mean value Theorems, Theorems o f integral calculus, evaluation of definite & improper integrals, Partial deriva tives, Total derivatives, maxima & minima. FORMAL LANGUAGES AND AUTOMATA Regular Languages: finite automata, regular expressions, regular grammar. Context free languages: push down automata, context free grammars COMPUTER HARDWARE Digital Logic: Logic functions, minimization, design and synthesis of combinator ial and sequential circuits, number representation and computer arithmetic (fixe d and floating point) Computer organization: Machine instructions and addressing modes, ALU and data p ath, hardwired and microprogrammed control, memory interface, I/O interface (int errupt and DMA mode), serial communication interface, instruction pipelining, ca che, main and secondary storage SOFTWARE SYSTEMS Data structures and Algorithms: the notion of abstract data types, stack, queue, list, set, string, tree, binary search tree, heap, graph, tree and graph traver sals, connected components, spanning trees, shortest paths, hashing, sorting, se arching, design techniques (greedy, dynamic, divide and conquer, Algorithm desig n by induction), asymptotic analysis (best, worst, average cases) of time and sp ace, upper and lower bounds, Basic concepts of complexity classes P, NP, NP-hard , NP-complete. Programming Methodology: Scope, binding, parameter passing, recursion, C program ming data types and declarations, assignment and control flow statements, 1-d an d 2-d arrays, functions, pointers, concepts of object-oriented programming - cla sses, objects, inheritance, polymorphism, operator overloading.

Operating Systems (in the context of Unix): classical concepts (concurrency, syn chronization, deadlock), processes, threads and interprocess communication, CPU scheduling, memory management, file systems, I/O systems, protection and securit y, shell programming. Information Systems and Software Engineering: information gathering, requirement and feasibility analysis, data flow diagrams, process specifications, input/out put design, process life cycle, planning and managing the project, design, codin g, testing, implementation, maintenance. Databases: E-R diagrams, relational model, database design, integrity constraint s, normal forms, query languages (SQL), file structures (sequential, indexed), b -trees, transaction and concurrency control. Data Communication and Networks: ISO/OSI stack, transmission media, data encodin g, multiplexing, flow and error control, LAN technologies (Ethernet, token ring) , network devices switches, gateways, routers, ICMP, application layer protocols SMTP, POP3, HTTP, DNS, FTP, Telnet, network security basic concepts of public k ey and private key cryptography, digital signature, firewalls Web technologies: Proxy, HTML, XML, basic concepts of cgi-bin programming