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A Study on Womens Health in Unorganized Sector

A Dissertation Submitted for the Degree of Master of Industrial Relation and Personal Management Session : 2012-14

Submitted To Dr. Shaila Praveen Professor II Year

Submitted By Divya Rai M.A.IRPM

FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES MAHATMA GANDHI KASHI VIDYAPITH VARANASI-221005

Roll No. .

Enrolment No. :

Declaration

I, Divya Rai, a student of M.A IRPM. final year, Faculty of Social Science, Mahatama Gandhi Kashi Vidyapith, Varanasi hereby solemnly declare that the dissertation entitled 'A Study on Womens Health in Unorganized Sector' is a bonafide work of my own.

Divya Rai M.A.IRPM II Year

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that Divya Rai has completed her M.A.IRPM Dissertation work on 'A Study on Womens Health in Unorganized Sector' in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the M.A.IRPM Degree. Her work is outstanding and the candidate has worked to my satisfaction.

Supervisor Dr. Shaila Parveen Department of Social Science MGKVP., Varanasi

Contents

Preface Acknowledgement Chapter-1 : Introduction Meaning and Concept of Unorganized Sector Objective of Unorganized Sector History of Unorganized Sector Chapter-2 : Review of Literature Chapter-3 :Research Methodology Chapter-4 Background Study of the Respondent Chapter-5: Findings and Discussion Chapter-6 : Summary and Suggestion Bibliography Questionnaire

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I wish to express my sincere gratitude towards the respondents of the dissertation for sparing their precious time towards this minor project. I thank you for the valuable information you have supplied for this project, through which this project can be completed. I am highly obliged and would like to express sincere gratitude to my Supervisor Dr. Shaila Parveen, Faculty of Social Science for providing valuable knowledge, guidance and cooperation extended during the period of my project. I am also deeply indebted to my family and friends for their suggestions, support and understanding.

Divya Rai M.A.IRPM Final Year

Chapter 1 Introduction

Chapter - 1 INTRODUCTION

A woman is identified as a mother, a wife, a daughter-in-law or a daughter but never as an independent person. To be born as a woman means to inhabit, from early infancy to the last day of life, a psychological world that differs from the world of the man. Much of the exasperation and discrimination in woman?s life stems from this fact. The overall picture is one of greater disadvantage for women workers in general and those belonging to unorganized sector in particular. As a matter of fact, the problem of female worker is the index of the status of Indian labour in both organized and unorganized sectors. Any discussion regarding the problems associated with the women labour has many aspects, such as economic, political, psychological, sociological and legal etc. The employment in the organized sector requires certain minimum qualifications and most of these educated women workers are drawn from middle classes and richer sections, a very few women from lower class would get chance in these jobs. The National Commission on Labour describes some characteristics and constraints of unorganized sector, namely: (a) casual nature of employment; (b) ignorance and illiteracy; (c) small size of establishment with low capital investment per person employed; (d) scattered nature of establishments; and (e) superior strength of the employers operating singly and in combination. Almost 400 million people (more than 85% of the working population in India) work in unorganized sector and of these about 120 million are women. According to an estimate, by the National Commission on Self-Employed Women (1988a), of the total number of women workers in India, about 94percent are in the informal or unorganized sector whereas just 6 percent are in the organized or formal sector. Thus there is no exaggeration in saying that the unorganized sector in India is the women?s sector. However, the

plight of women in this sectoris miserable as they work for extremely low wages, with a total lack of job security and social security benefits, working hours are long and working conditions are unsatisfactory. According to census 2011, women constitute 48.46 percent of the total population in India and about 25.67 percent of female population is designated as workers. Two National Labour Commissions, along with several other international and national commissions, committees and conferences in the last 50 years have documented the socioeconomic conditions of workers in the unorganized sector in India. The Arjun Sengupta Committee report is a stark reminder of the huge size and poor conditions in this sector. The National Commission for Enterprises in the Unorganized Sector (NCEUS), has extensively profiled the unorganized sector and unorganized employment in its report, The Challenges of Employment in India-An Informal Economy Perspective? In urban sector, increasing numbers of workers have taken up construction work as a means of immediate employment, which provides cash earnings at the end of the day. The rural masses also migrate towards urban areas in search of jobs and get involved in this second largest occupation. It has grown much faster immediately after the government has adopted the strategy of liberalization, privatization and globalization.

In the year 1998, there were 111 million construction workers worldwide and the majority belonged to the developing economy like India. This is because employment intensity is much higher in the low income countries than the high income ones (Pandey 2009). Moreover, the fatal injury rate for the construction industry is higher than the national average in the unorganized sector. It is one of the most hazardous and accident prone occupation as reported by International Labour Organization (ILO 2011). Globally, 17 percent of all work-related fatalities are in the construction sector (ILO 2011). The construction industry is a mobile one, where the workers move from site to site. The

labourers working in harsh circumstances and living in unhygienic conditions suffer from serious occupational health problems and are vulnerable to diseases. Death and injury from accidents in the Indian construction sector is widespread. India has the worlds highest accident rate among construction workers. Survey by Indian Labour Organization (ILO 2009) found that 165 out of every 1000 workers are injured in the construction sector. Construction work is featured by high labour turnover, constantly changing work environment and conditions on site, and different type of work being carried out simultaneously. All these factors caused by temporary nature of the job create a high-risk environment. Health hazards in the construction industry can be grouped under mechanical and non-mechanical hazards. Mechanical hazards include accidental issues from impact, penetration from scrap metal and sharp objects and crushing. Nonmechanical hazards are major cause of occupational diseases and physical problems (Chauhan and Sharma 2003). Most of the studies undertaken since the 1980s point to the poor health of women construction workers. Basu et al. (2009) mentioned some of the health problems in their study on worksite injuries in female construction labourers included: severe muscular pain, intestinal problems, gastroenteritis, fevers, coughs and colds, pains and more serious ailments like neumonia, tuberculosis, leprosy, etc. By and large, all the studies have documented that women have to work almost till the last day of pregnancy, and come back soon after delivery according to report by National Commission on Women (2005). Considering the above facts in foreground, the present investigation was conducted with following specific objectives: 1. To examine the incidences of work related injuries among female construction workers in Punjab state. 2. To know occupational diseases encountered by women engaged in construction industry.

DEFINITION OF UNORGANIZED SECTOR Part of the workforce who have not been able to organize in pursuit of a common objective because of constraints such as - Casual nature of employment - Ignorance and illiteracy - Small size of establishments with low capital investment per person employed - Scattered nature of establishments - Superior strength of the employer The unorganized sector consists of all private enterprises having less than ten total workers, operating on a proprietary or partnership basis.

HOW THIS CAN BE IDENTIFIED-- On the basis of the nature of work that workers or employees are engaged On the number of employees in undertakings Few examples-- Forest workers Tribal trying to follow traditional vocations within their traditional habitats Fishermen who venture out to sea in vulnerable canoes People working in their homes with software People assembling parts for highly sophisticated product CATEGORIES OF UNORGANIZED LABOUR-- Contract labour including construction worker Casual labour Labour employed in small scale industry Handloom/power loom workers Beedi and cigar workers Employees in shops and commercial establishments

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Sweepers and scavengers Tribal labour Other unprotected labour

RELEVANCY OF UNORGANISED SECTOR Provides income earning opportunity to the largest number workers in India Forms the basis of livelihood for millions Employees both women and men Employees children in some industries Part of the labour market which is unregulated and to a large extent unprotected Attempt to improve the socio-economic conditions for the unorganized sector will create hurdles in the smooth functioning of market led economy. PROBLEMS OF UNORGANIZED SECTOR Problems of the workforce - 90% of workforce in vast informal sector - Little awareness of workplace hazards - Living areas close to work areas - Extended work hours, exploitation - No concept of occupational safety/services - Lack of implementation of health and safety legislation - No concept of trade/labour union WOMEN WORKERS AND BEEDI WORKERS--- Desperately poor - Low wages, fraudulent contractors, disease causing environment - Child labour, and >50% women - Deplorable social condition

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PROBLEMS FACED BY GOVERNMENT - Problems of definition and identification - Workforce uneducated about the benefits of organized sector - Scattered nature of sector - Employers avoid any form of regulation - Unorganized sectors contribute to 60% of GDP - Same labour laws cannot be applied PROBLEMS FROM THE ORGANIZED SECTOR - Unfair competition (walmart, Relience) - Loss of employment - Legal bullying - Buyer preference for the cleaner retail stores - Financial aid not available to the unorganized sector easily to complete.

OBJECTIVE OF UNORGANIZED SECTOR To know the socio- economic background of women construction, agriculture, and domestic labourers; To find out the nature of work and working conditions of women labourers; To study the wage patterns and causes of discrimination in wages of women labourers; To find out what type of facilities are available to women labourers and to study their living conditions; and To trace out the basic problems faced by women labourers.

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History of Women's Health in Unorganized Sector The nature of the unorganised sector, makes women in this sector extremely vulnerable. Poor wages, irregular availability of work, extremely difficult conditions of work and little social security to fall back on in case of a contingency like ill health has made it necessary to put in place a legal framework and policy prescriptions that protect these workers. The state has over time formulated several legal measures as well as social policies to provide workers in the unorganised sector with safeguards. While there are numerous legislations for regulating conditions and work and ensuring social security very few of them cater to the unorganized sectors, even though they are most vulnerable.

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Chapter 2

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

The International Labour Organization (ILO) initiated a project titled "Training and Information Dissemination on Women Workers' Rights" (WWWR Project) in June 1997. As part of the educational activities of the project in India, an experience, sharing workshop was organised between October 1516, 1997 in Mumbai. The objective of this workshop was to share experiences and critical issues vis-a-vis women worker's in the unorganised and organised sector in Maharashtra and launch some of the projects' activities. As a follow-up to this interaction, the Centre for Health Studies at the Tata Institute of Social Sciences (TISS), Mumbai approached the ILO in New Delhi to provide financial assistance for a workshop on occupational health and safety, as an agenda for in-depth research and discussion. This led to a collaborative process in February 1998 between TISS and the ILO Area Office, with the technical and organisational back-up support provided by the WWR Project. Women play multiple roles, of which 'work' for wages / employment / income earning is one among the most significant ones. It not only contributes to the augmentation of the household

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income (which in many cases is the sole income for the household), but it also determines, in a significant way, the status of women and their well being. For one, it also places women's health on a precarious balance. Studies have observed that, women's general health and well-being is often not a high priority for the family. This also pertains to women's own perceived need for health which is generally below the actual need. The large majority of Indian women who work in the informal sector face several health problems emanating from the workplace and their domestic situation. They are engaged in monotonous, repetitive, back-breaking tasks, either as casual workers in the public sphere or as home based producers in the private sphere comprehensive attempt to take stock of the health hazards faced by these workers was made by the Task Force on Health commissioned by the National Commission on Self-employed Women and Women in the Informal Sector (Report of' the Task Force on Health, 1988). The observations and recommendations made by the Task Force found place in Shramshakti, the final report of the Commission (Government of India, 1988). The specific occupational health enlisted by the Task Force on Health are: 1. The posture at work, particularly of home-based workers, such as beedi workers, zardozi, zari and chikan workers, lace

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makers, gunny-bag stitchers, carpet makers and tagai workers, who have to bend, crouch, stoop and strain their eyes. 2. The constant contact with hazardous materials like dyes, wood-smoke, cashew oil, chemical fumes, tobacco and silica dust. 3. The lack of light, toilets, water, ventilation, space and related- work environment problems. 4. Problems related to women's work actions, like tying, stitching, lifting and bending. 5. Problems related to lifting weight, especially in construction and brick work, which give rise to health problems like menstrual disorders, prolapse of the uterus, miscarriages and problems. 6. Due to long hours of work and the non-availability of rest in order to recover from health impairments, most serious health problems get aggravated. 7. The repetitious movements the work involves causes dullness of the mind, extreme fatigue and tenosynovitis. 8. Mechanisation and technological advancement has

qualitatively and quantitatively worsened the health situation of women workers in the beedi, slate and mining industries.

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9. The varying forms of sexual exploitation experienced by women workers in the informal sector affect their mental health. The workers in the unorganized sector constitute about 93% of the total work force in the country. The Government has been implementing some social security measures for certain

occupational groups but the coverage is miniscule. Majority of the workers are still without any social security coverage. Recognizing the need for providing social security to these workers, the Central Government has introduced a Bill in the Parliament. One of the major insecurities for workers in the unorganized sector is the frequent incidences of illness and need for medical care and hospitalization of such workers and their family members. Despite the expansion in the health facilities, illness remains one of the most prevalent causes of human deprivation in India. It has been clearly recognized that health insurance is one way of providing protection to poor households against the risk of health spending leading to poverty. However, most efforts to provide health insurance in the past have faced difficulties in both design and implementation. The poor are unable or unwilling to take up health insurance because of its cost, or lack of perceived benefits. Organizing and administering health insurance,

especially in rural areas, is also difficult.

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Since the beginning of this decade, the implementation of these protective legal provisions has suffered serious setbacks largely as a result of changes in the macro-level economic scenario. The New Economic Policy with its emphasis on small scale production, production for export and labour flexibility has heralded a steady shift from large scale production to small scale production, from traditional industries to 'sunrise' industries - fish prawn processing, electronic, garment, diamond cutting and the like. The existing legal provisions are oriented to large-scale production, while the organisation of production in the new economic scenario is spread out into small units. The scale and organisation of production is making the employer-employee relationship increasingly distant and many times invisible. There is a growing 'informalization' of the economy. Women in the lower rungs of formal sector employment are increasingly being pushed to the informal sector to work as piece-rate, home-based workers, as part of the 'putting-out' system; or in small work units as casual workers. Simultaneously, the onus of providing for health care is steadily shifting from the State to the household. Studies indicate that per capita xpenditure on

health by the household is higher than that incurred by the State. The hazards that emanate at the workplace, coupled with poor living conditions, low access to food, discriminatory treatment,

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multiple pregnancies and domestic violence at the household have implications on the physical and mental health of women. The few available studies on working women's health point to higher anaemia among working women, longer duration of ill health of children of working women, decline in the duration of exclusive breast-feeding and early introduction of bottle feeding. These problems indicate the clear lack of support for child-care and social support/ security to working women. Chronic illnesses, occupational health hazards and gynaecological morbidities experienced by working women are not appropriately addressed either by the public or private health care sector. The Shramshakti document also recorded occupation induced reproductive hazards among women workers. A reproductive hazard is any substance or condition that can damage the male or female reproductive system or a developing foetus. Reproductive outcomes associated with workplace exposures include menstrual disorders, chromosomal and gene defects, abortions, cancers, malformations, behavioural disorders, low birth weight of babies, infertility and premature menopause. Systematic studies that examine workplace hazards and link them to reproductive health outcomes are rare. The National Health Policy and Programmes in the case of women are oriented to maternal, reproductive and child health related issues. The Reproductive and Child Health Programme, as

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its name indicates, is limited to reproductive and sexual health in policy, and to family planning components in implementation. Work-related health, mental health and health that does not pertain to reproduction, is completely left out from this programme. There is an emergent need to broaden the understanding of women's health beyond maternal and reproductive health, to one that addresses healthproblems/ needs emerging from their multiple roles and low status.

Womens Health
Women have unique health issues. And some of the health issues that affect both men and women can affect women differently. Unique issues include pregnancy, menopause, and conditions of the female organs. Women can have a healthy pregnancy by getting early and regular prenatal care. They should also get recommended breast cancer, cervical cancer, and bone density screenings. Women and men also have many of the same health problems. But these problems can affect women differently. For example,

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Women are more likely to die following a heart attack than men Women are more likely to show signs of depression and anxiety than men The effects of sexually transmitted diseases can be more serious in women Osteoarthritis affects more women than men Women are more likely to have urinary tract problems
CONDITIONS OF WOMEN'S IN

WORKING

UNORGANIZED SECTOR:
Indian economy is to a great extent characterized by large number of people working in unorganized sectors as unorganized workers; transitional nature of the Indian economy, disparity in education, skill and training are some of the major factors abetting such a large concentration of workers in an area most vulnerable to exogenous economic vicissitudes. Women working in the unorganized sector deserve a separate mention as they are much marginalized. Women have always worked, albeit the definition of work if seen only through the prism of contribution to national input- will mean different things to different people. Women, who might not be working in the narrow definition of work, are still engaged in socially productive and reproductive labour. National Commission for Enterprises in the Unorganized Sector (NCEUS) has noted that employment in India can be meaningfully grouped into four categories to reflect quality and its sectoral association. These are (a) formal employment in the formal or organized sector, (b) informal employment in the formal sector, (c) formal

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employment in the informal sector, and, (d) informal employment in the informal sector. Amongst these four categories, reports have shown that the Indian economy is characterized largely by the huge number of people employed informally in the informal or the unorganized sector. (For ease of use, unorganized and informal sector are used interchangeably here). To exactly define unorganized sector, we can say it consists of all unincorporated private enterprises owned solely by individuals or households on a proprietary or partnership basis and involving less than ten workers in all.

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Table 1: Estimated labour force in the informal sector by the year 2012-17 Year GDP Growt h Rate (%) Employment (million) Percentage share

2004 -05 2006 -07 2011 -12

Actual Actual 9 7 5

Forma l 32.79 33.87 34.54 34.18 33.83 33.93 33.08 32.26

Informa l 368.35 393.06 453.13 442.18 431.4 521.96 490.46 461.05

Total 401.1 3 426.9 3 487.6 7 476.3 6 465.2 3 555.9 523.5 4 493.3 1

Forma l 8.17 7.93 7.08 7.18 7.27 6.1 6.32 6.54

Informa l 91.83 92.07 92.92 92.82 92.73 93.9 93.68 93.46

2016 -17

9 7 5

The date shows us that an estimated 93.46% of the labour force (at 5% GDP growth) will be employed in the informal sector by the end of the 12th Five Year Plan (2012-17).

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Issues: The issues regarding unorganized sector is largely country specific and its many manifestations are too been viewed and analyzed in that context. Some of the most germane points to our theme are the working conditions, duration and durability of work, earnings, labour rights and safety conditions at work. The Arjun SenGupta Committee Report shows an estimated 92-93 percent of the workforce would be employed in the informal sector by the year 2017. Let us have a look at the percentage participation of the labour force and work force: Graph 1:

(UPSS: Usual Principal and Subsidiary Status; UPS: Usual Principal Status; CWS: Current Weekly Status; MCWS:Modified Current Weekly Status; CDS: Current Daily Status is considered a better method to measure open unemployment in a country.) The skewed percentage participation of women as against men could well be the lack of availability of work throughout the year and their suitability to women, amongst other factors. The rural sector comprises of the major chunk of unorganized labour force. Lack of education, skill and training are sometimes abysmal at very low levels compared to their urban counterparts. The labour force and the workforce percentage participation rates also stand

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skewed. A stark contrast can be clearly observed in the levels of male to female participation owing difference in the levels of education.

SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC CONDITION OF WOMEN IN UNORGANISED SECTOR: ndian economy is to a great extent characterized by large number of people working in unorganized sectors as unorganized workers; transitional nature of the Indian economy, disparity in education, skill and training are some of the major factors abetting such a large concentration of workers in an area most vulnerable to exogenous economic vicissitudes. Women working in the unorganized sector deserve a separate mention as they are much marginalized. Women have always worked, albeit the definition of work if seen only through the prism of contribution to national input- will mean different things to different people. Women, who might not be working in the narrow definition of work, are still engaged in socially productive and reproductive labour. National Commission for Enterprises in the Unorganized Sector (NCEUS) has noted that employment in India can be meaningfully grouped into four categories to reflect quality and its sectoral association. These are (a) formal employment in the formal or organized sector, (b) informal employment in the formal sector, (c) formal employment in the informal sector, and, (d) informal employment in the informal sector. Amongst these four categories, reports have shown that the Indian economy is characterized largely by the huge number of people employed informally in the informal or the unorganized sector. (For ease of use, unorganized and informal sector are used interchangeably here). To exactly define unorganized sector, we

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can say it consists of all unincorporated private enterprises owned solely by individuals or households on a proprietary or partnership basis and involving less than ten workers in all. Table 1: Estimated labour force in the informal sector by the year 2012-17 Year GDP Growt h Rate (%) Employment (million) Percentage share

2004 -05 2006 -07 2011 -12

Actual Actual 9 7 5

Forma l 32.79 33.87 34.54 34.18 33.83 33.93 33.08 32.26

Informa l 368.35 393.06 453.13 442.18 431.4 521.96 490.46 461.05

Total 401.1 3 426.9 3 487.6 7 476.3 6 465.2 3 555.9 523.5 4 493.3 1

Forma l 8.17 7.93 7.08 7.18 7.27 6.1 6.32 6.54

Informa l 91.83 92.07 92.92 92.82 92.73 93.9 93.68 93.46

2016 -17

9 7 5

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The date shows us that an estimated 93.46% of the labour force (at 5% GDP growth) will be employed in the informal sector by the end of the 12th Five Year Plan (2012-17). Issues: The issues regarding unorganized sector is largely country specific and its many manifestations are too been viewed and analyzed in that context. Some of the most germane points to our theme are the working conditions, duration and durability of work, earnings, labour rights and safety conditions at work. The Arjun SenGupta Committee Report shows an estimated 92-93 percent of the workforce would be employed in the informal sector by the year 2017.

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CHAPTER 3

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY RESEARCH METHODOLOGY is a term made up of two words, research and methodology. Research means search of knowledge. It is a scientific & systematic search for partial information on specific topic. It is an art of scientific investigation. It is careful investigation or inquiry especially for search of new fact in any branch of knowledge. Research Design
Research is an art of scientific investigation. Research simply means a search for fact- answer to question and solution to problem. It is purposive investigation, it is an organized inquiry. It seeks to find explanation to unexplained phenomenon to clarify the doubtful fact and to correct the misconceived fact. According to REDMAN & MORRY, Research is a careful and systematized orts of gaining new knowledge.

According to CLIFFORD WOODY, Research comprises of defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions, collecting, organizing and evaluating data, making deductions and researching Suggestions.

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Research design provides the glue that holds the research project together. A research design is used to structure the research, to show how the entire major parts of the research project- the samples or groups, measures, treatments or programs, and methods of assignment-work together to try to address the central research question.

Understanding the relationships among designs is important in making design choices arid thinking about the strengths and weakness of different designs. Once the problem has been carefully defined, the researcher needs to establish the plan that will outline the investigation to be carried out. The research design indicates the steps that will be taken and in what sequence they occur. Types of Research There are two main types of research design: 1. Research design for exploratory research / formularize research. 2. Descriptive Research and

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DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH : -

Descriptive research or statistical research provides data about the population or universe being studied. They are concerned with describing the characteristics of a particular individual, group. But it can only describe the who, what, when, and how of a situation, not what caused it. Therefore, descriptive research is used when the objective is to provide a systematic description that is as factual and accurate as possible. It provides the number of times something occurs, or frequency, lends itself to statistical calculation such as determining the average number of occurrences or central tendencies. One of its major limitations is that it cannot help determine what causes a specific behavior, motivation of occurrence. In other words, it cannot establish a causal research relationship between variables. Descriptive research is Generally weak in internal validity, Often more natural and hence have better external validity, This isnt always so though- it depends on the design and rudy, Data analyses include descriptive statistics and various correlation Computation, Can use more powerfifi statistical techniques. Descriptive research requires thought and insight, Can follow cookbook recipe but researcher needs to know WHY. There are lots of exceptions to the rules and

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prescription discussed. Need to integrate statistics and design, Need to relate results back to research question.

(a) The three most commonly types of descriptive research designs are: (a) Observation and (b) Surveys (c) Statistical Method IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH Research forms the fundamental base on which the economic and legislative policies can be built. Research assists in solving various operational and planning problems of business and industry. Research helps to establish social relationship and solves social problem. Research analysts and intellectual new theories and ideas. Research facilitates scientific and methodological and logical thinking of all. Statement of the Objective 1. To analysis the impact of Unorganized Sector. 2. To find the approach worker towards Unorganized Sector system. 3. To find out the role & approach of trade union towards Unorganized Sector.

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4. To discuss the approach management towards Unorganized Sector. 5. To study the Unorganized Sector Policies of the company. 6. To discuss the problem of Unorganized Sector system which influence its development & to find the solution of these problems.

Definition of Major Terms of this Study There are following terms which are define below and also completed this. 1. womens health in unorganized sector Women's health refers to health issues specific to human female anatomy. These often relate to structures such as female genitalia and breasts or to conditions caused by hormones specific to, or most notable in, females. Emerging definition of womens health Women's health is an issue which has been taken up by many feminists, especially wherereproductive health is concerned. Women's health is positioned within a wider body of knowledge cited by, amongst others, the World Health Organisation, which places importance on gender as a social determinant of health.

2. Women and work


It is a fact that all women work. They perform dual roles of production and reproduction. Their work goes unrecognized because

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they do a variety of jobs daily which does not fit into any specific occupation. Most of them are involved in arduous household work. Although women work for longer hours and contribute substantially to family income, they are not perceived as workers by either the women themselves or data collecting agencies and the government. To understand the issue of occupational health problems of women, it is necessary to make a detailed study of the womens work in terms of the actual activity undertaken, the hours of work and the extent of remuneration received.

3. Pattern of employment for women In India, most of the working women are employed in the
unorganized sector, which includes agricultural labourers, workers in traditional village and cottage industries, migrants to the cities in domestic service, day labourers, street vendors, etc. In agriculture, the most important occupation in developing countries, women play an important role in agricultural production, animal husbandry and other related activities such as storage and marketing of produce, food processing etc. Apart from these activities, they spend almost 10-12 hours per day doing household chores.

4. Occupational Stress
Occupational stress is one of the major problems from a gender perspective. Studies from developed countries show that sources of stress in womens lives are more diverse and diffuse than those experienced by men. A number of factors cause stress among working women.

5. Environmental health
The environmental degradation and pollution due to industrialization and automobiles are a matter of urgent global concern for the

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communities at large but more specifically for vulnerable groups like very young, very old, disabled and pregnant women. Some aspects of environmental pollution are of special relevance to womens health

JUSTIFICATION That woman's physical structure and the performance of maternal functions place her at a disadvantage in the struggle for subsistence is obvious. this is especially true when the burdens of motherhood are upon her. even when they are not, by abundant testimony of the medical fraternity continuance for a long time on her feet at work, repeating this from day to day, tends to injurious effects upon the body, and as healthy mothers are essential to vigorous offspring, the physical well-being of woman becomes an object of public interest and care in order to preserve the strength and vigor of the race." 208 u.s. at 412.

Limitation of the study


A long-term health problem or chronic condition can prevent someone from participating in necessary activitiesdoing housework, making mealsor in leisure activitiesgoing places, doing things with family and friends. The social environment may also prevent a person with such a condition from taking part in events; for example, when an event lacks ramps to facilitate physical access or does not provide technical aids such as hearing devices.1 In this chapter, a person is defined as having an activity limitation if they report that they have a longterm physical or psychological health problem, or a chronic condition, that is severe enough to "often"\affect their normal functioning at home, at work, at school, or in another domain such as transportation or

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leisure activities.2This chapter will use data from the 2009 Canadian Community Health Survey. It will examine the age structure of the population with activity limitations, the different types of limitations, as well as the education and income of women with and without activity limitations.

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METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION Data can be of two types:1. Primary Data 2. Secondary Data Primary data are those which collected a fresh & for the first time & it is in original form. Primary data can be collected either experiment or through survey. The researcher has chosen the survey method for data collection. In case of survey, data can be collected by anyone or more of the following ways:------------- Observation Questionnaire Personal or Group Interview Telephone Survey Communication with respondents Analysis of document & historical records Case Study Small group study of random behavior. The researcher has chosen the questionnaire methods of data collection due to time in hand while designing data collection procedure, adequate safe ants against bias & unliability must be ensured. Researcher has examined the collected data for completeness, comprehensibility, consistently & reliability.

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SECONDARY DATA:Researcher has also gathered secondary data which already been collected & analyzed by someone else. He got various informations from journals, historical documents, magazines & report prepared by the other researchers. For the present piece of research the investigator has used the following method which is as follows:----------- Questionnaire Interview Observation Sample of the study A sample design is a definite plan for obtaining a sample from the sampling frame. It refers to the tecimique or the procedure the researcher would adopt in selecting some sampling units from which inference about the population in drawn Sampling design is determined before any data are actually collected for obtaining a sample from a given population. The researcher must decide the way of selecting a sample. There are various methods a sampling like systematic sampling, random sampling, deliberate sampling, mixed sampling, cluster sampling etc. Among these methods of sampling researcher has used random sampling so that bias can be eliminated & sampling error can be estimated.

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Designing samples should be made in such a fashion that the samples may yield accurate information with minimum amount of research efforts. SAMPLING Sampling may be defined as the selection of some part of an aggregate or totality on the basis of which a judgment or inference about an entire population by examining only a part of it. The item so selected constitute what is technically called a sample, their selection process or technique is called sampling design & the survey conducted on the basis of sample is described as sample survey. SIMPLE RANDOM SAMPLING: This is the simplest and most popular technique of sampling. In it each unit of the population has equal chance of being included in the sample. This method implies that if N is the size of the population and N units are to be drawn in the sample, then the sample should be taken in such a way that each of the samples has an equal chance of being selected. Simple random sampling gives: Each element in the population an equal chance of being included in the sample all choices are into interdependent of each other Each possible sample combination an equal chance of being chosen. The method of simple random sampling eliminates the chance of bias or personal prejudices in the selection of units. Some of the common methods of drawing simple random samples are as follows:

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Lottery Method and Random Sampling numbers Sample Size: In sampling design the most complicated question is:- what should be the size of the sample. If the sample size is too small, it may not serve to achieve the object & if it is too large, we may incur huge cost & waste resources. So sample must be of an optimum size i.e. it should neither be excessively large nor too small. Here, researcher has taken so as the sample size. HYPOTHESIS There is significant difference between the total empowerment score of women employed in cooperatives sector and those employed in unorganized sector. There is significant difference between the economic empowerment of women employed in cooperatives sector and those employed in unorganized sector There is significant difference between the score on Education awareness of women employed in cooperatives sector and those employed in unorganized sector. There is significant difference between the score on Social Contact of women employed in cooperatives sector and those employed in unorganized sector

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ABOUT THE QUESTIONNAIRE In this method, a questionnaire is sent to the Women Health in unorganized sector concerned with a request to answer the questions & return the questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of a number of questions printed or typed in a definite order. The Women Health in unorganized sector has to answer the questions on their own. The researcher has chosen this method of data collection due to low cost incurred, it is free from bias of the interviewer & respondent have adequate time.

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Chapter: - 4

Background Study of the Respondent

41

The unorganized sector, covers most of the rural labour and a substantial part of urban labour. lt includes activities carried out by small and family enterprises, partly or wholly with family labour. In this sector wagepaid labour is largely non-unionised due to casual and seasonal nature of employment and scattered location of enterprises. This sector is marked by low incomes, unstable and irregular employment, and lack of protection either from legislation or trade unions. The unorganised sector uses mainly labour intensive and indigenous technology. The workers in unorganised sector, are so scattered that the implementation of the Legislation is very inadequate and ineffective. There are hardly any unions in this sector to act as watch-dogs. But the contributions made by the unorganised sector to the national income, is very substantial as compared to that of the organised sector. It adds more than 60% to the national income while the contribution of the organised sector is almost half of that depending on the industry. CBWE is conducting the training programmes from 1978 for the workers working in unorganized sector and small scale industries with a view to develop awareness about their problems, difficulties and protective labour laws at work place

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and help them in finding solutions as well as equip them in developing their own organisations. The training programmes are conducted for 2/4 days duration for various categories of workers working in industries such as handloom, powerloom, Kkadi industries, sericulture, coir, beedi, salt workers, rag pickers, cine workers, ship breaking workers etc.

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Procedure For Conducting Program: Unorganised workers labour union / Local / Village Social Administration/ Panchayats /NGOs

organizations/Social Volunteers/ women associations/ SC/ST welfare associations etc shall submit a request for conducting the programme to their respective Regional Directorates of CBWE along with the survey identifying the problems and felt need of the villagers. Topics: Based on the Problems identified by the Education Officer, CBWE in consultation with the local body, the topics to be discussed are charted out by the Education Officer in charge of the Programme. The Education Officer of CBWE conducts sessions on the required topics. In addition to this experts from the respective fields / Govt. officials from the pertaining departments in related areas . viz. Small Scale Industries, labour officers, Women Development Corporation, Women Commission, Family Planning Association, Enforcing Officers from Abolition and Regulation of Child Labour Wing, Women & Child Development Corporation, Field Publicity Office, Transit School teachers, Social activists doctors from Govt. Hospitals [to conduct health camps] E.S.I., Employees Provident Fund

44

etc. are also invited to deliver talks and interact with the participants ( please refer individual program for details).

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Chapter: - 4

Data Analysis

46

1. Are you above 18 years of age?

Grade A B

Option 18 YEAR + 18 Years Total

No. Of Respondents 35 People 15 People 50 People

% of Responses 70% 30% 100%

Analysis On the above Table-I out of total no of respondents 70% respondents belong to 18 + and 30% respondents belong to 18 year.

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2. Are you married?

Grade

Option

No. Of Respondents

% of Responses

A B

Married unmarried Total

15 People 35 People 50 People

30% 70% 100%

Analysis On the above Table-II out of total no of respondents 30% respondents belong to Married and 30% respondents belong to Unmarried.

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3. Are you married after the prescribed age of marriage i.e.18?

Grade

Option

No. Of Respondents

% of Responses

A B

prescribed age Marriage i.e.18 Total

20 People 30 People 50 People

40% 60% 100%

Analysis On the above Table-III out of total no of respondents 40% respondents belong to prescribed age and 60% respondents belong to marriage i.e.18.

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4. Are you literate?

Grade A B

Option Literate Non literate Total

No. Of Respondents % of Responses 45 People 5 People 50 People 90% 10% 100%

Analysis On the above Table-IV out of total no of respondents 90% respondents belong to Literate and 60% respondents belong to Non literate.

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5. Do you belong to a joint family?

Grade A B

Option Joint family Signal Total

No. Of Respondents % of Responses 43 People 7 People 50 People 86% 14% 100%

Analysis On the above Table-V out of total no of respondents 86% respondents belong to Joint family and 14% respondents belong to Signal.

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6. If you belong to a nuclear family, do you have more than 6 members?

Grade

Option

No. Of Respondents

% of Responses

A B

Nuclear family 6 members Total

37 People 13 People 50 People

74% 26% 100%

Analysis On the above Table-VI out of total no of respondents 74% respondents belong to Nuclear family and 26% respondents belong to 6 members.

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7. Is your husband educated?

Grade

Option

No. Of Respondents

% of Responses

husband educated

47 People

94%

Non educated Total

3 People 50 People

6% 100%

Analysis On the above Table-VII out of total no of respondents 94% respondents belong to husband educated and 6% respondents belong to 6 Non educated.

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8. Is your husband matriculated?

Grade

Option

No. Of Respondents

% of Responses

husband matriculated

49 People

98%

Non matriculated Total

1 People 50 People

2% 100%

Analysis On the above Table-VIII out of total no of respondents 98% respondents belong to husband matriculated and 2% respondents belong to 6 Non matriculated.

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9. Is your husband working?

Grade

Option

No. Of Respondents

% of Responses

A B

husband working Non working Total

41 People 9 People 50 People

82% 18% 100%

Analysis On the above Table-IX out of total no of respondents 82% respondents belong to husband working and 18% respondents belong to 6 Non working.

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10. Do you have more than 2 children?

Grade

Option

No. Of Respondents

% of Responses

A B

2 children More than Children Total

35 People 15 People

70% 30%

50 People

100%

Analysis On the above Table-IX out of total no of respondents 70% respondents belong to 2 children and 30% respondents belong to More than Children.

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11. Have you migrated from somewhere else?

Grade

Option

No. Of Respondents

% of Responses

A B

somewhere Total

37 People 13 People 50 People

74% 26% 100%

Analysis On the above Table-X out of total no of respondents 74% respondents belong to somewhere and 26% respondents belong to More than migrated.

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12. Do you reside in a rented house?

Grade

Option

No. Of Respondents

% of Responses

A B

rented house Personal house Total

15 People 35 People 50 People

30% 70% 100%

Analysis On the above Table-XI out of total no of respondents 30% respondents belong to rented house and 70% respondents belong to More than personal house.

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13. Do you have more than 2 rooms?

Grade A B

Option 2 rooms More than room Total

No. Of Respondents % of Responses 17 People 33 People 50 People 34% 66% 100%

Analysis On the above Table-XII out of total no of respondents 34% respondents belong to 2 rooms and 66% respondents belong to More than room .

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14. Does your house possess proper ventilation facility?

Grade

Option

No. Of Respondents

% of Responses

A B

ventilation facility Total

25 People 25 People 50 People

50% 50% 100%

Analysis On the above Table-XIV out of total no of respondents 50% respondents belong to ventilation facility and 50% respondents belong to -

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15. Do you have a toilet in your house?

Grade A B

Option have a toilet do not toilet Total

No. Of Respondents % of Responses 5 People 45 People 50 People 10% 90% 100%

Analysis On the above Table-XV out of total no of respondents 10% respondents belong to have a toilet and 90% respondents belong to do not toilet

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16. Do you have proper water and electricity supply at your place?

Grade A B

Option proper water Never Total

No. Of Respondents % of Responses 15 People 35 People 50 People 30% 70% 100%

Analysis On the above Table-XVI out of total no of respondents 30% respondents belong to have a proper water and 70% respondents belong to do Never

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17. Do your income meet the need of fooding expenses for your family?

Grade

Option

No. Of Respondents

% of Responses

A B

need of fooding Never Total

47 People 3 People 50 People

94% 6% 100%

Analysis On the above Table-XVII out of total no of respondents 47% respondents belong to have a proper water and 6% respondents belong to do Never

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18. Do you have proper drainage output system?

Grade

Option

No. Of Respondents

% of Responses

A B

proper drainage Never Total

37 People 13 People 50 People

74% 26% 100%

Analysis On the above Table-XVIII out of total no of respondents 74% respondents belong to have proper drainage and 26% respondents belong to do Never

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19. Do you have a proper bathroom in your house?

Grade

Option

No. Of Respondents

% of Responses

A B

bathroom Never Total

5 People 45 People 50 People

10% 90% 100%

Analysis On the above Table-XIX out of total no of respondents 10% respondents belong to have bathroom and 90% respondents belong to do Never

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20. Do you have any source of entertainment like Television, Radio etc.?

Grade

Option

No. Of Respondents

% of Responses

A B

like Unlike Total

49 People 1 People 50 People

98% 2% 100%

Analysis On the above Table-XX out of total no of respondents 98% respondents belong to have like and 2% respondents belong to Unlike

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21. Do you work more than 10 hours a day?

Grade

Option

No. Of Respondents

% of Responses

A B

10 hours more than 10 Total

37 People 13 People 50 People

74% 26% 100%

Analysis On the above Table-XXI out of total no of respondents 74% respondents belong to 10 hours and 26% respondents belong to more than 10.

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22. Have you been working ever since you are married?

Grade

Option

No. Of Respondents

% of Responses

A B

married unmarried Total

34 People 16 People 50 People

68% 32% 100%

Analysis On the above Table-XXIII out of total no of respondents 68% respondents belong to married and 32% respondents belong to unmarried.

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23. Are you forced to work with some sidetracked reasons? Grade Option No. Of Respondents % of Responses A sidetracked reasons B un sidetracked reasons Total 50 People 100% 23People 46% 27 People 54%

Analysis On the above Table-XXII out of total no of respondents 54% respondents belong to sidetracked reasons and 46% respondents belong to un sidetracked reasons.

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24. Have you ever faced any kind of sexual harassment or abuse at your Workplace?

Grade

Option

No. Of Respondents

% of Responses

A B

sexual harassment un sexual harassment Total

15 People 35People

30% 70%

50 People

100%

Analysis On the above Table-XXIV out of total no of respondents 15% respondents belong to sexual harassment and 35% respondents belong to un sexual harassment.

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25. Are you satisfied with your pay? Grade A B Option Yes No Total No. Of Respondents % of Responses 3 People 47People 50 People 6% 94% 100%

Analysis On the above Table-XXV out of total no of respondents 6% respondents belong to Yes and 6% respondents belong to un No.

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26. Besides you, Is there any member who is earning in your family?

Grade

Option

No. Of Respondents

% of Responses

A B

earning Un earning Total

17 People 33 People 50 People

34% 66% 100%

Analysis On the above Table-XXVI out of total no of respondents 34% respondents belong to earning and 66% respondents belong to Un earning.

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27. Is your family income sufficient from all corners?

Grade

Option

No. Of Respondents

% of Responses

A B

sufficient Un sufficient Total

36 People 14People 50 People

72% 28% 100%

Analysis On the above Table-XXVII out of total no of respondents 34% respondents belong to earning and 66% respondents belong to Un earning.

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28. Do your family range under Below Poverty Line?

Grade

Option

No. Of Respondents

% of Responses

A B

Poverty Line Un Poverty Line Total

42 People 8 People 50 People

84% 16% 100%

Analysis On the above Table-XXVIII out of total no of respondents 84% respondents belong to Poverty Line and 16% respondents belong to Un Poverty Line.

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29. Are you undergoing debts?

Grade

Option

No. Of Respondents

% of Responses

A B

undergoing debts Un Poverty Line Total

33 People 17 People 50 People

66% 34% 100%

Analysis On the above Table-XXIX out of total no of respondents 66% respondents belong to Poverty Line and 34% respondents belong to Un Poverty Line.

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30. Are you working under certain Government Women upliftment scheme ?

Grade

Option

No. Of Respondents

% of Responses

Women upliftment

27 People

54%

Un Women upliftment Total

23 People

46%

50 People

100%

Analysis On the above Table-XXX out of total no of respondents 54% respondents belong to Women upliftment and 46% respondents belong to Un Women upliftment.

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Health : 31. Are you suffering from some chronic disease?

Grade

Option

No. Of Respondents

% of Responses

A B

chronic

36 People 14 People 50 People

72% 28% 100%

Un chronic Total

Analysis On the above Table-XXXI out of total no of respondents 72% respondents belong to chronic and 28% respondents belong to Un chronic.

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32. Do you have first-aid facility at your workplace?

Grade

Option

No. Of Respondents

% of Responses

A B

first-aid facility

27 People 23 People 50 People

54% 46% 100%

Un first-aid facility Total

Analysis On the above Table-LXIII out of total no of respondents 27% respondents belong to first-aid facility and 23% respondents belong to Un first-aid facility.

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33. Is there any family-member who is suffering from persistent illness?

Grade

Option

No. Of Respondents

% of Responses

A B

illness

35 People 15 People 50 People

70% 30% 100%

Un illness Total

Analysis On the above Table-LXIII out of total no of respondents 70% respondents belong to first-aid facility and 30% respondents belong to Un first-aid facility.

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34. Do you have proper doctor in the hospital who can treat you in a medical emergency?

Grade

Option

No. Of Respondents

% of Responses

A B

medical emergency No Total

40 People 10 People 50 People

80% 20% 100%

Analysis On the above Table-LXV out of total no of respondents 80% respondents belong to medical emergency and 20% respondents belong to No.

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Chapter 5

SUMMARY AND SUGGESTION

Summary :The presentation and discussions in the three day workshop substantive academic and methodological issues. The

presentations on organized and unorganized sector workers though have been structured separately, indicate the commonality in women's experiences of low priority to health, the cumulative impact of multiple roles on health and weak perception of observing, the linkage of work related hazards and health. Most of the papers emerged from the urban context and, concentrated on income earning work. The impact of domestic roles on women's health was not adequately researched in these papers. In fact, it is the cumulative impact of domestic and income earning work that was examined. In terms of methodology, the issues that were grappled pertain to sample size, duration of exposure to the work situation; the difficulty of identifying (in a clear cut manner), which aspects of women's health is due to the occupation/-work they are engaged in and which, as a result of their domestic roles and the living environment. Barring a few, most of the studies used quantitative methods. Women's perceptions, their concepts of

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health, ill-health have not been adequately captured. The vulnerability of women workers compounds their suspicion of the research process. This creates impediments to research and documentation.

LIMITATIONS

One of the major limitation there were some respondents who did not show keen interest in answering the questions.

Finally there were many respondents who were reluctant in sharing their monthly earning profile due to some personal reasons which was an obstacle in determining their monthly budget.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Kotwal, N., Gupta, N., and Manhas, S (2008). Impact of work and environment on women living in urban slums of Jammu city. Study of Home & Community Sciences, 2(2):93-97. Chaudhary, S.R.(2005). Labour activism and women in the unorganized sector: Garment export industry in Bangalore. Economic and Political Weekly (EPW), India, 28(4): 31-75. Klitzman, S., House, J.S., Israel, B.A., and Mero, P.R(1994). A study of physical health and neuroticism among women engaged in the home based production of chikan embroidery. Journal of behavioural medicine, 13 (3): 221-243. Meclchoir, M., Caspi, A., Milne, B.J., Danesh, A., Poulton, D., and Moffitt T. (2006). Work stress prescript depression, an anxiety in young working women and men. Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA INSERM U687-IFR69, Saint- Maurice, France. 2-31p. Lakhani, R. (2004). Occupational health of women construction workers in the unorganized sector. Journal of health management, 6(2): 187-200.

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QUESTIONNAIRE

I am a student of Mahatma Gandhi Kashi Vidyapith doing my Social Work project on the topic A Study on Women's health in Unogranized Sector. Personal Profile : 7. Name : Kiran 8. Religion : Hindu 9. Caste: 10. Dhobi Category : SC

Age in Years :

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(a)20-30 (b) 11. 30-40 Marital status :

(c)40-50 (d) 50 above

(a)Married (b) 12. Unmarried Age of Marriage :

(c)Widow (d) Divorced

(a)Before 18 (b) 13. 18-20 Education Status :

(c)20-30 (d) 30 above

(a)Literature 14.

(b)

Illiterate

If Literate Kindly mention level of education : (c)High School (d) Higher Secondary

(a)Primary (b) Middle

Family Profile : 15. Family type : (a)Nuclear 16. Size of Family : (a)< 4 (b) 4-8 (c)9-12 (d) >12 (b) Joint

17. Educational Status of husband : (a)Educated 18. Level of Education of husband : (a)Primary (b) Labour (c)Higher School (d) Higher Secondary (b) Uneducate

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19. Occupation of husband : (a)Vendor (b) Labour (c)Agriculture (d) Others

20. Number of children born/Surviving : (a)1 (b) 2 (c)3 (d) 4

Migratory Status : 21. Migratory status : (a)Migrated (b) Non Migrated

Living Condition : 22. Status of house : (a)Own 23. Type of house : (a)Pucca (b) a 24. Number of Rooms : (a)<2 25. Ventilation Status : (a)No Ventilation (b) Properly Ventilation (b) 2-4 (c)<4 Kattch (c)Others (b) Rented (c)Others

(c)Improper Ventilation 26. Kitchen Status : (a)Separate (b) Multipurpose room

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(c)In varanada 27. Water sources : (a)In premise 28. Inside sources of water : (a)Hand pump (b) Well

(d)

Outside

(b)

Outside premise

(c)Tape Water

29. Outside sources of water : (a)Govt. Hand pump (b) Well (c)Govt. Tape Water

30. Bathroom facility : (a)Yes 31. Latrine Facility : (a)Inside 32. Drainage of water : (a)Exist 33. Water Disposal : (a)Road side (b) Neighboring Plot (c)Around House (d) Collection Point (b) Does Not Exist (b) Outside (b) No

34. Electricity Facility : (a)Yes 35. Other Facilities : TV Fan Furniture L.P.G. a. Yes b. No b. No b. No (b) No

a. Yes a. Yes a. Yes b. No

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Working Condition : 36. Working hours per day : (a)< 4 (b) 4-8 (c)9-12 (d) > 12

37. Service Provide in years : (a)1-5 (b) 6-10 (c)11-15 (d) >15

38. Compulsion to work : (a)Poverty (b) To supplement (c)Husband expired (d) Husband

income Economic Condition : 39. Respondents income per month : (a)< 4000 (b) 4001-8,000

unemployed

(c)8001-12000 (d) 12001-above

40. Number of earning members in the family: (a)1-2 (b) 3-4 (c)5-6 (d) 6 above

41. Family income per month : (a)5000-10000 (b) 10001-15000 (c)15001-20000 (d) 20001-above

42. Expenditure Pattern : Average spending by women vendors in different items :

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(a)Food/Cloth/House (b) Health

(c)Education (d) Others

43. Indebtedness status : (a)Yes 44. Amount of debt. (b) No

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(a)< 10000 (b) 10000-50000

(c)50000-1 Lakh (d) Health : 45. Illness : (a)Weakness (b) Seasonal Disease Above 1 Lakh

(c)Menstrual/Other genital problem (d) Others

46. Health Facility availed : (a)Government (b) Private

(c)Others 41. since when you are working in the company a)1-6 months b) 6-12 months c) More than 1- 2 years d) More than 3 years 42. As an employee the factors that motivates you the most: a)Promotion b)Recognition c) Responsibility

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d)Job security 43. Your level of satisfaction with the working culture of the organization a) Highly satisfied b) Satisfied c) Neither satisfied not dissatisfied d) Dissatisfied e) Highly dissatisfied 44. The type of incentives motivates you the most a) Financial incentives b) Non- financial incentives 45. Your level of motivation regarding the monetary benefits and non- monetary benefits. Rank them in 1 to 5 1 highly motivated 2-motivated 3-neither motivated nor demotivated 4- Demotivated 5 highly demotivated Monetary benefits __salary increment __bonus __allowances non- monetary benefits ___ recognition ___ promotion ___ job security

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__pensions __ Base pay

___ flexible hours ___ employee suggestion scheme

46. Your level of satisfaction with the non-monetary benefits a) Satisfied c) Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied d) Dissatisfied e) Highly dissatisfied 47. Your level of motivation regarding the increment in salary a) Highly motivated b) Motivated c) Neither motivated not demotivated d) Demotivated e) Highly demotivated 48. Current work related satisfaction with the present job a) Highly satisfied b) satisfied c) Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied d) Dissatisfied e) Highly dissatisfied 49.Your level of motivation with the lunch breaks, rest breaks, and leaves given to you in the company a)highly motivated

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b) Motivated c) Neither motivated nor demotivated d) Demotivated e) Highly demotivated 50.our level of motivation with the physical working conditions provided to you by the company a)highly motivated b) Motivated c) Neither motivated nor demotivated d) Demotivated e) Highly demotivated

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