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Dpkg dpkg --compareversions v1 gt v2 dpkg-query -W -showformat=for mat dpkg --getselections > file dpkg --setselections < file Compare

version numbers, check with echo $?. Query installed packages, format e.g. ${Package} ${Version} ${Installed-Size}\n. Write package selections to le. Set package selections from le.

DebianGNU/Linux Reference Card

Version 5.0.9 2013-10-10
Getting Help Read online help for every man page or man command and many bash conguration les. command [--help, Brief help for most -h] commands. Find all documentation /usr/share/ here, optional le doc/package-name/ README.Debian contains specics. Reference, manuals, FAQs, Web HOWTOs, etc. at http:// documentation Mailing lists at The community is always http://lists. helpful, search for users. The Wiki at http: Contains all kind of useful //wiki.debian. information. org/

The Network Network interface conguration. Start, stop network ifup, ifdown interfaces according to les [device] above. Show and manipulate /sbin/ip network interfaces and routing, needs iproute. ssh -X user@host Login at other machine. scp files user@ Copy les to other machine host:path (and vice versa). /etc/network/ interfaces

Web Server (Apache2) /etc/apache2/ Conguration les. Contains virtual hosts. To /etc/apache2/ enable a virtual host, use sites-available/ a2ensite. Contains available modules /etc/apache2/ les. To enable a module, mods-available/ use a2enmod.

Installer CD images boot:expert

Installation All information about it at devel/debian-installer/ Download from http:// E.g. to set up the network w/o DHCP or using LILO instead of GRUB.

Legal Notice

This document may be used under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 3 or higher. Conditions for copying and translations can be found at, where you can always get the latest version of the reference card.
Copyright 2004, 2010 W. Martin Borgert Made by:

Bug Tracking at http://bugs. Package specic reportbug Reporting

All about existing and xed bugs. See http://bugs.debian. org/package-name/, use wnpp to ask for new packages. Report a bug by e-mail. Instructions at http://www. Reporting

Conguration All system conguration /etc/ les are under directory /etc/. Default text editor. May be editor files nano, emacs, vi, joe. CUPS at http:// Browser interface to hostname:631 printing system. Recongure a package, e.g. dpkg-recongure console-common package-name (keyboard), locales (localisation). updateManage command alternatives alternatives. options After changing update-grub /etc/default/grub. make-kpkg -Build a kernel packages initrd -from sources, if a revision=2:my.1.0 customised kernel is really --rootcmd needed, needs kernelfakeroot --uc --us package. kernel_image Create and install m-a a-i module third-party modules (gspca, kernel_image ...), needs moduleassistant.

Daemons and System /etc/init.d/file Restart a service, system restart daemon. /etc/init.d/file Stop a service, system stop daemon. /etc/init.d/file Start a service, system start daemon. halt, reboot, Halts, reboots, shuts down powero system. All log les are under this /var/log/ directory. Default values for many /etc/default/ daemons and services.

Important Shell Commands pager files Show contents of les. ls [files] List les. mkdir directoryCreate directories. names mv file1 file2 Move, rename les. rm files Remove les. rmdir dirs Remove empty directories. Create, eXtract, list Table of tar [c][x][t][z][j] -f archive le, z, j for .gz, file.tar [files] .bz2. nd directories Find les like -name name or expressions -size +1000, etc. grep searchFind search-string in les. string files Send signal to process (e.g. kill [-9] number terminate it). Create a symbolic link to a ln -s file link le. ps [options] Show current processes. Become another user, e.g. su - [username] root. Execute a command as root as normal user, see sudo command /etc/sudoers Overwrite le with output of command > file command. Append output of command command >> file to le. Use output of command 1 as cmd1 | cmd2 input of command 2. Use le as input for command < file command.

apt-cache showpkg packagenames apt-get install package-names apt-get upgrade apt-get dist-upgrade apt-get remove package-names apt-get autoremove apt-cache depends package-names apt-cache rdepends package-names apt-le update apt-le search file-name apt-le list package-name auto-apt

APT Show package dependencies (needed packages). Install packages from repositories with all dependencies. Install newest versions of all packages currently installed. Like apt-get upgrade, but with advanced conict resolution. Remove packages with all needed packages. Remove packages that no other packages depend on. List all packages needed by the one given. List all packages that need the one given. Update content listings from package repositories, see apt-get update Search packages for le. List contents of a package. Installs packages automatically if needed, can replace apt-le, needs auto-apt. Console interface to APT, needs aptitude. GUI interface to APT, needs synaptic.

aptitude APT Update packages listings from package repositories as listed in /etc/apt/sources.list. Required whenever that le or the contents of the repositories change. Search packages and descriptions for searchstring. Show versions and priorities of available packages. Show package information incl. description. synaptic

apt-get update

dpkg -l [names] dpkg -I pkg.deb dpkg -c pkg.deb dpkg -S filename dpkg -i pkg.deb debsums dpkg-divert [options] file

Important Shell Commands cat files Print les to screen. cd directory Change to directory. cp files dest Copy les and directories. echo string Echo string to screen. gzip, bzip2, xz [-d] Compress, uncompress les. files

apt-cache search search-string apt-cache policy package-names apt-cache show package-names

Dpkg List packages. Show package information. List contents of package le. Show which package a le belongs to. Install package les. Audit check sums of installed packages, needs debsums. Override a packages version of a le.