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SAN DIEGO DISTRICT ATTORNEY

The Fourth Amendment and Search & Seizure Thirteenth Edition An Update
January, 2013 Robert C. Phillips Deputy District Attorney (Ret.) San Diego District Attorney s !""ice #$#%3&$%0302 (C) RCPhill#0#'aol.co(

Chapter 1
The Fourth Amendment, United States Constitution ) The Fourth Amendment: *+he right o" the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, an, effects- against unreasonable searches and seizures- shall not be .iolate,- an, no warrants shall issue- but upon probable cause- supporte, by oath or a""ir(ation- an, particularly describing the place to be searched an, the persons or things to be seized./ (Emphasis added) See also California Constitution, Art I- 13- 0ith al(ost i,entical language. Scope: Due Process) 1nitially inten,e, to control the actions o" the "e,eral go.ern(ent only (See arron e! re"# Tiernan $# %a&or o' a"timore (1#33) 2 Pet. 233.)- the 4nite, States Supre(e Court e.entually hel, that a .iolation o" the Fourth Amendment by state (0hich inclu,es all county an, (unicipal) authorities ,oes in "act constitute a Fourteenth Amendment- *due process/ .iolation- thus i(posing co(pliance 0ith this protection upon the states as 0ell. (%app $# Ohio (1&51) 352 4.S 533 65 7.8,.2n, 10#19: a(er $# %cCo""an (1&2&) 333 4.S. 132- 132 651 7.8,.2n, 333- 330%3319: )eop"e $# racamonte (1&2$) 1$ Cal.3r, 3&3- 300.) +he Fourteenth Amendment pro.i,es that no *state/ shall ,epri.e its citi;ens o" *life, liberty, or property, without due process of la0./ 1
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Also- the Fourth Amendment protects against trespassory searches only 0ith regar, to those ite(s (=persons, houses, papers, and effects=) that it enu(erates. (United States $# *ones (Jan. 23- 2012) $5$ 4.S. >>- >>>- "n. # 6132 S.Ct. &3$: 1#1 7.8,.2n, &119.) The E!c"usionar& Ru"e+ O$er$ie,: +he Fourth Amendment ser.es as the pri(ary basis "or the *Exclusionary Rule:/ e?clu,ing e.i,ence "ro( the courtroo( 0hich 0oul, be other0ise a,(issible- 0hen sei;e, by la0 en"orce(ent in .iolation o" its ter(s. (-ee(s $# United States (1&13) 232 4.S. 3#3 6$# 7.8,. 5$29.) History) *+he exclusionary rule 0as originally a,opte, in -ee(s $# United States (1&13) 232 4.S. 3#3 6$# 7.8,. 5$2- . . . 9- 0hich barre, e.i,ence obtaine, by "e,eral o""icers in .iolation o" the Fourth Amendment. +he Supre(e Court subse@uently hel, that the rule 0as not constitutionally i(pose, upon the states. (-o"' $# Co"orado (1&3&) 33# 4.S. 2$ 6&3 7.8,. 12#2- . . . 9: see reithaupt $# A.ram (1&$2) 3$2 4.S. 332- 333 61 7.8,.2n, 33#- 3$0- . . . 9.) 1t 0as not until 1&51- 0hen -o"' 0as o.errule,- that the e?clusionary rule 0as (a,e (an,atory in state prosecutions. (%app $# Ohio (1&51) 352 4.S. 533 65 7.8,.2n, 10#1- . . . 9: see Schmer.er $# Ca"i'ornia (1&55) 3#3 4.S. 2$2- 255 615 7.8,.2n, &0#&12- . . . 9.)/ ()eop"e $# racamonte (1&2$) 1$ Cal.3r, 3&3- 300- "n. 2.) The primary purpose o" the Exclusionary Rule *is to ,eter "uture unla0"ul police con,uct an, thereby e""ectuate the guarantee o" the Fourth Amendment against unreasonable searches an, sei;ures./ (United States $# Ca"andra (1&23) 313 4.S. 33# 63# 7.8,.2n, $519: I""inois $# /ru"" (1&#2) 3#0 4.S. 330 6&3 7.8,.2n, 3539: )eop"e $# Ro."es (2000) 23 Cal.3th 2#&- 2&&.) *A6+9he *prime purpose/ o" the 6e?clusionary9 rule- i" not the sole one- *is to ,eter "uture unla0"ul police con,uct./ 6Citations9 (Citations)/ (1talics a,,e,: )eop"e $# Sanders (2003) 31 Cal.3th 31#- 323.) 1t is also the purpose o" the Fourth Amendment to *sa"eguar, the pri.acy an, security o" in,i.i,uals against arbitrary in.asions by go.ern(ent o""icials./ (Camera $# %unicipa" Court (1&52) 3#2 4.S. $23- $2# 61# 7.8,.2n, &30- &3$9.) 4se o" the e?clusionary rule is a pre"erable sanction o.er outright ,is(issal o" a case (United States $# Struc(man (&th Cir. 2010) 511 B.3r, $50- $23%$2#: noting that ,is(issal un,er a court s *inherent super.isory po0ers/ (ight be appropriate i" necessary to (1) i(ple(ent a re(e,y "or the .iolation o" a recogni;e, statutory or constitutional right: (2) preser.e Cu,icial integrity by ensuring 2
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that a con.iction rests on appropriate consi,erations .ali,ly be"ore a Cury: an, (3) ,eter "uture illegal con,uct- but e.en then- only a"ter the ,e"en,ant ,e(onstrates su""icient preCu,ice. ) *(+)he e?clusionary rule is not an in,i.i,ual right an, applies only 0here it Aresult6s9 in appreciable ,eterrence.D (Citation)/ (0errin1 $# United States (200&) 1$$ 4.S. 13$- 131 6122 7.8,.2n, 3&59) See Remedy for Violations: The *Exclusionary Rule-/ un,er * earches and eizures-/ belo0. The Rule of Reasonableness) An other0ise la0"ul sei;ure can .iolate the Fourth Amendment if
it is executed in an unreasonable manner. (United States v. Alverez-Tejeda (9th Cir. 2007) 3&1 B.3r, 1013- citing United States v. Jacobsen (1984) 466 U. . 109! 124 "80 #.$d.2d 8%&.)

Ehile a parolee is subCect to search or sei;ure 0ithout probable cause or e.en a reasonable suspicion- searching hi( (ay still be illegal i" ,one in an unreasonable (annersuch as by a strip search in a public place. ( ee )eop"e $# Smith (200&) 122 Cal.App.3th 13$3: checFing ,e"en,ant s crotch area "or ,rugs- 0hile shiel,e, "ro( the public- hel, not to be a strip search an, not unreasonable.) Pri!ate Persons and the Exclusionary Rule) 8.i,ence illegally obtaine, by pri.ate persons- acting in a pri.ate capacity- is not subCect to the 8?clusionary Rule. (See /rauss $# Superior Court (1&21) $ Cal.3r, 31#- 321: )eop"e $# North (1&#1) 2& Cal.3r, $0&- $13: *ones $# /mart Corp# (1&&#) 12 Cal.App.3th 32&- 332.) 8.en a peace o""icer- 0hen o""%,uty an, acting in a pri.ate capacity- (ay be "oun, to ha.e acte, as a pri.ate citi;en. (See )eop"e $# -achter (1&25) $# Cal.App.3r, &11- &20&22.) A ci.il rights action pursuant to 42 !S!C! 1"#3 0as hel, to be proper against non%la0 en"orce(ent e(ployees o" a pri.ate corporation that operate, a "e,eral prison un,er contract. ()o""ard $# GEO Group, Inc# (&th Cir. 2010) 502 B.3r, $#3.)

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"imited #se of the Exclusionary Rule) +he 8?clusionary Rule is not inten,e, to pre.ent all police (iscon,uct or as a re(e,y "or all police errors. *The use of the exclusionary rule is an exceptional remedy typically reser!ed for !iolations of constitutional rights./ (United States $# Smith (&th Cir. 1&&&) 1&5 B.3r, 1033- 1030.) *+o trigger the e?clusionary rule- police con,uct (ust be su""iciently ,eliberate that e?clusion can (eaning"ully ,eter it- an, su""iciently culpable that such ,eterrence is 0orth the price pai, by the Custice syste(./ (0errin1 $# United States (200&) $$$ 4.S. 13$- 133 6122 7.8,.2n, 3&59: see also )eop"e $# 2ea" (200&) 12# Cal.App.3th 1021- 1053%105$.) +he e?clusionary rule shoul, only be use, 0hen necessary to ,eter *,eliberate- recFless- or grossly negligent con,uct- or in so(e circu(stances- recurring or syste(atic negligence./ (0errin1 $# United States- supra- at p. 133 6122 7.8,.2n, at p. $02.9 Gut- o""icers 0ho tooF 25H hours to obtain a search 0arrant "or a resi,ence 0hile the resi,ence 0as *,etaine,/ (i.e.- the occupant 0as Fept "ro( reentering)- "ailing to recogni;e that they 0ere re@uire, to act 0ith ,ue ,iligence an, to e?pe,ite the process- 0ere not e?cuse, by the rule o" 0errin1. +he resulting e.i,ence- there"ore- 0as subCect to e?clusion. (United States $# Cho (&th Cir. 2010) $&2 B.3r, &&$- 1003%1005.) See United States $# %on1hur (&th Cir. 200&) $25 B.3r, 100#0here a case in.ol.ing the illegal 0arrantless search o" a container 0as re(an,e, "or a ,eter(ination o" 0hether the e?clusionary rule re@uire, the suppression o" the gun "oun, in that container. 1llegally collecting bloo, sa(ples "ro( ,e"en,ant- (istaFenly belie.ing that he @uali"ie, un,er the ne0ly enacte, $%A and Forensic Identification $ata &ase and $ata &an' Act of 1""# ((!C! 2") et se*!)- e.en i" it 0as a Fourth Amendment .iolation to ,o so- ,i, not re@uire the suppression o" the results in that the (istaFe 0as not intentional- recFless- the results o" gross negligence- nor o" recurring or syste(atic negligence. ()eop"e $# Ro.inson (2010) 32 Cal.3th 1103- 1123%112&.) Searches con,ucte, in obCecti.ely reasonable reliance (i.e.- *goo, "aith/) on bin,ing appellate prece,ent in e""ect at the ti(e o" the search- ,espite a later ,ecision changing the rules- are not subCect 3
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to the 8?clusionary Rule. +Da$is $# United States (June 15- 2011) >> 4.S. >> 6131 S.Ct. 231&- 2323%2323: 1#0 7.8,.2n, 2#$9.) Gut by the sa(e toFen- not all courts are in agree(ent that the e?clusionary rule is reser.e, e?clusi.ely "or constitutional .iolations. (See ,iscussion in United States $# 2om.era3 Camor"in1a (&th Cir. 2000) 205 B.3r, ##2- ##5%##2- an, in the ,issenting opinion- p. #&3.) A ci.il rights *action under (42 U.S.C.) section 1983
'encom(asses )iolations of federal statutor* la+ as +ell as constitutional la+., (Maine v. Thiboutot (1980) 448 U. . 1! 4! . . . 6% #.$d.2nd %%%.) -hus! section 1983 ma* be used to enforce ri.hts created b* both the United States Constitution and federal statutes. (Gonzaga University v. Doe (2002) %/6 U. . 27/! 279! . . . . 1%/ #.$d.2nd /09.) 0ut conduct b* an official that )iolates onl* state la+ +ill not su((ort a claim under section 1983. (Malek v. aun (10th Cir. 1994) 26 1./rd 101/! 10162 . . .)3 (!itschel v. "ity o# $ountain %alley (200%) 1/7 Cal.4((.4th 107! 116.)

Ehile a state (ay i(pose stricter stan,ar,s on la0 en"orce(ent in interpreting its o0n state constitution (i.e.- *independent state grounds/)- a prosecution in "e,eral court is gui,e, by the "e,eral interpretation o" the Fourth Amendment an, is not re@uire, to use the state s stricter stan,ar,s. (United States $# ro.st (&th Cir. 200&) $$# B.3r, &#2- &#&%&&1- &&2.) 8.i,ence obtaine, in .iolation o" so(eone else s (i.e.- so(eone other than the present ,e"en,ant s) Fourth Amendment (search an, sei;ure) rights may be used as part o" the probable cause in a search 0arrant a""i,a.it- unless the ,e"en,ant can sho0 that he has *standing/ (i.e.- it 0as his reasonable e?pectation o" pri.acy that 0as .iolate,) to challenge the use o" the e.i,ence. ()eop"e $# %adrid (1&&2) 2 Cal.App.3th 1###- 1#&5.) ee * earches and eizures-/ *Remedy for Violations: The AExclusionary Rule- / belo0. Rule of Exclusion) *8.i,ence 0hich is obtaine, as a ,irect result o" an illegal search an, sei;ure (ay not be use, to establish probable cause "or a subse@uent search./ (United States $# -an"ess (&th Cir. 1&#&) ##2 B.2n, 13$&- 135$: see * earches and eizures-/ *Remedies for Violations-/ belo0.)

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1n the i((ortal 0or,s o" the Ionorable Justice $en%amin &ardozo) *The criminal is to go free because the constable has blundered./ ()eop"e $# De'ore (1&25) 232 J.K. 13- 21 61$0 J.8. $#$- $#29.) +his inclu,es *!erbal e!idence-/ (i.e.- a suspect s a,(issions or con"ession)- 0hen obtaine, as a ,irect pro,uct o" an illegal ,etention- arrest or search. (See United States $# Cre,s (&th Cir. 2002) $02 B.3r, 1130- 113$.) 'llegal Detention) As a *seizure/ o" one s person- the pro,ucts o" an illegal ,etention are subCect to being suppresse, un,er the e?clusionary rule. (See )eop"e $# /rohn (2002) 13& Cal.App.3th 12&3: ,etaining ,e"en,ant "or ,rinFing in public- 0hen he 0as not in a public place- is an illegal ,etention an, re@uires the suppression o" the controlle, substances "oun, on his person in a subse@uent consensual search.) De"en,ant s argu(ent that his consent to search 0as the pro,uct o" an illegal ,etention 0as reCecte,- although the Court note, that ha, he been illegally ,etaine,- the pro,ucts o" that ,etention (inclu,ing his consent to search) 0oul, ha.e been subCect to suppression. ()eop"e $# 4amudio (200#) 33 Cal.3th 322- 330%335.) (ruit of the Poisonous Tree) 1n ,eter(ining 0here the line is bet0een the ,irect pro,ucts o" an illegal search (0hich 0ill liFely be suppresse,) an, that 0hich is not the *fruit of the poisonous tree/ (0hich 0ill not be suppresse,)- the Court rule, that the "ollo0ing "actors are rele.ant) (1) +he te(poral pro?i(ity o" the Bourth A(en,(ent search an, sei;ure .iolation to the ulti(ate procure(ent o" the challenge, e.i,ence: (2) the presence o" inter.ening circu(stances: an, (3) the "lagrancy o" the o""icial (iscon,uct. ()eop"e $# Rodri1ue5 (2005) 133 Cal.App.3th 1132.) 4sing the abo.e "actors- the "act that the ,e"en,ant ha, an outstan,ing arrest 0arrant (ay- ,epen,ing upon the circu(stances- be su""icient o" an inter.ening circu(stance to allo0 "or the a,(issibility o" the e.i,ence sei;e, inci,ent to arrest ,espite the "act that the original ,etention 0as illegal. ()eop"e $# rend"in (200#) 3$ Cal.3th 252: an illegal tra""ic stop.) Gut- per the Jinth Circuit- e.en though the *"ruit o" the poisonous tree/ ,octrine ,oes not apply to the la0"ul search o" a resi,ence a"ter the house 0as *,etaine,/ "or an unreasonable ti(e 0hile a search 0arrant 0as obtaine,- the 5
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resulting e.i,ence reco.ere, "ro( the resi,ence 0hen the ho(e 0as searche, 0ith the 0arrant 0ill be suppresse, any0ay in that the o""icers 0ere not acting reasonably in taFing 25H hours to get the 0arrant- an, so(e punish(ent (ust "ollo0 such an unreasonable ,elay. (United States $# Cha (&th Cir. 2010) $&2 B.3r, &&$- 1003%1003.) See *(ruit of The Poisonous Tree-/ un,er * earch and eizure-/ belo0. Federa" Ru"es o' E$idence, Ru"e 678) *All rele.ant e.i,ence is a,(issible- e?cept as other0ise pro.i,e, by) Exceptions) &alifornia)s Exclusionary Rule) Cal! Const!, Art I, 2#+d,- the *Truth in E!idence/ pro.isions o" (ro-osition # (passe, in June- 1&#2)- abrogate, Cali"ornia s *independent state grounds/ theory o" e?clusion- lea.ing the nited States Constitution an, its a(en,(ents as the sole basis "or i(posing an *Exclusionary Rule/ on the a,(issibility o" e.i,ence. (In re 2ance -# (1&#$) 32 Cal.3r, #23: )eop"e $# Gutierre5 (1&#3) 153 Cal.App.3r, 332- 333.) Defendant and His 'dentity) 1t is a rule o" la0 that neither a defendant)s body nor his or her identity is subCect to suppression- *e.en i" it is conce,e, that an unla0"ul arrestsearch- or interrogation occurre,./ (Immi1ration and Natura"i5ation Ser$ice $# 2ope53%endo5a (1&#3) 35# 4.S. 1032- 103&%1030 6#2 7.8,.2n, 22#9.) Bor purposes o" this rule- it (aFes no ,i""erence that the illegal arrest- search or interrogation 0as *egregious/ in nature. (8.g.- the result o" *racial profiling./) (United States $# Gudino (&th Cir. 2003) 325 B.3r, &&2.) 2
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+he Constitution o" the 4nite, States: Act o" Congress: +hese rules: or !ther rules prescribe, by the Supre(e Court pursuant to statutory authority./

1t is illegal to resist any arrest or ,etention by a peace o""icer- e.en i" it is ,eter(ine, to be an illegal arrest or ,etention. (E$ans $# Cit& o' a(ers'ie"d (1&&3) 22 Cal.App.3th 321.) +he person illegally arreste, or ,etaine, has a ci.il re(e,y against the o""en,ing o""icer(s). (See 42 !S!C! 1"#3) earches by (oreign Entities) +he Fourth Amendment.s e?clusionary rule ,oes not apply to "oreign searches an, sei;ures unless the con,uct o" the "oreign police shocFs the Cu,icial conscience or the A(erican la0 en"orce(ent o""icers participate, in the "oreign search or the "oreign o""icers acte, as agents "or the A(erican o""icers. (United States $# 9a"di$ia (1st Cir. 2012) 5#0 B.3r, 33- $1%$2.) 'mpeachment E!idence) *lso- e.i,ence illegally sei;e, (ay be intro,uce, "or the purpose of impeaching the ,e"en,ant s testi(ony gi.en in both ,irect e?a(ination (-a"der $# United States (1&$3) 332 4.S 52 6&# 7.8,. $039.) an, cross%e?a(ination- so long as the cross% e?a(ination @uestions are other0ise proper. (United States $# 0a$ens (1&#0) 335 4.S. 520 653 7.8,.2n, $$&9.) Cali"ornia authority prior to passage o" (ro-osition # (+he *Truth in E!idence 'nitiati!e/)- to the e""ect that e.i,ence suppresse, pursuant to a (otion brought un,er authority o" (!C! 1)3#!) is suppresse, "or all purposes (i.e.- )eop"e $# e""eci (1&2&) 23 Cal.3r, #2&- ##2%###.)- 0as abrogate, by (ro-osition #. Jo0- it is clear that suppresse, e.i,ence (ay be use, "or purposes o" i(peach(ent shoul, the ,e"en,ant testi"y an, lie. ()eop"e $# %oore (1&##) 201 Cal.App.3r, #22- ##3%##5.) Also- suppresse, e.i,ence pursuant to (!C! 1)3#!)+d, is a,(issible at the ,e"en,ant s probation re.ocation hearing unless the o""icer s actions 0ere egregious. *(+)he e?clusionary rule ,oes not apply in probation re.ocation hearings- unless the police con,uct at issue shocFs the conscience./ (Citations o(itte,: )eop"e $# 2a5"o (2012) 205 Cal.App.3th 1053- 105#%1022.)

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Io0e.er- inculpatory state(ents (a,e by the ,e"en,ant but suppresse, as a pro,uct o" the ,e"en,ant s illegal arrest may not be use, to i(peach other ,e"ense 0itnesses. (*ames $# I""inois (1&&0) 3&3 4.S. 302- 313%315 6102 7.8,.2n, 5259.) +ew &rimes &ommitted in Response to an 'llegal Detention or *rrest) Ehether or not a ,etention or an arrest is la0"ul- a suspect is not i((uni;e, "ro( prosecution "or any ne0 cri(es he (ight co((it against the o""icer in response. A ,e"en,ant s .iolent response to an unla0"ul ,etention- such as assaulting a police o""icer(ay still be the source o" cri(inal charges. A suspect has a ,uty to cooperate 0ith la0 en"orce(ent 0hether or not an atte(pt to ,etain or arrest hi( is later hel, to be in .iolation o" the Fourth Amendment. (In re Richard G# (200&) 123 Cal.App.3th 12$2- 1250%1253.) earches $ased #pon Existing Precedent) Searches con,ucte, in obCecti.ely reasonable reliance on bin,ing appellate prece,ent in e""ect at the ti(e o" the search,espite a later ,ecision changing the rules- are not subCect to the 8?clusionary Rule. +Da$is $# United States (June 152011) >> 4.S. >> 6131 S.Ct. 231&- 2323%2323: 1#0 7.8,.2n, 2#$9.) The *,inimal 'ntrusion Doctrine)/ Cali"ornia s Birst District Court o" Appeal (Di.. $) has "oun, this theory to be a 0hole separate e?ception to the search 0arrant re@uire(ent- calling it the *,inimal 'ntrusion Exception./ ()eop"e $# Ro.inson (2012) 20# Cal.App.3th 232- 235%2$$: the insertion an, turning o" a Fey in a ,oor locF: citing I""inois $# %cArthur (2001) $31 4.S. 325- 330 613# 7.8,.2n, #3#9.) *+he (ini(al intrusion e?ception to the 0arrant re@uire(ent rests on the conclusion that in a .ery narro0 class o" Asearches the pri.acy interests i(plicate, are Aso s(all that the o""icers ,o not nee, probable cause: "or the search to be reasonable./ ()eop"e $# Ro.inson- supra- at p. 232.) See *,inimal 'ntrusion Exception-/ belo0. &
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Expectation of Pri!acy) Ehether a search or sei;ure is *unreasonable/ un,er the Fourth Amendment- an, there"ore re@uires the e?clusion o" e.i,ence obtaine, thereby- turns on *0hether a person has a constitutionally protecte, reasonable expectation of pri!acy- that is0hether he or she has (ani"este, a sub%ecti!e expectation of pri!acy in the obCect o" the challenge, search (or sei;ure) that society is 0illing to recogni;e as reasonable./ (Emphasis added: )eop"e $# Ro."es (2000) 23 Cal.3th 2#&- 2&3.) +he 4nite, States Supre(e Court has hel,) *!ur Fourth Amendment analysis e(braces t0o @uestions. Birst- 0e asF 0hether the in,i.i,ual- by his con,uct- has e?hibite, an actual expectation of pri!acy: that is- 0hether he has sho0n that Ahe 6sought9 to preser.e 6so(ething9 as pri.ate. 6Citation.9 . . . Secon,- 0e in@uire 0hether the in,i.i,ual s e?pectation o" pri.acy is Aone that society is prepare, to recogni;e as reasonable. 6Citation- "n. o(itte,.9/ ( ond $# United States (2000) $2& 4.S. 333- 33# 6120 S. Ct. 1352- 135$- 135 7. 8,. 2, 35$- 3209: see also )eop"e $# %aur& (2003) 30 Cal.3th 332- 3#3.) Example) A hotline "or citi;ens to call in tips on cri(inal acti.itya,.ertise, as guaranteeing the caller s anony(ity- ,oes not create a constitutionally protecte, reasonable e?pectation o" pri.acy in either the caller s i,entity or the in"or(ation pro.i,e,. 1t 0as e?pecte, that the in"or(ation 0oul, be passe, onto la0 en"orce(ent. +he caller in this case beca(e the suspect in the allege, cri(es- thus negating any reasonable e?pectation to belie.e that the police 0oul, not ,eter(ine an, use his i,entity in the in.estigation. ()eop"e $# %aur&- supra- at pp. 3#1%303.) A ,e"en,ant has the bur,en o" pro.ing that he ha, stan,ing to contest a 0arrantless search. 1n other 0or,s- he (ust "irst pro.e that he ha, a reasonable e?pectation o" pri.acy in the areas searche,. A person seeFing to in.oFe the protection o" the Bourth A(en,(ent (ust ,e(onstrate both that he harbore, a subCecti.e (i.e.- in his o0n (in,) e?pectation o" pri.acy an, that the e?pectation 0as obCecti.ely reasonable. An obCecti.ely reasonable e?pectation o" pri.acy is one that society is 0illing to recogni;e as reasonable. A(ong the "actors consi,ere, in (aFing this ,eter(ination are 0hether a ,e"en,ant has a possessory interest in the thing sei;e, or place searche,: 0hether he has the right to e?clu,e others "ro( that place: 0hether he has e?hibite, a subCecti.e e?pectation that it 0oul, re(ain "ree "ro( go.ern(ental in.asion: 0hether he tooF nor(al precautions to (aintain his pri.acy: an, 0hether he 0as legiti(ately on the pre(ises. ()eop"e $# Nishi (-./-0 -.1 &al2*pp23th 453, 45464789 defendant 10
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held to not ha!e an expectation of pri!acy in his tent on public land without a permit, nor the area around his tent20 See * tanding-/ un,er * earches and eizures-/ belo0. :u!enile &ases) +his sa(e exclusionary rule applies to Cu.enile procee,ings that are "ile, pursuant to the /elfare and Institutions Code. (In re -i""iam G# (1&#$) 30 Cal.3r, $$0- $52- "n. 12: In re T&re"" *# (1&&3) # Cal.3th 5#- 2$%25.) ;n *ppeal) Denial o" a (otion to suppress e.i,ence is re.ie0e, by an appellate court *de no!o./ (United States $# autista (&th Cir. 2003) 352 B.3r, $#3- $##%$#&.) Case Authorit&: The &ourts) ;rder of Priority) Be,eral an, Cali"ornia la0 is cite, in this outline. 1n re.ie0ing the cases liste,- it (ust be re(e(bere, that tactical ,ecisions an, actions o" state an, local la0 en"orce(ent o""icers- as 0ell as state an, local prosecutors- are boun,- an, (ust be gui,e,- in order of priority- by the ,ecisions o") +he #nited tates upreme &ourt +he &alifornia upreme &ourt +he .arious state District &ourts of *ppeal (Districts 1 through 5) +he .arious state *ppellate Departments of the uperior &ourt !pinions o" the &alifornia *ttorney <eneral +he +inth &ircuit &ourt of *ppeal All other (ederal &ircuit &ourts of *ppeal +he (ederal District &ourts Decisions "ro( other states.

Decisions from the #nited tates upreme &ourt) Cali"ornia s courtsinterpreting the !S! Constitution- "e,eral statutes- etc.- (ust abi,e by ,ecisions in prior cases 0hen base, upon si(ilar "acts as announce, by the 4.S. Supre(e Court. (Auto E:uit& Sa"es $# Superior Court (1&52) $2 Cal.2n, 3$0- 3$3- 3$5.) +he nited States Constitution is the * upreme "aw of the "andan, there"ore taFes prece,ence o.er any contrary rules "ro( the states. ( !S! Const! Art 0I, clause 2) *+his Constitution- an, the la0s o" the 4nite, States 0hich shall be (a,e in pursuance thereo": an, all treaties (a,e- or 0hich shall be (a,e- un,er the authority o" the 4nite, States- shall be the supre(e la0 o" the lan,: an, the 11
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Ju,ges in e.ery State shall be boun, thereby- anything in the Constitution or la0s o" any State to the contrary not0ithstan,ing./) See also Cal! Const!, Art! III, 1) *+he State o" Cali"ornia is an inseparable part o" the 4nite, States o" A(erica- an, the 4nite, States Constitution is the supre(e la0 o" the lan,./ *1 "ully recogni;e that un,er the ,octrine o" stare ,ecisis- 1 (ust "ollo0 the rulings o" the Supre(e Court- an, i" that court 0ishes to Cu(p o"" a "igurati.e Pali- 1- le((ing%liFe- (ust leap right a"ter it. Io0e.er- 1 reser.e (y First Amendment right to FicF an, screa( on (y 0ay ,o0n to the rocFs belo0./ ()eop"e $# %usante (1&#0) 102 Cal.App.3, 1$5- 1$&: conc. opn. o" Lar,ner- P.J.) Decisions from lower (ederal &ourts) Decisions o" the (ederal District (i.e.- trial) &ourts- an, federal &ircuit &ourts of *ppeal (inclu,ing the Jinth Circuit Court o" Appeal)- 0hile entitle, to *great weight-/ are consi,ere, to be *persuasi!e/ only- an, are not controlling in Cali"ornia state courts. (Ra$en $# Deu(me;ian (1&&0) $2 Cal.3r, 335- 3$2: )eop"e $# rad"e& (1&5&) 1 Cal.3r, #0- #5: In re T&re"" *# (1&&3) # Cal.3th 5#- 2&: C"ar( $# %urph& (&th Cir. 2003) 312 B.3r, 103#- 1033: Tully !2 =orld a!ings > "oan *ssn2 (1&&2) $5 Cal.App.3th 5$3- 553.) tate &ourt 'nterpretation ta?ing Precedence) Bor state an, local la0 en"orce(ent o""icers- a state court interpretation o" the .arious Fourth Amendment rules 0ill taFe prece,ence o.er (ederal District (i.e.- trial) an, &ircuit &ourt of *ppeal ,ecisions. (See )eop"e $# %idd"eton (200$) 131 Cal.App.3th 232- 23#- "n. 3.) Io0e.er- "e,eral ,ecisions cannot be ignore,. 8.en purely state cases (ay e.entually en, out in a "e,eral court- 0here "e,eral rules 0ill be applie,- through a =rit of Habeas &orpus or in a ci.il rights la0suit pursuant to 42 !S!C! 1"#3. *A "e,eral court (ay grant habeas relie" to a state prisoner i" a state court s a,Cu,ication o" his constitutional clai( 0as Acontrary to- or in.ol.e, an unreasonable application o"- clearly establishe, Be,eral la0- as ,eter(ine, by the Supre(e Court o" the 4nite, States. / (%idd"eton $# %cNei" (2003) $31 4.S. 333- 335 61$# 7.8,.2n, 2019: citing 2# !S!C! 22)4+d,+1,.) Title 42 nited States Code 1"#3: Pro.i,es "or federal ci!il liability "or *8.ery person 0ho- un,er color o" any 12
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statute- or,inance- regulation- custo(- or usage- o" any State . . ./ subCects- or causes to be subCecte, any person 0ithin the 4nite, States to the ,epri.ation o" any rightspri.ileges- or i((unities secure, by the 4nite, States Constitution an, la0s. Decisions (rom ;ther tates) Cali"ornia courts are not boun, by case ,ecisions "ro( other states (*#C# )enne& Casua"t& Ins# Co# $# %#/# (1&&1) $2 Cal.3r, 100&- 1022.), although 0e (ay consi,er the( absent any ,irect Cali"ornia case la0 on the issue. ()eop"e $# 9a"encia (2011) 201 Cal.App.3th &22- &32.) Ehere *no Cali"ornia cases ha.e ,eci,e, the issue presente,- 0e (ay looF to other Curis,ictions "or gui,ance./ (Rappaport $# Ge"'and (2011) 1&2 Cal.App.3th 12131222.) ;pinions of the &alifornia *ttorney <eneral) A publishe, opinion o" the Cali"ornia Attorney Leneral is apparently on about e@ual "ooting 0ith "e,eral appellate court ,ecisions- it ha.ing been hel, that these opinions are *entitled to great weight in the absence of controlling state statutes and court decisions/ to the contrary. ()h&"e $# Du''& (1&3#) 333 4.S. 331- 331 6&2 7.8,. 13&3- 1$009.) =rit of Habeas &orpus) Ehen a ,e"en,ant clai(s to be in actual or constructi.e custo,y in .iolation o" the nited States Constitution (e.g.- as the result o" a Fourth Amendment .iolation)- a =rit of Habeas &orpus "ile, in state ((!C! 1413 et se*!) or "e,eral (2# !S!C! 22)4) court (see -ri1ht $# -est (1&&2) $0$ 4.S. 222 6120 7.8,.2n, 22$9.) is the .ehicle by 0hich he or she (ay test the issue. Ehen a habeas corpus re(e,y is sought in "e,eral courtthe 4nite, States Supre(e Court has note, that) *(E)here the State has pro.i,e, an opportunity "or "ull an, "air litigation o" a Fourth Amendment clai(- a state prisoner may not be grante, "e,eral habeas corpus relie" on the groun, that e.i,ence obtaine, in an unconstitutional search or sei;ure 0as intro,uce, at his trial./ ("ns. o(itte,: Stone $# )o,e"" (1&25) 32# 4.S. 35$- 3&3 63& 7.8,.2n, 105210##9: see also A""en $# %cCurr& (1&#0) 33& 4.S. &0 655 7.8,.2n, 30#9.) Also- pursuant to 2# !S!C! 22)4+d,- a "e,eral court *(ay not grant habeas relie" "ro( a state court con.iction unless the state court procee,ings 0ere Acontrary to- or 13
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in.ol.e, an unreasonable application o"- clearly establishe, Be,eral la0- as ,eter(ine, by the Supre(e Court o" the 4nite, States6-9 or i" the state court s conclusions 0ere Abase, on an unreasonable ,eter(ination o" the "acts in light o" the e.i,ence presente, in the State court procee,ings. / (*ac(son $# Giur.ino (&th Cir. 2003) 353 B.3r, 1002- @uoting /i""ian $# )oo"e (&th Cir. 2002) 2#2 B.3r, 1203- 1202.) The Out"ine: +he "ollo0ing- throughout this !utline- are the rules ,e.elope, by the courts "or the purpose o" protecting society s reasonable pri.acy e?pectations an, e""ectuating the purposes o" the Fourth Amendment. )o"ice3Citi5en Contacts) Contacts bet0een la0 en"orce(ent o""icers an, pri.ate in,i.i,uals can be broFen ,o0n into three ,istinct situations) (See F"orida $# Ro&er (1&#3) 350 4.S. 3&1 62$ 7.8,.2n, 22&9: In re *ames D# (1&#2) 33 Cal.3r, &03- &11%&12: In re %anua" G# (1&&2) 15 Cal.3th #0$#21: )eop"e $# 0u1hes (2002) 22 Cal.3th 2#2- 322%32#.)) &onsensual Encounters2 Detentions2 *rrests2

Other Topics: +reate, separately are issues in.ol.ing) earches and eizures2 earches with a earch =arrant2 earches of Persons2 earches of Vehicles2 earches of Residences and ;ther $uildings2 +ew "aw Enforcement Technology2 ;pen (ields2 earches of &ontainers2 $order earches2 (ourth =ai!er earches2 &onsent earches2

13
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Chapter 8
Consensua" Encounters) Genera" Ru"e) Contrary to a not unco((only hel, belie" that la0 en"orce(ent contacts 0ith pri.ate citi;ens re@uire so(e articulable reason to be la0"ul- it is a general rule that any peace o""icer (ay approach an, contact any person in publicor any0here else the o""icer has a legal right to be- an, engage that person in con.ersation. (-i"son $# Superior Court (1&#3) 33 Cal.3r, 222.) Jo *probable cause/ or e.en a *reasonable suspicion/ is nee,e,. (See belo0) +he la0 ,oes not prohibit an o""icer "ro( approaching any person in a public place an, engaging that person in uncoerce, con.ersation. ()eop"e $# Di$ito (1&#3) 1$2 Cal.App.3r, 11- 13: F"orida $# Ro&er (1&#3) 350 4.S. 3&1 62$ 7.8,.2n, 22&9.) *(7)a0 en"orce(ent o""icers ,o not .iolate the Fourth Amendment by (erely approaching an in,i.i,ual on the street or in another public place- by asFing hi( i" he is 0illing to ans0er so(e @uestions- (or) by putting @uestions to hi( i" the person is 0illing to listen./ (F"orida $# Ro&er- supra- at p. 3&2 62$ 7.8,.2n, at p. 2359.) 1t ,oes not beco(e a ,etention (see belo0) (erely because an o""icer approaches an in,i.i,ual on the street an, asFs a "e0 @uestions. (In re %anua" G# (1&&2) 15 Cal.3th #0$- #21.) $ut) +he person contacte, is "ree to lea.e an, nee, not respon, to an o""icer s in@uiries. (See belo0) Test) Eoul, a reasonable person un,er the sa(e or si(ilar circu(stances "eel that he or she is "ree to lea.eM (-i"son $# Superior Court, supra- at p. 2&0@uoting "ro( United States $# %endenha"" (1&#0) 335 4.S. $33- $$3 653 7.8,.2n, 3&2- $0&9: Des&""as $# ernstine (&th Cir. 2003) 3$1 B.3r, &33- &30: %artine53 %edina $# 0o"der (&th Cir 2010) 515 B.3r, 1011- 101$.) 1t is not 0hat the ,e"en,ant hi(sel" belie.es or shoul, belie.e. (In re %anua" G#, supra- at p. #21.) 1" a reasonable person 0oul, not "eel liFe he has a choice un,er the circu(stances- then the person contacte, is being detained- an, absent su""icient legal cause to ,etain the person- it is an illegal ,etention. ()eop"e $# ai"e& (1&#$) 125 Cal.App.3r, 302.) 1$
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*(+)he o""icer s unco((unicate, state o" (in, an, the in,i.i,ual citi;en s subCecti.e belie" are irrele.ant in assessing 0hether a sei;ure triggering Fourth Amendment scrutiny has occurre,. (In re Christopher # (1&&0) 21& Cal.App.3r, 3$$- 350.)/ (In re %anua" G#, supra- at p. #21 see also -hren $# United States (1&&5) $12 4.S. #05 613$ 7.8,.2n, #&9.) *+he test is necessarily i(precise because it is ,esigne, to assess the coerci.e e""ect o" police con,uct- taFen as a 0hole- rather than "ocus on particular ,etails o" that con,uct in isolation./ ()eop"e $# 9erin (1&&0) 220 Cal.App.3r, $$1 $$5.) +he *reasonable person/ test presupposes an *innocent person./ (F"orida $# ostic( (1&&1) $01 4.S. 32&- 33# 611$ 7.8,.2n, 3#&- 3009: United States $# Dra&ton (2002) $35 4.S. 1&3- 202 61$3 7.8,.2n, 232- 2$29.) +ote) Courts ten, to ignore the inherent coerci.eness o" a police uni"or( an,Nor ba,ge- an, the "act that (ost people are reluctant to ignore a police o""icer s @uestions. 2imitations) !b.iously- there being no *probable cause/ or *reasonable suspicion/ to belie.e any cri(inal acti.ity is occurring ,uring a consensual encounter- no search- "risF- or in.oluntary ,etention is allo0e, absent a,,itional in"or(ation a(ounting to at least a *reasonable suspicion/ to belie.e that the person contacte, is in.ol.e, in cri(inal acti.ity. (See belo0) &onsensual Encounters) 8le.ating a *consensual encounter/ into a *detention/ 0ithout legal cause (ay result in one or (ore o" the "ollo0ing legal conse@uences) Suppression o" any resulting e.i,ence un,er the *Exclusionary Rule./ (See *The Exclusionary Rule-/ abo.e.) Cri(inal prosecution o" the o""en,ing la0 en"orce(ent o""icer(s) "or "alse i(prison(ent- pursuant to (enal Code 232 an, 231. Ci.il liability an,Nor cri(inal prosecution "or .iolation o" the subCect s ci.il rights. (8.g.: (!C! 422!2- C!C! )2!1- 42 !S!C! 1"#3- 1# !S!C! 241- 242.) See *Consensua" Encounters $s# Detentions-/ belo0. No Detention) Consensual encounters (ay in.ol.e in!estigati!e functions 0ithout necessarily con.erting the contact into a ,etention or arrest. Examples) ;btaining personal identification information "ro( a person an, running a warrant chec?- so long as nothing is ,one 0hich 0oul, ha.e cause, a 15
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reasonable person to "eel that he 0as not "ree to lea.e- ,oes not- by itsel"con.ert the contact into a ,etention. ()eop"e $# ouser (1&&3) 25 Cal.App.3th 12#0: )eop"e $# Gon5a"e5 (1&#$) 153 Cal.App.3r, 11&3- 11&5% 11&2: F"orida $# Rodri1ue5 (1&#3) 35& 4.S. 1- $%5 6#3 7.8,.2n, 15$- 120% 1219: United States $# %endenha"" (1&#0) 335 4.S. $33 653 7.8,.2n, 3&29.) Howe!er- a person 0ho has been *consensually encountered/ onlynee, not i,enti"y hi(sel"- nor e.en talF to a police o""icer i" he so chooses. (/o"ender $# 2a,son (1&#3) 351 4.S. 3$2 62$ 7.8,.2n, &039: ro,n $# Te!as (1&2&) 333 4.S. 32- $2 651 7.8,.2n, 3$29.) *s?ing for identification- by itsel"- is not a ,etention. ()eop"e $# Ross (1&&0) 212 Cal.App.3r, #2&: )eop"e $# 2ope5 (1&#&) 212 Cal.App.3r, 2#&.) $ut: retaining the i,enti"ication longer than necessary is a ,etention- an, illegal unless supporte, by a reasonable suspicion the ,etainee is engage, in cri(inal con,uct. (United States $# Chan3*imene5 (&th Cir. 1&&2) 12$ B.3r, 1323) +he consent to search obtaine, ,uring this illegal ,etention- there"ore- 0as also illegal.) Tip) AsF "or i,enti"ication- trans"er the necessary in"or(ation to a notebooF 0ithout lea.ing the person s i((e,iate presence- an, pro(ptly return the i,enti"ication to the person. *(,)ere police @uestioning ,oes not constitute a sei;ure./ (Des&""as $# ernstine (&th Cir. 2003) 3$1 B.3r, &33- &30: @uoting F"orida $# ostic( (1&&1) $01 4.S. 32&- 333 611$ 7.8,.2n, 3#&- 3&#: %artine53%edina $# 0o"der (&th Cir 2010) 515 B.3r, 1011- 101$.) Contacting an, @uestioning a person 0ithout acting "orce"ully or aggressi.ely 0ill- in the absence o" any other "actors 0hich 0oul, ha.e in,icate, to a reasonable person that he 0as not "ree to lea.ebe a consensual encounter only. (United States $# Summers (&th Cir. 2001) 25# B.3r, 5#3- 5#5.) Lenerally- a con.ersation that is nonaccusatory- routine- an, brie"0ill not be hel, to be anything other than a consensual encounter. ()eop"e $# 0u1hes (2002) 22 Cal.3th 2#2- 32#.) =al?ing along with ()eop"e $# Capps (1&#&) 21$ Cal.App.3r, 1112.)- or dri!ing next to (%ichi1an $# Chesternut (1&##) 3#5 4.S. $52 6100 7.8,.2n, $5$9.)- a subCect 0hile asFing @uestions- but 0ithout inter"ering 0ith the person s progress- is not a ,etention. 12
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*s?ing a !ehicle passenger to step out of the !ehicle is not a ,etention. ()enns&"$ania $# %imms (1&22) 333 4.S. 105 6$3 7.8,.2n, 3319: )eop"e $# )adi""a (1&#2) 132 Cal.App.3r, $$$- $$2%$$#.) Gut see rend"in $# Ca"i'ornia (2002) $$1 4.S. 23& 615# 7.8,.2n, 1329- belo0. *s?ing a person to remo!e his hands from his poc?ets (,one "or o""icers sa"ety)- 0ithout e?hibiting a *sho0 o" authority such that (a person) reasonably (ight belie.e he ha, to co(ply-/ is not- necessarily- a ,etention. ()eop"e $# Fran("in (1&#2) 1&2 Cal.App.3r, &3$- &31: In re Fran( 9# (1&&1) 233 Cal.App.3r, 1232.) During a la0"ul search- although co((an,ing a person to sho0 his han,s is a *meaningful interference/ 0ith a person s "ree,o(an, thus technically a *seizure/ "or purposes o" the Fourth Amendment- it is such a *de minimus/ sei;ure that- 0hen balance, 0ith the nee, "or a police o""icer to protect hi(sel"- it is allo0e, un,er the Constitution. (United States $# Ens"in (&th Cir. 2003) 31$ B.3r, 120$- 121&%1222.) *(lashlighting/ or *spotlighting/ a person- by itsel"- is not a ,etention. ()eop"e $# Fran("in (1&#2) 1&2 Cal.App.3r, &3$: )eop"e $# Rico (1&2&) &2 Cal.App.3r, 123- 130.) Io0e.er- see )eop"e $# Garr& (2002) 1$5 Cal.App.3th 1100- 0here it 0as hel, to be a ,etention 0hen the o""icer spotlighte, the ,e"en,ant an, then 0alFe, *brisFly/ to0ar,s hi(- asFing hi( @uestions as he ,i, so. (See also *Detentions-/ belo0.) 'n@uiring into the contents of a sub%ect)s poc?ets ()eop"e $# Epperson (1&#5) 1#2 Cal.App.3r, 11#- 120.)- or as?ing if the person would submit to a search ()eop"e $# )ro'it (1&#5) 1#3 Cal.App.3r, #3&- #$2- #2&%##0: F"orida $# ostic( (1&&1) $01 4.S. 32& 611$ 7.8,.2n, 3#&9.)- ,oes not necessarily constitute a ,etention- so long as ,one in a (anner that a reasonable person 0oul, ha.e un,erstoo, that he is un,er no obligation to co(ply. * consensual transportation to the police station is not necessarily a ,etention. (In re Gi".ert R# (1&&3) 2$ Cal.App.3th 1121.) 'n@uiring into possible illegal acti!ity) A consensual encounter ,oes not beco(e a ,etention Cust because a police o""icer in@uires into possible illegal acti.ity ,uring an other0ise uninti(i,ating con.ersation. (United States $# A&on3%e5a (&th Cir. 1&&&) 122 B.3r, 1130.) 1#
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Displaying a badge- or e.en being armed- absent acti.e bran,ishing o" the 0eapon- 0ill not- by itsel"- con.ert a consensual encounter into a ,etention. (United States $# Dra&ton (2002) $35 4.S. 1&3 61$3 7.8,.2n, 2329.) &ontacts on buses- as long as con,ucte, in a non%coerci.e (anner- ,o not auto(atically beco(e a ,etention ,espite the relati.e con"ine(ent o" the bus. (United States $# Dra&ton- supra: F"orida $# ostic(- supra.: see belo0.) During a *?noc? and tal?)/ Contacting a person at the "ront ,oor o" their resi,ence- ,one in a non%coerci.e (anner- is not a ,etention. (United States $# Crapser (&th Cir. 2002) 322 B.3r, 1131- 113$%1132.) Drawing a person out of his residence by si(ply FnocFing at the ,oor an, then stepping to the si,e "or purposes o" insuring the o""icer s sa"ety) Jo ,etention 0hen the o""icers then contacte, hi( outsi,e. ()eop"e $# Co"t (2003) 11#- Cal.App.3th 1303- 1311: *+he o""icers ,i, not ,ra0 their 0eapons. (De"en,ant) 0as not surroun,e,. Jo one stoo, bet0een (,e"en,ant) an, the roo( ,oor. Jo one sai, that (,e"en,ant) 0as not "ree to lea.e./) Consensua" Encounters $s# Detentions) A consensual encounter may be ina,.ertently con.erte, into a ,etention by *any (or a co(bination o") the "ollo0ing) . . . . . . the presence o" se.eral o""icers. . . an o""icer s ,isplay o" a 0eapon. . . so(e physical touching o" the person- or . . . the use o" language or o" a tone o" .oice in,icating that co(pliance 0ith the o""icer s re@uest (ight be co(pelle,. 6Citations9/ (In re %anua" G# (1&&2) 15 Cal.3th #0$- #21.) +he Jinth Circuit Court o" Appeals has a,,e, se.eral other "actors to consi,er (United States $# -ashin1ton (&th Cir. 2002) 3&0 B.3r, 25$- 221% 222- citing Orhorha1he $# INS (&th Cir. 1&&3) 3# B.3r, 3##- 3&3%3&5.)) Ehether the encounter occurre, in a public or nonpublic setting. Ehether the o""icers in"or(e, the person o" his right to ter(inate the encounter. 1&
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A consensual encounter (ight also beco(e an unla0"ul arrest- i" ,one 0ithout probable cause. (See United States $# Red"i1htnin1 (&th Cir. 2010) 523 B.3r, 10&0- 1103%1105- a,,ing a consi,eration o" the act o" con"ronting the ,e"en,ant 0ith e.i,ence o" his guilt.) 1n United States $# -ashin1ton (&th Cir. 2002) 3&0 B.3r, 25$- the Jinth Circuit Court o" Appeal "oun, a ,etention 0hen t0o 0hite police o""icers ha, contact 0ith the GlacF ,e"en,ant late at night- an, then asFe, hi( "or consent to search. +he consensual encounter- ho0e.er- re.erte, to an illegal ,etention ,ue to the *authoritati.e/ (anner o" con,ucting the search- by 0alFing ,e"en,ant bacF to the patrol car- ha.ing hi( put his han,s on the patrol .ehicle 0hile "acing a0ay "ro( the o""icer- ,uring a pat,o0n- 0ith the secon, o""icer stan,ing bet0een hi( an, his car. 1t 0as also note, that the local *Police Gureau/ (in Portlan,- !regon) ha, publishe, a pa(phlet telling A"rican%A(ericans to sub(it to a search 0hen *or,ere,/ to ,o so by the police "ollo0ing se.eral instances o" 0hite police o""icers shooting GlacF citi;ens ,uring tra""ic stops. Speci'ic Issues) &ontacts on $uses) +he 4nite, States Supre(e Court has repeate,ly rule, that la0 en"orce(ent o""icers checFing buses "or i((igration or ,rug inter,iction purposes are not ,etaining the passengers 0hen the o""icers ,o no (ore than *asF @uestions o" an in,i.i,ual- asF to e?a(ine the in,i.i,ual s i,enti"ication- an, re@uest consent to search his or her luggage so long as the o""icers ,o not con.ey a (essage that co(pliance 0ith their re@uests is re@uire,./ +he "act that the contact tooF place in the cra(pe, con"ines o" a bus is but one "actor to consi,er in ,eter(ining 0hether the encounter 0as in "act a ,etention. (F"orida $# ostic( (1&&1) $01 4.S. 32& 611$ 7.8,.2n, 3#&9: United States $# Dra&ton (2002) $35 4.S. 1&3 61$3 7.8,.2n, 2329.) Io0e.er- the +inth &ircuit &ourt of *ppeal hel, to the contrary in a si(ilar circu(stance- 0ithout atte(pting to ,i""erentiate the "acts "ro( ostic( (the case being ,eci,e, be"ore Dra&ton)- "in,ing that the o""icers shoul, ha.e in"or(e, passengers that they 0ere not obligate, to speaF 0ith the o""icers. (United States $# Stephens (&th Cir. 2000) 205 B.3r, &13.) +he Supre(e Court in Dra&ton- supra- ho0e.er- has speci"ically hel, that it is not re@uire, that o""icers in"or( citi;ens o" their right to re"use 0hen the o""icer is seeFing per(ission to con,uct a 0arrantless consent search. (United States $# Dra&ton- supra.) 20
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+ote) 1t is @uestionable 0hether Stephens is goo, la0 in light o" ostic an, Dra&ton. (light) Rule) +he long%stan,ing rule has al0ays been that *flight alone-/ 0ithout other suspicions circu(stances- is not su""icient to Custi"y a ,etention. ()eop"e $# Sou5a (1&&3) & Cal.3th 223.) A .ehicle ,ri.er s apparent atte(pt to elu,e a police o""icer 0hen there is no legal Custi"ication "or (aFing a tra""ic stop- is not illegal in itsel" in that the ,ri.er is un,er no ,uty to stop. (2i.era" $# Estrada (&th Cir. 2011) 532 B.3r, 1053102#.) +ote) 1" a person (ay 0alF a0ay "ro( a consensual encounter- he or she (ay also lea.e at a "ull run. +he courts- state an, "e,eral- ha.e consistently hel, that this actby itsel"- is not suspicious enough to 0arrant a ,etention. Exceptions) Io0e.er- the 4.S. Supre(e Court has lo0ere, the bar a little by hol,ing that "light "ro( a *high narcotics area/ is su""icient in itsel" to Custi"y a te(porary ,etention (an, pat,o0n "or 0eapons). (I""inois $# -ard"o, (2000) $2# 4.S. 11& 613$ 7.8,.2n, $209.) Blight o" t0o people is (ore suspicious than one. A,,e, to this the "act that there appeare, to be ,rug paraphernalia on a table 0here the t0o persons ha, been sitting an, that ,e"en,ant 0as carrying so(ething in his han, as he "le,the o""icer ha, su""icient reasonable suspicion to ,etain hi(. ()eop"e $# ritton (2001) &1 Cal.App.3th 1112- 111#% 111&.) Stopping- ,etaining- an, patting ,o0n a Fno0n gang (e(ber- obser.e, running through tra""ic in a gang area0hile looFing bacF ner.ously as i" "leeing "ro( a cri(e (as either a .icti( or a perpetrator)- 0as hel, to be la0"ul. (In re 0#%# (200#) 152 Cal.App.3th 135.) !bser.ing ,e"en,ant an three others running ,o0n the street- carrying ru,i(entary 0eapons (i.e.- a bricF- rocF an, part o" a la(p)- in a gang area 0ith ,e"en,ant being 21
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recogni;e, as a (e(ber o" that gang- 0ith one o" the subCects yelling *He)s o!er there-/ an, another pointing up the street- 0as su""icient probable cause to arrest the subCects "or possession o" a ,ea,ly 0eapons "or the purpose o" co((itting an assault- per (!C! 12324 (no0 (!C! 11)33). (In re *#G# (2010) 1## Cal.App.3th 1$01.) +ossing an unFno0n obCect o.er a "ence ,uring a "oot pursuit- particularly 0hen this occurs i((e,iately a"ter ,e"en,ant ha, been seen in a .ehicle that ha, re"use, to stop- an, 0hich ,e"en,ant aban,one, ,uring a high spee, pursuit- is su""icient to Custi"y a ,etention. ()eop"e $# Rodri1ue5 (2012) 202 Cal.App.3th 1$30- 1$33.) +rying to catch a person 0ho runs "ro( a consensual encounter is not a constitutional issue until he is caught. A person is not actually ,etaine, (thus no Fourth Amendment .iolation) until he is either physically restraine, or sub(its to an o""icer s authority to ,etain hi(. (Ca"i'ornia $# 0odari D# (1&&1) 3&& 4.S. 521 6113 7.8,.2n, 5&09: *threatening an unlawful detention-/ by chasing a person 0ith 0ho( a consensual encounter ha, been atte(pte,- is not a constitutional .iolation in itsel". See also United States $# Smith (&th Cir. 2011) 533 B.3r, ##&.) Actions taFen by the subCect being chase,- such as ,ropping contraban, prior to being caught- 0ill- i" obser.e, by the pursuing o""icer- Custi"y the ,etention once the subCect is in "act caught. ()eop"e $# Rodri1ue5 (2012) 202 Cal.App.3th 1$30- 1$33%1$33.) De"en,ant 0ho re"use, to sub(it to an illegalsuspicionless ,etention- physically threatening the o""icer be"ore "leeing- coul, la0"ully be arreste, upon the (aFing o" the threat. +here"ore- arresting hi( a"ter a "oot pursuit 0as la0"ul. (United States $# Caseres (&th Cir. 200#) $33 B.3r, 1053- 105&.) Photographing ub%ects) A person 0ho e?poses his "acial "eatures- an,Nor bo,y in generalto the public- in a public place- has no reasonable e?pectation o" pri.acy in his appearance. ()eop"e $# enedict (1&5&) 2 Cal.App.3r, 300.) 1t is not- there"ore- a constitutional .iolation to photograph hi(- so long as he is not ,etaine, "or that purpose.

22
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See also )eop"e $# %aur& (2003) 30 Cal.3th 332- 3#3%3#$) *(+)he police sur.eillance an, photographing o" ,e"en,ant entering an, e?iting the ,rop%o"" point is not a subCect o" Fourth Amendment protection since ,e"en,ant Fno0ingly e?pose, his 0hereabouts in public./ $ut- see )eop"e $# Rodri1ue5 (1&&3) 21 Cal.App.3th 232- 23&: stopping and detaining gang (e(bers for the purpose of photographing the( is illegal 0ithout reasonable suspicion o" cri(inal acti.ity. Oerely being a (e(ber o" a gang- by itsel"- is not cause to ,etain. A pri.ate citi;en has a First Amendment right to .i,eotape public o""icials (i.e.- police o""icers) in a public place- an, the arrest o" the citi;en "or a Oassachusetts state 0iretapping .iolation .iolate, the citi;en s First an, Fourth Amendment rights. (G"i( $# Cunni''e (1st Cir. 2011) 5$$ B.3r, 2#- #2%#3.) See *Detentions-/ belo0. See also *Videotaping or Photographing-/ un,er *"aw Enforcement Technology-/ belo0. Anoc? and Tal?s) Ehere the o""icer does not ha.e probable cause prior to the contact (thus- he is not able to obtain a search 0arrant)- there is no constitutional i(pe,i(ent to con,ucting 0hat is Fno0n as a *?noc? and tal?:/ i.e.- (aFing contact 0ith the occupants o" a resi,ence "or the purpose o" asFing "or a consent to enter an,Nor to @uestion the occupants. (United States $# Cormier (&th Cir. 2000) 220 B.3r, 1103.) State authority si(ilarly uphol,s the practice. ()eop"e $# Co"t (2003) 11#- Cal.App.3th 1303- 1310%1311.) Contacting a person at the "ront ,oor o" their resi,ence- ,one in a non%coerci.e (anner- is not a ,etention. (United States $# Crapser (&th Cir. 2002) 322 B.3r, 1131- 113$%1132.) See also )eop"e $# %ichae" (1&$$) 3$ Cal.2n, 2$1- at page 2$30here the Cali"ornia Supre(e Court note, that) *1t is not unreasonable "or o""icers to seeF inter.ie0s 0ith suspects or 0itnesses or to call upon the( at their ho(es "or such purposes. Such in@uiries- although courteously (a,e an, not acco(panie, 0ith any assertion o" a right to enter or search or secure ans0ers0oul, per(it the cri(inal to ,e"eat his prosecution by .oluntarily re.ealing all o" the e.i,ence against hi( an, then conten,ing that 23
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he acte, only in response to an i(plie, assertion o" unla0"ul authority./ +he Fey to con,ucting a la0"ul *?noc? and tal?-/ 0hen there is no articulable suspicion that can be use, to Custi"y an *in!estigati!e detention-/ is 0hether *a reasonable person 0oul, "eel "ree Ato ,isregar, the police an, go about his business. / 6Citation9 1" sono articulable suspicion is re@uire, to (erely FnocF on the ,e"en,ant s ,oor an, in@uire o" hi( 0ho he is an,Nor to asF "or consent to search. ()eop"e $# *en(ins (2003) 11& Cal.App.3th 35#.) Gut see United States $# *ere5 (2th Cir. 1&&2) 10# B.3r, 5#3- 0here a si(ilar situation 0as hel, to constitute an *in!estigati!e detention-/ thus re@uiring an *articulable reasonable suspicion/ to be la0"ul- because the o""icers FnocFe, on the (otel roo( ,oor in the (i,,le o" the night continually "or a "ull three (inutes- 0hile co((an,ing the occupants to open the ,oor. An other0ise la0"ul *?noc? and tal?-/ 0here o""icers continue, to press the ,e"en,ant "or per(ission to enter his apart(ent a"ter his ,enial o" any illegal acti.ity- con.erte, the contact into an unla0"ully *e?ten,e,/ ,etention- causing the Court to conclu,e that a later consent%to%search 0as the pro,uct o" the illegal ,etention- an, thus in.ali,. (United States $# -ashin1ton (&th Cir. 2003) 3#2 B.3r, 1050.) +he in"or(ation (oti.ating an o""icer to con,uct a FnocF an, talF (ay be "ro( an anony(ous tipster. +here is no re@uire(ent that o""icers corroborate anony(ous in"or(ation be"ore con,ucting a FnocF an, talF. ()eop"e $# Ri$era (2002) 31 Cal.3th 303.) See *Anoc? and Tal?-/ belo0- un,er * earches of Residences and ;ther $uildings-/ belo0.

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Chapter <
Detentions) Genera" Ru"e) A police o""icer has the right to stop an, te(porarily ,etain so(eone "or in.estigation 0hene.er the o""icer has a *reasonable suspicion/ so(e cri(inal acti.ity is a"oot an, that the person was- . . . is- . . . or is about to be in.ol.e, in that cri(inal acti.ity. (Terr& $# Ohio (1&5#) 3&2 4.S. 1- 22 620 7.8,.2n, ##&- &0&9.) *6A9n in.estigati.e stop or ,etention pre,icate, on (ere curiosity- ru(oror hunch is unla0"ul- e.en though the o""icer (ay be acting in co(plete goo, "aith./ (In re Ton& C# (1&2#) 21 Cal.3r, ###- #&3.) A *stop and fris?/ is constitutionally per(issible i" t0o con,itions are (et) +he in.estigatory stop (ust be la0"ul: i.e.- 0hen a police o""icer reasonably suspects that the person apprehen,e, is co((itting or has co((itte, a cri(inal o""ense. +he police o""icer (ust reasonably suspect that the person stoppe, is ar(e, an, ,angerous. (Ari5ona $# *ohnson (200&) $$$ 4.S. 323 6122 7.8,.2n, 5&39.) Detentions are so(eti(es re"erre, to in the case la0 as si(ply an *in!estigati!e stop-/ particularly by the "e,eral courts. (See United States $# /im (&th Cir. 1&&3) 2$ B.3r, 1325: United States $# Summers (&th Cir. 2001) 25# B.3r, 5#3.) Purpose) A ,etention is allo0e, so a peace o""icer (ay ha.e a reasonable a(ount o" ti(e to in.estigate a person s possible in.ol.e(ent in an actual or percei.e, cri(inal act- allo0ing the o""icer to (aFe an in"or(e, ,ecision 0hether to arrest- or to release- the subCect. *An in.estigati.e ,etention (ust be te(porary an, last no longer than is necessary to e""ectuate the purpose o" the stop. Si(ilarly- the in.estigati.e (etho,s e(ploye, shoul, be the least intrusi.e (eans reasonably a.ailable to .eri"y or ,ispel the o""icer s suspicion in a short perio, o" ti(e./ (In re Antonio # (200#) 155 Cal.App.3th 33$- 330.) The plight and dangers o" a police o""icer on the street are not lost on the courts) 2$
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*(8).en 0hen a police o""icer is care"ul- he is still subCect to attacF. +he Cu,iciary shoul, not Alightly secon, guess an o""icer s ,ecision to con,uct a Astop an, "risF . . . . (P)olice o""icers (are) entitle, to protect the(sel.es ,uring a ,etention) A+his is a rule o" necessity to 0hich a right e.en as basic as that o" pri.acy (ust bo0. +o rule other0ise 0oul, be inhu(anely to a,, another ha;ar, to an alrea,y .ery ,angerous occupation. !ur ;eal to "en, o"" encroach(ents upon the right o" pri.acy (ust be te(pere, by re(e(brance that ours is a go.ern(ent o" la0s- to preser.e 0hich 0e re@uire la0 en"orce(entPli.e ones. Eithout beco(ing a police state- 0e (ay still protect the police(an s status. 6Citation o(itte,9/ (In re Richard G# (200&) 123 Cal.App.3th 12$2- 12$$.) Test) Lenerally- a person is ,etaine, i" a reasonable person- un,er the circu(stances- 0oul, ha.e Fno0n that he or she is not "ree to lea.e. ()eop"e $# Rios (2011) 1&3 Cal.App.3th $#3- $&2.) Howe!er- courts also consi,er the reasonableness o" the o""icer s actionsun,er the circu(stances- an, (ay "in, a ,etention only ,espite the suspect s reasonable belie" that he is un,er arrest. (See )eop"e $# )i"ster (2005) 13# Cal.App.3th 13&$- 1305- belo0.) +he "act that *an encounter is not a sei;ure 0hen a reasonable person 0oul, "eel "ree to lea.e ,o(es) not (ean that an encounter is a sei;ure Cust because a reasonable person 0oul, not "eel "ree to lea.e./ +here (ust be *an intentional ac@uisition o" physical control./ A ,etention occurs *only 0hen there is a go.ern(ental ter(ination o" "ree,o( o" (o.e(ent through means intentionally applied./ (United States $# Nasser (&th Cir. 200&) $$$ B.3r, 222: ,e"en,ant stoppe, his .ehicle on his o0n e.ent though Gor,er Patrol agents ha, not inten,e, to stop hi(. Resulting obser.ations- (a,e be"ore ,e"en,ant 0as ,etaine,- 0ere la0"ul.) A ,etention is a *seizure/ "or purposes o" the Fourth Amendment- an, occurs 0hene.er a la0 en"orce(ent o""icer- by (eans o" physical "orce or sho0 o" authority- in so(e 0ay restrains the liberty o" a citi;en. (F"orida $# ostic( (1&&1) $01 4.S. 32&- 333 611$ 7.8,.2n, 3#&- 3&#9: )eop"e $# Rios- supra.) *+he Fourth Amendment prohibits Aunreasonable searches an, sei;ures by the Lo.ern(ent- an, its protections e?ten, to brie" in.estigatory stops o" persons or .ehicles that "all short o" tra,itional arrest./ (United States $# Ar$i5u (2002) $33 4.S. 255223 61$1 7.8,.2n, 230- 23&9.) *A sei;ure o" the person 0ithin the (eaning o" the Fourth an, Fourteenth Amendments occurs 0hen AtaFing into account all the 25
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circu(stances surroun,ing the encounter- the police con,uct 0oul, *ha.e co((unicate, to a reasonable person that he 0as not at liberty to ignore the police presence an, go about his business./ 6Citations9/ (/aupp $# Te!as (2003) $3# 4.S. 525- 52& 61$$ 7.8,.2n, #13- #1&%#209.) A person is not actually ,etaine, (thus no Fourth Amendment issue) until he is either physically restraine, or sub(its to an o""icer s authority to ,etain hi(. (Ca"i'ornia $# 0odari D# (1&&1) 3&& 4.S. 521 6113 7.8,.2n, 5&09: *threatening an unlawful detention-/ by chasing a person upon 0ho( a consensual encounter is atte(pte,- is not a constitutional .iolation in itsel".) *A person is sei;e, by the police an, thus entitle, to challenge the go.ern(ent s action un,er the Fourth Amendment 0hen the o""icer Aby (eans o" physical "orce or sho0 o" authority Ater(inates or restrains his "ree,o( o" (o.e(ent. (Citations)/ ( rend"in $# Ca"i'ornia (2002) $$1 4.S. 23& 615# 7.8,.2n, 1329: )eop"e $# 4amudio (200#) 33 Cal.3th 322331%332.) Bactors to consi,er 0hen ,eter(ining 0hether a person has been ,etaine, inclu,e) +he nu(ber o" o""icers in.ol.e,. Ehether 0eapons 0ere ,isplaye,. Ehether the encounter occurre, in a public or nonpublic setting. Ehether the o""icers o""icious or authoritati.e (anner 0oul, i(ply that co(pliance 0oul, be co(pelle,. Ehether the o""ices a,.ise, the ,etainee o" his right to ter(inate the encounter. (Orhorha1he $# INS (&th Cir. 1&&3) 3# B.3r, 3##- 3&3%3&5: United States $# -ashin1ton (&th Cir. 2003) 3#2 B.3r, 1050- 105#: (United States $# ro,n (&th Cir. 200&) $53 B.3r, 310- 31$.) +ote ) ro,n is also instructi.e in ho0 re(o.ing so(e o" the abo.e liste, "actors can con.ert 0hat appeare, to be an arrest bacF into (erely a ,etention or e.en a consensual encounter: e.g.- putting the "irear(s a0ay- re(o.ing the han,cu""s- telling the subCect that she 0as not un,er arrestan, then letting her return to her apart(ent unacco(panie,. Detentions $s# Arrests: 1" not han,le, properly- a *detention/ coul, beco(e an *arrest/ 0hich- i" not supporte, by *probable cause/ to arrest- 0oul, be illegal. (Oro5co $# Te!as (1&5&) 3&3 4.S. 323 622 7.8,.2n, 3119: In re Antonio # (200#) 22
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155 Cal.App.3th 33$: United States $# Red"i1htnin1 (&th Cir. 2010) 523 B.3r, 10&01103%1105.) <eneral Rule) +he use o" firearms- handcuffs- putting a person into a loc?ed patrol car- transporting him without his consent- or si(ply a *show of force-/ (ay- un,er the circu(stances- cause the court to later "in, that an atte(pte, ,etention 0as in "act an arrest- an,- i" (a,e 0ithout *probable cause-/ illegal. (United States $# Ramos34ara1osa (&th Cir. 1&2$) $15 B.2n, 131- 133: Ne, Yor( $# =uar"es (1&#3) 352 4.S. 53& 6#1 7.8,.2n, $$09- han,cu""s: Oro5co $# Te!as- supra- "orce.) 'ndicators of an *rrest) !ther courts ha.e illustrate, the rele.ant "actors to an arrest) The #se of (irearms. ()eop"e $# Ta&"or (1&#5) 12# Cal.App.3r, 212- 22&: United States $# Ramos34ara1osa- supra.) The #se of Handcuffs. (Ne, Yor( $# =uar"es- supra: United States $# )urr& (D.C. Cir. 1&25) $3$ B.2n, 212- 220.) Ehile putting a Cu.enile in a security o""ice at the bor,eran, "risFing her- 0ere not enough to constitute an arresthan,cu""ing her shortly therea"ter 0hen contraban, 0as "oun, in her car was an arrest. (United States $# *u$eni"e +RRA3A, (&th Cir. 2000) 22& B.3r, 232- 233.) Ehether or not a ,etention beco(es an arrest ,epen,s upon *0hether the use o" han,cu""s ,uring a ,etention 0as reasonably necessary un,er all o" the circu(stances o" the ,etention./ (In re Antonio # (200#) 155 Cal.App.3th 33$331: ,e"en,ant "oun, to ha.e been arreste,- ,ue to his han,cu""ing- 0ithout probable cause.) Ian,cu""ing a person suspecte, o" possible in.ol.e(ent in a narcotics transaction- but 0here the o""icer testi"ie, only that he 0as *unco("ortable/ 0ith the "act that ,e"en,ant 0as tall (5 %5/) an, that narcotics suspects so(eti(es carry 0eapons (although the o""icer ,i, not con,uct a pat,o0n "or 0eapons)- con.erte, a ,etention into a *,e "acto/ arrest(aFing the subse@uent consent to search in.oluntary. ()eop"e $# Stier (200#) 15# Cal.App.3th 21.) * "oc?ed Patrol &ar. ()eop"e $# Nata"e (1&2#) 22 Cal.App.3r, $5#- $22: United States $# )arr (&th Cir. 1&##) #33 B.2n, 122#: United States $# Ricardo D# (&th Cir. 1&&0) &12 B.2n, 332- 330: *Detention in a patrol car e?cee,s per(issible Terr& +$# Ohio 2#
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(1&5#) 3&2 4.S. 1 620 7.8,.2n, ##&9.) li(its absent so(e reasonable Custi"ication./ During an ;!erwhelming how of (orce2 (Oro5co $# Te!assupra: United States $# A"i (2n, Cir. 1&&5) #5 B.3r, 22$- ,e"en,ant 0as asFe, to step a0ay "ro( the boar,ing area at an airport- his tra.el ,ocu(ents 0ere taFen- an, he 0as surroun,e, by se.en o""icers 0ith .isible han,guns: an, /aupp $# Te!as (2003) $3# 4.S. 525- 52#%530 61$$ 7.8,.2n, #13- #1&%#209- three o""icers- 0ith three (ore in the ne?t roo(- co((an,e, the 12%year%ol, ,e"en,ant to get out o" be, at 3)00 a.(.- an, tooF hi( to the police station "or @uestioning.) +he Physical Touching o" the person o" the suspect. (/aupp $# Te!as- supra- at p. 530 61$$ 7.8,.2n, at p. #209.) Transporting a Detainee. (Duna,a& $# Ne, Yor( (1&2&) 332 4.S. 200- 205%215 650 7.8,.2n, #23- #32%#3#9: Ta&"or $# A"a.ama (1&#2) 3$2 4.S. 5#2 623 7.8,.2n, 3139.) As a general rule) Detention Q nonconsensual transportation R arrest.

See also )eop"e $# 0arris (1&2$) 1$ Cal.3r, 3#3- 3&0%3&2: transporting a subCect "ro( the site o" a tra""ic stop bacF to the scene o" the cri(e "or a .icti( i,enti"ication- absent one o" the recogni;e, e?ceptions- 0as an arrest. *(E)e ha.e ne.er Asustaine, against Fourth Amendment challenge the in.oluntary re(o.al o" a suspect "ro( his ho(e to a police station an, his ,etention there "or in.estigati.e purposes . . . absent probable cause or Cu,icial authori;ation. 6Citation9/ (/aupp $# Te!as (2003) $3# 4.S. 525- 530 61$$ 7.8,.2n, #13- #209.) $ut ee *Exceptions-/ belo0. Exceptions) +he use o" "irear(s- han,cu""ing- a non%consensual transportation- an,Nor putting a subCect into a patrol car- i" necessary un,er the circu(stances- particularly i" precautions are taFen to (aFe sure that the person Fno0s he is only being ,etaine, as oppose, to being arreste,or 0hen the use o" "orce is necessitate, by the potential ,anger to the o""icers- (ay be "oun, to be appropriate an, ,oes not necessarily ele.ate the contact into an arrest. (See )eop"e $# Ce"is (2003) 33 Cal.3th 552- 523% 525.) 2&
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'n general- the in.estigati.e (etho,s use, shoul, be the least intrusi!e means reasonably a!ailable. Although the use o" so(e "orce ,oes not auto(atically trans"or( an in.estigatory ,etention into an arrest- any o.ert sho0 o" "orce or authority shoul, be Custi"ie, un,er the circu(stances. ( ee, e2g2, United States $# 0o"5man (&th Cir. 1&#&) #21 B.2, 13&5- 1$02- restraints Custi"ie, by belie" suspect 0as atte(pting to "lee: United States $# u''in1ton (&th Cir. 1&#2) #1$ B.2, 12&2- 1300- gi.en o""icer s Fno0le,ge o" suspect s history o" .iolence- sho0 o" "orce Custi"ie, by "ear "or personal sa"ety. (In re Ricardo D# (&th Cir. 1&&0) &12 B.2n, 332- 330.) (or example) (irearms) United States $# Rousseau (&th Cir. 2001) 2$2 B.3r, &2$: )eop"e $# G"aser (1&&$) 11 Cal.3th 3$3- 355. Handcuffing) )eop"e $# ro,n (1&#$) 15& Cal.App.3r, 1$&- 155%152: United States $# )urr&- supra: United States $# Rousseau, supra: United States $# *u$eni"e +RRA3A, (&th Cir. 2000) 22& B.3r, 232- 233: ()eop"e $# -i""iams (2002) 1$5 Cal.App.3th &3&- &50. *(A) police o""icer (ay han,cu"" a ,etainee 0ithout con.erting the ,etention into an arrest i" the han,cu""ing is brie" an, reasonably necessary un,er the circu(stances./ ()eop"e $# Os.orne (200&) 12$ Cal.App.3th 10$2- 1052.) Putting into a patrol car) )eop"e $# Nata"e (1&2#) 22 Cal.App.3r, $5#: United States $# )arr (&th Cir. 1&##) #33 B.2n, 122#. &ase "aw) United States $# %e5a3Corra"es (&th Cir. 1&&&) 1#3 B.3r, 1115: *(E)e allo0 intrusi.e an, aggressi.e police con,uct (han,cu""ing- in this case) 0ithout ,ee(ing it an arrest in those circu(stances 0hen it is a reasonable response to legiti(ate sa"ety concerns on the part o" the in.estigating o""icers./ United States $# Rousseau (&th Cir. 2001) 2$2 B.3r, &2$0here it 0as hel, that using "irear(s an, han,cu""s ,i, not 30
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con.ert a ,etention into an arrest 0hen the use o" "orce 0as necessitate, by the potential ,anger to the o""icers. 0a&nie $# Count& o' 2os An1e"es (&th Cir. 2003) 33& B.3r, 1021) Ian,cu""ing an, putting an uncooperati.e suspect in the bacFseat o" a patrol car 0hile the o""icer checFe, the .ehicle "or 0eapons hel, not to be an arrest. *A brie"although co(plete- restriction o" liberty- such as han,cu""ing (an,- in this case- putting into a patrol car),uring a Terr& stop is not a ,e "acto arrest- i" not e?cessi.e un,er the circu(stances./ (Id.- at p. 1022.) Re"erring to Terr& $# Ohio (1&5#) 3&2 4.S. 1 620 7.8,.2n, ##&9. Stopping t0o suspects suspecte, o" co((itting "elony ,rug o""enses- 0ith the o""icers ,isplaying their "irear(shan,cu""ing the suspects- an, (aFing the( sit on the groun, 0hile a t0o%(inute checF o" their house "or a,,itional suspects- ,i, not con.ert 0hat 0as inten,e, to be a ,etention into an arrest. ()eop"e $# Ce"is (2003) 33 Cal.3th 552- 523%525.) +he Cali"ornia Supre(e Court in Ce"is note, the belo0 liste, i(portant "actors to consi,er) Ehether the police ,iligently pursue, a (eans o" in.estigation reasonably ,esigne, to ,ispel or con"ir( their suspicions @uicFlyusing the least intrusi.e (eans reasonably a.ailable un,er the circu(stances. +he bre.ity o" the in.asion o" the in,i.i,ual s Fourth Amendment interests.

1n"or(ation that ,e"en,ant ha, threatene, a .icti( 0ith a "irear( an, 0as presently sitting in a ,escribe, .ehicle Custi"ie, a *felony stop-/ pulling the ,e"en,ant an, other occupants out o" the car at gun point an, (aFing hi( lay on the groun, until the car coul, be checFe, "or 0eapons. Li.en the o""icers sa"ety issues- such a proce,ure a(ounte, to no (ore than a ,etention. ()eop"e $# Do""& (2002) 30 Cal.3th 3$#.)

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*Lenerally- han,cu""ing a suspect ,uring a ,etention (0ithout con.erting the contact into a ,e "acto arrest) has only been sanctione, in cases 0here the police o""icer has a reasonable basis "or belie.ing the suspect poses a present physical threat or (ight "lee./ ()eop"e $# Stier (200#) 15# Cal.App.3th 21- 22.) Circu(stances liste, by the Stier court (at pp. 22% 2#) 0here han,cu""ing has been "oun, to be reasonably necessary "or a ,etention inclu,e 0hen) +he suspect is uncooperati.e. +he o""icer has in"or(ation the suspect is currently ar(e,. +he o""icer has in"or(ation the suspect is about to co((it a .iolent cri(e. +he ,etention closely "ollo0s a .iolent cri(e by a person (atching the suspect s ,escription an,Nor .ehicle. +he suspect acts in a (anner raising a reasonable possibility o" ,anger or "light. +he suspects outnu(ber the o""icers.

+ote) *&ustody/ "or purposes o" %iranda $# Ari5ona (1&55) 3#3 4.S. 335- 33$ 615 7.8,.2n, 5&3- 20#9.)- un,er the Fifth Amendment- in.ol.es a ,i""erent analysis than *custody/ "or purposes o" a ,etention or arrest un,er the Fourth Amendment. *1n contrast (to Fourth Amendment search an, sei;ure issues- 0here the reasonableness o" the o""icer s actions un,er the circu(stances is the issue)- Fifth Amendment %iranda custo,y clai(s ,o not e?a(ine the reasonableness o" the o""icer s con,uct- but instea, e?a(ine 0hether a reasonable person (in the ,e"en,ant s position) 0oul, conclu,e the restraints use, by police 0ere tanta(ount to a "or(al arrest./ ()eop"e $# )i"ster (2005) 13# Cal.App.3th 13&$1305.) Ian,cu""ing a ,etaine, suspect base, upon ,e"en,ant s si;e (5 "oot- 2$0 poun,s)- the "act that he 0as *real ner.ous-/ an, because he began to tense up as i" he 0ere about to resist- han,cu""ing hi( 0as hel, to be reasonable. ()eop"e $# Os.orne (200&) 12$ Cal.App.3th 10$2- 1052.)

32
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+ote) +elling a person that he is not un,er arrest may not be enough by itsel" to negate 0hat is other0ise an arrest (See United States $# 2ee (&th Cir. 1&#2) 5&& B.2n, 355352.). Gut e.en i" it is not- it is at least a "actor to consi,er 0hen consi,ering the *totality of the circumstances./ (United States $# ra$o (&th Cir. 2002) 2&$ B.3r, 10021011.) +on6&onsensual Transportation Exceptions) +he Courts ha.e "oun, e?ceptions to the *detention B transportation C arrest/ rule 0hen the "ollo0ing (ight apply) *(+)he police (ay (o.e a suspect 0ithout e?cee,ing the boun,s o" an in.estigati.e ,etention 0hen it is a reasonable (eans o" achie.ing the legiti(ate goals o" the ,etention Agi.en the speci"ic circu(stances o" the case./ (United States $# Char"e& (&th Cir. 200$) 3&5 B.3r, 1023- 10#0.) 1n Char"e&- the ,e"en,ant ha, Cust (ur,ere, her three chil,ren an,a"ter calling police "ro( another location- encourage, la0 en"orce(ent to go 0ith her to checF on their 0el"are 0ithout speci"ically telling the o""icer 0hat she ha, ,one. She 0as also tol, that she 0as not un,er arrest- an, 0as transporte, 0ithout han,cu""s. (United States $# Char"e&- supra- at pp. 1022%10#2.) *(+)he police (ay (o.e a suspect "ro( the location o" the initial stop 0ithout con.erting the stop into an arrest 0hen it is necessary "or sa"ety or security reasons./ (United States $# Ricardo D# (&th Cir. 1&&0) &12 B.2n, 332- 330: citing F"orida $# Ro&er (1&#3) 350 4.S. 3&1- $03%$0$ 62$ 7.8,.2n, 22&- 231%2329.) Jon%consensual transportation necessary to continue the ,etention out o" the presence o" a gathering- hostile cro0,- hel, to be la0"ul un,er the circu(stances. ()eop"e $# Courtne& (1&20) 11 Cal.App.3r, 11#$- 11&1%11&2.) See also %ichi1an $# Summers (1&#1) 3$2 4.S. 5&2- 202- "n. 15 65& 7.8,.2n, 330- 33&9- 0here it 0as hel, that (o.ing the ,etaine, suspect "ro( the 0alF0ay in "ront o" his ho(e into the house0here he 0as hel, 0hile the house 0as searche, pursuant to a search 0arrant- 0as not consi,ere, constitutionally signi"icant. +e(porarily han,cu""ing a s(uggling suspect stoppe, at the 1nternational Gor,er 0here escape routes 0ere close byparticularly 0hen the subCect is tol, that he is not un,er arrest an, that the han,cu""s 0ere (erely "or e.eryone s sa"ety an, 0oul, be re(o.e, (o(entarily- an, then 0alFing hi( to a security o""ice about 30 to 30 yar,s (United States $# ra$o (&th Cir. 2002) 2&$ 33
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B.3r, 1002.) or 3$ "eet (United States $# 4ara1o5a (&th Cir. 2002) 2&$ B.3r, 102$.) a0ay- is reasonable an, ,oes not con.ert a ,etention into an arrest. (See also United States $# 0ernande5 (&th Cir. 2002) 313 B.3r, 330.) An in,i.i,ual is not arreste, but (erely ,etaine, 0hen- at the bor,er- he is asFe, to e?it his .ehicle- brie"ly han,cu""e, 0hile escorte, to the security o""ice- uncu""e,- patte, ,o0n- an, re@uire, to 0ait in a locFe, o""ice 0hile his .ehicle is searche,. (United States $# Na$a (&th Cir. 2003) 353 B.3r, &32.) )eop"e $# Soun (1&&$) 33 Cal.App.3th 13&&: ,e"en,ants- re(o.e, "ro( their .ehicle at gunpoint- 0ere "orce, to lie on the groun,han,cu""e,- put into police .ehicles an, transporte, three blocFs to a sa"er location) Detention only- base, upon the circu(stances. Ga""e1os $# Cit& o' 2os An1e"es (&th Cir. 2002) 30# B.3r, &#2: 0here a 2%to%1 (aCority "oun, that stopping a subCect at gunpointhan,cu""ing hi(- an, then transporting hi( bacF to the scene o" a cri(e to see i" the .icti( coul, i,enti"y hi(- a proce,ure 0hich tooF 3$ (inutes to an hour- was not an arrest- but 0as no (ore than an *in!estigati!e stop (that) wor?ed as it should./ *Reasona."e Suspicion)/ 7ess than *probable cause-/ but (ore than no e.i,ence (i.e.- a *hunch./) at all. Defined) *Reasonable suspicion/ is in"or(ation 0hich is su""icient to cause a reasonable la0 en"orce(ent o""icer- taFing into account his or her training an, e?perience- to reasonably belie!e that the person to be ,etaine, is- 0as- or is about to be- in.ol.e, in cri(inal acti.ity. +he o""icer (ust be able to articulate (ore than an *inchoate and unparticularized suspicion or Ahunch of criminal acti!ity./ (Terr& $# Ohio (1&5#) 3&2 4.S. 1- 22 620 7.8,.2n, ##&- &0&9.) +ote) *Hunch)/ +he inability to articulate reasons behin, the belie". *Gecause the Abalance bet0een the public interest an, the in,i.i,ual s right to personal security- 6Citation9 tilts in "a.or o" a stan,ar, less than probable cause in such cases- the Fourth Amendment is satis"ie, i" the o""icer s action is supporte, by reasonable suspicion to belie.e that cri(inal acti.ity A*(ay be a"oot-/ (United States $# So(o"o, (1&#&) 3&0 4.S. 1- 2 6103 7.8,.2n, 1- 109: @uoting Terr& $# Ohio- supra- at p. 30 620 7.8,.2n, at p. &119: see also )eop"e $# Os.orne (200&) 12$ Cal.App.3th 10$2- 10$#.) 33
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+he *reasonable suspicion/ stan,ar, is *not a particularly ,e(an,ing one- but is- instea,- Aconsi,erably less than proo" o" 0rong,oing by a prepon,erance o" the e.i,ence- / ()eop"e $# 2etner and To.in (2010) $0 Cal.3th &&- 135: @uoting ./ (United States $# So(o"o, (1&#&) 3&0 4.S. 1- 2 6103 7. 8,. 2n, 19.) *1n re.ie0ing the propriety o" an o""icer s con,uct- courts ,o not ha.e a.ailable e(pirical stu,ies ,ealing 0ith in"erences ,ra0n "ro( suspicious beha.ior- an, 0e cannot reasonably ,e(an, scienti"ic certainty "ro( Cu,ges or la0 en"orce(ent o""icers 0here none e?ists. +hus- the ,eter(ination o" reasonable suspicion (ust be base, on co((onsense Cu,g(ents an, in"erences about hu(an beha.ior./ (I.id.- @uoting I""inois $# -ard"o, (2000) $2# 4.S. 11&- 123S12$ 613$ 7. 8,. 2n, $209.) 1n )eop"e $# 2etner and To.in- supra- a (aCority o" the Supre(e Court "oun, that the une?plaine, ,ri.ing at 30 (ph in a $$ (ph ;one- in,icating a possible D41 ,ri.erparticularly 0hen co(bine, 0ith the o""icer s suspicions that the car (ight be stolen 0hen there 0ere 0ater bea,s on it "ro( a stor( so(e hours earlier- in,icating that it ha, not been ,ri.en "ar- an, 0hen "oun, in an area Fno0n "or its (any the"ts "ro( the nearby car lots- Custi"ie, an in.estigati.e tra""ic stop. Detention of a Victim or =itness) Ehile a .icti( or 0itness- as a general rule- (ay not be ,etaine, or "orce, to cooperate in a police in.estigation- it is argue, by so(e that 0hen the go.ern(ental nee, is strong an, the intrusion upon the .icti( or 0itness is (ini(al- a te(porary stop or ,etention o" the .icti( or 0itness may be Custi"iable. (See I""inois $# 2idster (2003) $30 4.S. 31& 61$2 7.8,.2n, #339: .ehicle checF point use, to locate 0itnesses to a pre.ious "atal hit an, run.) See also %et5(er $# State (AF 1&&0) 2&2 P.2n, 121&: *1t appears the police are Custi"ie, in stopping 0itnesses only 0here e?igent circu(stances are present- such as 0here a cri(e has recently been reporte,./ +ote) Jo case la0 yet uphol,s (ore than Cust a (ini(al ,etentionnor the transportation- o" a .icti( or 0itness 0ithout that person s consent. 3$
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1n ,eci,ing 0hether this 0as reasonable- a court (ust looFs to *the gra.ity o" the public concerns ser.e, by the sei;ure- the ,egree to 0hich the sei;ure a,.ances the public interest- an, the se.erity o" the inter"erence 0ith in,i.i,ual liberty./ ( ro,n $# Te!as (1&2&) 333 4.S. 32- $1 651 7.8,.2n, 3$2.) A tra""ic stop o" a 0itness absent e.i,ence that he hi(sel" is in.ol.e, in cri(inal acti.ity- is illegal. Gecause ,e"en,antDs stop 0as "or *generali;e, cri(inal in@uiry-/ it 0as illegal. (United States $# -ard (&th Cir. 1&23) 3## B.2n, 152- 15#%120.) As a general rule- a 0itness to cri(e (ay not be stoppe, an, ,etaine, in any 0ay- or "risFe,- an, he re"use to cooperate i" he so chooses. A brie" ,etention- ho0e.er- (ay be reasonable ,epen,ing up the i(portance o" the Lo.ern(ent s interest. *At a (ini(u(- o""icers ha, a right to i,enti"y 0itnesses to the shootingto obtain the na(es an, a,,resses o" such 0itnesses- an, to ascertain 0hether they 0ere 0illing to speaF .oluntarily 0ith the o""icers./ (-a"(er $# Cit& o' Orem (10th Cir. 2005) 3$1 B.3r, 113&113#%113&: &0 (inute ,etention hel, to be e?cessi.e.) 1t is a =settle, principle that 0hile the police ha.e the right to re@uest citi;ens to ans0er .oluntarily @uestions concerning unsol.e, cri(es they ha.e no right to co(pel the( to ans0er.= (Da$is $# %ississippi (1&5&) 3&3 4.S. 221- 222- "n. 5 622 7.8,.2n, 5259.).. Detaining potential 0itnesses to a (ur,er "or so(e "i.e hours pen,ing being inter.ie0e,- particularly 0hen using "orce- hel, to be an illegal arrest ,one 0ithout probable cause. (%a!,e"" $# Count& o' San Die1o (&th Cir. 2012) 5&2 B.3r, &31- &3#%&$1.) Securing a ho(e "ro( the outsi,e- ,etaining the occupant on his o0n porch pen,ing the obtaining o" a 0arrant- 0as uphel, by the 4nite, States Supre(e Court. (I""inois $# %cArthur (2001) $31 4.S. 325 613# 7.8,.2n, #3#9.) During the e?ecution o" a search 0arrant- until the rest o" the house is checFe, "or the suspects- other occupants (ay be ,etaine,. (2os An1e"es Count& $# Rette"e (2002) $$0 4.S. 50& 6152 7.8,.2n, &239.) See *Detention of Residents (or +on6Resident) During the Execution of a earch =arrant-/ belo0.

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An occupant o" a house being subCecte, to a search pursuant to a search warrant (ay be ,etaine, ,uring the search (1) in or,er to pre.ent "light- (2) to (ini(i;e the risF o" har( to the o""icers- an, (3) to "acilitate an or,erly search through cooperation o" the resi,ents. (%ichi1an $# Summers (1&#1) 3$2 4.S. 5&2- 202%203 65& 7.8,.2n, 330- 33&%3$09.) See *During Execution of a earch or *rrest =arrant, or during a Fourth =ai!er earch-/ belo0. Prosecutors (ay enCoy absolute i((unity "ro( ci.il liability so long as the "orce, ,etention o" a .icti(- ,one "or the purpose o" inter.ie0ing her- is consi,ere, to be *a,.ocacy con,uct that is inti(ately associate, 0ith the Cu,icial phase o" the cri(inal process./ (Gira"do $# /ess"er (2n, Cir. 2012) 5#3 B.3r, 151.) *rticulable ;b%ecti!e uspicion) A ,etention- e.en i" brie"- is a su""iciently signi"icant restraint on personal liberty to re@uire *ob%ecti!e %ustification./ (F"orida $# Ro&er (1&#3) 350 4.S. 3&1- 3&# 62$ 7.8,.2n, 22&- 235%2329.) +ote) Reasons 0hich an o""icer "eels gi.e hi( or her reasonable suspicion to ,etain must be articulated- in ,etail- in an arrest report an, later recounte, in courtroo( testi(ony. An o""icer s inability to articulate those suspicious "actors that gi.e rise to the nee, to stop an, ,etain a suspect is one o" the (ore co((on causes o" ,etentions being "oun, to be illegal. A prosecutor s "ailure to elicit a thorough ,escription o" all the suspicious "actors by asFing the right @uestions is another co((on cause. * Hunch) An o""icer s ,ecision to ,etain cannot be pre,icate, upon a (ere *hunch-/ but (ust be base, upon articulable "acts ,escribing suspicious beha.ior 0hich 0oul, ,istinguish the ,e"en,ant "ro( an or,inary- la0%abi,ing citi;en. (Terr& $# Ohio (1&5#) 3&2 4.S. 1- 22 620 7.8,.2n, ##&- &0&9.) *A hunch (ay pro.i,e the basis "or soli, police 0orF: it (ay trigger an in.estigation that unco.ers "acts that establish reasonable suspicion- probable cause- or e.en groun,s "or a con.iction. A hunch- ho0e.er- is not a substitute "or the necessary speci"ic- articulable "acts re@uire, to Custi"y a Fourth Amendment intrusion./ (1talics a,,e,: )eop"e $# )itts (2003) 112 Cal.App.3th 32
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##1- ##&: @uoting United States $# Thomas (&th Cir. 2000) 211 B.3r, 11#5- 11&2.) A stop an, ,etention base, upon stale in"or(ation concerning a threat- 0hich itsel" 0as o" @uestionable .eracity- an, 0ith little i" anything in the 0ay o" suspicious circu(stances to connect the persons stoppe, to that threat- is illegal. ()eop"e $# Dura5o (2003) 123 Cal.App.3th 22#) +hreat 0as purporte,ly "ro( Oe?ican gang (e(bers- an, ,e"en,ant 0as a Oe?ican (ale 0ho (0ith his passenger) glance, at the .icti( s apart(ent as he ,ro.e by "our ,ays later 0here the o""icer a,(itte,ly 0as acting on his *gut feeling/ that ,e"en,ant 0as in.ol.e,.) See(ingly innocuous beha.ior ,oes not Custi"y a ,etention o" suspecte, illegal aliens unless acco(panie, by so(e particulari;e, con,uct that corroborates the o""icer s suspicions. (United States $# %an5o3*urado (&th Cir. 2005) 3$2 B.3r, &2#: stan,ing aroun, in their o0n group- con.ersing in Spanish- 0atching a high school "ootball ga(e.) !bser.ing ,e"en,ant sitting in a parFe, (otor .ehicle late at night near the e?it to a 2%8le.en store parFing lot- 0ith the engine running- ,espite prior Fno0le,ge o" a string o" recent robberies at 2%8le.ens- hel, to be not su""icient to Custi"y a ,etention an, pat,o0n. ()eop"e $# )errus:uia (2002) 1$0 Cal.App.3th 22#.) Io0e.er- *the possibility o" innocent e?planations "or the "actors relie, upon by a police o""icer ,oes not necessarily preclu,e the possibility o" a reasonable suspicion o" cri(inal acti.ity. ()eop"e $# 2etner and To.in (2010) $0 Cal. 3th &&- 135: @uoting (United States $# Ar$i5u (2002) $33 4.S. 255- 223 61$1 7. 8,. 2n, 2309.) Detaining ,e"en,ant- 0ho 0as $ 10/ tall- 0ell%groo(e,- (e,iu( to ,arF%co(plecte,- 0ith a (ustache an, slight goatee- base, upon his allege, si(ilarity to a suspect 0ho 0as ,escribe, as 5 1/ tallunFe(pt- light%co(plecte,- an, 0ith no "acial hair- hel, to be insu""icient to Custi"y a reasonable suspicion. +he "act that the suspecte, cri(e occurre, at the sa(e location a 0eeF earlier- an, that the area 0as Fno0n as a high cri(e area- a,,e, nothing. ()eop"e $# -a"(er (2012) 210 Cal.App.3th 15$- 125%1#3: as a(en,e, at 2012 Cal.App. 78T1S 11#2.) The Totality of the &ircumstances) +he legality o" a ,etention 0ill be ,eter(ine, by consi,ering the *totality of the circumstances./ (United States $# Ar$i5u (2002) $33 4.S. 255- 223 61$1 7.8,.2n, 230- 23&9: see also )eop"e $# Do""& (2002) 30 Cal.3th 3$#.) 3#
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*All rele.ant "actors (ust be consi,ere, in the reasonable suspicion calculusPe.en those "actors that- in a ,i""erent conte?t(ight be entirely innocuous./ (United States $# Fernande53 Casti""o (&th Cir. 2003) 323 B.3r, 1113- 1123- citing United States $# Ar$i5u- supra- at pp. 222%22# 61$1 7.8,.2n, at p. 2$29.) The ;fficer)s ub%ecti!e &onclusions) Ehether or not an o""icer has su""icient cause to ,etain so(eone 0ill be e.aluate, by the courts on an *ob%ecti!e/ basis: or ho0 a reasonable person 0oul, e.aluate the circu(stances. +he o""icer s o0n *sub%ecti!e/ conclusions are irrele.ant. (-hren $# United States (1&&5) $12 4.S. #05 613$ 7.8,.2n, #&9.) * eizure) Although a ,etention is a *seizure/ un,er the Fourth Amendment (Terr& $# Ohio, supra- at p. 1&- "n. 15 620 7.8,.2n, at pp. &03%&0$9.)- it is allo0e, on less than probable cause because the intrusion is relati.ely (ini(al an, is ,one "or a .ali, an, necessary in.estigati.e purpose. Probable &ause !s2 Reasonable uspicion) +he occasional inarticulate Cu,icial re"erences to the nee, to pro.e *probable cause/ (e.g.- see United States $# -i""is (&th Cir. 200$) 331 B.3r, 20&- 21$- re"erring to the 4.S. Supre(e Court s ruling in -hren $# United States (1&&5) $12 4.S. #05 613$ 7.8,.2n, #&9.) 0as not inten,e, to raise the stan,ar, o" proo" "ro( one o" nee,ing only a *reasonable suspicion./ (United States $# 2ope5 (&th Cir. 2000) 20$ B.3r, 1101%1103.) See Y.arra $# I""inois (1&2&) 333 4.S. #$ 652 7.8,.2n, 23#9con,e(ning the ,etention an, pat,o0n o" e.eryone at the scene absent in,i.i,uali;e, e.i,ence connecting each person so ,etaine, 0ith the illegal acti.ity being in.estigate,. 9arious Factors 0hich- 0hen taFen in,i.i,ually or in co(bination- help contribute to Custi"ying a ,etention. 'n <eneral) Such "actors inclu,e- but are not li(ite, to- the "ollo0ing (see abo.e an, belo0)) Ehether the suspect rese(bles a 0ante, person. +he suspect is contacte, in a 0ante, .ehicle. +he suspect appears into?icate, or inCure,. +he suspect s suspicious actions. +he suspect s erratic or e.asi.e ,ri.ing- or other suspicious actions. +he o""icer s prior Fno0le,ge o" cri(inal acti.ity by the suspect. 3&
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+he suspect s ,e(eanor an,Nor reaction to seeing the o""icer. +he suspect s ner.ousness- belligerence- etc. +he suspect s e.asi.e replies to @uestions. +he ti(e o" ,ay. Cri(inal history o" the area. (8.g.- a *high narcotics area./) +he pro?i(ity to a recent- or a series o" cri(es. +he o""icer s e?pertise- training an,Nor e?perience "or the type o" cri(e suspecte,. +he suspect s actions consistent 0ith co((on patterns "or the type o" cri(e suspecte,. 1n"or(ant in"or(ation.

* *High &rime/ or *High +arcotics/ Area) Although being in a so%calle, *high crime/ or *high narcotics acti!ity/ area is a "actor to be consi,ere,: *(a)n Ao""icer s assertion that the location lay in a *high crime/ area ,oes not (by itsel") ele.ate . . . "acts into a reasonable suspicion o" cri(inality. +he *high crime area/ "actor is not an *acti!ity/ o" an in,i.i,ual. Oany citi;ens o" this state are "orce, to li.e in areas that ha.e *high crime/ rates or they co(e to these areas to shop- 0orF- playtransact business- or .isit relati.es or "rien,s. +he spectru( o" legiti(ate hu(an beha.ior occurs e.ery ,ay in so%calle, high cri(e areas. . . . / (1talics a,,e,: )eop"e $# )itts (2003) 112 Cal.App.3th ##1- ##2: @uoting )eop"e $# 2oe,en (1&#3) 3$ Cal.3r, 112- 123: an, )eop"e $# o,er (1&2&) 23 Cal.3r, 53#- $35.) *(+)he ti(e an, location o" an encounter are insu""icient by the(sel.es to cast reasonable suspicion on an in,i.i,ual./ ()eop"e $# %edina (2003) 110 Cal.App.3th 121- 122: noting that neither the *nighttime factor/ nor the *high crime area factor/ are *acti!ities/ by a person sought to be ,etaine,.) Howe!er- note that the 4nite, States Supre(e Court has hel, that a subCect s "light on "oot "ro( the police 0hen it occurs in a so% calle, *high narcotics area/ is su""icient in itsel" to Custi"y a te(porary ,etention (as 0ell as a pat,o0n "or 0eapons). (I""inois $# -ard"o, (2000) $2# 4.S. 11& 613$ 7.8,.2n, $209: see *(light/ un,er *&onsensual Encounters-/ abo.e.)

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T&pes o' Detentions: Traffic tops) Detention !s2 *rrest) Although issuing a tra""ic citation is technically an arrest and release on the person s 0ritten pro(ise to appear (see United States $# 2ea"3Fe"i5 (&th Cir. 2011) 55$ B.3r, 1032.)- it is treate, as a ,etention because o" the (ini(al intrusion in.ol.e,. ( er(emer $# %cCart& (1&#3) 35# 4.S. 320- 33& 6#2 7.8,.2n, 312- 3339: Ari5ona $# *ohnson (200&) $$$ 4.S. 323 6122 7.8,.2n, 5&39: see also )eop"e $# 0ernande5 (2005) 135 Cal.App.3th 223: *+ra""ic stops are treate, as in.estigatory ,etentions "or 0hich the o""icer (ust be able to point to speci"ic an, articulable "acts Custi"ying the suspicion that a cri(e is being co((itte,./) 1n that the traffic stop itsel" (i.e.- prior to the issuing o" a citation)- is consi,ere, to be no (ore than a ,etention- it only re@uires a *reasonable suspicion/ that a tra""ic o""ense ha, been co((itte, in or,er to be a la0"ul stop. (United States $# 2ope53Soto (&th Cir. 2000) 20$ B.3r, 1101- 1103% 110$: )eop"e $# %iranda (1&&3) 12 Cal.App.3th &12- &25 rierton $# Department o' %otor 9ehic"es (200$) 130 Cal.App.3th 3&&- $0&%$10: United States $# %iranda3 Guerena (&th Cir. 2005) 33$ B.3r, 1233.) 1n establishing the necessary *reasonable suspicion-/ the o""icer is not re@uire, to personally *obser.e all ele(ents o" cri(inal con,uct./ Ie nee, only *be able to Apoint to speci"ic articulable "acts that- consi,ere, in light o" the totality o" the circu(stances- pro.i,e so(e obCecti.e (ani"estation that the person ,etaine, (ay be in.ol.e, in cri(inal acti.ity. 6Citation9/ rierton $# Department o' %otor 9ehic"es- supra.- at p. $0&.) +hen the citation (i.e.- the arrest an, release) is 0ritten base, on the *probable cause/ to belie.e a tra""ic in"raction ha, been co((itte, by the person being cite,. (I.id.) A ran,o( license checF on the ,e"en,ant s .ehicleresulting in in"or(ation that the o0ner ha, an outstan,ing tra""ic 0arrant- Custi"ie, the stop o" that .ehicle. ()eop"e $# -i""iams (1&&$) 33 Cal.App.3th 352.) 31
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+o "aw Enforcement 'n!ol!ement) A suspect 0ho stops on his o0n- e.en i" (istaFenly belie.ing he 0as re@uire, to stop- but 0here la0 en"orce(ent ,oes nothing a""ir(ati.ely to cause hi( to stop- has not been ,etaine, "or purposes o" the Fourth Amendment. A ,etention re@uires a *go.ern(ental ter(ination o" "ree,o( o" (o.e(ent Athrough means intentionally applied. / (United States $# Nasser (&th Cir. 200&) $$$ B.3r, 222.) ,o!ing Violations) A citi;en s report o" a .ehicle ,ri.ing erratically- 0ith a speci"ic ,escription o" the .ehicle (inclu,ing a personali;e, license plate- although one ,igit 0as 0rong)- 0here the o""icer obser.e, the .ehicle shortly therea"ter 0ea.e outsi,e its lane- 0as cause to e""ect a tra""ic stop. ()eop"e $# Carter (200$) 35 Cal.3th 1113- 113&%1132.) A pe,estrian crossing ,iagonally across an intersection 0ithout inter"ering 0ith any tra""ic is not a .iolation o" 0!C! 21")4+a, (Pe,estrian s inter"erence 0ith tra""ic)an, there"ore ,oes not Custi"y a ,etention. ()eop"e $# Ramire5 (2005) 130 Cal.App.3th #3&.) Bailure to stop a .ehicle be"ore the "ront bu(per crosses a cross0alF s li(it line at an intersection is a .iolation o" 0!C! 224)3- Custi"ying a tra""ic stop. )eop"e $# in(o,s(i (2002) 1$2 Cal.App.3th Supp. 1.) De"en,ant stopping on his o0n- e.en though (aybe un,er the (istaFen belie" that an o""icer 0ante, hi( to stop- is not a ,etention. A ,etention re@uires a *go.ern(ental ter(ination o" "ree,o( o" (o.e(ent *through means intentionally applied./ (United States $# Nasser (&th Cir. 200&) $$$ B.3r, 222.) 0ehicle Code 22131 (Bailure to signal 0hile turning)) +urning 0ithout signaling is not a .iolation o" this section unless there is another .ehicle close enough to be a""ecte, by the ,e"en,ant s "ailure to signal. ()eop"e $# Carmona (2011) 1&$ Cal.App.3th 13#$: the o""icer s .ehicle- being the only other car in the .icinity- 0as hea,e, to0ar,s 32
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,e"en,ant an, so(e $$ "eet a0ay 0hen ,e"en,ant turne, o"" onto a si,e roa, 0ithout signaling: not a .iolation.) See also In re *aime )# (2005) 30 Cal.3th 12#- 131: )eop"e $# Cart,ri1ht (1&&&) 22 Cal.App.3th 13521355: an, United States $# %arisca" (&th Cir. 2002) 2#$ B.3r, 1122- interpreting a si(ilar Ari;ona statute.) 0ehicle Code 2213#- re@uiring that a person signal "or at least 100 "eet be"ore turning- is not a separate o""ense that (ay be charge,. 1t taFes e""ect only i"- un,er section 22131- the ,ri.er 0as re@uire, to signal. ()eop"e $# Carmona- supra.- at pp. 13&1%13&3.) +urning at an intersection 0ithout signaling 0as hel, not to be a .iolation o" 0!C! 2213# 0here there 0as no e.i,ence o" another .ehicle that 0as there that *may be affected by the mo!ement./ (United States $# Caseres (&th Cir. 200#) $33 B.3, 1053- 105#%105&.) Io0e.er- 0hen an o""icer is 0ithin 100 "eettra.eling in the sa(e ,irection an, at the sa(e spee,- the ,e"en,ant s "ailure to signal a turn was a (o.e(ent that coul, ha.e a""ecte, the o""icer s .ehicle. Bailing to signal 0hile changing lanes 0here *any other .ehicle (ay be a""ecte, by the (o.e(ent-/ per 0!C! 22131- applies e.en though the only a""ecte, .ehicle is a police car. ()eop"e $# 2o1sdon (200#) 153 Cal.App.3th 231.) De"en,ant s erratic ,ri.ing an, "ailing to signal ,uring a right%han, turn. ()eop"e $# E$ans (2011) 200 Cal.App.3th 23$- 233.) AsFing an apparently into?icate, ,e"en,ant- 0ho 0as obser.e, stan,ing the (i,,le o" the roa, picFing up tools an, 0hose .ehicle 0as partially blocFing the roa,- to step to the si,e o" the roa,- 0as reasonable un,er the circu(stances- an, not an illegal ,etention. Burther- the o""icer s obser.ations o" ,e"en,ant s apparent into?icatione.en be"ore recei.ing in"or(ation "ro( the ,ispatcher that ,e"en,ant ha, "our prior con.ictions "or ,ri.ing un,er the 33
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in"luence- constitute, probable cause su""icient to Custi"y the arrest. ()eop"e $# Con"e& (2012) 211 Cal.App.3th &$3.) *!oiding a D#' &hec?point)
+he +enth Circuit Court o" Appeal hel, that a ,ri.er s ,ecision to use a rural high0ay e?it a"ter passing ,rug checFpoint signs (ay be consi,ere, as one "actor in an o""icer s reasonable suspicion ,eter(ination- but it is not a su""icient basis- by itsel"- to Custi"y a tra""ic stop. +he court note, that an o""icer (ust i,enti"y a,,itional suspicious circu(stances or in,epen,ently e.asi.e beha.ior to Custi"y stopping a .ehicle that uses an e?it a"ter ,ri.ing past ruse ,rug%checFpoint signs. (United States $# Ne'' (10th Cir. 2012) 5#1 B.3r, 1133.)

Vehicle &ode Registration Violations) A police o""icer (ay (aFe an in.estigatory tra""ic stop anyti(e the o""icer has a *reasonable suspicion/ to belie.e that the .ehicle is in .iolation o" the registration la0s. ()eop"e $# Dotson (200&) 12& Cal.App.3th 103$103&.) A license plate- although only partially obscure, by a trailer hitch- .iolates 0!C! )231 an, Custi"ies a tra""ic stop an, citation. ()eop"e $# -hite (2001) &3 Cal.App.3th 1022.) +ote) 0!C! )231 e?cuses the obstruction o" a rear license plate by a 0heelchair li"t or carrier i" by a ,isable, person 0ith the applicable ,isable, person plates or placar,- an, a ,ecal 0ith the license plate nu(ber is clearly .isible in the rear 0in,o0. Oounting a license plate (the "ront plate- in this case) upsi,e ,o0n is also a .iolation o" 0!C! )231- in that it is not *clearly legible/ as re@uire, by the statute. ()eop"e $# Duncan (200#) 150 Cal.App.3th 1013.) Plates (ust be positione, *so that the characters are upright an, ,isplay "ro( le"t to right- . . ./ (0!C! )231+a,) A (issing "ront license plate- a .iolation o" 0!C! )233- is legal Custi"ication upon 0hich to base a tra""ic stop. ()eop"e $# Saunders (2005) 3# Cal.3th 112&- 1135: )eop"e $# 9i.anco (2002) 1$1 Cal.App.3th 1- #.) 33
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1t is not a search to ran,o(ly checF license plates that are other0ise .isible to an o""icer- an, to checF la0 en"orce(ent ,atabases "or in"or(ation about that .ehicle. Disco.ering in the process that a .ehicle s registere, o0ner has a suspen,e, license- an, noting that the obser.e, ,ri.er rese(bles the physical ,escription o" the registere, o0nerstopping the car to checF the ,ri.er s license status is la0"ul. (United States $# Dia53Castaneda (&th Cir. 2002) 3&3 B.3r, 1135- 11$0%11$2.) A tra""ic stop "or the purpose o" checFing the .ali,ity o" a re, DOU te(porary operating per(it ,isplaye, in a .ehicle s 0in,o0 (i.e.- the re, sticFer: see 0!C! 41)2)0hen the nu(ber on the per(it 0as .isible to the o""icer be"ore the stop an, appeare, to be current- is a stop base, upon no (ore than a *hunch-/ an, is illegal. ()eop"e $# Na.on1 (2003) 11$ Cal.App.3th Supp. 1- .ehicle 0ith e?pire, registration tab on plate: )eop"e $# 0ernande5 (200#) 3$ Cal.3th 2&$- .ehicle 0ith no license plates.) 1t is irrele.ant that the o""icer belie.es- in his e?perience- that such te(porary operating per(its are o"ten "orge, or other0ise in.ali,. ()eop"e $# 0ernande5- supra.- at p. 2&&.) 1n a case ,eci,e, by the 4nite, States Supre(e Court out o" Cali"ornia- it 0as assu(e, "or the saFe o" argu(ent- 0ithout ,iscussing the issue- that stopping a car "or the purpose o" checFing the .ali,ity o" the te(porary operating per(it 0ithout reason to belie.e that it 0as not .ali,- is illegal. (See rend"in $# Ca"i'ornia (2002) $$1 4.S. 23& 615# 7.8,.2n, 1329.) !n re(an,- the People conce,e, that a tra""ic stop (a,e "or the purpose o" checFing the .ali,ity o" the te(porary re, sticFer .isible in the 0in,o0- absent cause to belie.e it 0as in.ali,- 0as an illegal tra""ic stop. ()eop"e $# rend"in (200#) 3$ Cal.3th 25225#: e?pire, registration tab on plate.) $ut- a tra""ic stop is legal 0hen the .ehicle ha, only one license plate (the "ront plate being (issing) an, the registration tab on the rear plate 0as e?pire,. ()eop"e $# Saunders (2005) 3# Cal.3th 112&) +he 3$
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(issing license plate- a .iolation o" 0!C! )233- at the .ery least constitutes a reasonable suspicion to belie.e that the re, te(porary operator s per(it,espite a current .isible (onth on the per(it- (ight not be "or that .ehicle.) A (issing rear license plate an, no .isible te(porary registration ,isplaye, in the rear 0in,o0- e.en though the te(porary registration is later "oun, to be in the "ront 0in,shiel,- but not .isible to the o""icer co(ing up behin, the .ehicleis su""icient reasonable suspicion to Custi"y a tra""ic stop. (In re Ra&mond C# (200#) 3$ Cal.3th 303.) As note, in "n. 2) *A te(porary per(it is to be place, in the lo0er rear 0in,o0. Io0e.er- i" it 0oul, be obscure, there- it (ay be place, in the lo0er right corner o" either the 0in,shiel, or a si,e 0in,o0./ (D%9 0and.oo( o' Re1istration )rocedures (!ct. 2002) ch. 2- V 2.020- p. 2.) An o""icer s obser.ation that a .ehicle 0as (issing both license plates- absent so(e other in,ication that the .ehicle 0as properly or te(porarily registere,- 0as enough by itsel" to establish a reasonable suspicion "or the o""icer to belie.e that ,e"en,ant 0as in .iolation o" 0!C! )233. ()eop"e $# Dotson (200&) 12& Cal.App.3th 103$- 10$1%10$2: reCecting the ,e"en,ant s argu(ent- an, the Attorney Leneral s concession- that the o""icer ha, a ,uty to looF "or a te(porary registration in the .ehicle s 0in,o0s be"ore (aFing the tra""ic stop.) 1n"or(ation "ro( DOU that a .ehicle s registration has e?pire,- at least in the absence o" any other in"or(ation to the e""ect that the .ehicle is in the process o" being re%registere,- Custi"ies a tra""ic stop ,espite the .isible presence o" an apparently .ali, te(porary registration sticFer in the 0in,o0. ()eop"e $# Green,ood (2010) 1#& Cal.App.3th 232.) Vehicle &ode E@uipment Violations) A cracFe, 0in,shiel, (0!C! 22113) Custi"ies a tra""ic stop. ()eop"e $# 9i.anco (2002) 1$1 Cal.App.3th 1.) 35
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An inoperable thir, (rear 0in,o0) braFe light is a 0ehicle Code .iolation (0!C! 242)2+a,)- an, Custi"ies a tra""ic stop an, citation. (In re *ustin /# (2002) &# Cal.App.3th 5&$.) Seat belt .iolations) An o""icer s ,eter(ination that ,e"en,ant 0as not 0earing a seat belt- e.en 0here it is reasonably uncertain 0hether the ,e"en,ant s .ehicle 0as e.en e@uippe, 0ith a shoul,er harness- Custi"ie, a stop to ,eter(ine 0hether Cali"ornia s (an,atory seat belt la0 0as being .iolate,. (/odani $# Sn&der (1&&&) 2$ Cal.App.3th 321.) Police o""icer ha, probable cause to arrest a ,ri.er "or a .iolation o" Cali"ornia s sa"ety belt statute upon obser.ing the ,ri.er 0earing his seat belt un,er his le"t ar( an, not across his upper torsobarring the ,ri.er s 42 !S!C! 1"#3 unla0"ul arrest clai(. +he ,ri.er 0as not *properly restraine, by a sa"ety belt-/ as re@uire, by 0!C! 2131)+d,+1,. (0upp $# Cit& o' -a"nut Cree( (J.D. Cal. 200$) 3#& B.Supp.2n, 122&- 1232.) See also Co""ier $# %ont1omer& ($th &ir2 -..40 574 (28rd -/3, -/D9 addressing a similar safety belt statute2 +he re@uire(ent in 0!C! 2131)+d,+1, that the ,ri.er an, all passengers 15 years o" age an, ol,er be *properly restraine,/ 0hile the .ehicle is in operation re@uires that both the shoul,er harness an, the lap belt portions o" the sa"ety belt asse(bly be use,. ()eop"e $# O$er"and (-.//0 /48 &al2*pp23th upp2 420 Ein,shiel, !bstructions) An Anchorage- AlasFa- Ounicipal Co,e or,inance "orbi,,ing any ite( a""i?e, to the 0in,shiel, (si(ilar to Cali"ornia s 0!C! 2213#+a,+1,: see )eop"e $# -hite (2003) 102 Cal.App.3th 535belo0.) was not .iolate, by an air "reshener ,angling "ro( the rear .ie0 (irror. A tra""ic stop 32
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0as "oun, to be illegal. (United States $# /in1 (&th Cir. 2001) 233 B.3r, 235- 230.) A tra""ic stop 0as illegal 0hen base, upon a percei.e, .iolation o" 0!C! 2213#+a,+2,- "or obstructing or re,ucing the ,ri.er s clear .ie0 through the 0in,shiel,- "or ha.ing an air "reshener ,angling "ro( the rear .ie0 (irror. ()eop"e $# -hite- supra.) Io0e.er- an air "reshener hanging "ro( a car s rear.ie0 (irror 0as hel, to be a .iolation o" 0!C! 2213#+a,+2, in another case 0here a (ore thorough "oun,ation 0as establishe, through testi(ony o" the o""icer- citing his personal e?perience an, noting that the obCect 0as big enough to blocF out the .ie0 o" a pe,estrian or a .ehicle- an, 0here there 0as no ,e"ense%o""ere, e?pert testi(ony rele.ant to the o.erall si;e o" the air "reshener relati.e to the si;e o" the 0in,o0. ()eop"e $# Co".ert (2002) 1$2 Cal.App.3th 105#.) A tra""ic stop "or an e@uip(ent .iolation in a *high crime/ (i.e.- gang) area at night is not reasonable suspicion su""icient to Custi"y a ,etention or pat,o0n "or 0eapons. ()eop"e $# %edina (2003) 110 Cal.App.3th 121.) !bser.ing a .ehicle 0ith the "ront 0in,o0s illegally tinte, in .iolation o" 0!C! 2213#+a, (aFes it la0"ul to stop the .ehicle to cite it s ,ri.er. +he arrest o" ,e"en,ant 0ho 0as a passenger in the .ehicle an, 0ho rese(ble, the suspect in a robbery Cust (inutes earlier- 0as la0"ul. +)eop"e $# Carter (2010) 1#2 Cal.App.3th $22- $2&%$30: also hol,ing that e.en i" the stop ha, been illegal- ,isco.ery o" an arrest 0arrant "or ,e"en,ant 0oul, ha.e attenuate, the taint o" an illegal tra""ic stop.) Gut see United States $# Caseres (&th Cir. 200#) $33 B.3r, 1053- 105&) An o""icer noting that a person s .ehicle 0in,o0s are tinte,- belie.ing that the 0in,o0s (ight ha.e been tinte, in .iolation o" 0!C! 2213#+a,+1, (i.e.- a"ter%"actory)- is not reasonable suspicion o" a .iolation absent other e.i,ence ten,ing to support this belie". *Eithout a,,itional articulable "acts suggesting that the tinte, glass is illegal- the ,etention rests upon the type o" 3#
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speculation 0hich (ay not properly support an in.estigati.e stop./ =ea!ing =ithin the "ane) tate Rule) !bser.ation o" the ,e"en,ant 0ea.ing 0ithin his tra""ic lane "or one hal" o" a (ile is su""icient cause to stop hi( to ,eter(ine 0hether he is dri!ing while under the influence (*D#'/) or the .ehicle has so(e unsa"e (echanical ,e"ect. ()eop"e $# rac(en (2000) #3 Cal.App.3th Supp. 1: 0ea.ing 0ithin his lane "or hal" a (ile.) Eea.ing 0ithin a lane "or three @uarters o" a (ile Custi"ie, a tra""ic stop "or ,ri.ing 0hile un,er the in"luence. ()eop"e $# )ere5 (1&#$) 12$ Cal.App.3r, Supp. #.) Eea.ing 0ithin a lane- al(ost hitting the curb- is su""icient reasonable suspicion "or ,ri.ing 0hile un,er the in"luence to Custi"y a tra""ic stop. (Ar.urn $# Department o' %otor 9ehic"es (2002) 1$1 Cal.App.3th 13#0.) +he "act that the 0ea.ing 0as not "or a *substantial/ or *consi,erable/ ,istance ,i, not (ean that the o""icer ,i,n t ha.e reasonable suspicion to Custi"y the stop. (Id.at p. 13#$.) (ederal Rule) See United States $# Co"in (&th Cir. 2002) 313 B.3r, 33&- 0here the Jinth Circuit Court o" Appeal hel, that 0ea.ing "ro( lane line to lane line "or 3$ to 3$ secon,s is neither a .iolation o" the lane stra,,ling statute (0!C! 212)#+a,) nor reasonable suspicion that the ,ri.er (ay be un,er the in"luence: a @uestionable ,ecision- an, one that (ay probably be ignore, by state la0 en"orce(ent o""icers in light o" rac(en an, )ere5. =ea!ing Plus) A single pronounce, 0ea.e 0ithin the laneplus an e?perience, Iigh0ay Patrol o""icer s obser.ation o" the ,e"en,ant sitting up close to the steering 0heel0hich the o""icer recogni;e, as so(ething an i(paire, ,ri.er ,oes- 0as su""icient to corroborate secon,%han, 3&
< 2013 Robert C. Phillips. All rights reser.e,

in"or(ation concerning ,e"en,ant s *erratic dri!ing/ "ro( Oontana Depart(ent o" +ransportation e(ployeesCusti"ying the stop o" the ,e"en,ant s car. (United States $# Fernande53Casti""o (&th Cir. 2003) 323 B.3r, 1113.) 0eh! Code 2#13!2) Vehicle tops 'n!ol!ing *gricultural 'rrigation upplies) Su4d! +a,+1,) A peace o""icer (ay stop any .ehicle transporting agricultural irrigation supplies that are in plain .ie0 "or the purpose o" inspecting the bills o" la,ingshipping- or ,eli.ery papers- or other e.i,ence- to ,eter(ine 0hether the ,ri.er is in legal possession o" the loa,- 0hene.er the .ehicle is on an unpa.e, roa, 0ithin the Curis,iction o" the Depart(ent o" ParFs an, Recreationthe Depart(ent o" Bish W La(e- the Depart(ent o" Borestry an, Bire Protection- the State 7an,s Co((issiona regional parF ,istrict- the 4.S. Borest Ser.ice- or the Gureau o" 7an, Oanage(ent- or is in a ti(berlan, pro,uction ;one. Su4d! +a,+2,) 1" there is a *reasonable belief/ that the ,ri.er o" a .ehicle is not in legal possession o" the loa,- the peace o""icer *shall/ taFe custo,y o" the loa, an, turn it o.er to the sheri"" "or in.estigation. Su4d! +4,) the Sheri"" is therea"ter responsible "or the *care an, sa"eFeeping/ o" the apprehen,e, (aterials- an, "or its *legal ,isposition/ an, any resulting in.estigation. Su4d! +c,) Any e?pense incurre, by the sheri"" is a *legal charge against the county./ Su4ds! +d, W +e,) 1" the ,ri.er is in .iolation o" 0!C! 12)33 (,ri.ing 0ithout a .ali, license)- the peace o""icer 0ho (aFes the stop shall (aFe a reasonable atte(pt to i,enti"y the registere, o0ner o" the .ehicle an, release the .ehicle to hi( or her. 1(poun,(ent o" the .ehicle is prohibite, i" the ,ri.er s only o""ense is 0!C! 12)33. Su4d! +f,) **gricultural irrigation supplies/ inclu,e agricultural irrigation 0ater bla,,er an, one%hal" inch ,ia(eter or greater irrigation line.

$0
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Su4d! +5,: A county boar, o" super.isors (ust a,opt a resolution be"ore this section (ay be i(ple(ente, in a particular county. +ote) +he state, purpose o" the abo.e statute is to assist la0 en"orce(ent in the co(bating o" illegal (ariCuana culti.ation sites in state parFs an, other resource lan,s ,ue to the negati.e en.iron(ental e""ects o" such gro0s (but not necessarily Cust because illegal gro0s are a ba, thing). (Stats 2312, ch 3"3.) &ommunity &areta?ing (unction) Although the *community careta?ing function/ (ay Custi"y a tra""ic stop- it 0ill ,o so only 0hen an o""icer is acting reasonably in ,eter(ining that an occupant s sa"ety or 0el"are is at risF. ()eop"e $# %adrid (200#) 15# Cal.App.3th 10$0: see also Cad& $# Dom.ro,s(i (1&23) 313 4.S. 333 632 7.8,.2n, 2059.) Per the %adrid Court (at pg. 10$&- citing -ri1ht $# State (+e?.Cri(.App. 1&&&) 2 S.E.3r, 13#- 1$1% 1$2: an, Cor.in $# State (+e?.Cri(.App. 2002) #$ S.E.3r, 222.)- "our "actors are to be consi,ere, in ,eter(ining 0hether the o""icer s actions are reasonable- 0ith the (ost 0eight going to the "irst) +he nature an, le.el o" the ,istress e?hibite, by the in,i.i,ual: +he location o" the in,i.i,ual: Ehether or not the in,i.i,ual 0as alone an,Nor ha, access to assistance in,epen,ent o" that o""ere, by the o""icer: an, +o 0hat e?tent the in,i.i,ualPi" not assiste,Ppresente, a ,anger to hi(sel" or others.

Par?ing Tic?ets) Eriting a parFing ticFet Custi"ies a te(porary ,etention o" the .ehicle s occupant. +he "act that parFing ticFets are subCect to ci.il penalties only an, go.erne, by ci.il a,(inistrati.e proce,ures is irrele.ant. ()eop"e $# ennett (July 21- 2011) 1&2 Cal.App.3th &02: citing -hren $# $1
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United States (1&&5) $12 4.S. #05 613$ 7.8,.2n, #&9: an, United States $# Choudhr& (&th Cir. 2005) 351 B.3r, 10&2.) <ang6Related 'n!estigations) Seeing three .ehicles 0ith "our GlacF (ale occupants eachone o" the occupants 0ho is Fno0n to be a gang (e(ber,ri.ing as i" in (ilitary "or(ation at 12)30 at night- hours a"ter a prior gang shooting- the .ehicles being in one o" the 0arring GlacF gang s territory- hel, to be insufficient to Custi"y a stop an, ,etention. ()eop"e $# 0ester (2003) 11& Cal.App.3th 325- 3#$%3&2.) +arcotics6Related Traffic tops #sing a *&ontrolled Tire Deflation De!ice/ (*&TDD/)) +he use o" a *controlled tire deflation de!ice/ to stop a .ehicle suspecte, o" being use, to s(uggle controlle, substances o.er the 4SNOe?ico bor,er hel, to be a ,etention only (thus re@uiring only a reasonable suspicion) an, not e?cessi.e "orce un,er the circu(stances. (United States $# Gu5man3)adi""a (&th Cir. 200&) $23 B.3r, #5$.) +ote) +he *controlle, tire ,e"lation ,e.ice-/ or *C+DD-/ is an accor,ion%liFe tray containing s(allhollo0 steel tubes that puncture the tires o" a passing .ehicle an, cause a gra,ual release o" airbringing the .ehicle to a halt 0ithin a @uarter to hal" a (ile. &hec?ing the Vehicle for a =anted uspect) +o ser.e a 0arrant- the o""icer nee, only Fno0 that the registere, o0ner has one outstan,ing an, (ay stop the .ehicle e.en 0ithout seeing the ,ri.er or the .ehicle s occupants. ()eop"e $# Domin:ue5 (1&#2) 1&3 Cal.App.3, 131$- 1312%131#: )eop"e $# -i""iams (1&&$) 33 Cal.App.3th 352- 325.) ,ista?e of "aw !s2 ,ista?e of (act) An o""icer (aFing a tra""ic stop base, upon a (isapprehension o" the law- (i.e.- a *mista?e of law/)- e.en i" reasonable- is an illegal stop. (United States $# 2ope53 Soto (&th Cir. 2000) 20$ B.3r, 1101: United States $# %ora"es (&th Cir. 2001) 2$2 B.3r, 1020- 1023- "n. 3.) $2
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As a general rule- a (istaFe o" la0- 0hether reasonable or not- cannot be the basis "or "in,ing probable cause or a reasonable suspicion. ()eop"e $# Teresins(i (1&#2) 30 Cal.3r, #22: in.ol.ing an o""icer s (istaFen belie" that a cur"e0 .iolation applie,. *Courts on strong policy groun,s ha.e generally re"use, to e?cuse a police o""icer s (istaFe o" la0./ (Id.- at p. #31.) See )eop"e $# -hite (2003) 102 Cal.App.3th 535533%533: police o""icer una0are that Ari;ona ,i, not re@uire a "ront license plate: stop illegal. +here is so(e authority to the contrary. ()eop"e $# G"ic( (1&##) 203 Cal.App.3r, 2&5.) Gut this is base, upon an unusual "act situation: i.e.- Cali"ornia police o""icer ,i, not Fno0 that Je0 Jersey ,oesn t re@uire registration sticFers on their license plates. +his is a (inority opinion that (ost courts 0ill not "ollo0. An o""icer s (istaFe o" la0: i.e.- his belie" that GaCa Cali"ornia- Oe?ico- re@uire, (otorists to a""i? a registration sticFer on the car so that it 0oul, be .isible "ro( the rear o" the .ehicle (the registration sticFer is actually suppose, to be a""i?e, to the .ehicle s 0in,shiel,) resulte, in a tra""ic stop (a,e 0ithout the necessary reasonable suspicion. +he resulting e.i,ence- there"ore- shoul, ha.e been suppresse,. (United States $# 2ope53Soto (&th Cir. 2000) 20$ B.3r, 1101.) See United States $# T,i""e& (&th Cir. 2000) 222 B.3r, 10&2: Cali"ornia police o""icer (istaFenly belie.e, that Oichigan re@uire, t0o plates. An o""icer s (isapprehension that a person crossing the street other than in a cross 0alF 0as in .iolation o" 0!C! 21")4+a,- ,i, not Custi"y a ,etention to cite "or that o""ense 0hen it is later hel, that the section ,i, not apply. ()eop"e $# Ramire5 (2005) 130 Cal.App.3th #3&.)

$3
< 2013 Robert C. Phillips. All rights reser.e,

An o""icer s (istaFen belie" that ,e"en,ant s .ehicle- 0ith no "ront license plate- .iolate, Cali"ornia la0 (i.e.- 0!C! )232)- because it ,i,n t ha.e a "ront license plate but ha, a .ali, rear Blori,a license plate- 0hen unFno0n to the o""icer Blori,a ,oes not issue t0o license plates to auto(obiles- 0as an ine?cusable (istaFe o" la0. ()eop"e $# Re&es (2011) 1&5 Cal.App.3th #$5.) $ut- an o""icer (aFing a tra""ic stop base, upon a *mista?e of fact-/ *held reasonably and in good faith-/ 0ill not in.ali,ate the stop. Sheri"" s ,eputies stopping ,e"en,ants car base, upon a co(puter checF in,icating that the .ehicle s registration ha, e?pire,- 0hen in "act the registration ha, alrea,y been rene0e,. Absent so(e reason to belie.e that the co(puter in"or(ation 0as not accurate- the stop 0as hel, to be la0"ul. (United States $# %i1ue" (&th Cir. 2003) 35# B.3r, 11$0.) A (issing rear license plate an, no .isible te(porary registration ,isplaye, in the rear 0in,o0- e.en though the te(porary registration is later "oun, to be in the "ront 0in,shiel,- but not .isible to the o""icer co(ing up behin, the .ehicleis su""icient reasonable suspicion to Custi"y a tra""ic stop. (In re Ra&mond C# (200#) 3$ Cal.3th 303.) As note, in "n. 2) *A te(porary per(it is to be place, in the lo0er rear 0in,o0. Io0e.er- i" it 0oul, be obscure, there- it (ay be place, in the lo0er right corner o" either the 0in,shiel, or a si,e 0in,o0./ (D%9 0and.oo( o' Re1istration )rocedures (!ct. 2002) ch. 2- V 2.020- p. 2.) An o""icer stopping a .ehicle "or ha.ing illegally tinte, 0in,o0s- 0hen the Plainti"" alleges that the 0in,o0s 0ere rolle, ,o0n an, not .isible to the o""icer- is- at best- an unreasonable (istaFe o" "actan, ,oes not pro.i,e the o""icer 0ith @uali"ie, i((unity "ro( ci.il liability. (2i.era" $# Estrada (&th Cir. 2011) 532 B.3r, 1053- 1022%102#.) $3
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Pretext tops) A *pretext stop/ is one 0here la0 en"orce(ent o""icers stop a .ehicle usually "or so(e (inor tra""ic in"raction but 0here the o""icers true (oti.ation is actually to in.estigate so(e (ore serious o""ense "or 0hich there is no reasonable suspicion. A prior three%0ay split o" opinion on the legality o" such a practice 0as "inally resol.e, by the 4.S. Supre(e Court in -hren $# United States (1&&5) $12 4.S. #05 613$ 7.8,.2n, #&9- uphol,ing the legality o" such a practice. (See also )eop"e $# Gome5 (2003) 112 Cal.App.3th $31- $32: an, )eop"e $# Ga""ardo (200$) 130 Cal.App.3th 233.) Per -hren- so long as there is so(e la0"ul Custi"ication "or (aFing the stop- the o""icers sub%ecti!e moti!ations are irrele.ant. (I.id: see also United States $# %iranda3 Guerena (&th Cir. 2005) 33$ B.3r, 1233.) -hren is base, upon the 4nite, States Constitution s Fourth Amendment- preclu,ing a state s atte(pt to i(pose a stricter stan,ar, upon la0 en"orce(ent- unless the state chooses to e(ploy its o0n Constitution (un,er the theory o" *independent state grounds/) (Ar(ansas $# Su""i$an (2001) $32 4.S. 25& 613& 7.8,.2n, &&39.): an alternati.e 0hich is not a.ailable in Cali"ornia since passage o" (ro-osition #- in June-1&#2- the so%calle, *Truth in E!idence/ initiati.e. +he *pretext stop/ theory o" -hren $# United States applies to ci.il parFing .iolations as 0ell as any cri(inal .iolation. (United States $# Choudhr& (&th Cir. 2005) 351 B.3r, 10&2.) Exceptions) +he theory o" -hren is not 0ithout its li(itations. Bor e?a(ple) Ehen the prete?t use, "or (aFing a stop is to con,uct an *administrati!e search-/ such as inspecting the licensing o" a ta?icab- per local or,inance- or an in.entory .ehicle search- (aFing a tra""ic stop is unla0"ul- an, any ,irect pro,ucts o" that stop are subCect to suppression. ()eop"e $# 9a"en5ue"a (1&&&) 23 Cal.App.3th 1202: -hren $# United States, supra, at pp. #11%#12- 613$ 7.8,.2n, at p. &29.)

$$
< 2013 Robert C. Phillips. All rights reser.e,

An o""icer s intent to use the i(poun,(ent o" a .ehicle ,ri.en by an unlicense, ,e"en,ant an, an in.entory search as a prete?t to looF "or narcotics% relate, e.i,ence 0as "oun, not to co(e 0ithin the legally recogni;e, groun,s "or i(poun,ing .ehicles pursuant to la0 en"orce(ent s co((unity caretaFing "unction. 1n.entory searches being an e?ception to the rule o" -hren- the o""icer s subCecti.e intent in i(poun,ing ,e"en,ant s car 0as hel, to be rele.ant. ()eop"e $# Torres (2010) 1## Cal.App.3th 22$- 2#$%2&3.) Ehen a stop or search is not a *run6of6the6mine/ case- such as *cases 0here Asearches or sei;ures 60ere9 con,ucte, in an e?traor,inary (annerusually har("ul to an in,i.i,ual s pri.acy or e.en physical interestsPsuch as- "or e?a(ple- sei;ure by (eans o" ,ea,ly "orce- unannounce, entry into a ho(e- entry into a ho(e 0ithout a 0arrant- or physical penetration o" the bo,y. (Citing -hren $# United States- supra- at p. #1#.)/ (United States $# I.arra (&th Cir. 2003) 33$ B.3r, 211- 21$.) +he theory o" -hren is li(ite, to those circu(stances 0here a police o""icer is a0are o" "acts that 0oul, support an arrest. *(A)lthough -hren stan,s "or the proposition that a prete?tual sei;ure base, on the illegiti(ate subCecti.e intentions o" an o""icer (ay be per(issible- it ,oes not alter the "act that the prete?t itsel" (ust be a constitutionally su""icient basis "or the sei;ure an, the "acts supporting it (ust be Fno0n at the ti(e it is con,ucte,./ (%oreno $# aca (&th Cir. 200$) 331 B.3r, 533- 530: "in,ing that a belate,ly ,isco.ere, arrest 0arrant an, parole search con,itions ,i, not Custi"y a ,etention an, search.) Contrary to the general rule- an o""icer s (oti.ations "or con,ucting a search do (atter in t0o li(ite, situations: i.e.- in *special needs/ an, *administrati!e search/ cases. (United States $# %cCart& (&th Cir. Sep. &- 2011) 2011 4.S. App. 78T1S 1##23 6.acate, an, re(an,e,9: chil, pornography obser.e, ,uring a la0"ul +SA a,(inistrati.e search (ay la0"ully be use, to establish probable cause to arrest.) $5
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!n re(an,- ,e"en,ant s (otion to suppress 0as ,enie, at United States $# %cCart& (2011) #3$ B.Supp.2n, &3#. An, @uery) Does -hren .ali,ate a tra""ic stop 0hen the o""icer s real (oti.ation is base, upon prohibite, *racial profilingM/ +he ans0er has to be: +oX Galancing the constitutional principles in.ol.e, (e.g.- 14th Amendment an, Calif! Const! Art I, 1, 1)- e@ual protection an, due process)- an, the state an, "e,eral statutes the o""icer 0oul, be .iolating (1# !S!C! 241, 242: 42 !S!C! 1"#3: (!C! 422!2+a,- 13)1"!4: an, C!C! )2!1)- a court 0ill not liFely uphol, such a stop. (See also a"u&ut $# Superior Court (1&&5) 12 Cal.3th #25: e@ual protection: an, Shapiro $# Thompson (1&5&) 3&3 4.S. 51# 622 7.8,.2n, 5009: ,iscri(ination (ay be so arbitrary an, inCurious as to be ,ee(e, a due process .iolation. +he Supre(e Court itsel"- in -hrenspeci"ically note, that: *Ee o" course agree 0ith petitioners that the Constitution prohibits selecti.e en"orce(ent o" the la0 base, on consi,erations such as race./ (-hren $# United States, supra- at p. #13 613$ 7.8,.2n, at p. &#9.) Discri(ination by la0 en"orce(ent o""icers base, upon a person s race in the pro.i,ing o" both protecti.e an, non%protecti.e ser.ices is a constitutional e@ual protection .iolation. (Ae *a E""iot3)ar( $# %an1"ona (&th Cir. 2010) $&2 B.3r, 1003.) Such *racial profiling/ 0oul, be a Fourteenth Amendment *due process/ .iolation. (I.id.: see also United States $# I.arra (&th Cir. 2003) 33$ B.3r, 211- 213.)

$2
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,otor Vehicle Passengers) To *rrest a Passenger) +he stop o" the ,e"en,ant s car upon obser.ing a passenger in the car "or 0hich there 0as a Fno0n outstan,ing arrest 0arrant 0as uphel,. Ehen the stop re.eale, the ,e"en,antN,ri.er 0as in possession o" a billy club- the o""icer la0"ully arreste, hi( as 0ell. (In re -i""iam *# (1&#$) 121 Cal.App.3r, 22.) *A (o(entary stop o" an auto(obile by police to in.estigate a passenger reasonably belie.e, to be in.ol.e, in a past cri(e is proper. 1t creates a (ini(al incon.enience to the ,ri.er o" that auto(obile- 0hen balance, against the go.ern(entDs interest in apprehen,ing cri(inals./ (Id.- at p. 22.) To Detain a Passenger) 1s a passenger in a .ehicle 0hen the ,ri.er is stoppe, an, ,etaine, also subCect to being ,etaine,- thus i(plicating the passenger s pri.acy rightsM +he 4nite, States Supre(e Court has recently re.erse, the Cali"ornia Supre(e Court on this issue an, hel, that at least in a pri.ate (otor .ehicle (as oppose, to a ta?i- bus- or other co((on carrier)- the passenger- by .irtue o" being in a .ehicle stoppe, "or a possible tra""ic in"raction- is in "act ,etaine,gi.ing hi( the right to challenge the legality o" the tra""ic stop. ( rend"in $# Ca"i'ornia (2002) $$1 4.S. 23& 6122 S.Ct. 2300: 15# 7.8,.2n, 1329.) +he test is 0hether- *in .ie0 o" all o" the circu(stances surroun,ing the inci,ent- a reasonable person 0oul, ha.e belie.e, that he 0as not "ree to lea.e./ !r- in the case 0here the person has no ,esire to lea.e*0hether Aa reasonable person 0oul, "eel "ree to ,ecline the o""icers re@uests or other0ise ter(inate the encounter. /
(127 .Ct.! at ((. 240%52406.)

1" the ,ri.er is stoppe, "or a tra""ic%relate, o""ense- a *passenger 0ill e?pect to be subCect to so(e scrutiny- an, his atte(pt to $#
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lea.e the scene 0oul, be so ob.iously liFely to pro(pt an obCection "ro( the o""icer that no passenger 0oul, "eel "ree to lea.e in the "irst place./ 1" the ,ri.er is stoppe, "or so(ething unrelate, to his ,ri.ing- a *passenger 0ill reasonably "eel subCect to suspicion o0ning to close association/ 0ith the ,ri.er. (127 .Ct.! at (. 2407.) +his ,ecision is in accor, 0ith the (aCority o" prior cases that ha.e consi,ere, this issue. (See )eop"e $# e"" (1&&5) 33 Cal.App.3th 2$3: see also )eop"e $# Grant (1&&0) 212 Cal.App.3r, 13$1- 1350: )eop"e $# 0unt (1&&0) 22$ Cal.App.3r, 3&#- $0$: )eop"e $# 2ion.er1er (1&#5) 1#$ Cal.App.3r, Supp. 1- $: an, )eop"e $# 2amont (2003) 12$ Cal.App.3th 303: United States $# T,i""e& (&th Cir. 2000) 222 B.3r, 10&2- 10&$: United States $# E&"icio3 %onto&a (10th Cir. 1&&$) 20 B.3r, 11$#1153: United States $# /im.a"" (1st Cir. 1&&3) 2$ B.3r, 1- $%5: United States $# Ro.erson ($th Cir. 1&&3) 5 B.3r, 10##- 10&1: United States $# Rusher (3th Cir. 1&&2) &55 B.2n, #5#- #23- "n. 3.) Jote also that e.en i" the passenger is illegally ,etaine,- any e.i,ence reco.ere, "ro( the .ehicle- i" not the pro,uct o" the illegal ,etention- 0ill be a,(issible. (United States $# )u""iam (&th Cir. 200$) 30$ B.3r, 2#2- 2#2: a .ehicle search 0as ,one in,epen,ent o" the ,e"en,ant s ,etention.) Although rend"in- on its "ace- appears to ,eal only 0ith the right (i.e.- *standing/) o" the passenger to challenge the legality o" the tra""ic stop ( rend"in $# Ca"i'ornia- supra.- at pp. 2$5%2$&.)- an, 0as not inten,e, as authority "or the continue, ,etention o" a passenger 0ho (ight choose to 0alF a0ay- the 4.S. Supre(e Court subse@uently rule, @uite clearly that *(t)he police nee, not ha.e- in a,,itioncause to belie.e any occupant o" the (la0"ully stoppe,) .ehicle is in.ol.e, in cri(inal acti.ity/ to Custi"y a continue, ,etention "or the ,uration o" the $&
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tra""ic stop. (Ari5ona $# *ohnson (200&) $$$ 4.S. 323 6122 7.8,.2n, 5&39.) *lso: *+he te(porary sei;ure o" ,ri.er an, passengers or,inarily continues- an, re(ains reasonable- "or the ,uration o" the stop./ (Id.- at p. 32$.) An, then) *(A) tra""ic stop o" a car co((unicates to a reasonable passenger that he or she is not "ree to ter(inate the encounter 0ith the police an, (o.e about at 0ill./ (I.id.) +he Cali"ornia Supre(e Court is in apparent agree(ent 0ith this interpretation- hol,ing that upon or,ering the passenger out o" the .ehicle: *there is a social e?pectation o" un@uestione, police co((an,- 0hich is at o,,s 0ith any notion that a passenger 0oul, "eel "ree to lea.e 0ithout a,.ance per(ission./ ()eop"e $# 0o&os (2002) 31 Cal.3th #22- #&2%#&3: brie"- one%(inute ,etentionnecessitate, "or purposes o" o""icer sa"ety- hel, to be la0"ul.) Shoul, a,,itional Custi"ication be re@uire, to continue the ,etention o" a passenger- prior case la0 notes that the ,etention can be Custi"ie, by a sho0ing that the passenger is in *close association/ 0ith persons (e.g.- the ,ri.er) reasonably suspecte, o" illegal acti.ity. ()eop"e $# Samp"es (1&&5) 3# Cal.App.3th 11&2.) !ther0ise- there (ust at least be so(e reason "or the o""icer to belie.e that his sa"ety 0ill be place, in Ceopar,y in or,er to Custi"y a re"usal to allo0 a passenger to 0alF a0ay "ro( a tra""ic stop. (See )eop"e $# 9i.anco (2002) 1$1 Cal.App.3th 1: an, *;rdering 'n-/ belo0.) ;rdering ;ut) +he la0 is clear that upon (aFing a la0"ul tra""ic stop- the dri!er (ay be or,ere, out o" the .ehicle 0ithout the nee, "or the o""icer to Custi"y 0hy. ()enns&"$ania $# %imms (1&22) 333 4.S. 105- 111 6$3 7.8,.2n, 331- 3329: )eop"e $# E$ans (2011) 200 Cal.App.3th 23$- 233.) 50
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Although pre.iously subCect to a split o" opinionthe 4.S. Supre(e Court has rule, that the sa(e rules apply to passengers other than the ,ri.er. 1" anything- the nee, to protect the sa"ety o" the o""icers is e.en greater 0hen he (ust ,eal 0ith (ore than Cust a lone ,ri.er. (%ar&"and $# -i"son (1&&2) $1& 4.S. 30# 6132 7.8,.2n, 319: see also Ru$a"cata $# Cit& o' 2os An1e"es (&th Cir. 1&&$) 53 B.3r, 1323.) Prior state la0 0as leaning in that ,irection any0ayallo0ing ,ri.ers an, passengers to be or,ere, out o" a .ehicle 0ith .ery little cause) +o corroborate the ,ri.er s i,entity- an, "or o""icer s sa"ety. ()eop"e $# %a!,e"" (1&##) 205 Cal.App.3r, 1003- 100&.) Ehere there is a legiti(ate nee, to search the .ehicle. ()eop"e $# -e.ster (1&&1) $3 Cal.3r, 311.) 7ess Custi"ication than is nee,e, "or a pat,o0n 0ill 0arrant the or,ering o" a passenger out o" a .ehicle. ()eop"e $# Superior Court 6Simon7 (1&22) 2 Cal.3r, 1#5- 205- "n. 13.) Citing %imms an, -i"son- the Cali"ornia Supre(e Court has cite, 0ith appro.al *an o""icer s authority to or,er a passenger to e?it a .ehicle ,uring a tra""ic stop as a (atter o" course./ ()eop"e $# Saunders (2005) 3# Cal.3th 112&- 1133.) +he Cali"ornia Supre(e Court has "urther hel, that it is also la0"ul to continue to ,etain the passenger "or *at least as long as reasonably necessary "or the o""icer to co(plete the acti.ity the (la0"ul or,ering out o" the car) conte(plates./ ()eop"e $# 0o&os (2002) 31 Cal.3th #22- #&2%#&3.) ;rdering 'n) A police o""icer (ay re@uire the dri!er to re(ain in his or her .ehicle. ()enns&"$ania $# %imms, supra2) 51
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4n,er the sa(e rationale- so(e "e,eral courts ha.e rule, that an o""icer (ay or,er a passenger to re(ain in the .ehicle- at least 0here the passenger has not e?presse, an intent to si(ply lea.e the scene- or 0hen the passenger is inter"ering 0ith the o""icer s contact 0ith the ,ri.er. (Ro1a"a $# District o' Co"um.ia (D.C. Cir. 1&&#) 151 B.3r, 33: United States $# %oore'ie"d (3r, Cir. 1&&2) 111 B.3r, 10- 13.) +he Jinth Circuit is in accor,- "in,ing that the o""icer s sa"ety out0eighs the (ini(al intrusion in.ol.e, in (aintaining the status @uo by returning the passenger to 0here he 0as in the car. (United States $# -i""iams (&th Cir. 200$) 31& B.3r, 102&.) See also Id.- at p. 1032- "n. 2- "or a list o" state cases (other than Cali"ornia) that are in accor,. See also )eop"e $# Caste""on (1&&&) 25 Cal.App.3th 135&- uphol,ing the o""icer s or,er to a passenger to re(ain in the .ehicle) *(E)e 0ill not secon,% guess (the o""icer s) reasonable in%the%"iel, call: it 0as "or the o""icer to ,eci,e 0hether his personal sa"ety 0as better preser.e, by or,ering Castellon to stay insi,e the car or by or,ering hi( out o" the .ehicle./ Gut see )eop"e $# Gon5a"e5 (1&&2) 2 Cal.App.3th 3#1- 0here or,ering a passenger bacF into a .ehicle 0as hel, to be an unla0"ul ,etention. 1n light o" Caste""on an, -i""iams- supra- it can be argue, that Gon5a"e5 is a minority opinion- an, probably not a correct state(ent o" the la0. Gon5a"e5 0as also critici;e, as no longer goo, la0 in )eop"e $# 9i.anco (2002) 1$1 Cal.App.3th 1- at p. 11- 0here the court speci"ically hel, that) *+he possibility o" a .iolent encounter is liFely to be e.en greater still 0hen one or (ore o" the passengers in a stoppe, car atte(pts to lea.e 0hile others stay in the car-/ an, that *-i"son can there"ore reasonably be interprete, to allo0 o""icers as a (atter o" course 52
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to or,er a passenger or passengers either to get out o" the car or to re(ain in the car ,uring a la0"ul tra""ic stop i" the o""icers ,ee( it necessary "or o""icer sa"ety./ An, see *To Detain a Passenger-/ abo.e. Demanding 'dentification) +he abo.e case la0- ho0e.er ,oes not ans0er the @uestion 0hether an o""icer (ay *demand/ that the passenger i,enti"y hi(sel". An o""icer (ay certainly *as?/ "or i,enti"ication- so long as he un,erstan,s that the passenger (ay re"use. (See /o"ender $# 2a,son (1&#3) 351 4.S. 3$2 62$ 7.8,.2n, &039: ro,n $# Te!as (1&2&) 333 4.S. 32- $2 651 7.8,.2n, 3$29: United States $# Dia53Castaneda (&th Cir. 2002) 3&3 B.3r, 113511$2%11$3.) Gut in light o" the case la0- abo.e- to the e""ect that the passenger is in "act ,etaine, along 0ith the ,ri.er (see rend"in $# Ca"i'ornia (2002) $$1 4.S. 23& 6122 S.Ct. 2300: 15# 7.8,.2n, 1329.)- there s an argu(ent that the o""icer (ay also re@uire the passenger to i,enti"y hi(sel". (See 0ii.e" $# Si!th *udicia" District Court o' Ne$ada (2003) $32 4.S. 122 61$& 7.8,.2n, 2&29.) +here s Cust no case ,irectly on point yet. Euery) 1s it not also arguable that a person ,etaine, base, upon a reasonable suspicion that he is in.ol.e, in cri(inal acti.ity- per Terr& $# Ohio- supra.- is ,i""erent than a person ,etaine, (erely by .irtue o" being a passenger in a stoppe, (otor .ehicle- per rend"in $# Ca"i'ornia- supraM Ehile the "or(er (ay be re@uire, to i,enti"y hi(sel"the sa(e rule (ight not apply to the later. (See Stu''"e.eam $# 0arris (&th Cir. 200#) $21 B.3r, ##3: "in,ing the arrest o" a passenger 0ho re"use, to i,enti"y hi(sel" to be illegal: ,eci,e, a"ter rend"in- but "ailing to (ention the case.) See *Demanding identification-/ belo0. 53
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(light) Ehile the *flight/ o" the dri!er o" a .ehicle pro.i,es probable cause to arrest "or .arious 0ehicle Code .iolations (8.g.- 0!C! 2#33 et se*!)- an, a dri!er 0ho is subCect to citation (ay not a.oi, the citation by "leeing on "oot (see (!C! 14#+a,)- 0hat i" the passenger- "or 0ho( there is no connection 0ith any illegal acti.ity- chooses to e?it the .ehicle an, runM +he long%stan,ing rule has al0ays been that *flight alone-/ 0ithout other suspicious circu(stances- is not su""icient Custi"ication "or a ,etention. ()eop"e $# Sou5a (1&&3) & Cal.3th 223.) Io0e.er- the 4nite, States Supre(e Court recently lo0ere, the bar a little by hol,ing that "light "ro( a so%calle, *high narcotics area/ is su""icient in itsel" to Custi"y a te(porary ,etention. (I""inois $# -ard"o, (2000) $2# 4.S. 11& 613$ 7.8,.2n, $209.) Blight o" t0o people is (ore suspicious than one. A,, to this the "act that there appeare, to be ,rug paraphernalia on a table 0here the t0o persons ha, been sitting- an, that the ,e"en,ant 0as carrying so(ething in his han, as he "le,: the o""icer ha, su""icient reasonable suspicion to ,etain hi(. ()eop"e $# ritton (2001) &1 Cal.App.3th 1112111#%111&.) An, see *;rdering 'n-/ abo.e. earch 'ncident to &itation) Although a tra""ic citation is technically an arrest and release on one s pro(ise to appear- it is treate, by the courts as a temporary detention only. +e(porary ,etentions ,o not inclu,e the po0er to con,uct a search. +here"ore- it is not constitutionally per(issible to con,uct a non% consensual search o" a .ehicle inci,ent to a citation- e.en i" authori;e, by statute. (/no,"es $# Io,a (1&&#) $2$ 4.S. 113 6132 7.8,.2n, 3&29.) +ote) Cali"ornia has no such statute si(ilar to 1o0a s. A *search incident to arrest/ (see belo0) re@uires the transportation o" the arrestee as a prere@uisite to a searchabsent probable cause to belie.e there is so(ething illegal to sei;e. (United States $# Ro.inson (1&23) 313 4.S. 21# 63# 7.8,.2n, 3229: )eop"e $# risendine (1&2$) 13 Cal.3r, 53
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$2#: United States $# %oto (&th Cir. 1&&3) &#2 B.2n, 13#3.) Eriting a person a tra""ic citation- o" course- ,oes not nor(ally in.ol.e the transportation o" the person 0ho is cite,. Ie is there"ore not subCect to search base, upon the 0riting o" a tra""ic ticFet alone. A tra""ic stop "or an e@uip(ent .iolation in a *high crime/ (i.e.- gang) area at night is not reasonable suspicion su""icient to Custi"y a ,etention or pat,o0n "or 0eapons. ()eop"e $# %edina (2003) 110 Cal.App.3th 121.) Gut see )eop"e $# %c/a& (2002) 22 Cal.3th 501- 502%51&- a .iolation o" 0!C! 212)3!1 (ri,ing a bicycle on the 0rong si,e o" the street): an, )eop"e $# Gome5 (2003) 112 Cal.App.3th $31- $3#%$3&- seat belt .iolation) 4.S. Supre(e Court ,ecisions ha.e hel, that a (ere .iolation o" state statutory restrictions on (aFing a custo,ial arrest "or a (inor cri(inal o""ense (e.g.- (ere tra""ic in"raction) ,oes not (ean that the Fourth Amendment 0as also .iolate,. (See At,ater $# Cit& o' 2a1o 9ista (2001) $32 4.S. 31# 613& 7.8,.2n, $3&9: )eop"e $# Ga""ardo (200$) 130 Cal.App.3th 233- 23&- "n. 1: )eop"e $# ennett (July 212011) 1&2 Cal.App.3th &02- &1#.) Absent a constitutional Fourth Amendment .iolation- e.i,ence that is the pro,uct o" a state statutory .iolation is not subCect to suppression. To 'dentify a uspect in a &riminal ;ffense) Stopping an, ,etaining a suspect in a cri(inal o""ense- 0hen balancing la0 en"orce(ent s interest in i,enti"ying cri(inal suspects 0ith the suspect s interest in personal security "ro( go.ern(ent intrusion- is la0"ul. (United States $# 0ens"e& (1&#$) 35& 4.S. 221 6#3 7.8.2n, 5039: a robbery.) +he sa(e is not true in the case o" a (is,e(eanor- noise .iolationnot occurring in the o""icer s presence- at least 0here there are possible alternati.e- less intrusi.e (etho,s- o" i,enti"ying the suspect. Stopping the suspect s .ehicle to i,enti"y hi( hel, to be illegal. (United States $# Gri11 (&th Cir. 2002) 3&# B.3r, 1020.) Detention of a Person to Determine &itizenship) 4nliFe (aFing illegal entry- the (ere unauthori;e, presence in the 4nite, States is not a cri(e. Stopping an, ,etaining in,i.i,uals base, solely on their apparent ethnicity to ,eter(ine 0hether they are in the country illegally is an illegal ,etention. (de *esus 5$
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Orte1a %e"endres $# Arpaio (&th Cir. 2012) 5&$ B.3r, &&0- &&&% 1002: citing %artine53%edina $# 0o"der (&th Cir. 2011) 523 B.3r, 102&- 1035.) Detention of Residents (or +on6Resident) During the Execution of a earch =arrant) +he occupants o" a resi,ence (ay be ,etaine, ,uring the e?ecution o" a search 0arrant e.en though they ,i, not (atch the ,escription o" the suspects (e.g.- Caucasian instea, o" A"rican%A(erican) belie.e, to be li.ing there at the ti(e. (2os An1e"es Count& $# Rette"e (2002) $$0 4.S. 50& 6152 7.8,.2n, &239: the court noting that until the rest o" the house is checFe, "or the suspects- other occupants (ay be ,etaine,.) 1t 0as "urther hel, that 0ith Fno0le,ge that one o" the sought%"or suspects ha, a "irear( registere, to hi(- the ,etainees coul, be hel, at gunpoint until the rest o" the house coul, be checFe,- e.en though the ,etainees 0ere unclothe, at the ti(e. 1t 0as not necessary to allo0 the ,etainees to co.er us until o""icers sa"ety coul, be assure,. (I.id.) See also %ueh"er $# %ena (200$) $33 4.S. &3 6151 7.8,.2n, 2&&9: ,etention o" a resi,ent la0"ul 0hile e.i,ence in a gang shooting case is looFe, "or- at least i" not *prolonged./ A non%resi,ent (ay also be ,etaine, 0hen he co(es upon the scene ,uring the e?ecution o" a search 0arrant an, there is e.i,ence connecting hi( to the illegal acti.ity at the location o" the search. (United States $# Da$is (&th Cir. 200#) $30 B.3r, 105&10#0%10#1.) A probation o""icer (ay la0"ully ,etain a .isitor in a house 0ho is present in the house o" a Cu.enile probationer ,uring a Fourth 0a.ier search long enough to ,eter(ine 0hether he is an resi,ent o" the house or is other0ise connecte, to illegal acti.ity. ()eop"e $# Rios (2011) 1&3 Cal.App.3th $#3- $&3%$&$.) +he Court "urther ,eter(ine, that a probation o""icer has the legal authority to ,etain an, pat,o0n a non%probationer pursuant to (!C! #33!)+a,+4, (i.e.: en"orcing *.iolations o" any penal pro.isions o" la0 0hich are ,isco.ere, 0hile per"or(ing the usual or authori;e, ,uties o" his or her e(ploy(ent./) (Id- at p. 500.) 55
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Prolonged Detentions) A tra""ic stop (or any other ,etention) 0hich is reasonable in its inception (ay beco(e unreasonable i" prolonge, beyon, that point reasonably necessary "or the o""icer to co(plete the original purposes o" the ,etention. ()eop"e $# %cGau1hran (1&2&) 2$ Cal.3r, $22.) +his 0ill necessarily inclu,e the ti(e re@uire, to 0rite out the citation an, obtain the o""en,er s pro(ise to appear. 1t 0ill also inclu,e the ti(e it taFes to obtain an, e?a(ine the o""en,er s ,ri.er s license an, registration. *(L)oo, police practice/ (ight also inclu,e the ti(e it taFes to ,iscuss the .iolation 0ith the (otorist an, listen to any e?planation he (ay 0ish to o""er. An, i" the .ehicles are e?pose, to ,anger- the o""icer (ay re@uire the ,ri.er to procee, to a sa"er location be"ore the tra""ic stop is co(plete,. ()eop"e $# Tu""& (2012) $3 Cal.3th &$2- &#0%&#1.) A person (ay be ,etaine, only as long as is reasonably necessary to acco(plish the purpose o" the original stop- possibly e?ten,e, by the ti(e nee,e, to in.estigate any ne0 in"or(ation Custi"ying a "urther ,etention 0hich co(es to light ,uring the original ,etention. ()eop"e $# Russe"" (2000) #1 Cal.App.3th &5- 101.) 8.g.) A *reasonable suspicion/ o" cri(inal acti.ity ,e.elope, ,uring a ,etention that 0as initiate, "or other purposes 0ill Custi"y hol,ing the ,etainee beyon, the ti(e it tooF to acco(plish the original purposes o" the stop. (United States $# Thompson (&th Cir. 2002) 2#2 B.3r, 523: a Coast Luar, boat sa"ety checF ,e.elope, cause to belie.e the subCects 0ere s(uggling ,rugs- Custi"ying a "urther ,etention to in.estigate that possibility.) Detaining the ,e"en,ant "or ten (inutes- until a ra,io checF ca(e bacF that the car 0as stolen- 0as not e?cessi.eparticularly 0hen sy(pto(s o" into?ication 0ere note, ,uring the ten (inutes. ()eop"e $# Carter (200$) 35 Cal.3th 1113- 113&%1132.) Ran,o( 0arrant checFs ,uring routine tra""ic stops are la0"ul- but the subCect (ust be release, 0hen the citation process is co(plete, ()eop"e $# %cGau1hran- supra: see also United States $# 2uc(ett (&th Cir. 1&23) 3#3 B.2n, #&.)- or 0ithin a reasonable ti(e therea"ter. ()eop"e $# ro,n (1&&#) 52 Cal.App.3th 3&3: one (inute ,elay 0hile a0aiting the results o" a 0arrant checF 0as not unreasonable- e.en though the o""icer ne.er 0rote the ticFet.) 52
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AsFing ,e"en,ant "or a consent to search- e.en 0ithout any reason to belie.e there 0as anything there to search "or- is la0"ul so long as ,one 0ithin the ti(e it 0oul, ha.e taFen to 0rite the citation 0hich 0as the original cause o" the stop. ()eop"e $# Ga""ardo (200$) 130 Cal.App.3th 233.) +ote) Recent authority has calle, into @uestion the continuing .ali,ity o" %cGau1hran- noting that 4.S. Supre(e Court ,ecisions ha.e hel, that a (ere .iolation o" state statutory restrictions on (aFing a custo,ial arrest "or a (inor cri(inal o""ense (e.g.- (ere tra""ic in"raction) ,oes not (ean that the Fourth Amendment 0as also .iolate,. (See At,ater $# Cit& o' 2a1o 9ista (2001) $32 4.S. 31# 613& 7.8,.2n, $3&9.) Absent a constitutional Fourth Amendment .iolatione.i,ence that is the pro,uct o" a state statutory .iolation is not subCect to suppression. ()eop"e $# %c/a& (2002) 22 Cal.3th 501- 502%51&- a .iolation o" 0!C! 212)3!1 (ri,ing a bicycle in the 0rong ,irection): )eop"e $# Gome5 (2003) 112 Cal.App.3th $31- $3#%$30- seat belt .iolation: )eop"e $# ennett (July 21- 2011) 1&2 Cal.App.3th &02- &1#.) Gut i" the ,etention is other0ise unla0"ul- such as in a tra""ic stop (a,e 0ithout legal Custi"ication- then continuing to ,etain a person to in.estigate the person s re"usal to stop is also illegal. (2i.era" $# Estrada (&th Cir. 2011) 532 B.3r, 1053- 102&%10#1: hol,ing onto the Plainti"" "or the apparent purpose o" an *attitu,e a,Cust(ent./) State(ents taFen "ro( a ,etaine, cri(inal suspect hel, "or o.er 15 hours 0ithout probable cause to arrest- are subCect to suppression as the pro,uct o" an unla0"ully prolonge, ,etention. ()eop"e $ *en(ins (2003) 122 Cal.App.3th 1150- 1123%112#.) An other0ise la0"ul *?noc? and tal?-/ 0here o""icers continue, to press the ,e"en,ant "or per(ission to enter his apart(ent a"ter his ,enial o" any illegal acti.ity- con.erte, the contact into an unla0"ully *extended/ ,etention- causing the Court to conclu,e that a later consent%to%search 0as the pro,uct o" the illegal ,etention- an, thus in.ali,. (United States $# -ashin1ton (&th Cir. 2003) 3#2 B.3r, 1050.) Iol,ing onto a suspect (in han,cu""s) "or o.er 3H hours (an, (aybe as long as 5H hours) 0hile narcotics o""icers ,ro.e up to a (ariCuana gro0 an, searche, the area to see i" there 0as any e.i,ence connecting hi( to the gro0- 0as *diligent and reasonable/ un,er 5#
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the circu(stances- an, not an illegally prolonge, ,etention. ()eop"e $# -i""iams (2002) 1$5 Cal.App.3th &3&: also "in,ing that the o""icers ha, enough to arrest hi( "ro( the outset ha, they chosen to ,o so.) *"awfully Prolonged Detentions)/ +he Jinth Circuit Court o" Appeal has hel, that a (ini(ally prolonge, ,etention (e.g.- a couple o" (inutes)- at least 0hen (oti.ate, by other ne0ly ,isco.ere, in"or(ation e.en though that ne0 in"or(ation by itsel" (ight not constitute a reasonable suspicion- ,oes not (aFe the prolonging o" the ,etention unreasonable. 4n,er such circu(stances- a (ini(ally prolonge, ,etention is not unla0"ul. (United States $# Tur$in et a"# (&th Cir. 200#) $12 B.3r, 10&2.) See also )eop"e $# ro,n (1&&#) 52 Cal.App.3th 3&3- 0here a one (inute ,elay 0hile a0aiting the results o" a 0arrant checF 0as hel, to be reasonable- e.en though the o""icer ne.er 0rote the ticFet. ;!er6Detention in :ail) Another "or( o" illegal ,etention is 0hen a Cail "ails to release a prisoner 0hen he is ,ue to be release,. Such an act potentially constitutes groun,s "or a "e,eral ci.il suit- per 42 !S!C! 1"#3. Io0e.er- in or,er to pro.e such a constitutional .iolation- the plainti""Nprisoner (ust be able to pro.e that the ,e"en,ant o""icers personally participate, in his o.er%,etention or that the o.er%,etention 0as the result o" a pattern or custo( on their part o" the ,e"en,ant la0 en"orce(ent agency. (A$a"os $# aca (&th Cir. 2010) $&5 B.3, $#3- $#2.) Enlarging the cope of the ;riginal Detention) 1" the person .oluntarily consents to ha.ing his .ehicle searche, a"ter he is "ree to lea.e- there is no prolonge, ,etention- at least 0here a reasonable person shoul, ha.e un,erstoo, that the purposes o" the tra""ic stop 0ere ,one. +he o""icer is un,er no obligation to a,.ise hi( that he is no longer being ,etaine, or that he has a right to re"use to allo0 the o""icer to search. (Ro.inette $# Ohio (1&&5) $1& 4.S. 33 6135 7.8,.2n, 3329.) The (ederal +inth &ircuit &ourt of *ppeal) 4p until recently- the Jinth Circuit Court o" Appeal has ha, ,i""iculty accepting the i,ea that a police o""icer- ,uring an other0ise la0"ul ,etention- an, so long as that ,etention is not unla0"ully prolonge, (see abo.e)- (ay @uestion the ,etaine, person about other possible cri(inal acti.ity absent so(e *particularized suspicion/ rele.ant to that other cri(inal acti.ity) 5&
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See United States $# Cha$e539a"en5ue"a (&th Cir. 2001) 25# B.3r, 21&- a(en,e, at 22& B.3r, 1052- 0here the Jinth Circuit Court o" Appeal "oun, a consent search- obtaine, a"ter the purposes o" the tra""ic stop ha, been satis"ie,- 0as in.ali, as a pro,uct o" an illegally prolonge, ,etention- the e?ten,e, ,etention being the result o" the o""icer s unnecessary in@uiries (a,e ,uring the tra""ic stop. Ro.inette 0as not ,iscusse, by the Court. +he ,e"en,ant s ner.ousness 0as hel, to be irrele.ant to the ,etention issueper the Court. (See also )eop"e $# 2usardi (1&&1) 22# Cal.App.3r, Supp. 1- (aFing a si(ilar argu(ent.) Jote United States $# Tur$in et a"# (&th Cir. 200#) $12 B.3r, 10&2- ,iscussing the in.ali,ity o" the pri(ary hol,ings o" the Cha$e539a"en5ue"a ,ecision- as it relate, to the issue o" prolonge, ,etentions. See also United States $# %uri""o (&th Cir. 2001) 2$$ B.3r, 115&- 1123- 0here the Jinth Circuit Court o" Appeal hel, that an o""icer (ust be able to *articulate suspicious "actors that are particulari;e, an, obCecti.e/ in or,er to *broa,en the scope o" @uestioning/ beyon, the purposes o" the initial tra""ic stop./ (United States $# %uri""o (&th Cir. 2001) 2$$ B.3r, 115&- 1123: a @uestionable rule in light o" Ro.inette.) An, see United States $# %ende5 (&th Cir. 2005) 352 B.3r, 1152 (Superse,e, by United States $# %ende5 (&th Cir. 2002) 325 B.3r, 1022.)- 0here it 0as hel, that @uestioning a ,etainee about possible cri(inal acti.ity not relate, to the cause o" the ,etention- an, 0ithout a *particularized suspicion/ to support a belie" that the ,etainee is in.ol.e, in that acti.ity- is a Fourth Amendment .iolation. +he Jinth Circuit has since o.errule, its ,ecisions in Cha$e53 9a"en5ue"a an, %uri""o- "inally recogni;ing the Supre(e Court s rulings to the contrary. (United States $# %ende5 (&th Cir. 2002) 325 B.3r, 1022.) Yuestioning ,e"en,antNtrucF ,ri.er an, asFing "or consent to search the .ehicle- 0hen the trucF 0as initially stoppe, "or no (ore than an a,(inistrati.e checF o" its paper0orFis not unconstitutional. (United States $# De"1ado (&th Cir. 200#) $3$ B.3r, 11&$- 120$.) 20
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1n other cases- the Supre(e Court has hel,) *8.en 0hen la0 en"orce(ent o""icers ha.e no basis "or suspecting a particular in,i.i,ual- they (ay pose @uestions- asF "or i,enti"ication- an, re@uest consent to search luggagePpro.i,e, they ,o not in,uce cooperation by coerci.e (eans./ (United States $# Dra&ton (2002) $35 4.S. 1&3 61$3 7.8,.2n, 2329.): citing F"orida $# ostic (1&&1) $01 4.S. 32&- 333%33$ 611$ 7.8,.2n, 3#&- 3&#%3&&9.) Oost recently- in I""inois $# Ca.a""es (200$) $33 4.S. 30$ 6150 7.8,.2nd 842&! the U. . u(reme Court re6ected the ar.ument that
allo+in. a narcotics5sniffin. do. to sniff around the outside of a )ehicle that +as la+full* sto((ed for a traffic offense 7un6ustifiabl* enlar.e(s) the sco(e of a routine traffic sto( into a dru. in)esti.ation.3 8er the u(reme Court9 :o ex(ectation of (ri)ac* is )iolated b* this (rocedure! and therefore does not im(licate the Fourth Amendment.

Also- the 4.S. Supre(e Court recently reCecte, the Jinth Circuit s unsupporte, conclusion that- absent *a particularized reasonable suspicion that an in,i.i,ual is not a citi;en-/ it is a Fourth Amendment .iolation to asF hi( or her about the subCect s citi;enship. (See %ena $# Cit& o' Simi 9a""e& (&th Cir. 2003) 332 B.3r, 12$$- 1253%125$: re.erse, by the 4.S. Supre(e Court in %ueh"er $# %ena (200$) $33 4.S. &3 6151 7.8,.2n, 2&&9.) 1t is not unla0"ul to asF about a "irear( ,uring a ,etention e.en i" there is other0ise no e.i,ence o" the illegal use o" a gun- so long as it ,oes not prolong the ,etention. (United States $# asher (&th Cir. 2011) 52& B.3r, 1151- 1155- "n. 3.) Cali"ornia courts see( to be in line 0ith these latest Supre(e Court pronounce(ents on the issue) *Yuestioning ,uring the routine tra""ic stop on a subCect unrelate, to the purpose o" the stop is not itsel" a Fourth Amendment .iolation. Oere @uestioning is neither a search nor a sei;ure. 6Citation.9 Ehile the tra""ic ,etainee is un,er no obligation to ans0er unrelate, @uestions- the Constitution ,oes not prohibit la0 en"orce(ent o""icers "ro( asFing. 6Citation.9/ ()eop"e $# ro,n (1&&#) 52 Cal.App.3th 3&33&&%$00: )eop"e $# e"" (1&&5) 33 Cal.App.3th 2$3- 252: )eop"e $# Ga""ardo (200$) 130 Cal.App.3th 233- 23#: )eop"e $# Tu""& (2012) $3 Cal.3th &$2- &#1%&#2: see also )eop"e $# Ga""ardo (200$) 130 Cal.App.3th 233- 23&: asFing "or consent to search ,uring the ti(e it 0oul, ha.e taFen to 0rite the citation that 0as the original cause o" the stop is legal- ,espite the lacF o" any e.i,ence to belie.e there 0as so(ething there to search "or.)

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Ta?ing (ingerprints) 1t is la0"ul to ,etain an, "ingerprint a particular suspect on less than probable cause- at least i" ,one at the scene an, 0ithout transportation to a police station. (Da$is $# %ississippi (1&5&) 3&3 4.S. 221 622 7.8,.2n, 5259: 0a&es $# F"orida (1&#$) 320 4.S. #11 6#3 7.8,.2n, 20$9: 9ir1"e $# Superior Court (2002) 100 Cal.App.3th $22.) Dri!ing #nder the 'nfluence (*D#'/) (alcohol an,Nor ,rugs) &ases) =ea!ing) !bser.ation o" the ,e"en,ant 0ea.ing 0ithin his tra""ic lane is su""icient cause to stop hi( to ,eter(ine 0hether he is D41 or the .ehicle has so(e unsa"e (echanical ,e"ect. ()eop"e $# rac(en (2000) #3 Cal.App.3th Supp. 1- 0ea.ing 0ithin his lane "or hal" a (ile: see also )eop"e $# )ere5 (1&#$) 12$ Cal.App.3r, Supp. #: 0ea.ing 0ithin his lane "or three @uarters o" a (ile.) $ut see United States $# Co"in (&th Cir. 2002) 313 B.3r, 33&0here the Jinth Circuit Court o" Appeal hel, that 0ea.ing "ro( lane line to lane line "or 3$ to 3$ secon,s is neither a .iolation o" the lane stra,,ling statute (0!C! 212)#+a,)nor reasonable suspicion that the ,ri.er (ay be un,er the in"luence: a @uestionable ,ecision- an, one than (ay probably be ignore, by state la0 en"orce(ent o""icers in light o" rac(en an, )ere5. A single pronounce, 0ea.e 0ithin the lane- plus an e?perience, Iigh0ay Patrol o""icer s obser.ation o" the ,e"en,ant sitting up close to the steering 0heel- 0hich the o""icer recogni;e, as so(ething an i(paire, ,ri.er ,oes0as su""icient to corroborate secon,%han, in"or(ation concerning ,e"en,ant s *erratic ,ri.ing/ "ro( Oontana Depart(ent o" +ransportation e(ployees- Custi"ying the stop o" the ,e"en,ant s car. (United States $# Fernande53 Casti""o (&th Cir. 2003) 323 B.3r, 1113.) D#' (an, !ther Regulatory * pecial +eeds/) &hec?points) Are they legalM Fes- i" con,ucte, accor,ing to speci"ie, criteria- an, in.ol.e a *special needs-/ *regulatory/ area o" the la0. (In1erso"" $# )a"mer (1&#2) 33 Cal.3r, 1321: %ichi1an State )o"ice Dept# $# Sit5 (1&&0) 3&5 4.S. 333 6110 7.8,.2n, 3129.) Ehether or not a *D#'/ (or other regulatory) roa,blocF or checFpoint is la0"ul ,epen,s upon 0hether it (eets the "e,eral stan,ar, "or reasonableness. 22
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*The federal test "or ,eter(ining 0hether a ,etention or sei;ure is Custi"ie, balances the public interest ser.e, by the sei;ure- the ,egree to 0hich the sei;ure a,.ances the public interest an, the se.erity o" the inter"erence 0ith in,i.i,ual liberty. ( ro,n $# Te!as (1&2&) 333 4.S. 32- $0%$1 651 7.8,.2n, 3$2- 351%352- . . .9.)/ (Emphasis added: )eop"e $# an(s (1&&3) 5 Cal.3th &25: hol,ing that "ailure to publici;e a D41 roa,blocF 0as not necessarily "atal to its la0"ulness- un,er ro,n $# Te!as.) Ehile stan,ar,less an, unconstraine, ,iscretion on the part o" go.ern(ent o""icers is prohibite,: *stops an, inspections "or regulatory purposes- although 0ithout Gindi!idualized suspicion- (ay be per(itte, i" un,ertaFen pursuant to pre,eter(ine, speci"ie, neutral criteria./ (1talics a,,e,: In1erso"" $# )a"mer- supra- at p. 133$.) +he "actors i,enti"ie, in In1erso"" (at pp. 1331%1332) are 0hether) +he ,ecision to establish a sobriety checFpoint- the selection o" the site- an, the proce,ures "or the operation o" the checFpoint- are (a,e an, establishe, by super.isory la0 en"orce(ent personnel. Ootorists are stoppe, accor,ing to a neutral "or(ula- such as e.ery thir,- "i"th or tenth ,ri.er. A,e@uate sa"ety precautions are taFen- such as proper lighting- 0arning signs- an, signals- an, 0hether clearly i,enti"iable o""icial .ehicles an, personnel are use,. +he location o" the checFpoint 0as ,eter(ine, by a policy%(aFing o""icial- an, 0as reasonable: i.e.- on a roa, ha.ing a high inci,ence o" alcohol%relate, acci,ents or arrests. +he ti(e the checFpoint 0as con,ucte, an, its ,uration re"lect *good %udgment/ on the part o" la0 en"orce(ent o""icials.

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+he checFpoint e?hibits in,icia o" its o""icial nature (to reassure the public o" the authori;e, nature o" the stop). +he a.erage length an, nature o" the ,etention is (ini(i;e,. +he checFpoint is prece,e, by publicity.

A D41 checFpoint 0as uphel, 0here the e?istence o" super.isory control 0as in,icate, by ,ocu(entary e.i,ence that a sobriety checFpoint 0as planne, "or that ,ate an, by the "act that the checFpoint 0as sta""e, by se.en police o""icers. +esti(ony that an o""icer 0as una0are o" a neutral "or(ula "or stopping .ehicles 0as not a""ir(ati.e e.i,ence o.erco(ing the presu(ption o" la0"ulness. All $1& .ehicles passing through the checFpoint 0ere stoppe,thus a neutral (athe(atical "or(ula o" 100 percent applie,. +he "act that the checFpoint 0as operate, at a ,i""erent location than gi.en in a (e,ia a,.isory 0as insu""icient to o.erco(e the presu(ption as to ,ecision (aFing at the super.isory le.el or reasonable location. (Arthur $# Department o' %otor 9ehic"es (2010) 1#3 Cal. App. 3th 11&&.) A D41 checFpoint 0as strucF ,o0n 0here the People "aile, to sustain their bur,en o" proo" as to (i) the role o" super.isory personnel in prescribing the proce,ures to be use, at the checFpoint- (ii) the rationale "or selecting the particular location use, "or the checFpoint- (iii) the length o" ,etentions- an, (i.) a,.ance publicity. ()eop"e $# A"$arado (2011) 1&3 Cal.App.3th Supp. 13.) 1ssue) 1s the obser.e, a.oi,ance o" a D41 checFpoint su""icient cause to con,uct a tra""ic stopM
+he "e,eral +enth Circuit Court o" Appeal is o" the opinion that it is not. +he Court hel, that a ,ri.er s ,ecision to use a rural high0ay e?it a"ter passing ,rug checFpoint signs (ay be consi,ere, as one "actor in an o""icer s reasonable suspicion ,eter(ination- but it is not a su""icient basis- by itsel"- to Custi"y a tra""ic stop. +he court note, that an o""icer (ust i,enti"y a,,itional suspicious circu(stances or in,epen,ently e.asi.e beha.ior to Custi"y stopping a .ehicle that uses

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an e?it a"ter ,ri.ing past ruse ,rug%checFpoint signs. (United States $# Ne'' (10th Cir. 2012) 5#1 B.3r, 1133.)

;ther Regulatory &hec?points) !ther than "or D41 ,eterrenceroa,blocFs- checFpoints- an, si(ilar *administrati!e- special needs/ searches ha.e been appro.e, in the "ollo0ing cases) "icense and registration inspection chec?points. (De"a,are $# )rouse (1&2&) 330 4.S. 53# 6$& 7.8,.2n, 5509: )eop"e $# -ash.urn (1&5#) 25$ Cal.App.2n, 55$: )eop"e $# A"$are5 (1&&5) 13 Cal.3th 1$$: %errett $# %oore (11th Cir. 1&&5) $# B.3r, 1$32: United States $# %cFa&den (D.C. Cir. 1&#&) #5$ B.2n, 1305: United States $# Dia53 A".ertini (10th Cir. 1&#$) 222 B.2n, 5$3: United States $# 2ope5 (10th Cir. 1&#$) 222 B.2n, $33: United States $# O.re1on (10th Cir. 1&#3) 23# B.2n, 1321: United States $# )richard (10th Cir. 1&#1) 53$ B.2n, #$3.) $order Patrol chec?point inspections. (United States $# %artine53Fuerte (1&25) 32# 4.S. $33 63& 7.8,.2n, 1115.) *irport security searches. ()eop"e $# 0&de (1&23) 12 Cal.3r, 1$#.) To regulate hunting licenses. ()eop"e $# )ere5 (1&&5) $1 Cal.App.3th 115#.) *gricultural inspection chec?points. ()eop"e $# Dic(inson (1&#0) 103 Cal.App.3r, $0$.) Vehicle mechanical inspection chec?points. ()eop"e $# De 2a Torre (1&52) 2$2 Cal.App.2n, 152.) ecurity chec?point at military bases. (United States $# 0a,(ins (&th Cir. 2001) 23& B.3r, #25- Air Borce: United States $# 0ernande5 (&th Cir. 1&#3) 23& B.2n, 3#3Oarines.) obriety chec?points on a federal military base. (United States $# Di""on (D.Zan. 1&&2) &#3 B.Supp. 1032: United States $# 4ie1"er (J.D. Cal. 1&&3) #31 B.Supp. 221.) * forest ser!ice chec?point "or i,enti"ication an, registration- targeting 0hat in the past has been a *uni@uely 2$
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,isrupti.e e.ent-/ is not per se illegal. ()ar( $# Forest Ser$ice (#th Cir. 2000) 20$ B.3r, 1033- 1030.) Traffic safety chec?points. (United States $# Tre$ino (2th Cir. 1&&5) 50 B.3r, 333.) &hec?points at the entrance to a prison par?ing lot. (Romo $# Champion (10th Cir. 35 B.3r, 1013.) ChecFpoint to *th0art an imminent terrorist attac? or to catch a dangerous criminal 0ho is liFely to "lee by 0ay o" a particular route./ (see belo0: Cit& o' Indianapo"is $# Edmond- infra2) ChecFpoints set up "or the purpose o" collecting in"or(ation "ro( the public concerning a prior cri(inal act (i.e.- a "atal *hit an, run/ in this case)- 0hen set up at the location o" the prior cri(inal act- an, e?actly one 0eeF a"ter it occurre,. Such a roa,blocF 0as ,i""erentiate, "ro( the atte(pt to ,isco.ery *ordinary criminal wrongdoing-/ as con,e(ne, in Indianapo"is $# Edmond- infra2 (I""inois $# 2idster (2003) $30 4.S. 31& 61$2 7.8,.2n, #339.) An *information station/ set up to pro.i,e parF .isitors 0ith in"or(ation concerning the rules o" the parF an, be gi.en a litter bag- 0here e.ery .ehicle 0as stoppe,. (United States $# Fau"(ner (&th Cir. 2005) 3$0 B.3r, 355.) A checFpoint set up "or the purpose o" pre.enting illegal hunting in a national parF- Custi"ie, by a legiti(ate concern "or preser.ation o" parF 0il,li"e- 0hen con"ine, to the parF gate 0here .isitors 0oul, e?pect to brie"ly stop any0ay. (United States $# Fraire (&th Cir. 200&) $2$ B.3r, &2&.) Earrantless searching o" luggage an, other pacFages at selecte, entrances to Je0 KorF s sub0ay syste(- in response to the possibility o" terrorists entering the syste( 0ith e?plosi.es. (%ac-ade $# /e""& (2n, Cir. 2005) 350 B.3r, 250.)

0!C! 2#14!1+a,) A County Goar, o" Super.isors is authori;e, by statute to establish a .ehicle%inspection checFpoint to checF "or .iolations o" 0!C! 211)3 an, 211)3!) (e?haust an, e?cessi.e s(oFe .iolations). 25
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0!C! 2#14!1+d,) Ootorcycle%only checFpoints are prohibite,. ChecFpoints (ay ha.e a dual6purpose- such as the interdiction of drugs (but see belo0) an, enforcement of dri!er)s license and registration laws. (%errett $# %oore (11th Cir. 1&&$) $# B.3r, 1$32.) ChecFpoints (ay be atten,e, by more than one law enforcement agency- ,espite the ,i""erent interests in.ol.e,. (United States $# ara;as3Cha$e5 (10th Cir. 1&&&) 152 B.3r, 12#$- Je0 Oe?ico D#' chec?point 0ith Gor,er Patrol present in case the police ,isco.ere, illegal aliens: United States $# Ga"indo3Gon5a"es (10th Cir. 1&&#) 132 B.3r, 1212- aliens "oun, at state dri!er)s license and !ehicle registration roadbloc?.) Drug 'nterdiction (or *;rdinary &riminal =rongdoing/) &hec?points) 8arlier cases "ro( lo0er appellate courts uphel, the .ali,ity o" ,rug inter,iction checFpoints upon the sa(e reasoning as abo.e. (See %errett $# %oore (11th Cir. 1&&$) $# B.3r, 1$32: an, %issouri $# Damas( (1&&5) &35 S.E.2n, $5$.) Io0e.er- the 4.S. Supre(e Court has since ,eter(ine, that *drug interdiction/ checFpoints are not la0"ul. +he ,i""erence is that drug interdiction chec?points- rather than being *regulatory-/ or in.ol.ing so(e *special need-/ are set up "or the purpose o" ,etecting *ordinary criminal wrongdoing2/ As such- drug interdiction chec?points re@uire the stan,ar, Fourth Amendment *indi!idualized/ or *particularized/ suspicion to be la0"ul. (Cit& o' Indianapo"is $# Edmond (2000) $31 4.S. 32 6135 7.8,.2n, 3339.) +he Supre(e Court in Edmond inti(ate, strongly that roa,blocFs in unusual circu(stances o" cri(inal 0rong,oing (ight be constitutionally acceptable. *(+)here are circu(stances that (ay Custi"y a la0 en"orce(ent checFpoint 0here the pri(ary purpose 0oul, other0isebut "or so(e e(ergency- relate to or,inary cri(e control. Bor e?a(ple- as the Court o" Appeals note, (see Edmond $# Go"dsmith (2th Cir. 1&&&) 1#3 B.3r, 5$&- 552%553: re.erse,)- the Fourth Amendment 0oul, al(ost certainly per(it an appropriately tailore, roa,blocF set up to th0art 22
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an imminent terrorist attac? or to catch a dangerous criminal 0ho is liFely to "lee by 0ay o" a particular route./ (1talics a,,e,: Cit& o' Indianapo"is $# Edmond- supra- at p. 33 (135 7.8,.2n, at p. 33$9.) See I""inois $# 2idster (2003) $30 4.S. 31& 61$2 7.8,.2n, #339) A checFpoint set up "or the purpose o" collecting in"or(ation "ro( the public concerning a prior cri(inal act (i.e.- a "atal *hit an, run/ in this case)- 0hen set up at the location o" the prior cri(inal act- an, e?actly one 0eeF a"ter it occurre,. Such a roa,blocF 0as ,i""erentiate, "ro( the atte(pt to ,isco.er *ordinary criminal wrongdoing-/ as con,e(ne, in Indianapo"is $# Edmond- supra. &hec?points ;n 'ndian "and by 'ndian *uthorities) A roa,blocF set up on a public right%o"%0ay 0ithin tribal territory- la0"ul un,er 1n,ian la0 an, establishe, on tribal authority- is per(issible only to the e?tent that the suspicionless stop o" non%1n,ians is li(ite, to the a(ount o" ti(e- an, the nature o" the in@uiry- that can establish 0hether or not the person stoppe, is an 1n,ian. ( ressi $# Ford (&th Cir. 200&) $2$ B.3r, #&1- #&5%#&2.) 1n,ian la0 en"orce(ent o""icers- 0hen also certi"ie, to en"orce state la0s- (ay set up D41 or other regulatory roa,blocFs (as oppose, to (erely checFing other 1n,ians pursuant to +ribal la0) on 1n,ian lan,. Gut such roa,blocFs (ust (eet the constitutional re@uire(ents set by the Supre(e Court (see abo.e). (Id.- at p. #&2.) * (ield 'nter!iew (*(2'2/) o" a person suspecte, o" cri(inal acti.ity) +ote) A "iel, inter.ie0s is a stan,ar, la0 en"orce(ent tactic use, to i,enti"y in,i.i,uals an, ,ocu(ent their presence at a particular location at a particular ti(e- ,iscourage planne, cri(inal acti.ityan, note co(panions 0ith 0ho( the person is associating: in"or(ation 0hich so(eti(es beco(es i(portant an, rele.ant in later in.estigations or prosecutions. Biel, inter.ie0s (ay be han,le, as a consensual encounter or- i" a reasonable suspicion e?ists- a detention. <eneral Rule) +e(porarily ,etaining a person "or the purpose o" .eri"ying (or negating) the person s possible connection 0ith so(e cri(inal acti.ity- base, upon an articulable *reasonable suspicion/ 2#
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that the person (ay be in.ol.e, in cri(inal acti.ity- is la0"ul. (Terr& $# Ohio (1&5#) 3&2 4.S. 1 620 7.8,.2n, ##&9: 1n re Ton& C# (1&2#) 21 Cal.3r, ###.) Absent the necessary *reasonable suspicion-/ a ,etention is unla0"ul unless the contact is han,le, as a *consensual encounter./ (See abo.e) Bor instance- (e(bership in a street gang is not in an, o" itsel" a cri(e. (See (!C! 1#2!22) +he practice o" stopping- ,etaining- @uestioning- an, perhaps photographing a suspecte, gang (e(ber- base, solely upon the person s suspecte, gang (e(bership- is illegal. ()eop"e $# Green (1&&1) 222 Cal.App.3r, 5&2- 5&&%200: )eop"e $# Rodri1ue5 (1&&3) 21 Cal.App.3th 232- 23&.) +he Rodri1ue5 court note, that: *Ehile this policy (o" stopping an, @uestioning all suspecte, gang (e(bers) (ay ser.e the lau,able purpose o" pre.enting cri(e- it is prohibite, by the Fourth Amendment./ (Id#- at p. 23&: citing ro,n $# Te!as (1&2&) 333 4.S. 32- $2 651 7.8,.2n, 3$2- 3539.) Geing in the area o" a house "or 0hich there is only a speculati.e belie" that it (ight be in.ol.e, in ,rug acti.ity- e.en 0hen it is Fno0n that the person to be ,etaine, has a prior ,rug%relate, recor, an, that there e?ists prior unteste,- unreliable in"or(ation that the person might be in.ol.e, in the sale o" ,rugs- is insufficient cause to ,etain. ()eop"e $# )itts (2003) 112 Cal.App.3th ##1.) Spotlighting the ,e"en,ant in a high narcotics area an, then 0alFing up to hi( *brisFly/ 0hile asFing @uestions hel, to be a ,etention un,er the circu(stances. ()eop"e $# Garr& (2002) 1$5 Cal.App.3th 1100.) Ian,cu""ing a suspect a"ter he ga.e an i(plausible e?planation as to 0hy he 0as in the area o" a (ariCuana gro0 at $)30 a.(.- an, "in,ing clothing in his bacFpacF that s(elle, liFe gro0ing (ariCuana- 0as a la0"ul ,etention e.en though the ,etention laste, at least 3H hours 0hile o""icers atte(pte, to "in, physical e.i,ence at the scene connecting hi( to the (ariCuana gro0. ()eop"e $# -i""iams (2002) 1$5 Cal.App.3th &3&.)

2&
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During Execution of a earch or *rrest =arrant, or during a Fourth =ai!er earch) An occupant o" a house being subCecte, to a search pursuant to a search warrant (ay be ,etaine, ,uring the search (1) in or,er to pre.ent "light- (2) to (ini(i;e the risF o" har( to the o""icers- an, (3) to "acilitate an or,erly search through cooperation o" the resi,ents. (%ichi1an $# Summers (1&#1) 3$2 4.S. 5&2- 202%203 65& 7.8,.2n, 330- 33&%3$09.) Jote- ho0e.er- Y.arra $# I""inois (1&2&) 333 4.S. #$ 652 7.8,.2n, 23#9- con,e(ning the ,etention an, pat,o0n o" e.eryone at the scene absent in,i.i,uali;e, e.i,ence connecting each person so ,etaine, 0ith the illegal acti.ity being in.estigate,. An,- using an other0ise la0"ul ,etention as a tool 0ith 0hich to coerce the e(ployees o" a business to sub(it to inter.ie0scon,itioning their release on ans0ering @uestions- is unla0"ul an, a .iolation o" the Fourth Amendment. (Gan,ich $# /napp (&th Cir. 2003) 31& B.3r, 111$.) !fficers acted reasonabl* b* detainin. a female occu(ant of a
residence in handcuffs for t+o to three hours +hile search +as in (ro.ress! e)en thou.h she +as not the sus(ect the officers +ere loo;in. for! .i)en the fact that the search +arrant sou.ht +ea(ons and e)idence of .an. membershi(. (Muehler v. Mena (200%) %44 U. . 9/ "161 #.$d.2nd 299&.)

+he Custi"ications "or ,etaining the occupants inclu,e) Pre.enting "light in the e.ent that incri(inating e.i,ence is "oun,: Oini(i;ing the risF o" har( to the o""icers: and
1acilitatin. the orderl* com(letion of the search +hile a)oidin. the use of force. (&d.! at (. 98.)

Recogni;ing the inherent ,angerousness in ser.ing narcotics% relate, search 0arrants an, the co((on use o" 0eaponsparticularly "irear(s- in such cases- i" "or no other reason than the o""icers sa"ety- anyone present at the scene o" the e?ecution o" such a 0arrant 0ho appears to ha.e a *close physical and functional association/ 0ith the subCects o" the search- (ay be te(porarily ,etaine, 0hile the person is i,enti"ie, an, that possible association is in.estigate,. ()eop"e $# Samp"es (1&&5) 3# #0
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Cal.App.3th 11&2: ,e"en,ant ,ri.ing the car liste, in the search 0arrant- in the co(pany o" t0o people liste, in the 0arrantla0"ully ,etaine,.) +he sa(e rules apply to ,etaining occupants o" a resi,ence 0hile ser.ing an arrest warrant. ()eop"e $# 0annah (1&&2) $1 Cal.App.3th 133$.) Also- police (ay la0"ully ,etain .isitors to a probationer s ho(e 0hile e?ecuting a *Fourth =ai!er/ search "or purposes o" i,enti"ying the .isitors (as possible "elons) an, "or the o""icers sa"ety. ()eop"e $# %ate"s(i (2000) #2 Cal.App.3th #32.) A person (erely approaching a house being searche,- at least in the absence o" any in,ication that the person has so(e connection 0ith the illegal acti.ity occurring in the house- (ay not be ,etaine,. ()eop"e $# Ga""ant (1&&0) 22$ Cal.App.3r, 200- 203% 203.) $ut- a person 0ho approaches a house being searche, pursuant to a search 0arrant un,er circu(stances either in,icating so(e connection 0ith the resi,ence- or 0hen his possible connection cannot be ,eter(ine, 0ithout a brie" ,etention- (ay be ,etaine, long enough to in.estigate his connection 0ith the illegal acti.ity at the house an, to ensure police sa"ety ,uring the search. ()eop"e $# G"aser (1&&$) 11 Cal.3th 3$3- 353%323.) Pending the ;btaining of a earch =arrant) Securing a ho(e "ro( the outsi,e- ,etaining the occupant on his o0n porch pen,ing the obtaining o" a 0arrant- 0as uphel, by the 4nite, States Supre(e Court. (I""inois $# %cArthur (2001) $31 4.S. 325 613# 7.8,.2n, #3#9.) 1t is proper "or the police to te(porarily *detain a residence/ "ro( the outsi,e- pre.enting people "ro( entering- 0hen there is a reasonable suspicion that contraban, or e.i,ence o" a cri(e is insi,e- at least until the o""icers can ,eter(ine through their in.estigation 0hether to seeF a search 0arrant. ()eop"e $# ennett (1&&#) 12 Cal.3th 323.) 1t is also la0"ul to detain pac?ages an, other containers. (United States $# 0ernande5 (&th Cir. Dec. 23- 2002) 313 B.3r, 1205.) +he rules generally parallel the re@uire(ents "or ,etaining a person un,er Terr& $# Ohio (1&5#) 3&2 4.S. 1 (See United States $# )"ace (1&#3) 352 4.S. 5&5 622 7.8,.2n, 1109.). #1
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Ehen the container is a pacFage that has been (aile,- an, the personal intrusion upon the inten,e, recipient is lessthe length o" ti(e the pacFage (ay be ,etaine, is consi,erably longer than i" taFen "ro( the ,e"en,ant s person. 1n )"ace- "or instance- the container 0as the ,e"en,ant s luggage taFen "ro( hi( at an airport. +he Supre(e Court hel, that &0 (inutes 0as too long. 1n contrast- the 0ernande5 case- 0here a 22%hour ,elay 0as uphel,- cites prior authority 0here hol,ing onto a (aile, pacFage "or up to si? ,ays 0as appro.e,. Detentions *way from the Place being earched) +he reasons "or ,etaining the occupants o" a resi,ence (See %ichi1an $# Summers- supra) ,o not apply once the occupant has le"t the resi,ence. Io0e.er- the (aCority o" the "e,eral courts that ha.e consi,ere, the issue ha.e allo0e, the ,etention o" an occupant 0ho has alrea,y le"t the resi,ence so long as the ,etention is ,one as soon as practical. !""icer sa"ety an, to a.oi, alerting other occupants o" the resi,ence ha.e been cite, as the t0o pri(ary reasons "or this rule. 1n so(e cases- a.oi,ing the ,estruction o" e.i,ence (ight also be a "actor. (United States $# Cochran (5th Cir. 1&&1) &3& B.2n, 332: United States $# Ca$a5os ($th Cir. 2002) 2## B.3r, 205: United States $# u""oc( (2th Cir. 2011) 532 B.3r, 1003.) See also United States $# ai"e& (2n, Cir. 2011) 5$2 B.3r, 1&2- 0here the ,e"en,ant 0asn t ,etaine, until a"ter ,ri.ing at least a (ile "ro( his ho(e. +he 4nite, States Supre(e Court has grante, certiorari in United States $# ai"e&- (aFing this case no longer a.ailable "or citation pen,ing a ,ecision by this Court. (June 3- 2012: 132 S. Ct. 2210- 1#3 7. 8,. 2, 52.) +0o "e,eral circuits ,isagree- "in,ing such ,etentions to be unla0"ul) United States $# Sherri"" (#th Cir. 1&&3) 22 B.3r, 333: United States $# Ed,ards (10th Cir. 1&&5) 103 B.3r, &0.) +ote) Jeither the Jinth Circuit nor Cali"ornia ha.e rule, on this issue. #2
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Anon&mous In'ormation) Rule) An anonymous tip- absent corroborating circu(stances- 0ill not Custi"y a ,etention. (A"a.ama $# -hite (1&&0) 3&5 4.S. 32$- 331 6110 7.8,.2n, 301- 30&9: In re Cod& S# (2003) 121 Cal.App.3th #5.) Patdown for =eapons) An anonymous tip concerning a person carrying a "irear( ,oes not Custi"y a patdown "or 0eapons (nor a detention "or that purpose). +here is no such thing as a *firearms exception/ to this rule. (F"orida $# *#2# (2000) $2& 4.S. 255 6135 7.8,.2n, 2$39: see also )eop"e $# *ordan (2003) 121 Cal.App.3th $33- $52%$53.) $ut note) +he 4.S. Supre(e Court- in ,icta- hints that ha, the anony(ous tipster 0arne, o" so(ething (ore ,angerous- such as a bo(b- a pat,o0n base, upon this tip alone (ight be uphel,. +he Court also in,icate, that certain areas 0here there is a lessene, e?pectation o" pri.acy- such as in an airport or on school groun,s- (ay also be an e?ception to this rule. (F"orida $# *#2#- supra- at p. 223%223 6135 7.8,.2n, at p. 2529.) Joting this- Cali"ornia s Bi"th District Court o" Appeal rule, that o""icers la0"ully stoppe, ,e"en,ant on in"or(ation "ro( an anony(ous tipster 0ho reporte, that ,e"en,ant 0as ,ri.ing to his 0i"e s house "or the purpose o" shooting her. +he la0"ulness o" the stop 0as base, upon the ,angerousness o" the situation 0hen co(bine, 0ith so(e 0eaF corroboration 0hich- by itsel"- (ight not ha.e been enough to Custi"y stopping ,e"en,ant s .ehicle. ()eop"e $# Castro (2005) 13# Cal.App.3th 3#5.) See also )eop"e $# -e""s (2005) 3# Cal.3th 102#- at page 10#2- 0here the Cali"ornia Supre(e Court ,i""erentiate, *#2# "ro( a D41 case noting that a(ong other "actors) *(A) report o" a possibly into?icate, high0ay ,ri.er- A0ea.ing all o.er the roa,0ay- poses a "ar (ore gra.e an, i((e,iate risF to the public than a report o" (ere passi.e gun possession./ +he Court also ,iscusse, brie"ly *predicti!e information/ 0hich (ay supply the necessary corroboration- such as being able to correctly ,escribe "uture actions o" the #3
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suspect. Also- unconnecte, anony(ous in"or(ants- or anything that 0oul, a,, the ele(ent o" cre,ibility to the in"or(ation- (ight su""iciently corroborate the anony(ous in"or(ant. (F"orida $# *#2#- supra- at p. 221 (concurring opinion)- 22$%225 6135 7.8,.2n, 250- 253%2539.) *n uncorroborated tip concerning contraband in a !ehicle 0ithout any in,ication o" *inside personal ?nowledge/ is insu""icient to Custi"y a tra""ic stop o" that .ehicle (United States $# %ora"es (&th Cir. 2001) 2$2 B.3r, 1020.) or a ,etention o" its ,ri.er. ()eop"e $# Sa"dana (2002) 101 Cal.App.3th 120: tip that the ,ri.er ha, a gun an, cocaine in the .ehicle.) +he "act that the physical description of a suspect 0ho is reporte, by an anony(ous tipster to ha.e a gun in his pocFet is .ery speci"ic ,oes not corroborate the tipster s in"or(ation. Absent at least so(e suspicious circu(stances obser.e, by the respon,ing police o""icers- "in,ing the person ,escribe, by the tipster ,oes not create a reasonable suspicion Custi"ying a ,etention or a pat,o0n "or 0eapons. ()eop"e $# *ordan (2003) 121 Cal.App.3th $33- $$3% 5$2: the @uicF con"ir(ation o" the physical ,escription o" the ,e"en,ant an, his location- by itsel"- is legally insu""icient.) (urther Examples) A tip "or0ar,e, by BG1 agents to a local la0 en"orce(ent o""icer *that he A(ight 0ant to pay particular attention to a certain house in +ucson because there 0as Asuspicion that there 0as a possibility that there (ight be so(e narcotics there/ ,i, not constitute su""icient reasonable suspicion to Custi"y a stop o" a .ehicle co(ing "ro( that house e.en though the tip ha, been corroborate, by hearing *thu(ps/ "ro( the garage 0hich the o""icer belie.e, 0as so(eone loa,ing so(ething into the .ehicle. Jeither the source nor the speci"ics o" the BG1 s tip 0ere e.er i,enti"ie, or e?plaine,. (United States $# Thomas (&th Cir. 2000) 211 B.3r, 11#5.) An anony(ous tip- e.en 0hen corroborate, by a generally (atching (albeit uni@ue) suspect ,escription (i.e.- 5 1/200%poun, blacF (ale 0ith the sa(e "irst na(e)- 0as "oun, to be not enough "or a "in,ing in ci.il court that- *as a matter of law-/ there 0as a *reasonable belief/ a 0ante, suspect 0as both a co%resi,ent an, 0as presently at a particular resi,ence. (-atts et a"# $# Count& o' Sacramento et a"# (&th Cir. 2001) 2$5 B.3r, ##5.) #3
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An anony(ous &11%hangup call- traceable to a particular (otel- but 0ithout su""icient in"or(ation to ,eter(ine 0hich roo( the call (ay ha.e co(e "ro(- ,i, not allo0 "or the non%consensual entry into the ,e"en,ant s roo( (erely because o" the suspicious atte(pts by the person 0ho ans0ere, the ,oor to Feep the o""icers "ro( looFing insi,ean, her apparent lies concerning no one else being there. (United States $# Deemer (&th Cir. 2003) 3$3 B.3r, 1130.) "oo?ing for Exceptions) So(e courts are clearly trouble, by the blanFet rule o" F"orida $# *#2#- an, ha.e been 0orFing har, to "in, e?ceptions. (or example) +he .icti( o" an assault by a person 0ith a ,ea,ly 0eapon calle, &11- ga.e his na(e (that coul, not be .eri"ie,)- but clai(e, to not Fno0 the phone nu(ber "ro( 0hich he 0as calling an, hesitate, to gi.e his location. 4n,er these circu(stances- it 0as hel, to be su""icient reasonable suspicion to ,etain an, pat ,e"en,ant ,o0n "or 0eapons. +he Court hel, that this 0as not *truly anonymous/ in that he ga.e a na(e- calle, &11 concerning a cri(e that ha, Cust occurre,- liFening it to a *spontaneous declaration-/ an, reporte, a cri(e about 0hich he ha, ob.ious "irsthan, Fno0le,ge- all gi.ing the in"or(ation the *indicia of reliability./ (United States $# Terr&3Crespo (&th Cir. 2003) 3$5 B.3r, 1120.) An anony(ous call concerning a D41 ,ri.er 0ea.ing all o.er the roa,- the tipster correctly pro.i,ing a ,etaile, ,escription o" the .ehicle- its location an, ,irection o" tra.el- gi.en the ,angerousness o" lea.ing a ,runF ,ri.er on the street- hel, to be su""icient *reasonable suspicion/ to stop the .ehicle an, checF its ,ri.er. ()eop"e $# -e""s (2005) 3# Cal.3th 102#- citing United States $# -heat (#th Cir. 2001) 22# B.3r, 222- an, noting- a(ong other "actors (see belo0)- the e?igency in.ol.e, in a D41 case.) 1n -e""s- the Cali"ornia Supre(e Court liste, "our "actors to consi,er- Custi"ying the stop o" a D41 suspect base, upon anony(ous in"or(ation) +he e?igency o" a D41 ,ri.er loose on the roa,- 0ith all the ,a(age they ,o- Custi"ies an i((e,iate la0 en"orce(ent response. *(A) report o" a possibly into?icate, #$

< 2013 Robert C. Phillips. All rights reser.e,

high0ay ,ri.er- A0ea.ing all o.er the roa,0ay- poses a "ar (ore gra.e an, i((e,iate risF to the public than a report o" (ere passi.e gun possession (as occurre, in F"orida $# *#2#)./ A report "ro( a citi;en ,escribing a conte(poraneous e.ent o" recFless ,ri.ingpresu(ably .ie0e, by the caller- a,,s to the reliability o" the in"or(ation an, re,uces the liFelihoo, that the caller is (erely harassing an ene(y. +he le.el o" intrusion upon one s personal pri.acy (in a place 0ith a re,uce, e?pectation o" pri.acy) an, the incon.enience in.ol.e, in a brie" .ehicle stop is consi,erably less than an *e(barrassing police search/ on a public street (as occurre, in F"orida $# *#2#). Reliability is a,,e, by the relati.ely precise an, accurate ,escription gi.en by the tipster regar,ing the .ehicle type- color- location an, ,irection o" tra.el.

An anony(ous tipster ,escribing ,e"en,ant s recFless ,ri.ing- gi.ing a speci"ic location an, a ,etaile, ,escription o" the car- the ,ri.er an, the ,ri.er s actions- 0as hel, to be su""icient to pro.i,e the necessary in,icia o" reliability to Custi"y a tra""ic stop. (2o,r& $# Gutierre5 (200$) 12& Cal.App.3th &25.) +ote) +he Court- ho0e.er- also note, that the ,e"en,ant s liability here 0as no (ore than a ,ri.er s license suspension- as oppose, to a cri(inal prosecution- allo0ing "or a lesser stan,ar, o" *reasonable suspicion./ 1t is unFno0n 0hether the Court 0oul, ha.e applie, the sa(e stan,ar,s ha, the conse@uences been a potential cri(inal prosecution an, con.iction instea,. A stop an, ,etention o" a suspect base, upon an anony(ous call 0as hel, to be Custi"ie, 0here the tipster allege, a ,angerous or potentially .iolent situation- the #5
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allege, cri(e ha, Cust occurre,- the suspect 0oul, ha.e le"t i" not ,etaine,- an, there is no reason to ,oubt the tipster s .eracity. ()eop"e $# Rod1ers (200$) 131 Cal.App.3th 1$50.) !""icers la0"ully stoppe, ,e"en,ant on in"or(ation "ro( an anony(ous tipster 0ho reporte, that ,e"en,ant 0as ,ri.ing to his 0i"e s house "or the purpose o" shooting her. +he la0"ulness o" the stop 0as base, upon the ,angerousness o" the situation 0hen co(bine, 0ith so(e 0eaF corroboration 0hich- by itsel"- (ight not ha.e been enough to Custi"y stopping ,e"en,ant s .ehicle. ()eop"e $# Castro (2005) 13# Cal.App.3th 3#5.) An anony(ous tipster calling in- in an e?cite, state- to report that ,e"en,ant ha, Cust pointe, a gun at hi(- gi.ing ,etaile, in"or(ation concerning the ,e"en,ant s ,escription an, his location- 0as hel, to be su""icient 0here the call 0as recor,e,- he calle, bacF a secon, ti(e to correct the color o" the car in 0hich ,e"en,ant 0as sitting- ga.e a "irst na(e- an, stucF aroun, long enough to insure that ,e"en,ant 0as still there. +he o""icers respon,e, 0ithin 2 to 3 (inutes an, "oun, the scene as the tipster ,escribe, it. De"en,ant s ,etention an, the 0arrantless search o" the .ehicle "or the gun 0as uphel,. ()eop"e $# Do""& (2002) $0 Cal.3th 3$#: i.e.- *6A9 "irsthan,- conte(poraneous ,escription o" the cri(e as 0ell as an accurate an, co(plete ,escription o" the perpetrator an, his location- the ,etails o" 0hich 0ere con"ir(e, 0ithin (inutes by the police 0hen they arri.e,./) Anony(ous in"or(ation reporting a ,angerous circu(stance in.ol.ing a gun- then occurring- 0ith an accurate ,escription o" the suspect an, his location 0hich is @uicFly .eri"ie,- constitutes su""icient reasonable suspicion to stop- ,etain- an, pat,o0n the suspect. ()eop"e $# 2indse& (2002) 13# Cal.App.3th 13&0.) A late night ra,io call concerning t0o speci"ically ,escribe, (ales causing a ,isturbance- 0ith one possibly ar(e,- in a Fno0n gang area at an a,,ress 0here a call concerning a ,ayti(e shooting ,ays earlier resulte, in the reco.ery o" t0o "irear(s- an, 0here the ,escribe, (ales are "oun, 0ithin (inutes o" the call- is su""icient to Custi"y a ,etention. (In re Richard G# (200&) 123 Cal.App.3th 12$212$2%12$#.) #2
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+he in"or(ation (oti.ating an o""icer to con,uct a resi,ential FnocF an, talF (ay be "ro( an anony(ous tipster. +here is no re@uire(ent that o""icers corroborate anony(ous in"or(ation be"ore con,ucting a FnocF an, talF. ()eop"e $# Ri$era (2002) 31 Cal.3th 303.) &orroboration) Rule: &orroboration o" an anony(ous tip su""icient to Custi"y a ,etention an,Nor pat,o0n "or 0eapons can taFe .arious "or(ssuch as) An accurate pre,iction o" a suspect s "uture acti.ity (i.e.*predicti!e information:/ see abo.e) by the tipster. See(ingly innocent acti.ity 0hen the anony(ous tip casts the acti.ity in a suspicious light. Presence o" the person about 0ho( the tip relates in a *high crime area./ Ueri"ication o" ,etails pro.i,e, by the tipster through police obser.ation or other sources. ()eop"e $# Ramire5 (1&&5) 31 Cal.App.3th 150#.) Potential *accountability)/ Potential *accountability (ay help to corroborate an in"or(ant s in"or(ation as 0ell- such *accountability/ being in the "or( o") +he ability o" authorities to i,enti"y the in"or(ant: +he conse@uences the in"or(ant is liFely to e?perience as a result o" pro.i,ing "alse in"or(ation: and +he in"or(ant s perception o" these "actors. ()eop"e $# *ordan (2003) 121 Cal.App.3th $33- $51%$52.) An in%person in"or(ant- e.en though uni,enti"ie,supplies the necessary in,icia o" reliability "or t0o reasons) An in%person in"or(ant risFs losing anony(ity an, being hel, accountable "or a "alse tip. ##

< 2013 Robert C. Phillips. All rights reser.e,

Ehen a tip is (a,e in%person- an o""icer can obser.e the in"or(ant s ,e(eanor an, ,eter(ine 0hether the in"or(ant see(s cre,ible enough to Custi"y i((e,iate police action 0ithout "urther @uestioning. (United States $# )a"os3%ar:ue5 (&th Cir. 2010) $&1 B.3r, 1222: 0ith in"or(ation corroborate, by a Gor,er Patrol Agent s o0n personal obser.ations an, Fno0le,ge o" the area.)

To Establish Probable &ause) Anony(ous in"or(ation ,e(onstrating a Fno0le,ge o" insi,e in"or(ation- ,escribing ongoing cri(inal acti.ityan, su""iciently corroborate,- 0ill Custi"y the issuance o" a search 0arrant. (United States $# *ennen (&th Cir. 2010) $&5 B.3r, $&3- $&#%500: 0here an anony(ous tip corroborate, by a controlle, buy 0as su""icient to establish probable cause "or a search 0arrant.) +o corroborate the anony(ous tip- there (ust be "oun, to be a,,itional e.i,ence that sho0s the tip is reliable. Bor instance) +he tip (ust pro.i,e a *range o" ,etails-/ and +he "uture (o.e(ents o" the suspect (ust be corroborate, by in,epen,ent police obser.ation. (Id.- at p. $&#.)

1n I""inois $# Gates (1&#3) 352 4.S. 213 625 7.8,.2n, $229anony(ous in"or(ation re"lecting insi,e- pre,icti.e beha.ior- corroborate, in nu(erous respects through a police "ollo0%up in.estigation- 0as ,eter(ine, to constitute probable cause (re"erre, to as a *fair probability/) 0hen consi,ering the *totality of the circumstances-/ Custi"ying the issuance o" a search 0arrant. Examples) Su""icient corroboration 0as "oun,- Custi"ying a pat,o0n "or 0eapons- 0hen the anony(ous in"or(ation ca(e "ro( t0o separate in"or(ants- 0here the tips 0ere close in ti(e#&
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the in"or(ants contacte, the o""icer personally (thus putting their anony(ity at risF)- an, the setting 0as a cro0,e, throng o" celebrants at a Je0 Kear s 8.e street party- thus increasing the ,angerousness o" the situation. ()eop"e $# Cou"om.e (2001) #5 Cal.App.3th $2.) Geing "a(iliar 0ith the tipster s .oice- an, Fno0ing that he has pro.i,e, reliable in"or(ation in the past(ight be enough. ()eop"e $# *ordan (2003) 121 Cal.App.3th $33- $50%551.) A single pronounce, 0ea.e 0ithin the lane- plus an e?perience, Iigh0ay Patrol o""icer s obser.ation o" the ,e"en,ant sitting up close to the steering 0heel- 0hich the o""icer recogni;e, as so(ething an i(paire, ,ri.er ,oes0as su""icient to corroborate secon,%han, in"or(ation concerning ,e"en,ant s *erratic ,ri.ing/ "ro( Oontana Depart(ent o" +ransportation e(ployees- Custi"ying the stop o" the ,e"en,ant s car. (United States $# Fernande53 Casti""o (&th Cir. 2003) 323 B.3r, 1113.) An anony(ous tip o" ,rug ,ealing occurring "ro( a particularly ,escribe, .ehicle at a particular location 0as corroborate, by a traine, la0 en"orce(ent o""icer s obser.ation o" 0hat appeare, to be a han,%to%han, ,rug transaction- Custi"ying a ,etention o" the .ehicle s occupant. ()eop"e $# ut"er (2003) 111 Cal.App.3th 1$0- 1$&%152.) +ote) 1n I""inois $# Gates (1&#3) 352 4.S. 213 625 7.8,.2n, $229- anony(ous in"or(ation re"lecting insi,e- pre,icti.e beha.ior- corroborate, in nu(erous respects through a police "ollo0%up in.estigation- 0as ,eter(ine, to constitute probable cause (re"erre, to as a *fair probability/) 0hen consi,ering the *totality of the circumstances-/ Custi"ying the issuance o" a search 0arrant. See also United States $# *ennen (&th Cir. 2010) $&5 B.3r, $&3- $&#%500- 0here an anony(ous tip corroborate, by a controlle, buy 0as su""icient to establish probable cause "or a search 0arrant. 'n Prison or :ail) An anony(ous tip that a particular prisoner is in possession o" contraban, 0as hel, to be su""icient cause to ,o a .isualclothe, or unclothe,- bo,y ca.ity search. ()eop"e $# Co""ins (2003) 11$ Cal.App.3th 132.) &0
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California Code of 8e5ulations, Title 1), 32#1+4,- allo0s "or a .isual search o" an in(ate- clothe, or unclothe,- 0hene.er there is a *substantial reason to belie.e the in(ate (ay ha.e unauthori;e, or ,angerous ite(s conceale, on his or her person./ (1talics a,,e,) Ju,icial authori;ation (i.e.- a search 0arrant)- an, the use o" *(e,ical personnel in a (e,ical setting-/ is only re@uire, in the case o" a *physical (as oppose, to a non%contact !isual) body ca!ity search./ 1n Co""ins- a .isual inspection o" the ,e"en,ant s rectal area 0as inten,e,- "or 0hich it is generally accepte, that the rigorous re@uire(ents o" the (ore intrusi.e *physical body ca!ity search/ is not re@uire,. %inors on Campus) chool officials ha.e the po0er to stop a (inorNstu,ent on ca(pus in or,er to asF @uestions or con,uct an in.estigation e.en in the absence o" a reasonable suspicion o" cri(inal acti.ity or a .iolation o" school rules- so long as this authority is not e?ercise, in an arbitrary- capricious- or harassing (anner. (In re Rand& G# (2001) 25 Cal.3th $$5.) Cali"ornia "ollo0s the "e,eral rule on this issue- as ,escribe, in Ne, *erse& $# T#2#O# (1&#$) 35& 4.S. 32$ 6#3 7.8,.2n, 2209- 0hen applying the protections o" the Cali"ornia Constitution. (In re -i""iam G# (1&#$) 30 Cal.3r, $$0- $53.) Ne, *erse& $# T#2#O#- supra- allo0s "or 0arrantless searches by school o""icials so long as the search is *reasonable./ (e.g.- a *reasonable suspicionM/) In re -i""iam G#- supra- at p. $53- speci"ically ,e"ines this stan,ar, as a *reasonable suspicion-/ hol,ing that searches by school o""icials are la0"ul so long as the o""icial has *a reasonable suspicion that the stu,ent or stu,ents to be searche, ha.e engage,- or are engaging- in a proscribe, acti.ity (that is- a .iolation o" a school rule or regulation- or a cri(inal statute)./ +he search o" a stu,ent by a school a,(inistrator re@uires only that there be a reasonable suspicion o" cri(inal acti.ity or a .iolation o" school rules. +he e?tent o" la0 en"orce(ent s in.ol.e(ent- e.aluating the totality o" the circu(stances- (ust be consi,ere, 0hen ,eter(ining 0hether la0 en"orce(ent s probable cause stan,ar,s apply. Bin,ing that: *the police role in the search o" appellant 0as at all ti(es clearly subor,inate to the role o" the .ice% principal- 0ho (a,e the ,ecision to search an, con,ucte, &1
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the search-/ a .ice principal s search o" a stu,ent s locFer 0as uphel, un,er the T#2#O# stan,ar, ,espite the "act that the in"or(ation ca(e "ro( la0 en"orce(ent an, o""icers stoo, by "or sa"ety reasons as the .ice principal con,ucte, the search. (In re /#S# (2010) 1#3 Cal.App.3th 22.) Ran,o( (etal ,etector searches o" stu,ents- 0ithout any in,i.i,uali;e, suspicion- are Custi"ie, by the *special needs/ o" Feeping 0eapons o"" ca(puses. +he Fourth Amendment is not .iolate, by such searches 0here the go.ern(ent nee, is great- the intrusion on the in,i.i,ual is li(ite,- an, a (ore rigorous stan,ar, o" suspicion is un0orFable. (In re 2atasha -# (1&&#) 50 Cal.App.3th 1$23.) Detaining a person on school groun,s "or purposes o" in.estigating the la0"ulness o" his presence there- as an *administrati!e search-/ is la0"ul. (In re *oseph F# (2000) #3 Cal.App.3th $01.) See In re Cod& S# (2003) 121 Cal.App.3th #5- hol,ing that upon re@uiring the (inor- pursuant to school rules- to .acate his gy( locFer 0hen pulle, out o" gy( class at the re@uest o" the *school sa"ety o""icer-/ the (inor lost any e?pectation o" pri.acy in the gy( locFer- an, that this proce,ure did not constitute a search o" that locFer. Also- a,(itting that he ha, a Fni"e in his bacFpacF supplie, the necessary *reasonable suspicion/ "or a 0arrantless search o" his bacFpacF. +he suspicionless search o" a stu,ent 0as uphel, 0here it 0as con,ucte, pursuant to an establishe, policy applying to all stu,ents an, 0as consistent 0ith the type o" action on the part o" a school a,(inistrator that "ell 0ell 0ithin the ,e"inition o" *special needs/ o" a go.ern(ental agency. +he search 0as o" a li(ite, nature- being tol, only to e(pty out his pocFets- as he 0as not subCecte, to physical touching o" his person nor 0as he e?pose, to the inti(ate process re@uire, "or a urine sa(ple necessary "or ,rug testing. +he purpose o" the search 0as to pre.ent the intro,uction o" har("ul ite(s (0eapons an, ,rugs) into the school en.iron(ent. Li.en the general application o" the policy to all stu,ents engage, in a "or( o" rule .iolation that coul, easily len, itsel" to the intro,uction o" ,rugs or 0eapons into the school en.iron(ent (i.e.lea.ing ,uring the school ,ay 0ithout per(ission an, returning later)- "urther in,i.i,uali;e, suspicion 0as not re@uire,. (In re Sean A# (2010) 1&1 Cal.App.3th 1#2- 1#5%1&0.) Gut see the ,issent (pgs. 1&1%1&#) critici;ing the ,ecision as a non%particulari;e,- suspicionless search o" a stu,ent in &2
< 2013 Robert C. Phillips. All rights reser.e,

.iolation o" the principles o" Ne, *erse& $# T#2#O# (1&#$) 35& 4.S. 32$ 6#3 7.8,.2n, 2209- 0here the Supre(e Court hel, that a reasonable suspicion is re@uire,. (See abo.e) A *school resource officer-/ although e(ploye, by a (unicipal police ,epart(ent- nee, only co(ply 0ith the rela?e, search an, sei;ure stan,ar,s applicable to school o""icials- 0hen 0orFing on ca(pus helping to en"orce school rules as 0ell as Penal Co,e .iolations. (In re -i""iam 9# (2003) 111 Cal.App.3th 1353: see also In re A"e!ander # (1&&0) 220 Cal.App.3r, 1$22- 1$22%1$2#.) A 7os Angeles Police Depart(ent o""icer- assigne, to a high school- ,etaining an, patting ,o0n (inors on the school ca(pus 0ho 0ere unable to satis"actorily i,enti"y the(sel.es is la0"ul ,espite the lacF o" e.en a reasonable suspicion that the (inors (ay be ar(e,. (In re *ose Y# (2005) 131 Cal.App.3th 23#.) %inors $io"atin1 cur'e,: Oinors .iolating cur"e0 (ay be stoppe,- ,etaine,- an, transporte, to a cur"e0 center- the police station- or other "acility 0here the (inor can a0ait the arri.al o" a parent or other responsible a,ult. A search o" the (inor prior to placing hi( in a cur"e0 center 0ith other chil,ren is also reasonable. (In re Ian C# (2001) #2 Cal.App.3th #$5.) Gut see ,iscussion- belo0 (**rrests-/ *,inors and &urfew./) re"erring to the taFing a (inor into custo,y "or a cur"e0 .iolation as an *arrest./ (In re *ustin # (1&&&) 5& Cal.App.3th #2&: In re Char"es C# (1&&&) 25 Cal.App.3th 320.) %iranda) People 0ho ha.e been te(porarily ,etaine, "or in.estigation are generally not *in custody/ "or purposes o" %iranda (%iranda $# Ari5ona (1&55) 3#3 4.S. 335 615 7.8,.2n, 5&39.)- at least as a general rule- an, ,o not ha.e to be 0arne, o" their constitutional rights prior to @uestioning. ()eop"e $# %anis (1&5&) 25# Cal.App.2n, 5$3- 55&: )eop"e $# reau"t (1&&0) 223 Cal.App.3r, 12$13$: )eop"e $# C"air (1&&2) 2 Cal.3th 52&- 52$.) Gut see )eop"e $# )i"ster (2005) 13# Cal.App.3th 13&$- at page 13050here it 0as note, that *custody/ "or purposes o" %iranda- un,er the Fifth Amendment- in.ol.es a ,i""erent analysis than *custody/ "or purposes o" a ,etention or arrest un,er the Fourth Amendment. *1n contrast (to Fourth Amendment- search an, sei;ure issues)- Fifth Amendment %iranda custo,y clai(s ,o not e?a(ine the reasonableness o" the o""icer s con,uct- but instea, e?a(ine 0hether a reasonable person (in the ,e"en,ant s position) 0oul, conclu,e the restraints use, by police 0ere tanta(ount to a "or(al arrest./

&3
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Re"usal to ans0er @uestions ,uring a ,etention ,oes not- by itsel"establish probable cause to arrest- but (ay be one "actor to consi,er- so long as the re"usal to ans0er @uestions is not interprete, as a Fifth Amendment- sel"%incri(ination in.ocation. (See )eop"e $# C"air, supraat p. 552.) Use o' Force) A peace o""icer (ay use that a(ount o" "orce that is reasonably necessary un,er the circu(stances in or,er to en"orce a la0"ul ,etention. (In re Ton& C# (1&2#) 21 Cal.3r, ###- #&$: In re Gre1or& S# (1&#0) 112 Cal.App.3r, 25322#.) (actors) 1n ,eter(ining the reasonableness o" using "orce ,uring a ,etention- the court (ust taFe into consi,eration the "ollo0ing "actors) +he se.erity o" the suspecte, cri(e: Ehether the suspect poses an i((e,iate threat to the sa"ety o" the o""icers or others: Ehether the suspect is acti.ely resisting arrest or atte(pting to e.a,e the o""icers by "light: Ehether the ,etention ,uring a search 0as unnecessarily pain"ul,egra,ing or prolonge, (Graham $# Connor (1&#&) 3&0 4.S. 3#53&$%3&5 6103 7.8,.2n, 333- 3$$%3$59.)- or 0hether it in.ol.e, an un,ue in.asion o" pri.acy. (Fran("in $# Fo!,orth (&th Cir. 1&&3) 31 B.3r, #23- #25: see also %endo5a $# Cit& o' -est Co$ina (2012) 205 Cal.App.3th 202- 212.)

Refusal to ubmit to a la0"ul ,etention is probable cause to arrestpursuant to (enal Code 14#+a, (1nter"ering 0ith a peace o""icer in the per"or(ance o" his or her ,uties). (In re Gre1or& S#- supra- at p. 2#0.) 8.en 0hen the ,etention is illegal- e.ery person has a legal ,uty to sub(it (E$ans $# Cit& o' a(ers'ie"d (1&&3) 22 Cal.App.3th 321.)although ,eclining to ,o so is not a .iolation o" (!C! 14# in that a peace o""icer is not acting in the *performance of his (or her) duties/ by unla0"ully ,etaining so(eone. Gut the "orce use, (ust be tailore, to the circu(stances. +he initial ,etention (ust be la0"ul an, then the a(ount o" "orce use, (ust be reasonable un,er the circu(stances. KanFing a person out o" his .ehicle- pushing hi( up against his car- an, han,cu""ing hi( 0hen that person is not atte(pting to escape nor resisting the o""icers in any0ay other than being *.erbally con"rontational-/ (ay be e?cessi.e. (2i.era" $# Estrada (&th Cir. 2011) 532 B.3r, 1053- 102#%102&.) &3
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+he use o" firearms- handcuffs- putting a person into a loc?ed patrol caror si(ply a *show of force-/ (ay- un,er the circu(stances- cause the court to later "in, that an atte(pte, ,etention 0as in "act an arrest- an,- i" (a,e 0ithout *probable cause-/ illegal. (United States $# Ramos34ara1osa (&th Cir. 1&2$) $15 B.2n, 131- 133: Ne, Yor( $# =uar"es (1&#3) 352 4.S. 53& 6#1 7.8,.2n, $$09: han,cu""s: Oro5co $# Te!as (1&5&) 3&3 4.S. 323 622 7.8,.2n, 3119: "orce: United States $# Ricardo D# (&th Cir. 1&&0) &12 B.2n, 332- 330: *Detention in a patrol car e?cee,s per(issible Terr& +$# Ohio (1&5#) 3&2 4.S. 1 620 7.8,.2n, ##&9.) li(its absent so(e reasonable Custi"ication./ Gut there are e?ceptions) See *Detentions !s2 *rrests-/ abo.e. Detentions in a Residence During the Execution of a earch =arrant) +he occupants o" a resi,ence (ay be ,etaine, ,uring the e?ecution o" a search 0arrant e.en though they ,i, not (atch the ,escription o" the suspects (e.g.- Caucasian instea, o" A"rican%A(erican) belie.e, to be li.ing there at the ti(e. (2os An1e"es Count& $# Rette"e (2002) $$0 4.S. 50& 6152 7.8,.2n, &239: the court noting that until the rest o" the house is checFe, "or the suspects- other occupants (ay be ,etaine,.) 1t 0as "urther hel, that 0ith Fno0le,ge that one o" the sought%"or suspects ha, a "irear( registere, to hi(- the ,etainees coul, be hel, at gunpoint until the rest o" the house coul, be checFe,- e.en though the ,etainees 0ere unclothe, at the ti(e. 1t 0as not necessary to allo0 the ,etainees to co.er us until o""icers sa"ety coul, be assure,. (I.id.) See also %ueh"er $# %ena (200$) $33 4.S. &3 6151 7.8,.2n, 2&&9: ,etention o" a resi,ent la0"ul 0hile e.i,ence in a gang shooting case looFe, "or- at least i" not *prolonged./ +arcotics6Related Traffic tops #sing a *&ontrolled Tire Deflation De!ice/ (*&TDD/)) +he use o" a *controlled tire deflation de!ice/ to stop a .ehicle suspecte, o" being use, to s(uggle controlle, substances o.er the 4SNOe?ico bor,er hel, to be a ,etention only (thus re@uiring only a reasonable suspicion) an, not e?cessi.e "orce un,er the circu(stances. (United States $# Gu5man3)adi""a (&th Cir. 200&) $23 B.3r, #5$- ##5%##&.) &$
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+ote) +he *controlled tire deflation de!ice-/ or *C+DD-/ is an accor,ion%liFe tray containing s(all- hollo0 steel tubes that puncture the tires o" a passing .ehicle an, cause a gra,ual release o" air- bringing the .ehicle to a halt 0ithin a @uarter to hal" a (ile. Deadly (orce) Dea,ly "orce (i.e.- force li?ely to cause death or great bodily in%ury) (ay not be use, to en"orce a ,etention- unless the o""icer is attacFe, an, (ust ,e"en, hi( or hersel" against the use o" ,ea,ly "orce by the suspect. (See )eop"e $# Ce.a""os (1&23) 12 Cal.3r, 320- 32#: Tennessee $# Garner (1&#$) 321 4.S. 1- 12%1$ 6#$ 7.8,.2n, 1- 10%129.) See *Deadly (orce-/ un,er **rrests-/ belo0. Demandin1 Identi'ication: Ehile it is clear that a person 0ho has been *consensually encountered/ (see abo.e) nee, not i,enti"y hi(sel"- nor e.en talF to a police o""icer (See /o"ender $# 2a,son (1&#3) 351 4.S. 3$2 62$ 7.8,.2n, &039: ro,n $# Te!as (1&2&) 333 4.S. 32- $2 651 7.8,.2n, 3$29.)- there is nothing i(proper 0ith a peace o""icer *demanding/ that a ,etaine, person properly i,enti"y hi(sel". (United States $# Christian (&th Cir. 2003) 3$5 B.3r, 1103: not ,iscussing 0hether the o""icer can en"orce the ,e(an,.) A passenger in a la0"ully stoppe, .ehicle (ay be *asFe,/ "or his i,enti"ication. (United States $# Dia53Castaneda (&th Cir. 2002) 3&3 B.3r, 1135- 11$2%11$3.) +he Fourth Amendment is not i(plicate, by asFing a ,etaine, in,i.i,ual "or i,enti"ication- at least so long as the ,etention is not unnecessarily prolonge, in the process. ()eop"e $# 9i.anco (2002) 1$1 Cal.App.3th 1- 13%13.) +he only issue le"t hanging by Christian an, 9i.anco is 0hether a ,etaine, suspect must properly i,enti"y hi(sel"or be subCect to arrest "or re"using to ,o so. +he Court see(e, to hint- ho0e.er- that he cannot be "orce, to i,enti"y hi(sel". Io0e.er- the 4nite, States Supre(e Court rule, in 0ii.e" $# Si!th *udicia" District Court o' Ne$ada (2003) $32 4.S. 122 61$& 7.8,.2n, 2&29- that a person 0ho is la0"ully *detained/ (ay be charge, 0ith a cri(inal .iolation "or re"using to i,enti"y hi(sel". Such an i,enti"ication re@uire(ent .iolates neither the Fourth nor Fifth Amendment (sel"%incri(ination) rights o" the ,etaine, person. &5
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Jote- ho0e.er- that the Court- in 0ii.e"- conce,e, that *a case (ay arise 0here there is a substantial allegation that "urnishing i,entity at the ti(e o" a stop 0oul, ha.e gi.en the police a linF in the chain o" e.i,ence nee,e, to con.ict the in,i.i,ual o" a separate o""ense-/ thus i(plicating the Fifth Amendment right against sel"%incri(ination. (Id.- at p. 1&1.) *lso note that Je.a,a has a speci"ic statute (aFing it a (is,e(eanor to re"use to i,enti"y onesel" 0hen la0"ully ,etaine,. Cali"ornia ,oes not ha.e such a speci"ic statutealthough arguably- a person in such a circu(stance can be charge, 0ith (!C! 14#+a,+1,- "or ,elaying an o""icer in the per"or(ance o" his or her ,uties- or (!C! 14#!" 0hen the subCect pro.i,es a "ictitious na(e. An argu(ent can be (a,e that ,espite the lacF o" a statute re@uiring a ,etainee to i,enti"y hi(sel"- the right to con,uct a *Terr& stop/ on less than probable cause carries 0ith it the inherent right to re@uire a ,etainee to i,enti"y hi(sel" so long as so(e statute (e.g.- (!C! 14#+a,+1,) is being .iolate,. *6+9he ability to brie"ly stop 6a suspect9- asF @uestions- or chec? identification in the absence o" probable cause pro(otes the strong go.ern(ent interest in sol.ing cri(es an, bringing o""en,ers to Custice./ (1talics a,,e,: 0a&es $# F"orida (1&#$) 320 4.S. #11- #15 6#3 7.8,.2n, 20$.) *+he principles o" Terr& ($# Ohio (1&5#) 3&2 4.S. 1) per(it a State to re@uire a suspect to ,isclose his na(e in the course o" a Terr& stop./ (0ii.e" $# Si!th *udicia" District Court o' Ne$ada- supra- at p. 1#2.) See )eop"e $# =uiro1a (1&&3) 15 Cal.App.3th &51uphol,ing a (!C! 14# con.iction "or an arrestee 0ho re"use, to i,enti"y hi(sel" ,uring the booFing process- an, )eop"e $# Christopher (2005) 132 Cal.App.3th 31#- 0here gi.ing a "alse na(e 0hen arreste, "or shopli"ting 0as hel, to be a .iolation o" (!C! 14#. &2
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$ut see In re Gre1or& S# (1&#0) 112 Cal.App.3r, 253- 225- 0here the Court *assu(e(,) "or the saFe o" ,iscussion/ that a .iolation o" (enal Code section 14# (ay not be pre(ise, on a re"usal to ans0er @uestions- including a re@uest for identification. (1talics a,,e,) +he issue- ho0e.er,espite the Court s state, opinion that re"using to i,enti"y probably is not a (!C! 14# .iolation (pg. 22&)- 0as neither analy;e, nor ,iscusse, the issue in that other .ali, groun,s "or uphol,ing a (!C! 14# (,elaying the o""icer in the per"or(ance o" his ,uties) 0as "oun, by the ,etainee atte(pting to 0alF a0ay. Also- Gre1or& S# 0as ,eci,e, so(e 23 years be"ore 0ii.e". +ote) A care"ul rea,ing o" 0ii.e"- =uiro1a- an, Gre1or& S# in,icates that 0hether or not (!C! 14#+a,+1, can be charge, in a circu(stance 0here a ,etainee has re"use, to i,enti"y hi(sel" is a @uestion that 0ill ,epen, upon the speci"ic circu(stances o" the in,i.i,ual case at issue. 1n those cases 0here re"using to i,enti"y onesel" ,oes in "act ,elay the o""icer in the per"or(ance o" his ,uties (e.g.- ,i, it unnecessarily e?ten, the ti(e re@uire, to co(plete the ,etention or other0ise ,ra0 the o""icer a0ay "ro( co(pleting his other la0"ul ,uties)- the ans0er should be *yes./ 1" not- then the ans0er 0ill liFely be *no./ See State $# A"oi (2002) 2#0 Conn. #23- 0here the Connecticut Supre(e Court "oun, that by re"using to i,enti"y hi(sel"- the la0"ully ,etaine, ,e"en,ant 0as in "act in .iolation o" a state statute that speci"ically pro.i,e,) *A person is guilty o" inter"ering 0ith an o""icer 0hen such person obstructs- resists- hin,ers or en,angers any peace o""icer or "ire"ighter in the per"or(ance o" such peace o""icer s or "ire"ighter s ,uties . . . ./ (9en! Statutes +8e:! to 2331, )3a ; 121a: *Gecause a re"usal to pro.i,e i,enti"ication in connection 0ith a Terr& stop (ay ha(per or i(pe,e a police in.estigation into apparent cri(inal acti.ity- 0e see no reason 0hy such con,uct 0oul, be categorically e?clu,e, un,er the e?pansi.e language o" )3a< 121a./ (Id.- at p. #33.) &#
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1t still "ollo0s- ho0e.er- that a person 0ho is only subCect to a *consensual encounter/ is not re@uire, to i,enti"y hi(sel". (See /o"ender $# 2a,son- supra.) Detentions o' an Emp"o&ee in the -or(p"ace (or a tudent at chool): Proble() Ehen an e(ployee s super.isors (or a stu,ent s principal- a (ilitary super.isor- or a la0 en"orce(ent super.isor) or,er the e(ployee (or stu,ent- (ilitary subor,inate- or police o""icer) to report to the o""ice or re(ain in the 0orFplace pen,ing an inter.ie0- at the re@uest or co(plicity o" la0 en"orce(ent- is the e(ployee *,etaine,/ "or purposes o" the Fourth AmendmentM Ans0er) Jot necessarily- but it ,epen,s upon the circu(stances. (See A1ui"era $# aca- infra.) Sheri"" s ,eputies 0ho are or,ere, to re(ain at the station pen,ing an inter.ie0 by 1nternal A""airs in.estigators about an allege, e?cessi.e "orce citi;en s co(plaint- 0here cri(inal prosecution coul, result- the ,eputies 0ere hel, to be not ,etaine, "or purposes o" the Fourth Amendment a"ter an e.aluation o" the "ollo0ing "actors (A1ui"era $# aca (&th Cir. 2002) $10 B.3r, 1151- 1152%1121- citing Drie.e" $# Cit& o' %i",au(ee (2th Cir. 2002) 2&# B.3r, 522- 53#.)) +he e?perience le.el o" the subor,inate: Ehether the treat(ent 0as consistent 0ith that allo0e, by ,epart(ent gui,elines or general policy: +he occurrence o" physical contact or threats o" physical restraint: An e?plicit re"usal o" per(ission to ,epart: 1solation o" the subor,inate o""icer: Per(ission to use the restroo( 0ithout acco(pani(ent: +he subor,inate o""icer s being in"or(e, that he 0as the subCect o" a cri(inal in.estigation: Ehether the subor,inate o""icer 0as spoFen to *in a (enacing or threatening (anner:/ Ehether the subor,inate o""icer 0as un,er constant sur.eillance: Ehether superior o""icers ,enie, a re@uest to contact an attorney or union representati.e: +he subor,inate o""icer s ability to retain la0 en"orce(ent e@uip(ent- inclu,ing 0eapons an, ba,ges: +he ,uration o" the ,etention: an, +he subor,inate s receipt o" o.erti(e pay. &&
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Si(ilar cases) Jo sei;ure 0hen an on%,uty ci.ilian Air Borce e(ployee 0as or,ere, to report "or an inter.ie0 0ith an intelligence o""icer. (United States $# %ue11e (11th Cir. 2000) 22$ B.3r, 1252- 1220.) Jo sei;ure 0hen an on%,uty Coast Luar, o""icer 0as or,ere, to report "or an inter.ie0 0ith an intelligence o""icer. (United States $# aird (D.C. Cir. 1&##) #$1 B.2n, 325- 3#0%3#2.) +ote) Although there are no cases a.ailable ,escribing 0hen a stu,ent is or,ere, to the principal s o""ice at the re@uest o" la0 en"orce(ent "or an inter.ie0- a situation that o"ten arises- it is arguable that the sa(e analysis coul, be (a,e. +he o""icer telling the stu,ent- ho0e.er- that he is "ree to return to class 0oul, probably negate any argu(ent that he or she 0as ,etaine, un,er the circu(stances. Jote that Greene $# Camreta (&th Cir. 200&) $## B.3r, 1011: 0here the Jinth Circuit Court o" Appeal rule, that inter.ie0ing a chil, .icti( on a school ca(pus 0ithout the parents consent re@uire, a search 0arrant or other court or,er- or e?igent circu(stances- as a Fourth Amendment sei;ure- 0as o.errule, by the 4nite, States Supre(e Court in Camreta $# Greene (2011) >> 4.S. >> 6131 S.Ct. 2020: 12& 7.8,.2n, 111#9. +he Jinth Circuit s ,ecision- ho0e.er0as (erely .acate,- lea.ing the issue un,eci,e,. See P.C. 11174.3(a), setting out statutory
procedures police officers are to use in interviewing child victims while at school.

Sei5ure o' Firearms Durin1 a Detention: 9o:.t! Code #)11!) pro.i,es that a police o""icer (ay not sei;e or con"iscate any "irear( or a((unition "ro( an in,i.i,ual 0ho is la0"ully carrying or possessing the "irear( or a((unition. Io0e.er- the o""icer (ay te(porarily ,isar( an in,i.i,ual i" the o""icer reasonably belie.es it is i((e,iately necessary "or the protection o" the o""icer or another in,i.i,ual. An o""icer 0ho ,isar(s an in,i.i,ual is to return the "irear( be"ore ,ischarging the in,i.i,ual unless the o""icer arrests the in,i.i,ual or sei;es the "irear( as e.i,ence o" the co((ission o" a cri(e. +ote) +his ne0 section is in the part o" the 9o:ernment Code entitle, the *Ca"i'ornia Emer1enc& Ser$ices Act./ +his ne0 100
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section is inten,e, to prohibit an e?ecuti.e or,er ,isar(ing in,i.i,uals 0ho are in la0"ul possession o" "irear(s ,uring a state o" e(ergency or crisis- an, 0ill con"or( Cali"ornia la0 to a ne0 "e,eral la0- (u4lic =a> 13"<2")- 0hich prohibits the con"iscation o" other0ise legal "irear(s "ro( la0%abi,ing citi;ens ,uring a state o" e(ergency by any agent o" the Be,eral Lo.ern(ent or by anyone recei.ing "e,eral "un,s. Io0e.er- it appears to be 0ritten broa, enough to a""ect a police o""icer s contacts 0ith in,i.i,uals on the street. An, note (!C! #33!)- pro.i,ing a peace o""icer the authority to ,etain "or in.estigation anyone 0ho the o""icer has *reasonable cause/ to belie.e illegally has in his or her possession a "irear( or other ,ea,ly 0eapon. Also- (!C! 2)#)3+4, ("or(erly (!C! 12331+e,) gi.es a peace o""icer the right to inspect a "irear( carrie, by any person on his person or in a .ehicle *on any public street in an incorporate, city or prohibite, area o" an unincorporate, territory./ Re"usal to allo0 a peace o""icer to inspect a "irear( is probable cause to arrest the subCect "or .iolating (!C! 2)#)3+a, ("or(erly (!C! 12331+a,+1,): illegally carrying a loa,e, "irear( in the liste, public places. Detention E!amp"es, in Genera") A"ter @uestioning a person at an airport- a ,etention 0as hel, to be la0"ul 0here the na(e gi.en to police 0as ,i""erent than that put on checFe, luggage- 0ith no ,ocu(entary proo" o" i,entity- 0hile tra.eling to a "ara0ay city Fno0n "or recei.ing narcotics- plus other suspicious circu(stances. ()eop"e $# Dau1hert& (1&&5) $0 Cal.App.3th 22$.) Carrying an a? on a bicycle at 3)00 a.(. is reasonable suspicion o" cri(inal acti.ity Custi"ying a ,etention "or in.estigation. ()eop"e $# Foran&ic (1&&#) 53 Cal.App.3th 1#5.) Detaining a person on school groun,s "or purposes o" in.estigating the la0"ulness o" his presence there- as an *administrati!e search-/ is la0"ul. (In re *oseph F# (2000) #3 Cal.App.3th $01.) An Anchorage- AlasFa- Ounicipal Co,e or,inance "orbi,,ing any ite( a""i?e, to the 0in,shiel, (si(ilar to Cali"ornia s 0!C! 2213#+a,+1,: see )eop"e $# -hite (2003) 102 Cal.App.3th 535.) was not .iolate, by an air "reshener ,angling "ro( the rear .ie0 (irror. A tra""ic stop 0as "oun, to be illegal. (United States $# /in1 (&th Cir. 2001) 233 B.3r, 235- 230.) A tra""ic stop "or a .iolation o" 0!C! 2213#+a, 0as hel, to be illegal in )eop"e $# -hite- supra.- 0here insu""icient e.i,ence 0as 101
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presente, in court o" an obstruction o" the ,ri.er s .ie0 cause, by an air "reshener ,angling "ro( the rear.ie0 (irror- but legal in )eop"e $# Co".ert (2002) 1$2 Cal.App.3th 105#- 0here the o""icer 0as able to testi"y 0hy he belie.e, the ,ri.er s .ie0 0as obstructe, by the sa(e type o" obCect an, the ,e"ense "aile, to present any e.i,ence to the contrary. !bser.ing ,e"en,ant breaF traction "or about 20 to 2$ "eet- lasting about 2 secon,s- 0as su""icient cause to suspect a .iolation o" 0!C! 2313"+c,e?hibition o" spee,. ( rierton $# Department o' %otor 9ehic"es (200$) 130 Cal.App.3th 3&&- $0&%$10.) Seeing three .ehicles 0ith "our GlacF (ale occupants each- one o" the occupants 0ho is Fno0n to be a gang (e(ber- ,ri.ing as i" in (ilitary "or(ation at 12)30 at night- hours a"ter a prior gang shooting- the .ehicles being in one o" the 0arring GlacF gang s territory- hel, to be insufficient to Custi"y a stop an, ,etention. ()eop"e $# 0ester (2003) 11& Cal.App.3th 325- 3#$%3&2.) Ehere the ,e"en,ant 0as con"ronte, by si? o""icers- all surroun,ing hi(0ith "i.e o" the( in uni"or( 0ith .isible "irear(s- in an area shiel,e, "ro( public .ie0 (an apart(ent hall0ay)- 0here his re@uest to shut the ,oor to his roo( 0as ,enie,- he 0as patte, ,o0n "or 0eapons- he 0as tol, three ti(es that he 0as subCect to arrest "or "ailing to register (thus i(plying a nee, to cooperate shoul, he 0ish to a.oi, the specter o" arrest)- an, 0here he 0as ne.er tol, that he 0as "ree to lea.e- a reasonable person in ,e"en,ant s position at the ti(e 0oul, not ha.e belie.e, that he 0as "ree to ter(inate the contact. (United States $# -ashin1ton (&th Cir. 2003) 3#2 B.3r, 1050- 105#%105&: "in,ing that ,e"en,ant s ,etention 0as *more intrusi!e than necessary/ an, that upon his ,enial o" anything illegal in his roo(- the ,etention beca(e illegal.) A stop an, ,etention base, upon stale in"or(ation concerning a threat0hich itsel" 0as o" @uestionable .eracity- an, 0ith little i" anything in the 0ay o" suspicious circu(stances to connect the persons stoppe, to that threat- is illegal. ()eop"e $# Dura5o (2003) 123 Cal.App.3th 22#) +hreat 0as purporte,ly "ro( Oe?ican gang (e(bers- an, ,e"en,ant 0as a Oe?ican (ale 0ho (0ith his passenger) glance, at the .icti( s apart(ent as he ,ro.e by "our ,ays later- 0here the o""icer a,(itte,ly 0as acting on his *gut feeling/ that ,e"en,ant 0as in.ol.e,.) Stopping the plainti""- an A"rican%A(erican (ale- a hal" (ile a0ay 0hile ,ri.ing a gray car in the ,irection o" a 0itness s house- 30 (inutes a"ter the 0itness calle, police to report that he ha, Cust been 0arne, by a "rien, that t0o A"rican%A(erican (ales 0ere co(ing to his house to ,o hi( har( an, that he ha, Cust seen t0o such (ales ,ri.ing by in a gray or 102
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blacF car- 0as hel, to be a la0"ul stop base, upon a reasonable suspicion that the plainti"" 0as possibly one o" the suspects. (F"o,ers $# Fiore (1st Cir. 2003) 3$& B.3r, 23.) Despite local statutes to the contrary- an o""icer nee, not- un,er the Fourth Amendment- ha.e personally obser.e, a tra""ic .iolation in or,er to Custi"y (aFing a tra""ic stop- so long as the necessary *reasonable suspicion/ to belie.e a .iolation (such Fno0le,ge co(ing "ro( another o""icer in this case) ,i, in "act occur. (United States $# %iranda3Guerena (&th Cir. 2005) 33$ B.3r, 1233.) !bser.ation o" a trucF that (atche, the ,escription o" one that ha, Cust been stolen in a carCacFing- but 0ith a ,i""erent license plate that appeare, to be recently attache,- an, 0ith t0o occupants 0ho generally (atche, the suspects ,escription- constitute, the necessary reasonable suspicion to Custi"y the ,e"en,ant s ,etention. (United States $# 0art5 (&th Cir. 2005) 3$# B.3r, 1011- 1012%101#.) A search an, sei;ure con,ition Custi"ies a ,etention 0ithout a reasonable suspicion o" cri(inal acti.ity. ()eop"e $# 9iers (1&&1) 1 Cal.App.3th &&0&&3%&&3: ,e"en,ant stoppe, an, ,etaine, in his .ehicle.) A *FnocF an, talF/ at the ,e"en,ant s (otel roo( Custi"ie, the e.entual ,etention o" ,e"en,ant 0hen (1) the o""icers ha, so(e li(ite, in"or(ation "ro( an earlier tra""ic stop that ,e"en,ant (ight be in.ol.e, in the (anu"acturing o" (etha(pheta(ine- inclu,ing the presence o" a pressure cooFer 0hich the o""icer Fne0 coul, be use, in the (anu"acturing o" (etha(pheta(ine: (2) a roo((ate tooF a "ull t0o (inutes to open the (otel roo( ,oor 0hile the o""icers coul, hear noises liFe people (o.ing things aroun, insi,e: (3) 0hen ,e"en,ant 0as contacte,- he acte, e?tre(ely ner.ous- contrary to ho0 he ha, acte, ,uring a pre.ious contact by the sa(e o""icers: an, (3) the roo((ate a,(itte, to being a (etha(pheta(ine user an, that other people ha, .isite, the roo( the night be"ore. (United States $# Crapser (&th Cir. 2002) 322 B.3r, 11311132%113&.) !bser.ing ,e"en,ant sitting in a parFe, (otor .ehicle late at night near the e?it to a 2%8le.en store parFing lot 0ith the engine running- ,espite prior Fno0le,ge o" a string o" recent robberies at 2%8le.ens- hel, not to be su""icient to Custi"y a ,etention an, pat,o0n. ()eop"e $# )errus:uia (2002) 1$0 Cal.App.3th 22#.) Spotlighting the ,e"en,ant in a high narcotics area an, then 0alFing up to hi( *brisFly/ 0hile asFing @uestions hel, to be an unla0"ul ,etention un,er the circu(stances. ()eop"e $# Garr& (2002) 1$5 Cal.App.3th 1100.) 103
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Uoluntarily going 0ith the police to the police station- 0here he 0as inter.ie0e, as a possible 0itness- an, not a suspect- 0here nothing 0as e.er ,one or sai, to in,icate other0ise at least up until his arrest- 0as not an unla0"ul ,etention. ()eop"e $# 4amudio (200#) 33 Cal.3th 322- 331% 335.) !bser.ation by an o""icer traine, as a *,rug recognition e?pert/ o" ,e"en,ant apparently asleep in his .ehicle in a ,rugstore parFing lot- at #)00 p.(.- 0ith the parFing lights on- Fno0ing that people 0ho are un,er the in"luence o" ,rugs ten, to "all *asleep @uicFly- inappropriately- an, so(eti(es uncontrollably-/ an, then noticing that he 0as breathing "aster than usual- an,- 0hen a0aFene,- "in,ing ,e"en,ant to be irritableaggressi.e- an, o.erly asserti.ePall in,ications o" so(eone un,er the in"luence o" ,rugsPhel, to be su""icient cause to ,etain hi(. (Ramire5 $# Cit& o' uena )ar( (&th Cir. 200&) $50 B.3r, 1012- 1015%101#- 1020% 1021.) !bser.ing ,e"en,ant stan,ing near the open trunF o" a car- 0hich he i((e,iately shut upon the approach o" the o""icers an, 0alF a0ay- 0hile appearing ner.ous- 0hen co(bine, 0ith the o""icer s plain sight obser.ations o" e?pose, 0ires in the .ehicle 0here the ,oor panel an, the stereo tri( ha, been re(o.e,- 0ith tools such as scre0,ri.ers an, pliers lying aroun,- 0as (ore than enough reasonable suspicion to Custi"y the ,e"en,ant s ,etention. ()eop"e $# Os.orne (200&) 12$ Cal.App.3th 10$210$#.) Eith personal Fno0le,ge that so(eone ha, been illegally shooting a "irear( an, ha, an illegal ca(p"ire in the area o" ,e"en,ant s ca(psitecontacting an, ,etaining ,e"en,ant at the ca(psite the "ollo0ing (orning 0as la0"ul. (United States $# asher (&th Cir. 2011) 52& B.3r, 1151115$%1155.) %erchants, 2i.rar& Emp"o&ees and Theater O,ners) (!C! 1"3!)+f,) Detention o" a shopli"t or the"t suspect- or a person illegally recor,ing a (o.ie in a theater- by a (erchant- library e(ployee or theater o0ner- respecti.ely- "or the purpose o" ,eter(ining 0hether the suspect ,i, in "act steal property belonging to the .icti(- or illegally recor, a (o.ie- is authori;e, by statute. !nce the purpose o" the ,etention is acco(plishe,- the suspect (ust either be turne, o.er to an, arreste, by police- or release,. !nly non6deadly force (ay be use,. ((!C! 1"3!)+f,+2,)

103
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See )eop"e $# 4e"ins(i (1&2&) 23 Cal.3r, 3$2: an, In re Christopher 0# (1&&1) 222 Cal.App.3r, 1$52.)

10$
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Chapter 6
Arrests) De'ined) +he *ta?ing a person into custody, in a case and in the manner authorized by law./ ((!C! #34) Standard o' )roo') Re@uires *Probable &ause)/ *(A) police o""icer (ay arrest 0ithout (a) 0arrant (a person) . . . belie.e, by the o""icer upon reasonable (or *probable/) cause to ha.e been guilty o" a "elony (or (is,e(eanor)./ (8(phasis a,,e,: United States $# -atson (1&25) 323 4.S. 311- 312 635 7.8,.2n, $&#- 50$9.) Defined) Probable (or Reasonable) &ause to *rrest) *Reasonable or probable cause is sho0n i" a man of ordinary care (or caution) and prudence (or a reasonable and prudent person) 0oul, be le, to belie.e an, conscientiously entertain an honest and strong suspicion that the accuse, is guilty./ (See )eop"e $# 2e,is (1&#0) 10& Cal.App.3r, $&& 50#% 50&: )eop"e $# Campa (1&#3) 35 Cal.3r, #20- #2&: )eop"e $# )rice (1&&1) 1 Cal.3th 323- 310.) +ote) +he ter(s *reasonable/ an, *probable/ cause are use, interchangeably in both the co,es (See (!C! "")+a,+1,+&,) an, case la0- but (0hen properly use,) (ean the sa(e thing. *Reasonable cause/ an, Hreasonable suspicion/ (i.e.- the stan,ar, o" proo" "or a ,etention) do not (ean the sa(e thing an, are not to be con"use,. +ote) Oore than a *reasonable suspicion-/ but less than *clear and con!incing e!idence/ or *proof beyond a reasonable doubt./ =hen Probable &ause Exists) *(P)robable cause/ e?ists i"- un,er the totality o" the circu(stances Fno0n to the arresting o""icers- a pru,ent person 0oul, ha.e conclu,e, that there 0as a fair probability that the in,i.i,ual ha, co((itte, a cri(e./ (1talics a,,e,: United States $# 0ernande5 (&th Cir. 2002) 313 B.3r, 330- 333: see also Duna,a& $# Ne, Yor( (1&2&) 332 4.S. 200- 20#- "n. &: 650 7.8,.2n, #239: )eop"e $# Scott (2011) $2 Cal.3th 3$2- 323.) Uarious courts ha.e use, .ariations o" this sa(e ,e"inition to ,e"ine probable cause) *Probable cause to arrest e?ists 0hen o""icers ha.e Fno0le,ge or reasonably trust0orthy in"or(ation su""icient to lea, a person o" reasonable caution to belie.e an o""ense has been or is being co((itte, by the person being arreste,./ *ohn $# Cit& o' E" %onte (&th Cir. 200#) $1$ B.3r, &35- &30: citing ec( $# Ohio (1&53) 32& 4.S. #&- &1 613 7.8,.2n, 1329.) 105
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*Probable cause arises 0hen an o""icer has Fno0le,ge base, on reasonably trust0orthy in"or(ation that the person arreste, has co((itte, a cri(inal o""ense. (Citation)/ (%cSherr& $# Cit& o' 2on1 each (&th Cir. 200&) $#3 B.3r, 112&- 113$.) *1n Cali"ornia- Aan o""icer has probable cause "or a 0arrantless arrest Ai" the "acts Fno0n to hi( 0oul, lea, a 6person9 o" or,inary care an, pru,ence to belie.e an, conscientiously entertain an honest an, strong suspicion that the person is guilty o" a cri(e./ 6Citations.9/ ( "a(enhorn $# Cit& o' Oran1e (&th Cir. 2002) 3#$ B.3r, 353- 321: see also )eop"e $# )rice (1&&1) 1 Cal.3th 323- 310.) 8?cept perhaps "or a *specific intent/ ele(ent- *an o""icer nee, not ha.e probable cause "or e.ery ele(ent o" the o""ense./ ( "a(enhorn $# Cit& o' Oran1e- supra.- at p. 322.) *(+)his rule (ho0e.er-) (ust be applie, 0ith an eye to the core probable cause re@uire(ent: na(ely- that Aun,er the totality o" the circu(stances- a pru,ent person 0oul, ha.e conclu,e, that there 0as a "air probability that the suspect ha, co((itte, a cri(e. / (Citation o(itte,) Rodis $# Cit& and Count& o' San Francisco (&th Cir. 2002) 3&& B.3r, 10&3- 10&&.) *Probable cause/ (erely re@uires that *the "acts an, circu(stances 0ithin 6the o""icers 9 Fno0le,ge an, o" 0hich they ha, reasonably trust0orthy in"or(ation 0ere su""icient to 0arrant a pru,ent (an in belie.ing that the 6plainti""9 ha, co((itte, or 0as co((itting an o""ense. . . . Police (ust only sho0 that- un,er the totality o" the circu(stances- . . . a pru,ent person 0oul, ha.e conclu,e, that there 0as a "air probability that 6the suspect9 ha, co((itte, a cri(e./ (0art $# )ar(s (&th Cir. 2005) 3$0 B.3r, 10$&105$%1055.) *Probable cause e?ists 0hen the "acts Fno0n to the arresting o""icer 0oul, persua,e so(eone o" Areasonable caution that the person to be arreste, has co((itte, a cri(e. 6Citation.9 A6P9robable cause is a "lui, conceptPturning on the assess(ent o" probabilities in particular "actual conte?ts . . . . 6Citation.9 1t is incapable o" precise ,e"inition. 6Citation.9 A+he substance o" all the ,e"initions o" probable cause is a reasonable groun, "or belie" o" guilt- an, that belie" (ust be Aparticulari;e, 0ith respect to the person to be . . . sei;e,. 6Citations.9 A6S9u""icient probability- not 102
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certainty- is the touchstone o" reasonableness un,er the Bourth A(en,(ent / (Gi""an $# Cit& o' %arino (2002) 132 Cal.App.3th 1033- 1033.) *AReasonable and probable cause (ay e?ist although there (ay be so(e roo( "or ,oubt./ (2orenson $# Superior Court (1&$0) 3$ Cal.2n, 3&- $2.) *(+)he probable%cause stan,ar, is a practical- nontechnical conception that ,eals 0ith the "actual an, practical consi,erations o" e.ery,ay li"e on 0hich reasonable an, pru,ent (en- not legal technicians- act./ (Citations an, internal @uotation (arFs o(itte,: %ar&"and $# )rin1"e (2003) $30 4.S. 355- 320 61$2 7.8,.2n, 25&9: probable cause "or arrest o" all three occupants o" a .ehicle "oun, 0here a controlle, substance 0as "oun, 0ithin reach o" any o" the(.) !""icers ha, probable cause to arrest both the passenger an, the ,ri.er "or possession o" a billy club seen resting against the ,ri.er s ,oor. ()eop"e $# 9ermouth (1&21) 20 Cal. App. 3, 235- 2$5.) 1n"or(ing t0o suspects in a .ehicle that they 0oul, both be arreste, "or possession o" a conceale, "irear(- pro(pting a response "ro( ,e"en,ant that he , *ta?e the charge-/ 0as not the "unctional e@ui.alent o" an interrogation that re@uire, a %iranda a,(onish(ent. (United States $# Co""ins (5th Cir. 2012) 5#3 B.3r, 5&2- 201%203.) *+he substance o" all the ,e"initions o" probable cause is a reasonable groun, "or belie" o" guilt- an, that belie" (ust be Aparticulari;e, 0ith respect to the person to be . . . sei;e,. / ()eop"e $# Ce"is (2003) 33 Cal.3th 552- 523: citing %ar&"and $# )rin1"e- supra.) *Probable cause is a "lui, conceptPturning on the assess(ent o" probabilities in particular "actual conte?ts . . . ./ (I""inois $# Gates (1&#3) 352 4.S. 213- 231%232 625 7.8,.2n, $22- $3#9: using the ter( *fair probability/ to ,escribe probable cause. See also Rodis $# Cit& and Count& o' San Francisco (&th Cir. 2002) 3&& B.3r, 10&3- 10&#.) Probable cause allo0s "or an o""icer s reasonable (istaFe. 1t only (eans that he or she is *probably/ right- or in e""ect- ha.ing (ore e.i,ence "or than against. (E! )arte Sou5a (1&23) 5$ Cal.App. &.) 10#
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*6P9robable cause (eans A"air probability- not certainty or e.en a prepon,erance o" the e.i,ence./ (United States $# Gourde (&th Cir. 2005) 330 B.3r, 105$- 105&.) *Probable cause to arrests e?ists 0hen o""icers ha.e Fno0le,ge or reasonably trust0orthy in"or(ation su""icient to lea, a person o" caution to belie.e that an o""ense has been or is being co((itte, by the person being arreste,./ (Citations o(itte,: E,in1 $# Cit& o' Stoc(ton (&th Cir. 200&) $## B.3r, 121#- 1230.) 4n,er the totality o" the circu(stances- a reasonable o""icer coul, belie.e that the arrestee possesse, cocaine in .iolation o" Eashington la0. +he arrestee s husban, an, &11 callers tol, the police that the arrestee 0as high on ,rugs. She sai, in her ,eposition that- gi.en her co((ents to the police o""icers- it 0oul, ha.e been reasonable "or the( to belie.e she 0as on ,rugs. +he police o""icers also ha, reasonable cause to taFe her to the hospital "or (ental e.aluation un,er Eashington s (ental health e.aluation statute. (2uchte" $# 0a1emann (&th Cir. 2010) 523 B.3r, &2$.) Detecti.es ha, probable cause to stop an, arrest ,e"en,ant an, his cohorts the o""icers sa0 "our (ales running "ro( one street to0ar, another. +he o""icer obser.e, ,e"en,ant carrying an obCect 0hich coul, be use, as a ,ea,ly 0eapon. +he o""icer also obser.e, speci"ic beha.ior that cause, hi( to entertain an honest an, strong suspicion that a cri(e 0as being co((itte,. Ie obser.e, a bricF in ,e"en,ant s han,- hear, a shout o" *he)s o!er there/ 0hich he belie.e, to ha.e co(e "ro( one o" the "our (ales- an, 0itnesse, a gesture "ro( one o" the group ,irecting the others 0here to go. Uie0e, collecti.ely- there 0ere clearly "acts to suggest the group inten,e, to use their ru,i(entary 0eapons to har( so(eone. +he o""icer s Fno0le,ge that ,e"en,ant 0as a (e(ber o" a street gang that *clai(e,/ that particular area reasonably supporte, this analysis o" the "acts. At this point- probable cause e?iste, to arrest ,e"en,ant "or possession o" a ,ea,ly 0eapon 0ith intent to co((it an assault- per (!C! 12324. (In re *#G# (2010) 1## Cal.App.3th 1$01.) *Probable cause to arrest e?ists 0hen o""icers ha.e Fno0le,ge or reasonably trust0orthy in"or(ation su""icient to lea, a person o" reasonable caution to belie.e that an o""ense has been or is being co((itte, by the person being arreste,. (Citation) Bor in"or(ation to a(ount to probable cause- it ,oes not ha.e to be conclusi.e o" guilt- an, it ,oes not ha.e to e?clu,e the possibility o" innocence. . . . (Citation) . . . (P)olice are not re@uire, Ato belie.e to an absolute certainty- or by clear an, con.incing 10&
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e.i,ence- or e.en by a prepon,erance o" the a.ailable e.i,ence that a suspect has co((itte, a cri(e. (Citation) All that is re@uire, is a A"air probability- gi.en the totality o" the e.i,encethat such is the case. (Garcia $# Count& o' %erced (&th Cir. 2011) 53& B.3r, 1205- 120&.) Probable cause 0as "oun, to e?ist 0ith the ,e"en,ant s state(ents to his girl"rien, about his ,rea( concerning the stabbing o" the "irst .icti( in a series o" cri(es- e.en be"ore the (ur,er 0as reporte, in the ne0spapers. Also- ,e"en,ant 0as Fno0n to be in.ol.e, in the (artial arts an, liFe, to ,ress as a ninCa 0hich 0as consistent 0ith the suspect in"or(ation. De"en,ant tol, co% 0orFers that he possesse, a se(iauto(atic pistol si(ilar to the 0eapon use, in so(e o" the cri(es. De"en,ant also (atche, the physical ,escription o" the suspect in the .arious cri(es- being a uni@ue co(bination o" GlacF an, Japanese- 0ith a ,arF co(ple?ion that ten,e, to be lighter than (ost GlacFs. ()eop"e $# Scott (2011) $2 Cal.3th 3$2- 323%325.) Probable cause e?iste, un,er Je.a,a la0 0here the arresting agent Fne0 that ,e"en,ant (1) a,(itte, to ga(bling at .arious casinos un,er a ,i""erent na(e- (2) a,(itte, to using i,enti"ication not issue, by a go.ern(ent entity i,enti"ying hi( by that ,i""erent na(e- an, (3) possesse, an, ha, use, a cre,it car, issue, in that ,i""erent na(e. (Fa&er $# 9au1hn (&th Cir. 53& B.3r, 1051- 1053% 105$.) AsFing an apparently into?icate, ,e"en,ant- 0ho 0as obser.e, stan,ing the (i,,le o" the roa, picFing up tools an, 0hose .ehicle 0as partially blocFing the roa,- to step to the si,e o" the roa,- 0as reasonable un,er the circu(stances- an, not an illegal ,etention. Burther- the o""icer s obser.ations o" ,e"en,ant s apparent into?ication- e.en be"ore recei.ing in"or(ation "ro( the ,ispatcher that ,e"en,ant ha, "our prior con.ictions "or ,ri.ing un,er the in"luence- constitute, probable cause su""icient to Custi"y the arrest. ()eop"e $# Con"e& (2012) 211 Cal.App.3th &$3.) The *&ollecti!e Anowledge/ Doctrine) Probable cause can be establishe, by the *collecti!e ?nowledge/ o" other o""icers. +he o""icer (aFing a stop- search or arrest nee, not personally Fno0 all the precise in"or(ation relie, upon by other o""icers. ()eop"e $# Ramire5 (1&&2) $& Cal.App.3th 1$3#: United States $# Sando$a"39ene1as (&th Cir. 2002) 2&2 B.3r, 1101: United States $# ut"er (&th Cir. 1&&5) 23 B.3r, &15- &21: )eop"e $# Gome5 110
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(2003) 112 Cal.App.3th $31- $31:United States $# %a&o (&th Cir. 200$) 3&3 B.3r, 1221- 1225- "n. 2.) *6E9here la0 en"orce(ent authorities are cooperating in an in.estigation . . . - the Fno0le,ge o" one is presu(e, share, by all./ (I""inois $# Andreas (1&#3) 353 4.S. 25$- 222- "n. $ 622 7.8,.2n, 10039.) *"<&hen (olice officers +or; to.ether to build 'collecti)e
;no+led.e, of (robable cause! the im(ortant =uestion is not +hat each officer ;ne+ about (robable cause! but ho+ )alid and reasonable the (robable cause +as that de)elo(ed in the officers, collecti)e ;no+led.e.3 ('eo(le v. Go)ez! supra! =uotin. 'eo(le !a)irez! supra! at (. 1%%%.)

A la0 en"orce(ent ,ispatcher s Fno0le,ge o" speci"ic "acts not passe, onto the o""icers in the "iel, (ay also be consi,ere, as a part o" the *collecti!e ?nowledge/ nee,e, to substantiate a "in,ing o" a *reasonable suspicion/ Custi"ying a tra""ic stop. (United States $# Fernande53Casti""o (&th Cir. 2003) 323 B.3r, 1113- 1123.) 1n"or(ation Fno0n to three separate o""icers- in.ol.ing in"or(ant in"or(ation "ro( three in"or(ants o" .arying ,egrees o" reliabilityhel, to be su""icient to Custi"y ,e"en,ant s arrest an, the i(poun,ing- an, searching- o" his .ehicle e.en though the arresting o""icer- hi(sel"- ,i, not ha.e enough personal Fno0le,ge upon 0hich to Custi"y a "in,ing o" probable cause. (United States $# *ensen (&th Cir. 200$) 32$ B.3r, 5&#.) +he collecti.e Fno0le,ge ,octrine is o" t0o types) (1) Ehen a nu(ber o" la0 en"orce(ent o""icers are all 0orFing together 0ith bits an, pieces o" in"or(ation sprea, out a(ong the in,i.i,ual o""icers- but 0hich 0hen all a,,e, altogether- a(ounts to reasonable suspicion or probable cause. (2) Ehen one or (ore o""icers 0ith in"or(ation a(ounting to reasonable suspicion or probable cause co((an, a separate o""icer- 0ho (ay Fno0 nothing about the nature o" the in.estigation- to ,etain- arrestan,Nor search. +here is so(e ,i""erence o" opinion as to 0hether the "irst category is su""icient unless there is sho0n to be so(e co((unication a(ong the o""icers in.ol.e,. +he secon, category is uni.ersally accepte, as co(ing 0ithin the rule. (United States $# Ramire5 (&th Cir. 2002) 323 B.3r, 1025: narcotics o""icers co((an,ing a patrol o""icer to (aFe a tra""ic stop) +he stop,etention- arrest an, search all uphel,.) +he *collecti!e ?nowledge doctrine/ ,oes not apply unless (1) the separate la0 en"orce(ent agents are 0orFing together in an 111
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in.estigation e.en though they (ay not ha.e e?plicitly co((unicate, to the other the "acts that each has in,epen,ently learne,- or (2) unless one o""icer- 0ith ,irect personal Fno0le,ge o" all the "acts necessary to gi.e rise to a reasonable suspicion or probable cause- ,irects or re@uests another o""icer to con,uct a stop- search- or arrest. So(e cases suggest that "or the "irst rule to apply- there (ust also ha.e been so(e co((unication bet0een the t0o agents. (United States $# 9i""asenor (&th Cir. 2010) 50# B.3r, 352- 32$%325.) ,iscellaneous Rules) 1n"or(ation use, to establish probable cause nee, not be a,(issible in court) 8.g.- *hearsay-/ or e.en *double hearsay./ ()eop"e $# Superior Court + in1ham, (1&2&) &1 Cal.App.3r, 35335&: see also 0art $# )ar(s (&th Cir. 2005) 3$0 B.3r, 10$&- 1055% 1052.) +he "act that the in"or(ation a.ailable to police o""icers *ga.e rise to a .ariety o" Ain"erences- so(e o" 0hich support (the suspect s) innocence-/ is also irrele.ant. *(!)""icers (ay A,ra0 on their o0n e?periences an, speciali;e, training to (aFe in"erences "ro( an, ,e,uctions about the cu(ulati.e in"or(ation a.ailable to the( that (ight 0ell elu,e an untraine, person./ (0art $# )ar(s- supra- at p. 1052.) Si(ilarly- the "act that i" .ie0e, in isolation- any single "act- in,epen,ently- (ight not be enough to establish probable cause is uni(portant. Probable cause is a ,eter(ination (a,e base, upon *cumulati!e information/ (o"ten re"erre, to as the *totality of the circumstances/). (I.id.) +he in"or(ation use, to establish probable cause (ay be "ro( the ,e"en,ant s o0n a,(issions 0hich- 0ithout in,epen,ent e.i,ence o" the corpus o" the cri(e- 0ill not be a,(issible in court. Io0e.er- the liFelihoo, o" con.iction is not rele.ant in establishing probable cause to arrest. ()eop"e $# Rios (1&$5) 35 Cal.2n, 2&2: ,e"en,ant s a,(ission that he ha, inCecte, ,rugs t0o 0eeFs earlier su""icient to establish probable cause "or the past possession o" a controlle, substance. Search inci,ent to the arrest 0as there"ore la0"ul.) *Police o""icers A(ust be gi.en so(e latitu,e in ,eter(ining 0hen to cre,it 0itnesses ,enials an, 0hen to ,iscount the(- an, 0e re not a0are o" any "e,eral la0 . . . that in,icates precisely 0here the 112
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line (ust be ,ra0n. (Citation)/ *Probable cause arises 0hen an o""icer has Fno0le,ge base, on reasonably trust0orthy in"or(ation that the person arreste, has co((itte, a cri(inal o""ense. (Citation)/ (%cSherr& $# Cit& o' 2on1 each (&th Cir. 200&) $#3 B.3r, 112&- 113$%1135.) Examples) Probable cause to belie.e ,e"en,ant ha, been in possession o" narcotics "oun, "ro( the ,e"en,ant s o0n a,(issions 0hich0ithout in,epen,ent e.i,ence o" the corpus o" the cri(e- 0oul, not be a,(issible in court. Io0e.er- the liFelihoo, o" con.iction is not rele.ant in establishing probable cause to arrest. ()eop"e $# Rios (1&$5) 35 Cal.2n, 2&2: ,e"en,ant s a,(ission that he ha, inCecte, ,rugs t0o 0eeFs earlier (along 0ith the arresting o""icer s prior Fno0le,ge that ,e"en,ant 0as a narcotics user an, .isible puncture (arFs on his ar(s) hel, to be su""icient to establish probable cause to arrest hi( "or the past possession o" a controlle, substance. A subse@uent search inci,ent to the arrest 0as there"ore la0"ul.) Probable cause 0as "oun, 0here the ,e"en,ant 0as in the presence o" a co((ercial @uantity o" ,rugs 0hile in a .ehicle co(ing o.er the 1nternational Gor,er "ro( Oe?ico- ,e"en,ant 0as the sole passenger (other than the ,ri.er)- there 0as a strong o,or o" gasoline in the .ehicle (0ith the ,rugs being ,isco.ere, in the gas tanF)- hi,ing ,rugs in a .ehicle s gas tanF 0as Fno0n as a co((on (etho, use, by ,rug s(ugglers- an, the ,ri.er lie, about his i((igration status. (United States $# Carran5a (&th Cir. 2002) 2#& B.3r, 533.) Probable cause "oun, 0here ,e"en,ant 0as the bacFseat passenger in a (ini.an in 0hich a co((ercial @uantity o" (ariCuana 0as "oun,- an, ,e"en,ant acte, ner.ously an, a.oi,e, eye contact 0ith a Custo(s 1nspector. (United States $# 0ernande5 (&th Cir. 2002) 313 B.3r, 330.) As the passenger in a .ehicle crossing the 4.S.NOe?ican bor,erignoring a bor,er inspector until another passenger 0as asFe, to (o.e "ro( a spot 0here contraban, 0as later "oun, to be hi,,enat 0hich ti(e ,e"en,ant atte(pte, to ,istract the inspector by in.iting hi( to a party- 0as su""icient to constitute probable cause "or arrest as soon as the contraban, 0as "oun,. (United States $# *u$eni"e +RRA3A, (&th Cir. 2000) 22& B.3r, 232- 233.)

113
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Ehere a large a(ount o" (oney is "oun, rolle, up in a .ehicle s glo.e co(part(ent- an, "i.e plastic glassine baggies o" cocaine are "oun, behin, the center ar(rest o" the bacFseat- 0ith the ar(rest pushe, up into the close, position to hi,e the contraban,- such contraban, being accessible to all the occupants o" the .ehicle- the arrest o" all three subCects in the .ehicle (,ri.er- right "ront an, rear seat passengers) 0as supporte, by probable cause. (%ar&"and $# )rin1"e (2003) $30 4.S. 355 61$2 7.8,.2n, 25&9.) Conce,ing that (ost other circuits ha.e rule, that the (ere passing o" a counter"eit note (a [100 bill in this case)- 0hen couple, 0ith an i,enti"ication o" the person 0ho passe, the note- "urnishes probable cause to arrest the in,i.i,ual i,enti"ie, as passing the note (Citations at pg. &20- in"ra.)- the Jinth Circuit ,ecline, to ,eci,e the issue- "in,ing that 0hether or not the arrest 0as illegalthe arresting o""icers 0ere entitle, to @uali"ie, i((unity "ro( ci.il liability. (Rodis $# Cit& and Count& o' San Francisco (&th Cir. 200&)- $$# B.3r, &53: re.ersing its prior "in,ing (2002- 3&& B.3r, 10&3.) that the o""icers lacFe, probable cause to (aFe the arrest.) A (inor (13 years ol,) 0as sei;e, 0ithout su""icient probable cause 0hen a ,etecti.e inter.ie0e, hi( at school concerning a "our%year%ol, s allegations o" chil, (olest- 0hen the .icti( s account o" the "acts 0ere inconsistent an, con"licting. Burther in.estigation shoul, ha.e been con,ucte, gi.en the proble(s 0ith the (inor s story. (Stoot $# Cit& o' E$erett (&th Cir. 200&) $#2 B.3r, &10- &1#%&21: but @uali"ie, i((unity supporte, su((ary Cu,g(ent in the o""icer s "a.or.) Probable cause "oun, 0here the si?%year%ol, .icti(- on t0o occasions- positi.ely i,enti"ie, ,e"en,ant as her attacFer- an, then a thir, ti(e in court un,er oath. She also i,enti"ie, the ,e"en,ant s "ather s car as the .ehicle use,. A cri(e lab analysis o" se(en taFen "ro( the .icti( coul, not eli(inate ,e"en,ant (pre% DJA). Also- ,e"en,ant s (o,us operan,i Fno0n to police "ro( prior si(ilar assaults (atche,. +he "act that the .icti( s initial ,escription o" the assailant .arie, "ro( ho0 ,e"en,ant actually appeare, ,i, not (ean that the o""icer ,i, not ha.e probable cause to arrest ,e"en,ant. (%cSherr& $# Cit& o' 2on1 each (&th Cir. 200&) $#3 B.3r, 112&- 113$.) *AOere propin@uity to others in,epen,ently suspecte, o" cri(inal acti.ity . . . ,oes not- 0ithout (ore- gi.e rise to probable cause. / (United States $# Co""ins (&th Cir. 200$) 322 B.3r, 5##- @uoting Y.arra $# I""inois (333 4.S. #$- &1 652 7.8,.2n, 23#9.) 113
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Test) Ehether or not a person has been *arrested-/ (i.e.- *seized-/)- un,er the Fourth Amendment- is ,eter(ine, by consi,ering 0hether- in .ie0 o" all the circu(stances surroun,ing the inci,ent- a reasonable person 0oul, ha.e belie.e, that he 0as not "ree to lea.e an,Nor 0as about to go to Cail. (See In re *ames D# (1&#2) 33 Cal.3r, &03- &13.) *+he stan,ar, "or ,eter(ining 0hether a person is un,er arrest is not si(ply 0hether a person belie.es that he is "ree to lea.e- see United States $# %endenha""- 335 4.S. $33- $$3- 53 7. 8,. 2, 3&2- 100 S. Ct. 1#20 (1&#0)- but rather 0hether a reasonable person 0oul, belie.e that he or she is being subCecte, to (ore than Ate(porary ,etention occasione, by bor,er%crossing "or(alities. United States $# ut"er- 23& B.3, 10&31100 (&th Cir. 2001)./ (United States $# 0ernande5 (&th Cir. 2002) 313 B.3r, 330- 335: a bor,er arrest an, search case.) +here 0as no arrest 0here Be,eral Gureau o" 1n.estigations (BG1) agents ,i, not tell ,e"en,ant that he ha, the right to re"use to acco(pany the( to the BG1 o""ice- but neither ,i, they tell hi( that he ha, to go. +he agents use, no tools o" coercion to "orce ,e"en,ant to go 0ith the(: i.e.- they asFe, hi( i" he 0oul, co(e in to talF because they 0ere in.estigating cases- an, he agree, to ,o so. De"en,ant 0as not in custo,y ,uring the @uestioning until he con"esse, to the se?ual assault an, (ur,er. 1n the ti(e lea,ing to the con"ession- a reasonable person in ,e"en,antDs shoes 0oul, ha.e thought that he or she coul, get up an, go i" ,eclining to taFe part in "urther in.estigati.e @uestioning. (United States $# Red"i1htnin1 (&th Cir. 2010) 523 B.3r, 10&0.) Un"a,'u" Arrest) An arrest- i" ,one without probable cause- is a .iolation o" the Fourth Amendment as an unla0"ul seizure- an, there"ore unconstitutional. Any e.i,ence reco.ere, as a ,irect pro,uct o" such an unla0"ul arrest 0ill be subCect to suppression. (See Smith $# Ohio (1&&0) 3&3 4.S. $31 610# 7.8,.2n, 3539.) Con"ession obtaine, as the pro,uct o" an illegal arrest is subCect to suppression- absent attenuating circu(stances. ( ro,n $# I""inois (1&2$) 322 4.S. $&0- 503 63$ 7.8,.2n, 315- 3229: /aupp $# Te!as (2003) $3# 4.S. 525 61$$ 7.8,.2n, #139.) Howe!er- 0hen probable cause e?ists- but the ,e"en,ant is later e?onerate,- there is no basis "or the o""icers ci.il liability "or an illegal arrest. *Probable cause arises 0hen an o""icer has Fno0le,ge base, on reasonably trust0orthy in"or(ation that the person arreste, has co((itte, a cri(inal o""ense. . . . AGecause (any situations 0hich con"ront o""icers in the course o" e?ecuting their ,uties are (ore or less a(biguous- roo( (ust be allo0e, "or so(e (istaFes on their part. / (%cSherr& $# Cit& o' 2on1 each (200&) $#3 B.3r, 112&- @uoting- at p. 113$- Gaus$i( $# )ere5 (&th Cir. 2003) 33$ B.3r, #13- #1#.) 11$
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*lso- e.i,ence will not be suppresse, 0hen an arrest is in .iolation o" a statute only (e.g.- (is,e(eanor arrest not in the o""icer s presence)- not in.ol.ing a constitutional .iolation- an, 0here the statute .iolate, ,oes not speci"ically (an,ate suppression o" the resulting e.i,ence. ()eop"e $# Dona"dson (1&&$) 35 Cal.App.3th $32: )eop"e $# Trapane (1&&1) 1 Cal.App.3th Supp. 10: )eop"e $# %c/a& (2002) 22 Cal.3th 501- 502%51&- a .iolation o" 0!C! 212)3!1 (ri,ing a bicycle in the 0rong ,irection): an, )eop"e $# Gome5 (2003) 112 Cal.App.3th $31- $3#%$3&- seat belt .iolationciting At,ater $# Cit& o' 2a1o 9ista (2001) $32 4.S. 31# 613& 7.8,.2n, $3&9 see also )eop"e $# Ga""ardo (200$) 130 Cal.App.3th 233- 23&- "n. 1: )eop"e $# ennett (2011) 1&2 Cal.App.3th &02- &1#.) A .iolation by a police o""icer o" a state statute- such statute li(iting the o""icer s right to (aFe a custo,ial arrest or a search- so long as not also in .iolation o" the Fourth Amendment- ,oes not result in the suppression o" the resulting e.i,ence unless (an,ate, by the ter(s o" the statute. Ehile a state is e(po0ere, to enact (ore restricti.e search an, sei;ure rules- .iolation o" those rules that are not also a Fourth Amendment .iolation- ,oes not in.oFe the Fourth Amendment.s e?clusionary rule. (9ir1inia $# %oore (200#) $$3 4.S. 153 6120 7.8,.2n, $$&9: )eop"e $# >inos (2011) 1&2 Cal.App.3th 532- 5$3.) *lso- prosecution o" a ,e"en,ant is not preclu,e, (erely because a ,e"en,ant is ab,ucte, abroa, "or the purpose o" prosecution- e.en i" ,one in .iolation o" an e?tra,ition treaty- such as 0hen 4.S. la0 en"orce(ent agents "orcibly ab,uct a "oreign national in Oe?ico an, bring hi( to the 4nite, States "or prosecution. (A"$are53%achain (1&&2) $03 4.S. 5$$ 611& 7.8,.2n, 3319: see also /er $# I""inois (1##5) 11& 4.S. 335 630 7.8,. 3219: Fris.ie $# Co""ins (1&$2) 332 4.S. $1&- $22 6&5 7.8,.2n, $319: )eop"e $# Sa"cido (200#) 33 Cal.3th &3- 11&%125.) <eneral Rule) *(+)he (anner by 0hich a ,e"en,ant is brought to trial ,oes not a""ect the go.ern(ent s ability to try hi(./ (United States $# %atta3 a""esteros (&th Cir. 1&&$) 21 B.3r, 2$3- 252.) Exceptions) Ehere (1) the trans"er o" the ,e"en,ant .iolate, the applicable e?tra,ition treaty: or (2) the go.ern(ent engage, in (iscon,uct o" the (ost shocFing an, outrageous Fin, to obtain the ,e"en,ant s presence. (United States $# Anderson (&th Cir. 2005) 322 B.3r, 552555.) Gecause ,e"en,ant ha, not been e?tra,ite,- his argu(ent that his re(o.al "ro( Pana(a to the 4nite, States 0as not in co(pliance 115
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0ith the ?@tradition TreatA, !S!<(an!, BaA 2), 1"34, 34 Stat! 2#)1 "aile,. Ooreo.er- the treaty ,i, not prohibit the use o" (eans besi,es e?tra,ition to obtain a ,e"en,antDs presence in the 4nite, States. +he Lo.ern(ent ha, not engage, in shocFing an, outrageous con,uct so as to 0arrant ,is(issal o" the cri(inal case against hi(. +he lies that an e(bassy o""icial tol, Pana(anian o""icials ca(e a"ter Pana(a ha, alrea,y ,eci,e, to cooperate in returning ,e"en,ant to the 4nite, States. Ooreo.er- ,e"en,ant 0as ,eporte, a"ter his passport 0as re.oFe,. +he trial court properly ,enie, ,is(issal base, on its super.isory po0ers. +here 0as no e.i,ence that ,e"en,ant s right to counsel 0as .iolate,- an, he ha, not ,e.elope, his argu(ent that international la0 0as .iolate,. Binally- e.en assu(ing the in,ict(ent process 0as ,e"icient "or its reliance on unla0"ully obtaine, e.i,ence- that ,e"iciency 0as cure, 0hen ,e"en,ant 0as con.icte, by a Cury a"ter a trial that e?clu,e, all o" the suppresse, e.i,ence. (United States $# Struc(man (&th Cir. 2010) 511 B.3r, $50- $5&%$2$.) Ehile a state (ay i(pose stricter stan,ar,s on la0 en"orce(ent in interpreting its o0n state constitution (i.e.- *independent state grounds/)- a prosecution in "e,eral court is gui,e, by the "e,eral interpretation o" the Fourth Amendment an, is not re@uire, to use the state s stricter stan,ar,s. (United States $# ro.st (&th Cir. 200&) $$# B.3r, &#2- &#&%&&1&&2.) An o""icer is entitle, to @uali"ie, i((unity "ro( a ci.il allegation o" unla0"ul arrest so long as at the ti(e o" the arrest (1) there 0as probable cause "or the arrest- or (2) *it is reasonably arguable that there 0as probable cause "or arrestPthat is- 0hether reasonable o""icers coul, ,isagree as to the legality o" the arrest such that the arresting o""icer is entitle, to @uali"ie, i((unity./ (Rosen.aum $# -ashoe Count& (&th Cir. 2011) 553 B.3r, 1021- 1025: "in,ing that because no Je.a,a statute applie, to the plainti"" s *scalping/ o" ticFets to a "air- his arrest 0as unla0"ul an, because no reasonable o""icer 0oul, ha.e belie.e, so- the o""icer 0as not entitle, to @uali"ie, i((unity.) Statutor& E"ements o' an Arrest) (!C! #34) +he arreste, person (ust be taFen into custo,y in a case an, in the (anner authori;e, by la0. (!C! #3)) +he arrest (ay be (a,e by actual restraint o" the person or the arreste, person s sub(ission to authority. (!C! #3)a) Reasonable "orce (ay be use, to a""ect an arrest- pre.ent escape or o.erco(e resistance. (See belo0) 112
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(!C! #34- #32- #31) An arrest (ay be (a,e by a peace o""icer or a pri.ate person. (See belo0) ,inors) +aFing a (inor *into temporary custody-/ as authori;e, by /&I 22)- is the "unctional e@ui.alent o" an arrest. (In re Char"es C# (1&&&) 25 Cal.App.3th 320- 32$: see also In re Thierr& S# (1&22) 1& Cal.3r, 222233- "n. 5.) Use o' Force) Reasonable (orce) !nly that a(ount o" force that is reasonably necessary un,er the circu(stances (ay be use, to a""ect an arrest- pre.ent escape- or o.erco(e resistance. (0ead,aters Forest De'ense $# Count& o' 0um.o"dt (&th Cir. 2002) 225 B.3r, 112$.) *+he Fourth Amendment prohibition against unreasonable seizures per(its la0 en"orce(ent o""icers to use only such "orce to e""ect an arrest as is Aob%ecti!ely reasonable un,er the circu(stances./ (Emphasis added: Id.- at p. 1130.) +ote) A ci.il rights action pursuant to 42 !S!C! 1"#3 0as hel, to be proper against non%la0 en"orce(ent e(ployees o" a pri.ate corporation that operate, a "e,eral prison un,er contract. ()o""ard $# GEO Group, Inc# (&th Cir. 2010) 502 B.3r, $#3.) (actors to consi,er in ,eter(ining the a(ount o" "orce that (ay be use, inclu,e) +he se.erity o" the cri(e at issue: Ehether the suspect pose, an i((e,iate threat to the sa"ety o" the o""icers or others: Ehether the suspect 0as acti.ely resisting arrest or atte(pting to e.a,e arrest by "light: and Any other e?igent circu(stances present at the ti(e. ( e"" $# -o"'ish (1&2&) 331 4.S. $20 650 7.8,.2n, 3329: Che, $# Gates (&th Cir. 1&&3) 22 B.3r, 1332- 1330%1331- "n. $: r&an $# %ac)herson (&th Cir. 2010) 530 B.3r, #0$: Espinosa $# Cit& and Count& o' San Francisco (&th Cir. 2010) $&# B.3r, $2#- $32: %attos $# A1arano (&th Cir. 2011) 551 B.3r, 333- 331: Youn1 $# 11#
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Count& o' 2os An1e"es (&th Cir. 2011) 5$$ B.3r, 11$5- 1153: %endo5a $# Cit& o' -est Co$ina (2012) 205 Cal.App.3th 202- 212.) <eneral Principles) *4 (olice officer ma* use force! includin. bloc;in. a )ehicle and
dis(la*in. his or her +ea(on! to accom(lish an other+ise la+ful sto( or detention as lon. as the force used is reasonable under the circumstances to (rotect the officer or members of the (ublic or to maintain the status =uo.3 ('eo(le v. Mc ugh (2004) 119 Cal.4((.4th 202! 211.)

See Tatum $# Cit& and Count& o' San Francisco (&th Cir. 2005) 331 B.3r, 10&0- 0here the Jinth Circuit Court o" Appeal (eticulously ,iscusse, the issue o" la0 en"orce(ent s use o" "orce) Ehen a court analy;es e?cessi.e "orce clai(s- the initial in@uiry is 0hether the police o""icerDs actions 0ere obCecti.ely reasonable in light o" the "acts an, circu(stances con"ronting hi(. A police o""icer ha, probable cause to arrest a suspect "or being un,er the in"luence o" a controlle, substance or "or ,isor,erly con,uct 0here the o""icer obser.e, the suspect FicFing the ,oor to a police station "or no apparent reason- the suspect ,isobeye, co((an,s to stop- an, 0hen he 0as .erbally unresponsi.e- perspiring hea.ily- an, ha, bloo,shot eyes. Ehether a particular use o" "orce 0as obCecti.ely reasonable ,epen,s on se.eral "actors inclu,ing the se.erity o" the cri(e that pro(pte, the use o" "orce- the threat pose, by a suspect to the police or to others- an, 0hether the suspect 0as resisting arrest. An arresting o""icer s use o" a control hol, on an arrestee in or,er to place hi( in han,cu""s 0as obCecti.ely reasonable an, thus ,i, not support e?cessi.e "orce clai(: the o""icer ha, probable cause to arrest- the arrestee 0as beha.ing erratically- an, the arrestee spun a0ay "ro( the o""icer an, continue, to struggle a"ter o""icer tol, hi( to cal( ,o0n. Detention o" the arrestee a"ter the arrest ,i, not rise to the le.el o" e?cessi.e "orce e.en though the o""icers positione, the arrestee on his sto(ach "or appro?i(ately &0 secon,sthen positione, hi( on his si,e- an, "aile, to per"or( e(ergency resuscitation on the arrestee a"ter the arrestee FicFe, an, struggle, so that the brie" restraint on his sto(ach 0as necessary to protect the o""icers an, the arrestee hi(sel"- the o""icers (onitore, the arrestee- an, they calle, "or an a(bulance as soon as they notice, that arrestee 0as breathing hea.ily. Just as the Fourth 11&
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Amendment ,oes not re@uire a police o""icer to use the least intrusi.e (etho, o" arrest- neither ,oes it re@uire an o""icer to pro.i,e 0hat hin,sight re.eals to be the (ost e""ecti.e (e,ical care "or an arreste, suspect.
$)en +here the force used is held to be unreasonable! an officer ma* still be (rotected from ci)il liabilit* under the doctrine of 7qualified immunity.3 7-he =ualified immunit* rule shields (ublic officers from (42 U.S.C.) 1983 actions unless the officer has )iolated a clearl* established constitutional ri.ht. -his turns on a determination of +hether it +ould be clear to a reasonable officer that his conduct +as unla+ful under the circumstances he confronted.3 (%endo5a $# Cit& o' -est Co$ina (2012) 205

Cal.App.3th 202- 211: citing Saucier $# /at5 (2001) $33 4.S. 1&3- 202 61$0 7.8.2n, 2229.) *+o be clearly establishe,- a right (ust be su""iciently clear Athat e.ery *reasonable o""icial 0oul, 6ha.e un,erstoo,9 that 0hat he is ,oing .iolates that right. / (Citations o(itte,: Reich"e $# 0o,ards (June 3- 2012) >> 4.S. >> 6132 S.Ct. 20##: 1#2 7.8,.2n, &#$9.) 1n Reich"e $# 0o,ards- the Supre(e Court hel, that it 0as not clearly establishe, that 0hen an arrest is (a,e 0ith probable cause- a la0 en"orce(ent o""icer (ight still be .iolating the arrestee s First Amendment "ree,o( o" speech 0here the arrestee ha, critici;e, the Uice Presi,ent. +he use o" "orce to a""ect an arrest is e.aluate, in light o" the Fourth Amendment.s prohibition on unreasonable seizures. (Graham $# Connor (1&#&) 3&0 4.S. 3#5 6103 7.8,.2n, 3339.) A sei;ure is a *go.ern(ental ter(ination o" "ree,o( o" (o.e(ent through (eans intentionally applie,./ (*ensen $# Cit& o' O!nard (&th Cir. 1&&#) 13$ B.3r, 102#- 10#3.) +his inclu,es the acci,ental use o" the 0rong 0eapon: e.g.acci,entally using a "irear( 0hen the o""icer inten,e, to use a +aser. (Torres $# Cit& o' %adera (&th Cir. 200#) $23 B.3r, 10$3.) *(A)cts by 0hich cruel an, sa,istic purpose to har( another 0oul, be (ani"est/ (ay also be a .iolation o" the ?i5hth Amendment.s proscription on *cruel and unusual/ punish(ent. (-atts $# 120
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%c/inne& (&th Cir. 200$) 3&3 B.3r, 120: FicFing a prisoner in the genitals.) +he reasonableness o" the "orce use, to a""ect a particular sei;ure is ,eter(ine, by a *care"ul balancing o" Athe nature an, @uality o" the intrusion on the in,i.i,ual s Fourth Amendment interests against the counter.ailing go.ern(ental interest at staFe./ (Graham $# Connor- supra- at p. 3&5 6103 7.8,.2n, at p. 3$$9@uoting Tennessee $# Garner (1&#$) 321 4.S. 1- # 6#$ 7.8,.2n, 129: *ac(son $# Cit& o' remerton (&th Cir. 2001) 25# B.3r, 535.) +he use o" e?cessi.e "orce on a prison or Cail in(ate is an ?i5ht Amendment *cruel an, unusual punish(ent/ issue. Also- rele.ant in@uiry is not the e?tent o" the inCury that results- but rather the ,egree o" "orce use,. (-i"(ins $# Gadd& (2010) $$& 4.S. 33 612$ 7.8,.2n, &&$9: citing 0udson $# %c%i""ian (1&&2) $03 4.S. 1- 3 6112 7.8,.2n, 1$59.) +he use o" a reasonable a(ount o" "orce necessary in han,cu""ing an, searching the plainti"" ,uring a la0"ul arrest is not a battery. (Fa&er $# 9au1hn (&th Cir. 53& B.3r, 1051-105$.) +he use o" reasonable "orce in e?tracting bloo,- 0hen ,one in a (e,ically appro.e, (anner- is la0"ul. (Ritsche" $# Cit& o' Fountain 9a""e& (200$) 132 Cal.App.3th 102: a (is,e(eanor case.) Bi.e ,eputies hol,ing ,o0n a resisting cri(inal ,e"en,ant "or the purpose o" obtaining his "ingerprints- in a courtroo( (but out o" the Cury s presence)- 0here there 0ere "oun, to be less .iolent alternati.es to obtaining the sa(e e.i,ence- is "orce that *shocFs the conscience/ an, a .iolation o" the ,e"en,ant s Fourteenth Amendment ,ue process rights. ()eop"e $# 0erndon (2002) 13& Cal.App.3th 223: hel, to be *harmless error/ in light o" other e.i,ence an, because ,e"en,ant create, the situation causing the "orce to be use,.) !""icers ha, reasonable cause un,er the Eashington statutes to taFe plainti"" "or a (ental e.aluation on the basis o" her paranoi, co((ents to the o""icers an, the &11 reports that she ha, been hi,ing un,er a car 0ith her son- screa(ing that so(eone 0as trying to Fill her an, that she 0oul, Fill hersel". +he o""icers use o" "orce in arresting an, ,etaining her 0as reasonable. +here 0as no genuine ,ispute "ro( the e.i,ence that she pose, a threat to hersel"- her neighbors- an, the o""icers. +he e.i,ence 0as 121
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un,ispute, that she 0as acti.ely resisting arrest. (2uchte" $# 0a1emann (&th Cir. 2010) 523 B.3r, &2$.) +ho(as an, Rosalie A.ina sue, the 4nite, States un,er the Federal Tort Claims Act (FTCA) "or assault an, battery an, intentional in"liction o" e(otional ,istress a"ter agents "ro( the Drug 8n"orce(ent A,(inistration (D8A) e?ecute, a search 0arrant at their (obile ho(e. 4pon entering the ho(e- the agents pointe, guns at +ho(as an, Rosalie- han,cu""e, the( an, "orce"ully pushe, +ho(as to the "loor. +he agents han,cu""e, the A.ina s "ourteen%year%ol, ,aughter on the "loor an, then han,cu""e, their ele.en%year%ol, ,aughter on the "loor an, pointe, their guns at her hea,. +he agents re(o.e, the han,cu""s "ro( the chil,ren appro?i(ately thirty (inutes a"ter they entere,. +he court hel, that the ,istrict court properly grante, su((ary Cu,g(ent in "a.or o" the 4nite, States as to +ho(as an, Rosalie because the agents use o" "orce against the( 0as reasonable. +he agents 0ere e?ecuting a search 0arrant at the resi,ence o" a suspecte, ,rug tra""icFer. +his presente, a ,angerous situation "or the agents an, the use o" han,cu""s on the a,ult (e(bers o" the "a(ily 0as reasonable to (ini(i;e the risF o" har( to the o""icers an, the A.inas. 1n a,,ition- the agents ,i, not act unreasonably 0hen they "orce"ully pushe, +ho(as A.ina to the "loor. At the ti(e o" the push- A.ina 0as re"using the agents co((an,s to get ,o0n on the groun,. Gecause this re"usal occurre, ,uring the initial entry- the agents ha, no 0ay o" Fno0ing 0hether A.ina 0as associate, 0ith the suspecte, ,rug tra""icFer- 0ho( they thought li.e, there. +he court ho0e.er- "oun, that the ,istrict court i(properly grante, su((ary Cu,g(ent to the 4nite, States concerning the agents con,uct to0ar, the A.inas (inor ,aughters. +he court hel, that a Cury coul, "in, that 0hen the agents pointe, their guns at the ele.en%year%ol, ,aughter s hea,0hile she 0as han,cu""e, on the "loor- that this con,uct a(ounte, to e?cessi.e "orce. Si(ilarly- the court hel, that a Cury coul, "in, that the agents ,ecision to "orce the t0o girls to lie "ace ,o0n on the "loor- 0ith their han,s cu""e, behin, their bacFs- 0as unreasonable. Lenuine issues o" "act e?iste, as to 0hether the actions o" the agents 0ere e?cessi.e in light o" girls ages an, the li(ite, threats they pose,. (A$ina $# United States (&th Cir. 2012) 5#1 B.3r, 1122- 1130%1133.) The Taser) An o""icer use, a +aser to sub,ue the plainti"" a"ter he 0as stoppe, "or a seat belt .iolation. +he +aser- (o,el T25- using co(presse, nitrogen to propel a pair o" *probes/ (i.e.- alu(inu( ,arts tippe, 122
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0ith stainless steel barbs connecte, to the T25 by insulate, 0ires) at its target- 0as hel, to be a "or( o" *non%lethal "orce-/ constituting an *inter(e,iate or (e,iu(- though not insigni"icant@uantu( o" "orce./ ( r&an $# %ac)herson (&th Cir. 2010) 530 B.3r, #0$- #23%#33.) Plainti"" 0as ob.iously irate- yelling e?pleti.es an, other *gibberish-/ an, hitting his thighs- 0hile ,resse, only in bo?er shorts an, tennis shoes. Plainti"" got out o" his car a"ter being or,ere, to stay in it. Ie also (ay ha.e taFen a step to0ar,s the o""icer although he 0as still 1$ to 2$ "eet a0ay "ro( hi(. 4se o" the +aser on the plainti""- 0ho ne.er .erbally threatene, the o""icer nor (a,e any atte(pt to "lee- 0as hel, to be e?cessi.e un,er these circu(stances. (I.id.) +he use o" a +aser to sub,ue non%threatening- although uncooperati.e- suspects- ,epen,ing upon the circu(stances- absent a threat to the sa"ety o" the o""icers or others- (ay constitute e?cessi.e "orce an, a Fourth Amendment .iolation. (%attos $# A1arano (&th Cir. 2011) 551 B.3r, 333) +0o cases: one in.ol.ing a +asing o" the .icti( in a ,o(estic .iolence situation 0here she 0as the .icti(- an, the other being o" an uncooperati.e ,ri.er 0ho re"use, to sign a tra""ic citation. Goth cases resulte, in a "in,ing o" a Fourth Amendment e?cessi.e "orce .iolation- but 0ith @uali"ie, i((unity "or the o""icers- the inci,ents happening be"ore there 0as any rele.ant case la0. +he Court cite, three prior cases- being the only "e,eral cases on the issue- 0here it ha, been hel, that the use o" a +aser 0as not a Fourth Amendment .iolation: i.e.- Russo $# Cit& o' Cincinnati (5th Cir. 1&&2) &$3 B.2n, 1035: 0inton $# Cit& o' E",ood (10th Cir. 1&&3) &&2 B.2n, 223: an, Draper $# Re&no"ds (11th Cir. 2003) 35& B.3r, 1220. +hese three cases- respecti.ely- in.ol.e, o""icers being attacFe, by a suici,al- ho(ici,al- (ental patient 0ho 0as ar(e, 0ith t0o Fni.es- a .iolently resisting suspect 0ho 0as "lailing at- FicFing- an, biting the arresting o""icers- an, a lone o""icer being con"ronte, by an angry- con"rontationalan, agitate, trucF ,ri.er 0ho re"use, "i.e ti(es to pro,uce certain ,ocu(ents as he pace, bacF an, "orth- yelling at the o""icer. (Id.- at pp. 335%33#.) Punching an, +asering a non%resisting an, co(pliant arrestee 0ho the o""icer Fne0 0as e(otionally trouble, an, physically ill- an, continue, to ,o so 0hen the arrestee ,i, 123
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no (ore than "linch "ro( the pain an, cry "or help- an, then asphy?iating hi( by sitting on his chest- 0as unreasonable "orce. +he o""icer also 0as not entitle, to @uali"ie, i((unity un,er the circu(stances. (%endo5a $# Cit& o' -est Co$ina (2012) 205 Cal.App.3th 202- 213%220.)
4sing a +aser in nine "i.e%secon, cycles- t0o 0hile it 0as ine""ecti.ely ,eploye, in probe (o,e an, se.en 0hen it 0as ,eploye, in ,ri.e%stun (o,e- 0as hel, to be reasonable 0here o""icers 0ere atte(pting to rescue a three%year%ol, chil, "ro( a suspect s grasp (a *choFe hol,/)- an, to sub,ue the .iolently resisting suspect 0ho ,ie, as a result. (%ar:ue5 $# Cit& o' )hoeni! (&th Cir. 2012) 5&3 B.3r, 1152- 1123%1125.) +he Court "urther ,eter(ine, that the 0arnings pro.i,e, on the +aser itsel"- 0hich inclu,e, the possibility o" ,eath- 0ere su""icient as a (atter o" la0- at least in so "ar as re@uire, un,er Ari;ona statutory la0. (Id.- at pp. 1122%1123.)

+0o police o""icers repeate, use o" a +aser against a suspect- 0ho ,ie, shortly therea"ter- 0as hel, to be reasonable 0here it 0as "oun, to be necessary to rescue a chil, "ro( the suspect (her gran,"ather) 0ho hel, the chil, in a choFe hol, ,uring an atte(pt at an *e?orcis(-/ an, e.en though the o""icers tase, hi( nine ti(es- each a "i.e%secon, cycle- an, then 0restle, hi( into sub(ission. (%ar:ue5 $# Cit& o' )hoeni! (&th Cir. 2012) 5&3 B.3r, 1152- 1123%1122.) +ote) *T* ER/ is an acrony( "or *+ho(as A. S0i"t s 8lectric Ri"le./ (See Id.- at p. 1120- "n. 1.) Pepper pray) +he use o" pepper spray on non%.iolent ,e(onstrators 0as ,eter(ine, to be e?cessi.e 0here there 0ere less intrusi.e alternati.es. (0ead,aters Forest De'ense $# Count& o' 0um.o"dt (&th Cir. 2002) 225 B.3r, 112$.) 1t has been hel, that s@uirting pepper spray ran,o(ly into a cro0, o" ,e(onstrators 0here there 0as insu""icient cause to belie.e the ,e(onstrators pose, an i((e,iate threat to the sa"ety o" the o""icers or others (ight be e?cessi.e an, e?pose the o""en,ing police o""icers to ci.il liability. (2am. $# Decatur (C.D.1ll. 1&&5) &32 B.Supp. 1251.)

123
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Io0e.er- the use o" a *chemical irritant/ against party%goers 0ho are i(pe,ing a la0"ul arrest an, "ighting 0ith la0 en"orce(ent o""icers- particularly a"ter a 0arning- 0as not i(proper- or e?cessi.e. (*ac(son $# Cit& o' remerton (&th Cir. 2001) 25# B.3r, 535- 5$1%5$3.) +he use o" pepper spray on "ighting prison in(ates in a (a?i(u( security prison- in an atte(pt to stop the "ight- 0as hel, to be reasonable- although the "ailure to pro.i,e (e,ical attention to other in(ates 0ho (ight also ha.e been a""ecte, by the pepper spray .apors- sho0ing a *deliberate indifference/ to their health0ill subCect correctional authorities to potential ci.il liability. (C"ement $# Gome5 (&th Cir. 2002) 2&# B.3r, #&#.) +he use o" pepper spray an, a baton on a non%co(bati.e- albeit uncooperati.e- citi;en ,uring a tra""ic stop is e?cessi.e "orce an, a Fourth Amendment .iolation. (Youn1 $# Count& o' 2os An1e"es (&th Cir. 2011) 5$$ B.3r, 11$5.) $aton) See Youn1 $# Count& o' 2os An1e"es (&th Cir. 2011) 5$$ B.3r, 11$5- abo.e- un,er *Pepper pray./ Ehere the "acts are in ,ispute- a police o""icer ,oes not ha.e @uali"ie, i((unity "or using his baton to breaF the plainti"" s car 0in,o0 an, pulling hi( out o" the car through the 0in,o0. Such "orce (ay be e?cessi.e. (Co"es $# Ea1"e (&th Cir. Dec. $- 2012) >>B.3r, >> 62012 4.S. App. 78T1S 23&239.) $ean $ag and Pepperball (irearms) 4se o" *less6lethal/ cloth%case, beanbag shot against an unar(e,(entally ,erange, suspect- particularly 0hen not 0arne, "irst- (ay be e?cessi.e. (Deor"e $# Ruther'ord (&th Cir. 2001) 232 B.3r, 111&.) 1n an appeal o" a ,enial o" a su((ary Cu,g(ent (otion- it 0as rule, that intentionally "iring a pepperball proCectile at a group o" ,e(onstrators- hitting plainti"" in the eye- 0as a sei;ure o" the plainti"" ,espite the "act that he 0as not speci"ically targete,. Also- absent e.i,ence that the cro0, 0as .iolent- co((itting a cri(e- threatening the o""icers- or acti.ely a.oi,ing arrest- the use o" "orce by "iring pepperballs into a cro0e, o" party goers 0as e?cessi.e. (Ne"son $# Cit& o' Da$is (&th Cir. 2012) 5#$ B.3r, #52.) 12$
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As a *less lethal/ 0eapon- the la0"ulness o" the use o" a beanbag shotgun is ,epen,ent upon a ,eter(ination that its use 0as reasonable un,er the circu(stances. 1n this case- 0here the out%o"% control subCect 0asn t threatening anyone but hi(sel"- its use 0as unCusti"ie,. (G"enn $# -ashin1ton Count& (&th Cir. 2011) 523 B.3r, #53- #2#%##0.) (irearms) Pointing a gun at close range at an unar(e,- unresisting suspect 0ho is only being ,etaine,- is probably e?cessi.e- an, coul, result in ci.il liability. (Ro.inson $# So"ano Count& (&th Cir. 2002) 22# B.3r, 1002.) *(P)ointing a loa,e, gun at a suspect- e(ploying the threat o" ,ea,ly "orce- is use o" a high le.el o" "orce./ Espinosa $# Cit& and Count& o' San Francisco (&th Cir. 2010) $&# B.3r, $2#- $3#.) Si(ilarly- pointing a "irear( at a suspect 0hile he s being arreste, 0hen it is apparent that the arrestee is not a threat to o""icer sa"ety is e?cessi.e "orce su""icient to create ci.il liability. (0op(ins $# on$icino (&th Cir. 200&) $23 B.3r, 2$2- 225%222.) A SEA+ tea( hol,ing chil,ren at gunpoint a"ter o""icers gaine, control o" a situation is unreasonable- an, coul, result in ci.il liability. (0o""and $# 0arrin1ton (10th Cir. 2001) 25# B.3r, 112&.) Pointing an, *training/ a "irear( at a "i.e%0eeF%ol, in"ant 0hile con,ucting a Fourth Eai.er search is e?cessi.e- an, a Fourth Amendment .iolation. (%ot"e& $# )ar(s (&th Cir. 200$) 332 B.3r, 1022- 10##%10#&.) Pain &ompliance) +he use o" *pain compliance/ to arrest passi.ely resistant ,e(onstrators 0as uphel, as reasonable- in that it 0as use, only a"ter a 0arning- 0as not applie, any (ore than necessary to gain co(pliance- an, 0as so(ething that coul, be en,e, instantaneously 0hen the protestor sub(itte,. (Forrester $# Cit& o' San Die1o (&th Cir. 1&&3) 2$ B.3r, #03.) Duty to =arn) +he Jinth Circuit Court o" Appeal has hel, a nu(ber o" ti(es that 0here it is possible to ,o so- the o""icer (ust 0arn a person be"ore applying "orce- at least 0hen the "orce is liFely to cause inCury. 125
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(Deor"e $# Ruther'ord (&th Cir. 2001) 232 B.3r, 111&- 12#3beanbag: r&an $# %ac)herson (&th Cir. 2010) 530 B.3r, #0$: +aser.) *pplicable tatutes) (!C! 2"2) 7a0"ul resistance to the co((ission o" a public o""ense (ay be (a,e) 1! 2! Gy the party about to be inCure,: Gy other parties.

See also CA=C8IB, C 3413- * elf6Defense and Defense of *nother./ A ,e"en,ant has a right o" sel"%,e"ense i" he *reasonably belie.e, that he 0as in i((inent ,anger o" su""ering bo,ily inCury/ through the application o" unreasonable "orce applie, by a person atte(pting to (aFe a citi;en s arrest. ()eop"e $# Adams (200&) 125 Cal.App.3th &35.) *Sel"%,e"ense/ ,oes not Custi"y an assault absent a *an i((e,iate threat o" unla0"ul "orce- an, the nee, "or the action to be co((ensurate 0ith the threat- 0ith no (ore "orce use, than reasonably necessary to (eet it./ Iarshinsulting- nor ,e(eaning 0or,s alone are insu""icient to trigger the right to use sel"%,e"ense in return. (United States $# Urena (&th Cir. 2011) 5$& B.3r, &03- &05%&02: being calle, a *bitch/ hours earlier ,i, not Custi"y a pree(pti.e striFe by ,e"en,ant.) (!C! 2"3) Party about to be in%ured: circu(stances in 0hich "orce is authori;e,) Gy the party- in 0hat cases an, to 0hat e?tent) 1! 2! +o pre.ent an o""ense against his person- or his "a(ily- or so(e (e(ber thereo". +o pre.ent an illegal atte(pt by "orce to taFe or inCure property in his la0"ul possession.

See also CA=C8IB, C 3413- * elf6Defense and Defense of *nother./ (!C! 2"4) ;ther Parties: circu(stances in 0hich "orce is authori;e,) Any other person- in ai, or ,e"ense o" the person about to be inCure,- (ay (aFe resistance su""icient to pre.ent the o""ense. 122
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See also CA=C8IB, C 3413- * elf6Defense and Defense of *nother./ (!C! #34a) *1" a person has Fno0le,ge- or by the e?ercise o" reasonable care- shoul, ha.e Fno0le,ge- that he is being arreste, by a peace o""icer- it is the ,uty o" such person to re"rain "ro( using "orce or any 0eapon to resist such arrest./ 1t is illegal to resist any arrest or ,etention by a peace o""icer- e.en i" it is ,eter(ine, to be an illegal arrest or ,etention. (E$ans $# Cit& o' a(ers'ie"d (1&&3) 22 Cal.App.3th 321.) +he person illegally arreste, or ,etaine, has a ci.il re(e,y against the o""en,ing o""icer(s). (See 42 !S!C! 1"#3) (!C! #3)) *+he person arreste, (ay be subCecte, to such restraint as is reasonable "or his arrest an, ,etention./ (!C! #3)a) *Any peace o""icer 0ho has reasonable cause to belie.e a person to be arreste, has co((itte, a public o""ense (ay use reasonable "orce to a""ect the arrest- to pre.ent escape- or to o.erco(e resistance./ An o""icer is not re@uire, to ,esist in his or her e""orts (erely because the accuse, o""ers so(e resistance. ()eop"e $# 0ard,ic( (1&2#) 203 Cal. $#2- $#2.) 4se o" e?cessi.e "orce by an o""icer gi.es the arrestee the right to use sel"%,e"ense- an, negates the ele(ent o" *acting in the performance of his or her duties/ "or any potential charge 0here this ele(ent (ust be pro.e,. (8.g.: (!C! 14#+a,- 243+4, & +c,- an, 24)+c, & +d,) An o""icer 0ho uses e?cessi.e "orce is subCect to prosecution "or a "elony ((!C! 14") an,Nor- i" the .icti( is a prisoner an, the o""icer is guilty o" *0ill"ul inhu(anity or oppression to0ar,s (the) prisoner-/ a [3-000 "ine an, re(o.al "ro( o""ice ((!C! 141)- in a,,ition to any other applicable assault or battery .iolations. (!C! #43) *Ehen the arrest is being (a,e by an o""icer un,er the authority o" a 0arrant- a"ter in"or(ation o" the intention to (aFe the arrest- i" the person to be arreste, either "lees or "orcibly resists- the o""icer (ay use all necessary (eans to e""ect the arrest./ 12#
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(!C! #44) *+o (aFe an arrest- a pri.ate person- i" the o""ense is a "elony- an, in all cases a peace o""icer- (ay breaF open the ,oor or 0in,o0 o" the house in 0hich the person to be arreste, is- or in 0hich they ha.e reasonable groun,s "or belie.ing the person to bea"ter ha.ing ,e(an,e, a,(ittance an, e?plaine, the purpose "or 0hich a,(ittance is ,esire,./ +ote) +his is Cali"ornia s *?noc? and notice/ statute- "or (aFing arrests. (See *Anoc? and +otice-/ belo0) (!C! #4)) *Any person 0ho has la0"ully entere, a house "or the purpose o" (aFing an arrest- (ay breaF open the ,oor or 0in,o0 thereo" i" ,etaine, therein- 0hen necessary "or the purpose o" liberating hi(sel"- an, an o""icer (ay ,o the sa(e- 0hen necessary "or the purpose o" liberating a person 0ho- acting in his ai,la0"ully entere, "or the purpose o" (aFing an arrest- an, is ,etaine, therein./ (!C! #42) *Any person (aFing an arrest (ay taFe "ro( the person arreste, all o""ensi.e 0eapons 0hich he (ay ha.e about his person- an, (ust ,eli.er the( to the (agistrate be"ore 0ho( he is taFen./ (!C! 4"3!)+f,+2,) A (erchant- library e(ployee or theater o0ner (ay use a reasonable a(ount o" non%,ea,ly "orce necessary to protect hi(sel" an, to pre.ent escape or pre.ent loss o" tangible or intangible property. #se of Deadly (orce) &ausing Death) Ehen the use o" "orce results in the ,eath o" another person- a *homicide-/ or a *?illing of a human being by another human being-/ has occurre,. ()eop"e $# Antic( (1&2$) 1$ Cal.3r, 2&- #2.) See CA=C8IB, C )33- *HomicideI <eneral Principles./ *Deadly (orce Defined)/ *Borce that the actor uses 0ith the purpose o" causing or that he Fno0s to create a substantial risF o" causing death or serious bodily in%ury./ (Emphasis added: See Bodel (enal Code 3!11+2, (1&52)) +he Jinth Circuit Court o" Appeal ha, pre.iously hel, that *deadly force-/ 0hen e.aluating the use o" "orce by a la0 en"orce(ent agency through the use o" a police ,og- shoul, 12&
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be ,e"ine, as) *(orce which is reasonably li?ely to cause (or which Ghad a reasonable probability of causing)) death./ (9era Cru5 $# Cit& o' Escondido (&th Cir. 1&&2) 13& B.3r, 5$&- 553: use o" a police ,og is not ,ea,ly "orce.) 8.g.) 4se o" a police ,og to bite an, hol, a potentially ,angerous "leeing "elon "or up to a (inute- until the arresting o""icer coul, insure that the situation 0as sa"e- ,i, not constitute the use o" *deadly force-/ an, 0as there"ore not a .iolation o" the Fourth Amendment (sei;ure)- ,espite the "act that the suspect s ar( 0as se.erely inCure, by the ,og. (%i""er $# C"ar( Count& (&th Cir. 2003) 330 B.3r, &$&.) +he abo.e- ho0e.er- 0as a (inority opinion. As a resultthe Jinth Circuit has recently change, its (in,- a,opting the (aCority rule- agreeing that e.en in the use o" a police ,og- *deadly force/ shoul, be ,e"ine, as *force that creates a substantial ris? of death or serious bodily in%ury./ (Smith $# Cit& o' 0emet (&th Cir. 200$) 3&3 B.3r, 5#&.) +ote) +he Jinth Circuit Court o" Appeal "urther hel, in Smith that the ,e"en,ant plea,ing guilty to resisting arrest- per (!C! 14#+a,+1,- ,oes not preclu,e hi( "ro( suing the o""icers "or using unreasonable "orce so long as the o""icer s legal actions can be separate, "ro( his use o" unreasonable "orce. +he Cali"ornia Supre(e Court later rule, in Yount $# Cit& o' Sacramento (200#) 33 Cal.3th ##$- that it is not necessary to "in, the o""icers la0"ul actions ,i.isible "ro( their use o" unreasonable use o" "orce in or,er "or the cri(inal ,e"en,ant to be guilty o" resisting arrest an, still sue. Gase, upon this theory- the Jinth Circuit "oun, that a cri(inal ,e"en,ant- e.en a"ter plea,ing guilty to resisting arrest per (!C! 14#+a,+1,- (ay sue the o""icer "or using unreasonable "orce in a continuous course o" action so long as at least part o" the o""icer s actions 0ere la0"ul. (0ooper $# Count& o' San Die1o (&th Cir. 2011) 52& B.3r, 1122.) Goth Smith an, 0ooper are ,og bite cases. Io0e.er- the use o" a police ,og ,oes not necessarily constitute the use o" ,ea,ly "orce. 1t ,epen,s upon the circu(stances o" the case in @uestion. 1n such a case- the 130
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issue "or a ci.il Cury is to (erely ,eter(ine 0hether the "orce use, 0as reasonable un,er the circu(stances. (Thompson $# Count& o' 2os An1e"es (2005) 132 Cal.App.3th 1$3.) +on6&riminal Homicides) Jot all ho(ici,es- ho0e.er- are cri(inal. +he non%cri(inal ho(ici,es are co((only groupe, into t0o general categories: *excusable/ ((!C! 1"): 0hen co((itte, by *accident or misfortune/) an, *%ustifiable/ ((!C! 1"2 et se*!)- 0hen authori;e, by la0. See )eop"e $# 9e"e5 (1&#3) 133 Cal.App.3r, $$#- $55%$5#)eop"e $# Fr&e (1&&2) 2 Cal.3th 113#- 11$$: an, CA=C8IB C )3)<)3" (:ustifiable) an, C )13<)11 +Excusable) Io(ici,e +he use o" deadly force- an, the resulting Filling o" a hu(an being- (ay be *%ustifiable/ (i.e.- not illegal) 0hen co((itte, as authori;e, by statute- an, as li(ite, by case la0. *pplicable tatutes: (!C! 1"2) Io(ici,e is %ustifiable 0hen co((itte, by public officers an, those acting by their co((an, in their ai, an, assistance- 0hen) 1! 1n obe,ience to any Cu,g(ent o" a co(petent court: or 2! Ehen necessarily co((itte, in o.erco(ing actual resistance to the e?ecution o" so(e legal process- or in the ,ischarge o" any other legal ,uty: or 3! Ehen necessarily co((itte, in retaFing "elons 0ho ha.e been rescue, or ha.e escape,- or 0hen necessarily co((itte, in arresting persons charge, 0ith a "elony- an, 0ho are "leeing "ro( Custice or resisting such arrest. See /ortum $# A"(ire (1&22) 5& Cal.App.3r, 32$333: Foster $# Cit& o' Fresno (J.D. Cal. 200$) 3&2 B.Supp.2n, 1130- 11$&: an, CA=C8IB C )31) *:ustifiable Homicide) $y Public ;fficer./ (!C! 1"1) Io(ici,e is also %ustifiable 0hen co((itte, by any person in any o" the "ollo0ing situations) 131
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1! Ehen resisting any atte(pt to murder- co((it a felony- or to ,o great bodily in%ury upon any person: or 2! Ehen co((itte, in defense of habitationproperty or person- at least in cases o" .iolent "elonies: or 3! Ehen co((itte, in defense of person- or o" a wife or husband- parent- child- master- mistressor ser!ant o" such person- at least in cases o" .iolent "elonies: or 4! Ehen necessarily co((itte, in atte(pting to apprehend any person "or any felony- or in suppressing any riot- or in ?eeping an, preser!ing the peace. See also CA=C8IB C )3#) *:ustifiable Homicide) &itizen *rrest (+on6Peace ;fficer)-/an, C )3") *:ustifiable Homicide) +on6Peace ;fficer Preser!ing the Peace./ "imitations) 1n rea,ing these statutes ((!C! 1"2 & 1"1)- a literal interpretation 0oul, see( to in,icate the conclusion that Filling a suspect in any felony situation- e.en i" only a property o""ense- to pre.ent the co((ission o" a "elony against a person- or to arrest or stop any "leeing "elony suspect- non.iolent as 0ell as .iolent- is la0"ul. (orcible and *trocious &rime) Although (aybe true at one ti(e- (o,ern case la0 no longer allo0s such a liberal application o" the Custi"iable ho(ici,e ,e"ense. +o,ay- the use o" ,ea,ly "orce is speci"ically li(ite, to ,e"en,ing against- or in the atte(pt to arrest so(eone- "or *forcible and atrocious/ cri(es only. ()eop"e $# Ce.a""os (1&23) 12 Cal.3r, 320- 32#: Tennessee $# Garner (1&#$) 321 4.S. 112%1$ 6#$ 7.8,.2n, 1- 10%129: )eop"e $# %artin (1&#$) 15# Cal.App.3r, 1111- 1123: an, CA=C8IB C )3") *:ustifiable HomicideI +on6Peace ;fficer Preser!ing the Peace./ History) +he 0or,ing in the statutes- re"erring to "elonies see(ingly 0ithout li(itation- co(es "ro( the *&ommon "aw/ 0hich- in its early history- (a,e all felonies- o" 0hich there 0ere only a "e0- capital o""enses.

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+he Co((on 7a0 Custi"ication "or this rule has been @uote,- "or historical .alue only- by (ore recent cases) *A!r,inarily- an o""icer or pri.ate person- in (aFing an arrest "or a "elony- (ay use 0hate.er "orce is reasonably necessary to o.erco(e a resisting "elon or to stop a "leeing "elon- e.en to the e?tent o" taFing his li"e: an,- i" ,ea,ly "orce is use,- the ho(ici,e is Custi"iable. +he supporti.e theory is that *"elons ought not to be at large- an, that the li"e o" a "elon has been "or"eite,: "or "elonies at co((on la0 0ere punishable 0ith ,eath./ / (See )eop"e $# %artin (1&#$) 15# Cal.App.3r, 1111- 111$.) +o,ay- 0ith the la0 .astly e?pan,e,- there are (any non%.iolent- non%capital "elonies "or 0hich ,ea,ly "orce is not an appropriate response. ()eop"e $# Ce.a""os, supra: Tennessee $# Garner, supra2) The Fourth Amendment) +he restrictions on the use o" ,ea,ly "orce ha.e their genesis in the 4nite, States Constitution. A Fourth Amendment *seizure/ occurs 0hene.er *there is a go.ern(ental ter(ination o" "ree,o( o" (o.e(ent through (eans intentionally applie,./ ( ro,er $# In&o (1&#&) 3#& 4.S. $&3- $&2 6103 7.8,.2n, 52#- 53$9.) *+he use o" ,ea,ly "orce to pre.ent the escape o" all "elony suspects- 0hate.er the circu(stances- is constitutionally unreasonable./ (8(phasis a,,e,: Tennessee $# Garner- supra, at p. 11 6#$ 7.8,.2n, at p. &9.) Si(ilarly- the in,iscri(inate use o" a *booby trap/ (a "elony- per (!C! 123))) (or a *trap gun-/ a (is,e(eanor per Fish & 9ame Code, 2331)- set up in the house or else0here to 0ar, o"" e?pecte, intru,ers- has been hel, to constitute an illegal use o" "orce 0hich- by its .ery nature- cannot be li(ite, to those trespassers 0ho constitute a threat o" ,eath or great bo,ily inCury. ()eop"e $# Ce.a""os, supra.) See CA=C8IB C )33 et se*!

133
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*(orcible and *trocious &rime-/ Defined) A *forcible and atrocious crime-/ 0arranting the use o" ,ea,ly "orce: *is any "elony that by its nature an, the (anner o" its co((ission threatens- or is reasonably belie.e, by the *defendant/ (i.e.- the !ictim o" an assault 0ho uses ,ea,ly "orce in response- an, 0ho is no0 being charge, 0ith a ho(ici,e) to threaten li"e or great bo,ily inCury so as to instill in hi( or her a reasonable "ear o" ,eath or great bo,ily inCury./ (Tennessee $# Garner- supra.) Borcible an, atrocious cri(es ha.e been hel, to inclu,e murder- rape- robbery (at least- 0hen the suspect is ar(e,) an, mayhem. ()eop"e $# Ce.a""os (1&23) 12 Cal.3r, 3202) Depen,ing upon the circu(stances- they (ight also inclu,e the so%calle, *inherently dangerous felonies/ (0ith the e?ception o" burglary: ,iscusse, belo0) liste, in the *felony murder/ statute: i.e.arson- car%ac?ing- ?idnapping- train wrec?ingtorture- felony child molest an, other forcible sex offenses- an, murder perpetrated by means of discharging a firearm from a motor !ehicle with the intent to inflict death. (See (!C! 1#") +ote) Uiable argu(ents (ight be (a,e to inclu,e other "elonies as 0ell- ,epen,ing upon the circu(stances o" an in,i.i,ual case. Si(ilarly- contrary to a literal rea,ing o" the Custi"iable ho(ici,e statutes (e.g.- (!C! 1"1!2)Filling so(eone in defense of property- e.en one s o0n ho(e (but see (!C! 1"#!)- belo0)- 0hen not pro.oFe, by a threat o" ,eath or serious bo,ily har( to any person- is probably not Custi"iable. ()eop"e $# Ce.a""os, supra2) (Gut- see (!C! 1"#!)belo0.) Although a trespasser (ay be physically eCecte,using 0hate.er non%,ea,ly "orce is reasonably necessary un,er the circu(stances shoul, he or she re"use to lea.e 0hen re@ueste,- Filling the non.iolent trespasser is only liFely to lea.e the lan,o0ner- 0ho thought he ha, a right to ,e"en, his property interests at all costs- "acing possible ci.il 133
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an, cri(inal penalties. ()eop"e $# Cor"ett (1&33) 52 Cal.App. 22- 3$%35: CA=C8IB C )32) *:ustifiable Homicide) Defending *gainst Harm to Person with Home or on Property./ $urglary of a Residence 0as consi,ere, at Co((on 7a0 to be a ,angerous "elony. Oo,ernly- ho0e.er- burglary is not nor(ally consi,ere, a "orcible an, atrocious cri(e- at least 0here the character an, (anner o" the burglary ,oes not reasonably create a "ear o" ,eath or great bo,ily har( to any person 0ithin the ho(e. ()eop"e $# Ce.a""os (1&23) 12 Cal.3r, 320- 32&.) (!C! 1"#!)) Io0e.er- Cali"ornia has enacte, a statutory presumption that a resi,ent o" a ho(e is in "act in reasonable "ear o" ,eath or great bo,ily inCury to hi(sel"- his "a(ily- or any (e(ber o" the househol,- 0hen so(eone- not a (e(ber o" the "a(ily or househol,- has "orcibly an, unla0"ully entere, the resi,ence- thus legali;ing the resi,ent s use o" ,ea,ly "orce within the residence- absent e.i,ence ten,ing to rebut the presu(ption. ()eop"e $# O,en (1&&1) 255 Cal.App.3r, &&5- 1003%1003.) +his presu(ption- ho0e.er- is rebuttable. Shoul, the ho(eo0ner ha.e Fno0n un,er the circu(stances that the burglar was not a threat- he (ight .ery 0ell be cri(inally an, ci.illy liable "or using ,ea,ly "orce against the intru,er. (See )eop"e $# O,en- supra- at pp. 1003%1002: an, CA=C8IB C )32 (*:ustifiable Homicide) Defending *gainst Harm to Person =ithin Home or on Property./) Be,erally- it is not necessary "or a trial court to instruct the Cury that) *1n the ho(e- the nee, "or sel"%,e"ense an, property ,e"ense is (ost acute./ +he stan,ar, "e,eral sel"%,e"ense Cury instructions ("th Cir! Bodel Crim! DurA Instr! 2!1) are su""icient. (United States $# %orsette (&th Cir. 2010) 522 B.3r, 1200.) elf%Defense) A personal assault 0hich itsel" is not su""icient to cause a reasonable apprehension o" ,eath or great bo,ily inCury- e.en i" the assault constitutes a "elonyis insufficient to Custi"y the use o" ,ea,ly "orce against the 13$
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assailant. *(+)he "elony conte(plate, by the (Custi"iable ho(ici,e) statute is one that is (ore ,angerous than a personal assault./ ()eop"e $# *ones (1&51) 1&1 Cal.App.2n, 32#- 3#1%3#2: an, see (!C! 1"1!1- 1"1!3- abo.e.) See CA=C8IB C )33 et se*! Any person- inclu,ing a peace o""icer- (ay use ,ea,ly "orce against another 0hen the circu(stances reasonably create a "ear o" i((inent ,eath or serious bo,ily har( to the person- an, the use o" ,ea,ly "orce reasonably appears necessary to resist the threat. ()eop"e $# 0umphre& (1&&5) 13 Cal.3th 1023- 10#2: )eop"e $# 0ardin (2000) #$ Cal.App.3th 52$- 52&%530: )eop"e $# 0arris (1&21) 20 Cal.App.3r, $33- $32.) 1n ,e"en,ing onesel" or another- ,ea,ly "orce (ay only be use, in response to the illegal application o" ,ea,ly "orce "ro( the aggressor. +hus- *a (is,e(eanor assault (ust be su""ere, 0ithout the pri.ilege o" retaliating 0ith ,ea,ly "orce./ ()eop"e $# *ones, supra- at p. 3#2: )eop"e $# C"ar( (1&#2) 130 Cal.App.3r, 321- 3#0.) 1n or,er "or the ,e"ense o" sel"%,e"ense to apply- it (ust be sho0n that there e?iste,) A reasonable belie" that the use o" "orce 0as necessary to ,e"en, onesel" against the i((e,iate use o" unla0"ul "orce: and +he use o" no (ore "orce than 0as reasonably necessary in the circu(stances. ()eop"e $# %ini'ie (1&&5) 13 Cal.3th 10$$105$: an, see United States $# i11s (&th Cir. 2005) 331 B.3r, 105&: reCecting the argu(ent that the ,e"en,ant (ust also sho0 that there 0ere no reasonable alternati.es to the use o" "orce.)

E2g.) An assault by "ists ,oes not Custi"y the person being assaulte, in using a ,ea,ly 0eapon in response unless that person reasonably belie.es that 135
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the assault is liFely to result in the in"liction o" ,eath or great bo,ily inCury. Dea,ly "orce is Custi"ie, only 0hen the apparent peril is imminent: (eaning at the .ery ti(e o" the ,ea,ly response. A threat o" "uture har( ,oes not legally Custi"y the application o" ,ea,ly "orce in sel"%,e"ense. (Gut see *(leeing (elon-/ belo0.) *'mminent peril/ re"ers to the situation 0hich- "ro( all reasonable appearances(ust be instantly ,ealt 0ith. ()eop"e $# Aris (1&#&) 21$ Cal.App.3r, 112#- 11#2%11##: In re Christian S# (1&&3) 2 Cal.3th 25#%2#3.) +he ho(ici,e o" the ,e"en,ant s gran,"ather 0as not (itigate, (0hich 0oul, ha.e re,uce, the o""ense to a .oluntary (anslaughter un,er a *heat o" passion/ theory) by the "act that the gran,"ather ha, been o.erly critical an, *(ean/ to the ,e"en,ant in the past. ()eop"e $# /ana,&er (2003) 113 Cal.App.3th 1233.) A person using a "irear( to scare o"" attacFing ,ogs (ay ha.e a .iable sel"%,e"ense argu(ent. ()eop"e $# 2ee (200$) 131 Cal.App.3th 1313: con.iction "or ,ischarging a "irear( 0ith gross negligence re.erse, "or "ailure o" the court to allo0 a sel"% ,e"ense argu(ent.) A con.icte, "elon- charge, 0ith being a "elon in possession o" a "irear( ((!C! 2"#33 et! se*!E "or(erly 12321)- (ay use the ,e"ense o" sel"% ,e"ense 0here he grabbe, a "irear( 0hen con"ronte, 0ith an i((inent ,anger in those instances 0here *the "irear( only beca(e a.ailable ,uring an e(ergency an, 0as possesse, te(porarily in response to the e(ergency an, there 0as no other (eans o" a.oi,ing the ,anger-/ an, the "irear( 0as then i((e,iately therea"ter transporte, or gi.en to la0 en"orce(ent. ()eop"e $# /in1 (1&2#) 22 Cal.3r, 12- 23: see also (!C! 2"#)3- "or(erly (!C! 12321+h,.)

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Si(ilarly- an in(ate o" a penal institution has a potential ,e"ense to a (!C! 4)32 (1n(ate in Possession o" a Eeapon) charge 0hen the possession 0as in response to an i((inent ,anger0here there is no opportunity to seeF the help o" authorities- an, the 0eapon is gi.en to authorities as soon as the ,anger has passe,. ()eop"e $# Saa$edra (2002) 1$5 Cal.App.3th $51- $5#%$20.) Gut note that the ,anger has to be i((inent. A threat o" so(e "uture har( is not Custi"ication "or possessing a prohibite, 0eapon in .iolation o" (!C! 4)32. ()eop"e $# 9e"as:ue5 (1&#3) 1$# Cal.App.3r, 31#- 320.) *$are fear-/ or the Filler s subCecti.e "ear- by itsel"is not su""icient to Custi"y sel"%,e"ense or the ,e"ense o" others. Jot only (ust the person atte(pting to e?ercise the right to sel"%,e"ense or ,e"ense o" others honestly "eel the nee, to use "orcebut the circu(stances (ust be su""icient to e?cite the "ears o" a reasonable person as 0ell. ()eop"e $# Sonier (1&$2) 113 Cal.App.2n, 222- 22#: )eop"e $# 2ope5 (1&3#) 32 Cal.2n, 523- 52$: )eop"e $# -i""iams (1&22) 2$ Cal.App.3r, 231- 23&: (!C! 1"#: CA=DIC C )!14: *Io(ici,e in De"ense o" Oe(ber o" Ba(ily./) **pparent necessity/ is all that is re@uire,. As long as the person is acting reasonably- he (ay act on appearances e.en though it is later ,isco.ere, that there in "act 0as no real nee, "or sel"%,e"ense. ()eop"e $# Da,son (1&3#) ## Cal.App.2n, #$- &5: )eop"e $# )ena (1&#3) 1$1 Cal.App.3r, 352- 32$% 32#.) Bor e?a(ple- in using ,ea,ly "orce to pre.ent a resi,ential burglary- 0hether or not the ,ecease, actually ha, the intent to co((it a burglary is irrele.ant to the issue o" 0hether the person 0ho Fille, hi( coul, legally use ,ea,ly "orce. ()eop"e $# -a"(er 13#
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(1&23) 32 Cal.App.3r, #&2.) +he issue 0ill be 0hat the person 0ho applie, the "orce reasonably belie!ed the circu(stances to be. Io0e.er- an honest but unreasonable belie"0hile insu""icient to establish a clai( o" sel"%,e"ense in a (ur,er case- (ight be enough to negate (alice a"orethought an, thus re,uce (ur,er to a non%statutory .oluntary (anslaughter- so(eti(es re"erre, to as *imperfect self6defense./ ()eop"e $# F"anne" (1&2&) 2$ Cal.3r, 5##- 523: )eop"e $# Uriarte (1&&0) 223 Cal.App.3r, 1&2: see also )eop"e $# Sai""e (1&&1) $3 Cal.3r, 11031102- "n. 1: %cNei" $# %idd"eton (&th Cir. 200$) 302 B.3r, &20.) +he Cali"ornia Supre(e Court has hel, that such an *honest, but unreasonable belief/ theory applies to the co((ission o" a ho(ici,e in the ,e"ense o" a thir, person as 0ell. (See )eop"e $# Rand"e (200$) 3$ Cal.3th &#2.) Io0e.er- the theory o" an *imperfect self6 defense/ is not a.ailable 0here the ,e"en,ant s acts are base, only upon his o0n ,elusions. ()eop"e $# %e;ia32enares (2005) 13$ Cal.App.3th 1332.) +he *i(per"ect sel"%,e"ense/ theory ,i, not apply 0here the .icti( ha, the right to use "orce to try to escape an unla0"ul- hour s long i(prison(ent an, to protect hi(sel" an, the other .icti( 0hen ,e"en,ant s acco(plice attacFe, the other .icti( in another roo(. +hus- 0hen the .icti( charge, ,e"en,ant upon the soun, o" the acco(plice snapping the other .icti( s necF- ,e"en,ant ha, the option o" "leeingstepping out o" the 0ay- or taFing 0hat he ha, co(ing to hi(. Ie ,i, not ha.e the right to ,e"en, hi(sel" "ro( the .icti( s la0"ul resort to sel"%,e"ense an, the ,e"ense o" the other .icti(. ()eop"e $# Frandsen (2011) 1&5 Cal.App.3th 255.) 13&
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;riginal *ggressor, or ;ne Engaged in ,utual &ombat, &laiming elf6Defense) Loa,ing another into a ,ea,ly @uarrel also i(poses so(e restrictions on the use o" sel"%,e"ense. +he one 0ho initiates a @uarrel 0ith the intention o" "orcing a ,ea,ly response in an atte(pt to Custi"y the use o" ,ea,ly "orce in return cannot clai( sel"%,e"ense 0hen he Fills his .icti(. ()eop"e $# Garnier (1&$0) &$ Cal.App.2n, 3#&- 3&5.) See CA=C8IB C 3411) *Right to elf6Defense) ,utual &ombat or 'nitial *ggressor-/ an, CA=C8IB C 3412) *Right to elf6Defense) *,ay +ot $e &ontri!ed./ Si(ilarly- a person 0ho starts the con"rontation 0ith an unCusti"iable attacF or 0ho .oluntarily engages in a "ight or (utual co(bat- an, su,,enly "in,s hi(sel" losingcannot clai( sel"%,e"ense unless he "irst atte(pts to 0ith,ra0 "ro( the a""ray an, co((unicates that 0ith,ra0al to his a,.ersary. ()eop"e $# o"ton (1&2&) 23 Cal.3r, $1- 5#: (!C! 1"1!3.) A Cury instruction base, upon this theory is erroneous 0hen it in"ers that one engage, in (utual co(bat (ust be success"ul in co((unicating his intent to 0ith,ra0. 1t nee, only be sho0n that the ,e"en,ant *really and in good faith ha!e endea!ored to decline any further struggle . . . ./ ()eop"e $# =uach (2003) 115 Cal.App.3th 2&3- 300%303: see also (!C! 1"1!3) *,utual &ombat/ has a legal ,e"inition. 1t consists o" "ighting by (utual intention or consent- as (ost clearly re"lecte, in an e?press or i(plie, agree(ent to "ight. +here 130
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(ust be e.i,ence "ro( 0hich the Cury coul, reasonably "in, that both co(batants actually consente, or inten,e, to "ight be"ore the clai(e, occasion "or sel"%,e"ense arose. ()eop"e $# Ross (2002) 1$$ Cal.App.3th 1033- 1033%1032.) +ote- ho0e.er- that a *public officer/ ,oes not lose his or her right o" sel"%,e"ense ,ue to initiating a con"rontation through the use o" reasonable "orce to a""ect an arrestpre.ent escape- or o.erco(e resistance. ((!C! #32!)+4,) !nce the aggressor (aFes a goo, "aith atte(pt at 0ith,ra0al- an, atte(pts to in"or( his opponent o" this "act- he regains his right to clai( sel"%,e"ense shoul, the original .icti( continue the attacF. ()eop"e $# utton (1#&$) 105 Cal. 52#- 532%53$: )eop"e $# 0ec(er (1#&$) 10& Cal. 3$1- 353% 35$.) See CA=C8IB C 3414) *Danger +o "onger Exists or *ttac?er Disabled./ An *original aggressor-/ or a person engage, in *mutual combat-/ (ay clai( the right to sel"%,e"ense if he "irst e""ecti.ely co((unicates (or atte(pts to co((unicate) by words or conduct that he 0ants to both (1) stop the "ighting an, (2) is in "act stopping the "ighting. ()eop"e $# 0ernande5 (2003) 111 Cal.App.3th $#2.) See )eop"e $# Nem (2003) 113 Cal.App.3th 150- at pp. 155%152,isagreeing 0ith 0ernande5?s conclusion that the 0or, *inform-/ in "or(er CA=DIC )!)4- 0as (islea,ing because it necessarily cause, a Cury to belie.e that the original aggressor s words 0ere the 131
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only 0ay to co((unicate an intent to 0ith,ra0. 1" the one 0ho originally ha, a right to sel"% ,e"ense continues the altercation a"ter the aggressor has broFen o"" his assault an, there is no longer i((inent peril to the original .icti(- that .icti( cannot clai( the ,e"ense 0hen he catches an, assaults the "or(er aggressor. ()eop"e $# Smith (1&#1) 122 Cal.App.3r, $#1- $&0: )eop"e $# )ere5 (1&20) 12 Cal.App.3r, 232- 235.) See also CA=C8IB C 3414) *Danger +o "onger Exists or *ttac?er Disabled./ Io0e.er- i" the original .icti( reasonably an, in goo, "aith "eels that he (ust pursue his attacFer in or,er to e""ecti.ely secure hi(sel" "ro( "urther ,anger- then sel"% ,e"ense is still applicable. ()eop"e $# 0atchett (1&32) $5 Cal.App.2n, 20- 22.) +he pursuit- ho0e.er- (ust not be (oti.ate, by re.enge nor a"ter the necessity "or sel"% ,e"ense has cease,. ()eop"e $# Fina"i (1&15) 31 Cal.App. 32&: )eop"e $# Con("in1 (1#&5) 11 Cal. 515- 525.) Also- i" the original aggressor use, less than ,ea,ly "orce- his inten,e, .icti( (ay not respon, 0ith ,ea,ly "orce- an, i" he ,oesthen the original aggressor has the right to use ,ea,ly "orce in sel"%,e"ense. ()eop"e $# 0ec(er- supra- at p. 353.) !n the other han,- the one originally attacFe, has no ,uty to atte(pt to 0ith,ra0. Ie (ay stan, his groun, an, nee, not taFe a,.antage o" an opportunity to escape "ro(or a.oi, another s attacF or any atte(pt to use ,ea,ly "orce against hi(. ()eop"e $# Da,son (1&3#) ## Cal.App.2n, #$- &$: )eop"e $# Gon5a"es (1##2) 21 Cal. $5&$2#.) 132
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*(E)hen a (an 0ithout "ault hi(sel" is su,,enly attacFe, in a 0ay that puts his li"e or bo,ily sa"ety at i((inent ha;ar,- he is not co(pelle, to "ly or to consi,er the proposition o" "lying- but (ay stan, his groun,- an, ,e"en, hi(sel" to the e?tent o" taFing the li"e o" the assailant- i" that be reasonably necessary. ()eop"e $# Ne,comer (1#&2) 11# Cal. 253- 223.) +his *rule applies e.en though the assaile, person (ight (ore easily ha.e gaine, sa"ety by "light or by 0ith,ra0ing "ro( the scene./ ()eop"e $# Da,son- supra.) Sel"%De"ense is not a.ailable to a person charge, 0ith (ur,er un,er the "elony (ur,er statute: i.e.- one 0ho Fills another ,uring the co((ission o" one o" the ,angerous "elonies liste, in the (ur,er statute: (!C! 1#". +he purpose o" the *felony murder rule/ is to ,eter e.en acci,ental Fillings by i(posing strict liability on anyone 0ho causes another s ,eath 0hile co((itting any one or (ore o" the speci"ie, "elonies. ()eop"e $# 2oustaunau (1&#5) 1#1 Cal.App.3r, 153120.) Jeither sel"%,e"ense nor ,e"ense o" property is a.ailable to one 0ho uses "orce to resist a la0"ul arrest or to ,eter a la0"ul entry upon one s lan,. (See (!C! 2"3) $urden of Proof) 4n,er "e,eral la0- it has been hel, that Custi"ication "or possessing a "irear( (other0ise illegal un,er 1# !S!C! "22+5,+1,) in sel"%,e"ense is an affirmati!e defense "or 0hich the ,e"en,ant (ust pro.e by a *preponderance of the e!idence/ the necessity "or ,oing so. (United States $# eas"e& (&th Cir. 2003) 335 B.3r, &30.) 133
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See also CA=C8IB C 3411: *Right to elf6 Defense) ,utual &ombat or 'nitial *ggressor./ (leeing (elon) +he use o" *deadly force/ to stop a *dangerous person/ "leeing "ro( the scene o" a *forcible and atrocious crime-/ or suspecte, o" ha.ing co((itte, such a cri(e- is legally Custi"iable. (See Tennessee $# Garner- (1&#$) 321 4.S. 1 6#$ 7.8,.2n, 19: (!C! 1"2!3, 1"1!4- abo.e.) See CA=C8IB C )31) *:ustifiable Homicide) $y Public ;fficer./ An o""icer (ay not use ,ea,ly "orce to apprehen, a suspect in those circu(stances 0here the suspect poses no i((e,iate threat to the o""icer or others. Gut on the other han,- it is constitutionally reasonable to use ,ea,ly "orce to pre.ent an escape 0hene.er an o""icer has probable cause to belie.e that the suspect poses a threat o" serious physical har(- either to the o""icer or to others. 1n (aFing this ,ecision- a court (ust consi,er) (1) +he se.erity o" the cri(e at issue: (2) Ehether the suspect poses an i((e,iate threat o" serious physical har( to the o""icers or others: and (3) Ehether the suspect is acti.ely resisting arrest or atte(pting to e.a,e arrest by "light. (-i"(inson $#Torres (&th Cir. 2010) 510 B.3r, $35- $$0%$$3.) A *dangerous person/ is one 0ho *poses a signi"icant threat o" ,eath or serious bo,ily inCury to the person atte(pting the apprehension or to othersor has co((itte, a "orcible an, atrocious "elony./ ()eop"e $# %artin (1&#$) 15# Cal.App.3r, 11111123.) Police (ay use ,ea,ly "orce to stop an escaping .iolent "elony suspect 0ho 0oul, pose a substantial risF to others i" apprehension is ,elaye,. (Forrett $# Richardson (&th Cir. 1&&2) 112 B.3r, 315: ,ea,ly "orce use, to stop a *home in!asion/ suspect 0ho ha, pre.iously shot an, 0oun,e, a .icti(.) 133
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Ehile the co((ission o" a .iolent cri(e in the i((e,iate past is an i(portant "actor- it is not Custi"ication "or using ,ea,ly "orce *on sight./ (0arris $# Roderic( (&th Cir. 1&&2) 125 B.3r, 11#&- 1203.) See also 0op(ins $# Anda&a (&th Cir. 1&&2) &$# B.2n, ##1- ##2: hol,ing that an o""icer s secon, use o" ,ea,ly "orce 0as unreasonable e.en though the suspect ha, .iolently assaulte, the o""icer a "e0 (inutes be"orebut by the ti(e o" the secon, use o" ,ea,ly "orce- although he 0as a,.ancing to0ar,s the o""icer- he 0as 0oun,e, an, unar(e,. +he "orce use, (ust still be no greater than necessary un,er the circu(stances. +he use o" so% calle, *less lethal/ (e.g.- bean bag a((unition) "orce (ay still be ,ea,ly- an, not necessarily appropriate ,espite the "act that the suspect upon 0hich it is use, is threatening .iolence. (Deor"e $# Ruther'ord (&th Cir. 2001) 232 B.3r, 111&: i(posing a duty to warn- 0here appropriate- be"ore using potentially ,ea,ly "orce.) Absent circu(stances that ele.ate an inci,ent into a ,angerous "elony assault- ,ea,ly "orce is not la0"ul in atte(pting to arrest a (is,e(eanor suspect. ()eop"e $# -i"d (1&25) 50 Cal.App.3r, #2&- #32% #33.) * high6speed pursuit (ay or (ay not allo0 "or the use o" ,ea,ly "orce- each case ,epen,ing upon its in,i.i,ual circu(stances. ( rosseau $# 0au1en (2003) $33 4.S. 1&3 6150 7.8,.2n, $#39: "in,ing that an o""icer 0ho shot a suspect 0ho 0as atte(pting to "lee in his .ehicle ,i, not ha.e *fair notice/ base, upon the con"licting case la0 as to 0hether the "orce she use, 0as e?cessi.e. She 0as there"ore entitle, to *@ualified immunity/ "ro( ci.il suit.) 8n,ing a ,angerous high spee, .ehicle chase 0ith spee,s in e?cess o" #$ (iles per hour- 0here the suspect 0as ,ri.ing recFlessly an, "orcing other (otorists o"" the 13$
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roa,- by bu(ping the suspect s car an, pushing hi( o"" the roa, se.erely inCuring hi(- is reasonable "orce. Also- there is no ,uty to breaF o"" the chase. (Scott $# 0arris (2002) $$0 4.S. 322 6152 7.8,.2n, 5#59.) +he Court hel, in Scott that there 0as no special Fourth Amendment stan,ar, "or unconstitutional ,ea,ly "orce- but all that (atters is 0hether the police o""icer s actions 0ere reasonable. (Id.- at pp. 3#1%3#3: see also Acosta $# 0i"" (&th Cir. 2002) $03 B.3r, 1323.) !ther "e,eral circuits ha.e appro.e, the use o" ,ea,ly "orce to halt a ,angerous high% spee, .ehicular police pursuit- although un,er circu(stances 0hich- arguably- 0ere (ore aggra.ate, than in 0au1en. ee) Scott $# C"a& Count& (5th Cir. 2000) 20$ B.3r, #52- #22) Shooting a "leeing "elon 0hose recFless ,ri.ing pose, an i((e,iate threat to the sa"ety o" o""icers an, innocent ci.ilians. Smith $# Fre"and (5th Cir. 1&&2) &$3 B.2n, 333- 332%33#) Shooting a "leeing misdemeanant 0ho pose, a ,anger to o""icers at a police roa,blocF 0hen it appeare, liFely he 0oul, *,o al(ost anything to a.oi, capture./ Co"e $# one (#th Cir. 1&&3) &&3 B.2n, 132#- 1330%1333) Shooting a ,e"en,ant "leeing in a trucF 0hen he pose, a threat to tra.elers on a cro0,e, high0ay. )ace $# Capo.rianco (11th Cir. 2002) 2#3 B.3r, 122$- 12#1) Shooting a "leeing "elon in a .ehicle 0hen it appeare, liFely he 0oul, continue to 135
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use his car aggressi.ely ,uring a police pursuit. Dea,ly "orce (ay not be Custi"ie,- ho0e.erin a *nonchalant-/ or *rapi, Sun,ay ,ri.e/ spee, pursuit 0here the ,ri.er 0as ra((e, t0ice (un,er circu(stances that 0ere contrary to CIP policy) an, then shot si? ti(es 0ithout a prior 0arning an, 0ithout a sho0ing that the o""icer- or any other o""icer- 0as in i((e,iate ,anger. (Adams $# Speers (&th Cir. 2002) 323 B.3r, &#&.) *(+)he har( resulting "ro( "ailing to apprehen, hi( ,oes not (by itsel") Custi"y the use o" ,ea,ly "orce to ,o so./ (Espinosa $# Cit& and Count& o' San Francisco (&th Cir. 2010) $&# B.3r, $2#- $32: @uoting Tennessee $# Garner (1&#$) 321 4.S. 1- 11% 12 6#$ 7.8,.2n, 19.) +he @uestion is not 0hether an obCecti.ely reasonable o""icer 0oul, ha.e belie.e, it 0as constitutional to har( 0ithout a legiti(ate la0 en"orce(ent obCecti.e- but 0hether such an o""icer 0oul, ha.e belie.e,- in the circu(stances 0ith 0hich the o""icer 0as con"ronte,- a legiti(ate la0 en"orce(ent obCecti.e e?iste,. 1n this case0here an o""icer shot a 0o(an "ollo0ing a high%spee, chase- the o""icer (ight ha.e ha, a (istaFen un,erstan,ing as to 0hether a particular a(ount o" "orce 0as legal in those circu(stances. Jothing in the uni.erse o" cases prior to the o""icer s con,uct 0oul, ha.e alerte, hi( that his split%secon, ,ecision in ,ealing 0ith so(eone 0ho ha, Cust le, police on a ,angerous high%spee, chase an, 0ho 0as using her car as a 0eapon shocFe, the conscience. (Case& $# %ar(1ra' +In re A#D#, (&th Cir. 2011) 535 B.3r, $$$: "in,ing that the o""icer 0as entitle, to @uali"ie, i((unity "ro( ci.il liability.)

132
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A police o""icer s use o" ,ea,ly "orce is constitutional 0here an escaping suspect constitutes a threat o" serious physical har( to o""icers or others. (-i"(inson $# Torres (&th Cir. 2010) 510 B.3r, $35- $$0%$$3: atte(pts to "lee in a stolen .ehicle en,angere, t0o o""icers lying on the groun, an,Nor stan,ing nearby.) Transferred 'ntent) 1n atte(pting to ,eter(ine the legality o" a clai( o" sel"%,e"ense- an, presu(ably the other legal Custi"ications "or co((itting a ho(ici,e- it is i(portant to note that the doctrine of transferred intent applies. 8.g.) Acci,entally shooting an innocent person 0hile la0"ully atte(pting to ,e"en, onesel" "ro( so(eone else s use o" ,ea,ly "orce is a *%ustifiable homicide-/ there being no cri(inal intent. ()eop"e $# %athe,s (1&2&) &1 Cal.App.3r, 101#- 1023: )eop"e $# 2e$itt (1&#3) 1$5 Cal.App.3r, $00- $02% $0#.) #se of Deadly (orce by Police ;fficers) AttacFing a police o""icer 0ith a ,ea,ly 0eapon Custi"ies the o""icer s use o" ,ea,ly "orce in response) Ehere the suspect .iolently resiste, arrestphysically attacFe, the o""icer- an, grabbe, the o""icer s gun. ( i""in1ton $# Smith (&th Cir. 2002) 2&2 B.3r, 1122- 11#$.) Ehere a suspect- 0ho ha, been beha.ing erratically- s0ung a Fni"e at an o""icer. (Re&no"ds $# Count& o' San Die1o (&th Cir. 1&&5) #3 B.3r, 1152- 115#.) Pointing a gun at a police o""icer. (See Scott $# 0enric( (&th Cir. 1&&3) 3& B.3r, &12- &13.) Ehen the suspect attacFe, an o""icer 0ith a rocF an, a sticF. (Garcia $# United States (&th Cir. 1&#2) #25 B.2n, #05- #12.) De"en,ant- acting in a bi;arre (anner- reporte, to ha.e alrea,y assaulte, so(eone- an, apparently un,er the in"luence o" ,rugs- hol,ing a pen 0ith its 13#
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point "acing to0ar, the o""icers 0hich *(ay in"lict lethal "orce-/ Custi"ie, three o""icers hol,ing hi( ,o0n 0hile he 0as han,cu""e,. (Gre1or& $# Count& o' %aui (&th Cir. 200#) $23 B.3r, 1103: suspect ,ie, o" a heart attacF 0hile being hel, ,o0n.) A police o""icer s use o" ,ea,ly "orce is constitutional 0here an escaping suspect constitutes a threat o" serious physical har( to o""icers or others. (-i"(inson $# Torres (&th Cir. 2010) 510 B.3r, $35- $$0%$$3: atte(pts to "lee in a stolen .ehicle en,angere, t0o o""icers lying on the groun, an,Nor stan,ing nearby.) 1t 0as "urther hel, that the o""icer s use, o" ,ea,ly "orce un,er these circu(stances0here the o""icer ,i, not act 0ith an *intent to harm-/ but rather 0ith a *legitimate law enforcement ob%ecti!e-/ ,i, not ,epri.e plainti""s o" their Fourteenth Amendment ,ue process right to *"a(ilial association/ 0ith the ,ecease,. (Id.- at pp. $$3%$$$.) Howe!er- the (ere "act alone that a person possesses ,ea,ly 0eapons ,oes not Custi"y the use o" ,ea,ly "orce. (0arris $# Roderic( (&th Cir. 1&&2) 125 B.3r, 11#&- 1202.) See also Curno, $# Rid1ecrest )o"ice (&th Cir. 1&&1) &$2 B.2n, 321- 323%32$: hol,ing that ,ea,ly "orce 0as unreasonable 0here the suspect possesse, a gun but 0as not pointing it at the o""icers an, 0as not "acing the o""icers 0hen they shot. An, Tin1 $# United States (&th Cir. 1&&1) &22 B.2n, 1$03- 1$0#%1$11: 4se o" ,ea,ly "orce hel, to be unreasonable 0hen the suspect ha, alrea,y ,roppe, his gun. Possession o" a pocFet Fni"e- 0ith 0hich the ,ecease, 0as threatening to cut his o0n throat but not bran,ishing it to0ar,s o""icers- resulting in the o""icers shooting an, Filling hi( a"ter beanbag roun,s "aile, to sub,ue hi(- (ay not ha.e 0arrante, the use o" "irear(s (nor e.en the beanbag shotgun) an, thus subCecting the o""icers to ci.il 13&
< 2013 Robert C. Phillips. All rights reser.e,

liability. (G"enn $# -ashin1ton Count& (&th Cir. 2011) 523 B.3r, #53- #20%##0.) As a *less lethal/ 0eapon- the la0"ulness o" the use o" a beanbag shotgun is ,epen,ent upon a ,eter(ination that its use 0as reasonable un,er the circu(stances. 1n this case- 0here the out%o"%control subCect 0asn t threatening anyone but hi(sel"- its use 0as unCusti"ie,. ('d.- at #2#%##0.) +he reasonableness o" the "orce use, by a police o""icer (ust be Cu,ge, "ro( the perspecti.e o" a reasonable o""icer on the scene. Also- the court (ust allo0 "or the "act that police o""icers are o"ten "orce, to (aFe split%secon, Cu,g(ents in circu(stances that are tense- uncertain- an, rapi,ly e.ol.ing. +he ulti(ate @uestion is 0hether an o""icer s actions are obCecti.ely reasonable in light o" the "acts an, circu(stances con"ronting hi(- the "orce allo0e, un,er the circu(stances enco(passing a range o" con,uct. +he a.ailability o" a less intrusi.e alternati.e 0ill not- by itsel"- ren,er an o""icer s con,uct as unreasonable. (-i"(inson $# Torres (&th Cir. 2010) 510 B.3r, $35- $$0% $$3.) *(P)ointing a loa,e, gun at a suspect- e(ploying the threat o" ,ea,ly "orce- is use o" a high le.el o" "orce./ Espinosa $# Cit& and Count& o' San Francisco (&th Cir. 2010) $&# B.3r, $2#- $3#.) +he use o" a police ,og (ay be *deadly force./ (Smith $# Cit& o' 0emet (200$) 3&3 B.3r, 5#&: o.erruling prior authority to the contrary an, ,e"ining ,ea,ly "orce as *force that creates a substantial ris? of death or serious bodily in%ury./) Gut it ,epen,s upon the circu(stances. (Thompson $# Count& o' 2os An1e"es (2005) 132 Cal.App.3th 1$3.) See *Deadly (orce, Defined-/ abo.e. Ehen the "leeing "elon 0as Fno0n to ha.e shot a .icti( in the course o" a burglary "ro( 0hich he 0as escaping- the use o" ,ea,ly "orce to stop hi( is Custi"ie,. (Forrett $# Richardson (&th Cir. 1&&2) 112 B.3r, 315- 320.)

1$0
< 2013 Robert C. Phillips. All rights reser.e,

* high6speed pursuit (ay or (ay not allo0 "or the use o" ,ea,ly "orce- each case ,epen,ing upon its in,i.i,ual circu(stances. ( rosseau $# 0au1en (2003) $33 4.S. 1&3 6150 7.8,.2n, $#39: "in,ing that an o""icer 0ho shot a suspect 0ho 0as atte(pting to "lee in his .ehicle ,i, not ha.e *fair notice/ base, upon the con"licting case la0 as to 0hether the "orce she use, 0as e?cessi.e. She 0as there"ore entitle, to *@ualified immunity/ "ro( ci.il liability.) Police o""icers in.ol.e, in high spee, chases are entitle, to @uali"ie, i((unity un,er 42 !S!C! 1"#3 unless a person 0ho is inCure, (i.e.- the plainti"" in the resulting ci.il suit) can pro.e that the o""icer acte, 0ith a ,eliberate intent to har(. ( in1ue $# )runcha( (&th Cir. 200#) $12 B.3r, 115&: see also 0!C! 11334!1.) Pointing an, *training/ a "irear( at a "i.e%0eeF%ol, in"ant 0hile con,ucting a Fourth Eai.er search is e?cessi.e- an, a Fourth Amendment .iolation. (%ot"e& $# )ar(s (&th Cir. 200$) 332 B.3r, 1022- 10##%10#&.) 8n,ing a ,angerous high spee, .ehicle chase 0ith spee,s in e?cess o" #$ (iles per hour- 0here the suspect 0as ,ri.ing recFlessly an, "orcing other (otorists o"" the roa,by bu(ping the suspect s car an, pushing hi( o"" the roa, se.erely inCuring hi(- is reasonable "orce. Also- there is no ,uty to breaF o"" the chase. (Scott $# 0arris (2002) $$0 4.S. 322 6152 7.8,.2n, 5#59.) +he use o" ,ea,ly "orce is la0"ul 0hene.er an o""icer has a *reasonable belief/ that ,e"en,ant poses a threat o" ,eath or serious har(. Io0e.er- this language ,oes not negate the nee, "or *probable cause/ in that the later re"ers to the @uantity o" e.i,ence re@uire, "or such a reasonable belie". ()rice $# Ser& (&th Cir. 200#) $13 B.3r, &52.) Shooting a person 0ho ha, not yet been accuse, o" any cri(e- ,i, not appear to be a threat to the public- an, coul, not escape- e.en though he ha, been uncooperati.e an, re"use, to sho0 his han,s- hel, to raise @uestions o" "act "or a ci.il Cury to ,eci,e 0hether the o""icers ha, use, e?cessi.e "orce by shooting an, Filling hi(. (Espinosa $# Cit& and Count& o' San Francisco (&th Cir. 2010) $&# B.3r, $2#. $32%$3#.) 1$1
< 2013 Robert C. Phillips. All rights reser.e,

+he potential ci.il liability o" an o""icer 0ho shot a han,cu""e, prisoner- seate, in the bacFseat o" a patrol car 0ith a se(iauto(atic pistol- Filling hi(- un,er the (istaFen belie" that she 0as using her stun gun- is an issue "or a ci.il Cury to ,eci,e. +he @uestion 0as 0hether her con,uct in (istaFenly applying ,ea,ly "orce 0as obCecti.ely unreasonable un,er the totality o" the circu(stances. 1nstea, o" "in,ing that the circu(stances "orce, her to (aFe a split%secon, Cu,g(ent about "iring a 0eapon- a reasonable Cury coul, conclu,e that her o0n poor Cu,g(ent an, lacF o" prepare,ness cause, her to act 0ith un,ue haste. (Torres $# Cit& o' %adera (&th Cir. 2011) 53# B.3r, 111&.) Punching an, tasering a non%resisting an, co(pliant arrestee 0ho the o""icer Fne0 0as e(otionally trouble, an, physically ill- an, continue, to ,o so 0hen the arrestee ,i, no (ore than "linch "ro( the pain an, cry "or help- an, then asphy?iating hi( by sitting on his chest- 0as unreasonable "orce. +he o""icer also 0as not entitle, to @uali"ie, i((unity un,er the circu(stances. (%endo5a $# Cit& o' -est Co$ina (2012) 205 Cal.App.3th 202- 213%220.) See CA=C8IB C )33 et se*! 2e1a" Authorit& 'or Arrests: *rrests by a Peace ;fficer) (!C! #34, #32) A peace officer *may/ (aFe an arrest un,er the "ollo0ing circu(stances) Pursuant to an arrest warrant: or Ehene.er the o""icer has reasonable (or probable) cause to belie.e the suspect has co((itte, a cri(e: and Ehene.er the o""icer has reasonable (or probable) cause to belie.e a cri(e has in "act been co((itte,. +ote that only *reasonable/ or *probable/ cause is nee,e,) +he "act that the o""icer (ay be (istaFen as to ,e"en,ant s guilt- o" that a cri(e e.en occurre,- is irrele.ant so long as the arrest is (a,e 0ith probable cause to belie.e he is guilty an, that a cri(e occurre,. +he arrest 0oul, still be la0"ul. 1$2
< 2013 Robert C. Phillips. All rights reser.e,

+he use o" the 0or, *may/ in the statute in,icates that the o""icer is un,er no obligation to (aFe an arrest. 1t is a (atter o" ,iscretion 0hether or not,espite the e?istence o" *probable cause-/ an arrest 0ill be (a,e. An o""icer is not generally (absent a co((an, to ,o so in a particular- applicable statute) re@uire, to arrest an in,i.i,ual ,espite the o""icer s ,eter(ination that an arrest coul, legally be (a,e. (%ichen'e"der $# Cit& o' Torrance (1&22) 2# Cal.App.3r, 202- 205%202: Tom"inson $# )ierce (1&50) 12# Cal.app.2n, 112- 115.) (!C! 1)3: *Posse &omitatus)/ A uni"or(e, peace o""icer- or any peace o""icer ,escribe, in (!C! #33!1- #33!2+a,, +4,, +c,, +d,, +e,, or +f,- or #33!33+a,- has statutory authority to co((an, any *able6 bodied/ in,i.i,ual o.er the age o" 1# to assist in an arrest. Re"using such a co((an, is punishable by a "ine o" "ro( [$0 to [1-000. 1n a domestic !iolence situation (see (!C! 13133 et se*!)- a peace o""icer shoul, be a0are o" the "ollo0ing) When a peace officer makes an arrest for a violation of P.C. 243(e)(1) (domestic violence battery), the peace officer is no longer required to inform the victim of his or her right to make a citizens arrest; this requirement having been eliminated as of 1 1 1!" (P.C. 243(e)(5) # 836(b)) $lso, %hen a peace officer makes an arrest for a violation of P.C. 273.5(a) (domestic violence involving corporal in&ury), the peace officer is no longer required to inform the victim of his or her right to make a citizens arrest this requirement having been eliminated as of 1 1 1!' (P.C. 273.5(j) # 836(b)) Ehen respon,ing to a situation in.ol.ing the .iolation o" a ,o(estic .iolence restraining or protecti.e or,er (per Fam! Code, 2343 et se*!- 2233 et se*!- or 1133 et se*!)- or o" a protecti.e or,er issue, pursuant to (!C! 132!2 (Uicti( or Eitness 1nti(i,ation)- the peace o""icer hi( or hersel" must- absent e?igent circu(stances- (aFe the arrest i"un,er the circu(stances- i" it is la0"ul to ,o so. ((!C! #32+c,+1,, 13131+4,) (See *,isdemeanor A'n The Presence Re@uirement-/ belo0.) 1$3
< 2013 Robert C. Phillips. All rights reser.e,

*rrests by a Pri!ate Person) (!C! #34, #31: A pri!ate person (ay (aFe an arrest un,er the "ollo0ing circu(stances) Ehene.er the person has reasonable (or probable) cause to belie.e the suspect has co((itte, a cri(e- and Ehene.er a cri(inal o""ense has in fact been co((itte,.

Per the abo.e- 0hile a pri.ate person (ay be (istaFen as to 0ho co((itte, a particular cri(e- there is no roo( "or error as to 0hether a cri(e actually occurre,. Exception) (!C! 4"3+f,+1,) A (erchant- library e(ployee- or theater o0ner (ay act upon probable cause that an o""ense is occurring in ,etaining a shoplifter- boo? thief- or so(eone 0ho is atte(pting to operate a !ideo recording de!ice in a theater. +ote: the section re"ers to such a contact as a *detention-/ as oppose, to an arrest. Pri.ate persons- liFe police o""icers- (ay su((on others to assist in an arrest. ((!C! #3") Io0e.er- there is no penalty "or a person re"using to help. +he pri.ate person (ay ,elegate to a peace o""icer his or her authority to actually per"or( the arrest "or the person. ()eop"e $# S;osten (1&5#) 252 Cal.App.2n, $3&.) A police ,ispatcher- being subCecte, to ,e"en,ant s nu(erous harassing telephone calls- (ay ,elegate to a police o""icer the responsibility to arrest the ,e"en,ant "or her. +he o""ense- o.er the phone- 0as hel, to be in her presence. +he arrest 0as ti(ely in that o""icers respon,e, i((e,iately to 0here ,e"en,ant 0as calling "ro( an, tooF hi( into custo,y. +he arrest 0as hel, to be a la0"ul citi;en s arrest. ()eop"e $# "oom (2010) 1#$ Cal.App.3th 13&5.) A pri.ate person (aFing an arrest (ust- 0ithout unnecessary ,elay- taFe the person arreste, be"ore a (agistrate or ,eli.er hi( or her to a peace o""icer. ((!C! #41)

1$3
< 2013 Robert C. Phillips. All rights reser.e,

1n a domestic !iolence situation (see (!C! 13133 et se*!)- a peace o""icer is no longer re@uire, to (aFe a goo, "aith e""ort to e?plain to the .icti(N0itness o" his or her right to (aFe a pri.ate person s arrest: this re@uire(ent ha.ing been eli(inate, as o" 1N1N13. ((!C! #32+4,) +he pro.ision that a peace o""icer co((its a "elony shoul, he or she re"use to taFe a subCect 0ho 0as arreste, by a pri.ate citi;ene.en 0hen the o""icer ,eter(ines that the arrest 0as (a,e 0ithout probable cause ((!C! 142)- 0as a(en,e, 0ith the a,,ition o" su4d! +c, 0hich states that: *+his section shall not apply to arrests (a,e pursuant to Section #31:/ i.e.- a pri!ate person)s arrest. 7a0 prior to enact(ent o" su4d! +c,) Although taFing a citi;en s arrestee 0hen not supporte, by probable cause- as it 0as 0i,ely belie.e, (!C! 142 as pre.iously 0ritten re@uire,0oul, not subCect the o""icer to any ci.il liability in state court (/inne& $# Count& o' Contra Costa (1&20) # Cal.App.3r, 251- 252%25&: 0am.ur1 $# -a"3%art Stores (2003) 115 Cal.App.3th 3&2- $03% $03.)- the Jinth Circuit Court o" Appeal 0as o" the opinion that the o""icer in such a situation 0as still subCect to "e,eral ci.il liability. (Arpin $# Santa C"ara 9a""e& Transportation A1enc& (&th Cir. 2001) 251 B.3r, &12- &23%&2$.) +he a,,ition o" su4di:ision +c,- eli(inating the re@uire(ent that an o""icer accept a prisoner arreste, by a pri.ate citi;en- a.oi,s the ,ile((a o" incurring "e,eral ci.il liability 0hile atte(pting to "ollo0 the ,ictates o" a state statute. Gut the rule re(aine, that "or an o""icer to allo0 a citi;en to (aFe a citi;en s arrest an, then to taFe the suspect into custo,y 0hen there is insu""icient probable cause to Custi"y the arrest- 0oul, subCect the o""icer to potential "e,eral ci.il liability. (0op(ins $# on$icino (&th Cir. 200&) $23 B.3r, 2$2223%225.) +he "e,eral ci.il liability still e?iste, ,espite the "act that the o""icers 0ere e?e(pt "ro( state ci.il liability in a citi;en s arrest situation. (I.id.: an, see (!C! #41.) 1$$
< 2013 Robert C. Phillips. All rights reser.e,

+he tale ,isdemeanor Rule applies to pri.ate person s arrests as 0ell. (See Green $# Department o' %otor 9ehic"es (1&22) 5# Cal.App.3r, $35: arrest (a,e so(e 3$ to 30 (inutes a"ter the obser.ation hel, to be la0"ul: see also O1u"in $# *e''ries (1&$3) 121 Cal.App.2n, 211: 20 (inute ,elay: arrest la0"ul.) (See belo0) *'n the Presence/ re@uirement) Ois,e(eanors (an, in"ractions) (ust ha.e occurre, in the pri.ate person s (in the case o" a pri.ate person s arrest) presence. ((!C! #32+a,+1,, #31!1: *ac(son $# Superior Court (1&$0) &# Cal.App.2n, 1#3: see also 0!C! 43333.) A police ,ispatcher- being subCecte, to ,e"en,ant s nu(erous harassing telephone calls- (ay ,elegate to a police o""icer the responsibility to arrest the ,e"en,ant "or her. +he o""ense- o.er the phone- 0as hel, to be in her presence. +he arrest 0as ti(ely in that o""icers respon,e, i((e,iately to 0here ,e"en,ant 0as calling "ro( an, tooF hi( into custo,y. +he arrest 0as hel, to be a la0"ul citi;en s arrest. ()eop"e $# "oom (2010) 1#$ Cal.App.3th 13&5.) +ote) (!C! #32 is not restricte, by its ter(s to a,ults. +here is no authority "or the argu(ent that (inors cannot also (aFe citi;en s arrests- or that the phrase *pri!ate persons/ is restricte, to a,ults. ;ut6of6 tate ;fficers in *(resh Pursuit)/ (!C! #)2!2) *Any peace o""icer o" another State- 0ho enters this State in "resh pursuit- an, continues 0ithin this State in "resh pursuit- o" a person in or,er to arrest hi( on the groun, that he has co((itte, a "elony in the other State- has the sa(e authority to arrest an, hol, the person in custo,y- as peace o""icers o" this State ha.e to arrest an, hol, a person in custo,y on the groun, that he has co((itte, a "elony in this State.3 (!C! #)2!39
-he arrestin. officer is then to ta;e the arrestee 7immediately before a magistrate3 of the count* in +hich the arrest is made. -he ma.istrate is to determine +hether the (erson had been la+full* arrested. >f so! the arrestee is to be held for extradition. >f not! he is to be 7dischar.e(d).3

(ederal ;fficers) 1$5


< 2013 Robert C. Phillips. All rights reser.e,

(!C! #33!#+a,) Be,eral cri(inal in.estigators an, "e,eral la0 en"orce(ent o""icers are not Cali"ornia peace o""icers. Io0e.era"ter ha.ing been certi"ie, by their agency hea,s as ha.ing satis"ie, the training re@uire(ents o" (!C! #32- or the e@ui.alent thereo"- they (ay e?ercise the po0ers o" arrest o" a Cali"ornia peace o""icer un,er the "ollo0ing circu(stances) Any circu(stance speci"ie, in (!C! #32 (see abo.e) or /&I )1)3 (Oental patients 0ho are a ,anger to the(sel.es- others- or 0ho are gra.ely ,isable,). Ehen inci,ental to the per"or(ance o" their "e,eral la0 en"orce(ent ,uties. Ehen re@ueste, by a Cali"ornia la0 en"orce(ent agency to be in.ol.e, in a Coint tasF "orce or cri(inal in.estigation. Ehen probable cause e?ists to belie.e that a public o""ense that in.ol.es i((e,iate ,anger to persons or property has Cust occurre, or is being co((itte,. See also su4d! +4,) *Duly authori;e, "e,eral e(ployees 0ho co(ply 0ith the training re@uire(ents set "orth in Section #32 are peace o""icers 0hen they are engage, in en"orcing applicable state or local la0s on property o0ne, or possesse, by the 4nite, States go.ern(ent- or on any street- si,e0alF- or property a,Cacent thereto- 0ith the 0ritten consent o" the sheri"" or the chie" o" policerespecti.ely- in 0hose Curis,iction the property is situate,./ (see )eop"e $# Redd (2010) 3# Cal.3th 5&1- 203%203- 211% 222.) Ehen arresting pursuant to (!C! #33!#- an arrestee (ust be taFen i((e,iately be"ore a (agistrate or ,eli.ere, to a peace o""icer- as speci"ie, in (!C! #41. Be,eral o""icers o" the Gureau o" 7an, Oanage(ent an, the Borest Ser.ice o" the Depart(ent o" Agriculture ha.e no authority to en"orce Cali"ornia statutes 0ithout the 0ritten consent o" the sheri"" or the chie" o" police in 0hose Curis,iction they are assigne,. See also su4d! +d, pro.i,ing these o""icers 0ith si(ilar po0ers ,uring a *state o" 0ar e(ergency or a state o" e(ergency-/ as ,e"ine, in 9o:.t! Code #))#.

1$2
< 2013 Robert C. Phillips. All rights reser.e,

(!C! #33!#+4,) Be,eral e(ployees 0ho ha.e (et the training re@uire(ents o" (!C! #32 are peace o""icers 0hen they are engage, in en"orcing applicable state or local la0s on property o0ne, or possesse, by the 4nite, States go.ern(ent- or on any street- si,e0alF- or property a,Cacent thereto- so long as they ha.e the 0ritten consent o" the sheri"" or the chie" o" police respect"ullyin 0hose Curis,iction the property is situate,. (!C! #33!#+c,) Jational ParF Rangers are not Cali"ornia peace o""icers. Io0e.er- a"ter ha.ing been certi"ie, by their agency hea,s as ha.ing satis"ie, the training re@uire(ents o" (!C! #32!3or the e@ui.alent thereo"- they (ay e?ercise the po0ers o" a Cali"ornia peace o""icer un,er any circu(stance speci"ie, in (!C! #32 (see abo.e) or /&I )1)3 (Oental patients 0ho are a ,anger to the(sel.es- others- or 0ho are gra.ely ,isable,)- "or .iolations o" state or local la0s- but only) Ehen inci,ental to the per"or(ance o" their "e,eral ,uties: or Ehen re@ueste, by a Cali"ornia State ParF Ranger to assist in preser.ing the peace an, protecting state parFs an, other property "or 0hich Cali"ornia State ParF Rangers are responsible. ()eop"e $# Redd (2010) 3# Cal.3th 5&1- 203%203- 211%222.) (!C! #33!#+e, "urther pro.i,es "or li(ite, la0 en"orce(ent po0ers "or a @uali"ie, person 0ho is appointe, as a Eashoe tribal la0 en"orce(ent o""icer. The an Fsidro Port of Entry- in San Diego- is state lan, an, not "e,eral- although the attache, "acilities belong to the "e,eral go.ern(ent. A "e,eral 1((igration an, Jaturali;ation Agent at that location (ay there"ore la0"ully (aFe a citi;en s arrest "or a state cri(inal .iolation (e.g.- ,ri.ing 0hile un,er the in"luence) an, turn hi( o.er to state an, local la0 en"orce(ent o""icers. ()eop"e $# Crusi""a (1&&&) 22 Cal.App.3th 131.) $ounty Hunters- or *$ail Enforcement *gents-/ ha.e long e?ercise, a &ommon "aw po0er to locate- arrest- an, return to custo,y persons release, "ro( custo,y on bail pro.i,e, by a bail%bon,s(an- 0hen the person "ails to (aFe a necessary court appearance. (Ta&"or $# Taintor (1#22) #3 4.S. 355 621 7.8,. 2#29.)

1$#
< 2013 Robert C. Phillips. All rights reser.e,

Gecause state courts ha.e "oun, that a bounty hunter s broa, authority co(es "ro( the i(plie, ter(s o" a pri.ate agree(ent bet0een the bon,s(an (i.e.- a pri.ate citi;en) an, the ,e"en,antbounty hunters are unbur,ene, by (any o" the constitutional an, statutory restrictions 0hich control the con,uct o" state la0 en"orce(ent o""icers. (Reese $# United States (1&5&) 25 4.S. 1322 61& 7.8,. $31- $339.) Lenerally- *the co((on%la0 right o" recapture is (only) li(ite, by the reasonable (eans necessary to a""ect the arrest./ (2ope5 $# Cotter (10th Cir. 1&#&) #2$ B.2n, 223- 222.) Gounty hunters *enCoy e?traor,inary po0ers to capture an, use "orce/ in tracFing ,o0n an, arresting "ugiti.es. (/ear $# 0i"ton (3th Cir. 1&#3) 5&& B.2n, 1#1- 1#2.) Jot being agents o" the state- bounty hunters are not restricte, by the usual constitutional constraints that apply to la0 en"orce(ent. (See )eop"e $# *ohnson (1&32) 1$3 Cal.App.2n, #20- #23: 2andr& $# A3A."e ondin1, Inc# ($th Cir. 1&&5) 2$ B.3r, 200- 203%20$: United States $# Rhodes (&th Cir. 1&#3) 231 B.2n, 353- 352.) 8.g.) +he *Exclusionary Rule/ ,oes not apply to the actions o" a bounty hunter. ()eop"e $# 0ou"e (1&20) 13 Cal.App.3r, #&2- #&$.) Cali"ornia has only recently sought to regulate the licensing an, training re@uire(ents "or bounty hunters. (See (!C! 12"" et se*!- an, Ins! Code 1#13!1.) !ther pro.isions pro.i,e "or the arrest o" a bail Cu(per by the bounty hunter 0hen the bounty hunter s authority is in 0riting upon a certi"ie, copy o" either the un,ertaFing o" bail or the certi"icate o" a bail ,eposite, 0ith the court. ((!C! 1333, 1331) (!C! 1331 also re@uires the bon,s(an or bounty hunter to bring the bail Cu(per be"ore a (agistrate- or ,eli.er hi( to the custo,y o" a sheri"" or police ,epart(ent- 0ithin 3# hours a"ter arrest or a"ter being brought into this state- e?clu,ing 0eeFen,s an, holi,ays. 1t is a (is,e(eanor to .iolate this section. (!C! #41!) pro.i,es that an out6of6state bounty hunter (ust "irst seeF an arrest 0arrant "ro( a local (agistrate- "iling 0ith the court an a""i,a.it listing the na(e an, 0hereabouts o" the "ugiti.ecertain particulars o" the "ugiti.e s o""ense- an, the circu(stances o" the "ugiti.e s .iolation o" the ter(s o" his bail. +he bounty 1$&
< 2013 Robert C. Phillips. All rights reser.e,

hunter is also re@uire, to bring the "ugiti.e be"ore the (agistrate a"ter 0hich a hearing is hel,. +he (agistrate (ay then authori;e the bounty hunter to re(o.e the "ugiti.e "ro( the state. Io0e.er- a bounty hunter 0ho ignores the re@uire(ents o" section #41!)- because he acts outsi,e Cali"ornia s statutory regulations- is not acting *under color of state law-/ an,- there"ore- is not ci.illy liable- at least in a +itle 42 !S!C! 1"#3 "e,eral ci.il rights suit. (Ou5ts $# %ar&"and Nationa" Insurance Co# (&th Cir. 1&23) $0$ B.2n, $32.) Pen. Code 1299: The Gail Bugiti.e Reco.ery Persons Act) Designates this article as the *Gail Bugiti.e Reco.ery Persons Act./ Note: The Bail Fu i!i"e #e$o"e%& Pe%'on' ($!) *hi$h e+,i%ed on -anua%& 1) 2.1.) ha' been %eena$!ed he%e *i!h al/o'! iden!i$al ,%o"i'ion' !ha! *e%e 0i%'! ena$!ed on -anua%& 1) 2.... Pen. Code 1299..1: 1e0ini!ion': Bor purposes o" this article- the "ollo0ing ,e"initions apply) Su4d! +a,) *$ail (ugiti!e/ is ,e"ine, as a ,e"en,ant in a pen,ing cri(inal case 0ho has been release, "ro( custo,y un,er a "inancially secure, appearance- cash- or other bon, an, has ha, that bon, ,eclare, "or"eite,- or a ,e"en,ant in a pen,ing cri(inal case 0ho has .iolate, a bon, con,ition 0hereby apprehension an, reincarceration are per(itte,. Su4d! +4,) *$ail/ is ,e"ine, as a person license, by the Depart(ent o" 1nsurance pursuant to Ins! Code 1#33. Su4d! +c,) *Depositor of $ail/ is ,e"ine, as a person 0ho or entity that has ,eposite, (oney or bon,s to secure the release o" a person charge, 0ith a cri(e or o""ense. Su4d! +d,) *$ail (ugiti!e Reco!ery Person/ is ,e"ine, as a person 0ho is pro.i,e, 0ritten 150
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authori;ation pursuant to (!C! 1333 an, 1331 by the bail or ,epositor o" bail- an, is contracte, to in.estigate- sur.eil- locate- an, arrest a bail "ugiti.e "or surren,er to the appropriate court- Cail- or police ,epart(ent- an, any person 0ho is e(ploye, to assist a bail or ,epositor o" bail to in.estigatesur.eil- locate- an, arrest a bail "ugiti.e "or surren,er to the appropriate court- Cail- or police ,epart(ent. Pen. Code 1299..2: Persons Authorized to Arrest Bail Fugitives: Su4d+a,) Jo person- other than a certi"ie, la0 en"orce(ent o""icer- shall be authori;e, to apprehen,,etain- or arrest a bail "ugiti.e unless that person (eets one o" the "ollo0ing con,itions) +1, 1s a *bail/ as ,e"ine, in (!C! 12""!31+4, or a *depositor of bail/ as ,e"ine, in (!C! 12""!31+c,. +2, 1s a *bail fugiti!e reco!ery person/ as ,e"ine, in (!C! 12""!31+d,. +3, Iol,s a bail license issue, by a state other than Cali"ornia or is authori;e, by another state to transact an, post bail an, is in co(pliance 0ith the pro.isions o" (!C! #41!) 0ith respect to the arrest o" a bail "ugiti.e. +4, 1s license, as a pri.ate in.estigator as pro.i,e, in Cha-ter 11!3 (co((encing 0ith &&( Code 1)12) o" $i:ision 3 o" the &usiness and (rofessions Code. +), Iol,s a pri.ate in.estigator license issue, by another state- is authori;e, by the bail or ,epositor o" bail to apprehen, a bail "ugiti.e- an, is in co(pliance 0ith the pro.isions o" (!C! #41!) 0ith respect to the arrest o" a bail "ugiti.e. Su4d! +4,) +his article shall not prohibit an arrest pursuant to (!C! #31- #3#- an, #3". Pen. Code 1299..4: 2uali0i$a!ion' o0 a Bail Fu i!i"e #e$o"e%& Pe%'on: 151
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Su4d! +a,: A bail "ugiti.e reco.ery person- a bail agentbail per(ittee- or bail solicitor 0ho contracts his or her ser.ices to another bail agent or surety as a bail "ugiti.e reco.ery person "or the purposes speci"ie, in sub,i.ision (!C! 1233!31+d,- an, any bail agent- bail per(ittee- or bail solicitor 0ho obtains licensing a"ter January 1- 2000an, 0ho engages in the arrest o" a ,e"en,ant pursuant to (!C! 1331 shall co(ply 0ith the "ollo0ing re@uire(ents) +1, +he person shall be at least 1# years o" age. +2, +he person shall ha.e co(plete, a 30%hour po0er o" arrest course certi"ie, by the Co((ission on Peace !""icer Stan,ar,s an, +raining pursuant to (!C! #32. Co(pletion o" the course shall be "or e,ucational purposes only an, not inten,e, to con"er the po0er o" arrest o" a peace o""icer or public o""icer- or agent o" any "e,eral- state- or local go.ern(ent- unless the person is so e(ploye, by a go.ern(ental agency. +3, +he person shall ha.e co(plete, a (ini(u( o" 20 hours o" classroo( e,ucation certi"ie, pursuant to Ins! Code 1#31!1. +4, +he person shall not ha.e been con.icte, o" a "elony- unless the person is license, by the Depart(ent o" 1nsurance pursuant to Ins! Code 1#33. Su4d! +4,) 4pon co(pletion o" any course or training progra( re@uire, by this section- an in,i.i,ual authori;e, by (!C! 12""!32 to apprehen, a bail "ugiti.e shall carry certi"icates o" co(pletion 0ith hi( or her at all ti(es in the course o" per"or(ing his or her ,uties un,er this article. Pen. Code 1299..5: Bail Fu i!i"e (,,%ehen'ion': 1n per"or(ing a bail "ugiti.e apprehension- an in,i.i,ual authori;e, by (!C! 12""!31 to apprehen, a bail "ugiti.e shall co(ply 0ith all la0s applicable to that apprehension.

152
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(en! Code 12""!32) Re@uire, Apprehension Docu(entation) An in,i.i,ual authori;e, by (!C! 12""!32 to apprehen, a bail "ugiti.e shall ha.e in his or her possession proper ,ocu(entation o" authority to apprehen, issue, by the bail or ,epositor o" bail as prescribe, in (!C! 1333 an, 1331 be"ore (aFing any apprehension. +he authority to apprehen, ,ocu(ent shall inclu,e all o" the "ollo0ing in"or(ation) (1) +he na(e o" the in,i.i,ual authori;e, by (!C! 12""!32 to apprehen, a bail "ugiti.e an, any "ictitious na(e- i" applicable: (2) +he a,,ress o" the principal o""ice o" the in,i.i,ual authori;e, by (!C! 12""!32 to apprehen, a bail "ugiti.e: and (3) +he na(e an, principal business a,,ress o" the bail agency- surety co(pany- or other party contracting 0ith the in,i.i,ual authori;e, by (!C! 12""!32 to apprehen, a bail "ugiti.e. Pen. Code 1299..7: #e,%e'en!in 3ne'el0 !o be a 4*o%n 5a* 6n0o%$e/en! 300i$e%: Su4d! +a,) An in,i.i,ual authori;e, by (!C! 12""!32 to apprehen, a bail "ugiti.e shall not represent hi(sel" or hersel" in any (anner as being a s0orn la0 en"orce(ent o""icer. Su4d! +4,) An in,i.i,ual authori;e, by (!C! 12""!32 to apprehen, a bail "ugiti.e shall not 0ear any uni"or( that represents hi(sel" or hersel" as belonging to any part or ,epart(ent o" a "e,eral- state- or local go.ern(ent. Any uni"or( shall not ,isplay the 0or,s 4nite, States- Gureau+asF Borce- Be,eral- or other substantially si(ilar 0or,s that a reasonable person (ay (istaFe "or a go.ern(ent agency. Su4d! +c,) An in,i.i,ual authori;e, by (!C! 12""!32 to apprehen, a bail "ugiti.e shall not 0ear or other0ise use a ba,ge that represents hi(sel" or hersel" as belonging to any part or ,epart(ent o" the "e,eral- state- or local go.ern(ent. Su4d! +d,) An in,i.i,ual authori;e, by (!C! 12""!32 to apprehen, a bail "ugiti.e shall not use a "ictitious na(e that 153
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represents hi(sel" or hersel" as belonging to any "e,eralstate- or local go.ern(ent. Su4d! +e,) An in,i.i,ual authori;e, by (!C! 12""!32 to apprehen, a bail "ugiti.e (ay 0ear a CacFet- shirt- or .est 0ith the 0or,s =GA17 G!JD R8C!U8RK AL8J+-= =GA17 8JB!RC8O8J+-= or =GA17 8JB!RC8O8J+ AL8J+= ,isplaye, in letters at least t0o inches high across the "ront or bacF o" the CacFet- shirt- or .est an, in a contrasting color to that o" the CacFet- shirt- or .est. Pen. Code 1299..8: P%o$edu%al #e7ui%e/en!' in 8a9in (%%e'!': Su4d! +a,) 8?cept un,er e?igent circu(stances- an in,i.i,ual authori;e, by (!C! 12""!32 to apprehen, a bail "ugiti.e shall- prior to an, no (ore than si? hours be"ore atte(pting to apprehen, the bail "ugiti.e- noti"y the local police ,epart(ent or sheri""Ds ,epart(ent o" the intent to apprehen, a bail "ugiti.e in that Curis,iction by ,oing all o" the "ollo0ing) +1,) 1n,icating the na(e o" an in,i.i,ual authori;e, by (!C! 12""!32 to apprehen, a bail "ugiti.e entering the Curis,iction. +2,) Stating the appro?i(ate ti(e an in,i.i,ual authori;e, by (!C! 12""!32 to apprehen, a bail "ugiti.e 0ill be entering the Curis,iction an, the appro?i(ate length o" the stay. +3,) Stating the na(e an, appro?i(ate location o" the bail "ugiti.e. Su4d! +4,) 1" an e?igent circu(stance ,oes arise an, prior noti"ication is not gi.en as pro.i,e, in su4d! +a,- an in,i.i,ual authori;e, by (!C! 12""!32 to apprehen, a bail "ugiti.e shall noti"y the local police ,epart(ent or sheri""Ds ,epart(ent i((e,iately a"ter the apprehension- an, upon re@uest o" the local Curis,iction- shall sub(it a ,etaile, e?planation o" those e?igent circu(stances 0ithin three 0orFing ,ays a"ter the apprehension is (a,e. Su4d! +c,) +his section shall not preclu,e an in,i.i,ual authori;e, by (!C! 12""!32 to apprehen, a bail "ugiti.e "ro( (aFing or atte(pting to (aFe a la0"ul arrest o" a bail 153
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"ugiti.e on bon, pursuant to (!C! 1333 an, 1331. +he "act that a bench 0arrant is not locate, or entere, into a 0arrant ,epository or syste( shall not a""ect a la0"ul arrest o" the bail "ugiti.e. Su4d! +d,) Bor the purposes o" this section- notice (ay be pro.i,e, to a local la0 en"orce(ent agency by telephone prior to the arrest or- a"ter the arrest has taFen place- i" e?igent circu(stances e?ist. 1n that case the na(e or operator nu(ber o" the e(ployee recei.ing the notice in"or(ation shall be obtaine, an, retaine, by the bail,epositor o" bail- or bail "ugiti.e reco.ery person. Pen. Code 1299..9: Fo%$ible 6n!%ie': An in,i.i,ual- authori;e, by (!C! 12""!32 to apprehen, a bail "ugiti.e shall not "orcibly enter a pre(ises e?cept as pro.i,e, "or in (!C! #44 (i.e.- *?noc? and notice/ re@uire(ents). (en! Code 12""!13) 4se o" Birear(s or !ther Eeapons) An in,i.i,ual authori;e, by (!C! 12""!32 to apprehen, a bail "ugiti.e shall not carry a "irear( or other 0eapon unless in co(pliance 0ith the la0s o" the state. A bail agent (ay- upon re@uest o" the surety liable "or the un,ertaFing- arrest a ,e"en,ant an, transport hi( to a court- (agistrate- sheri""- or police- as ,irecte,: although a bail agent has no e?plicit statutory authority to carry a loa,e, "irear( 0hen per"or(ing his ,uties- liFe any person 0ho ,oes not ha.e a per(it to carry a "irear(- he (ay carry a loa,e, "irear( 0hile engage, in the act o" (aFing or atte(pting to (aFe a la0"ul arrest o" the ,e"en,ant. (#1 Op#Ca"#Att&#Gen. 2$2- 2%2&%&#.) A bail reco.ery agent 0as not *atte(pting to (aFe a la0"ul arrest/ 0hen stoppe, by police o""icersan, thus the Cali"ornia statute pro.i,ing that a person atte(pting to (aFe la0"ul arrest (ay carry loa,e, han,gun (i.e.- "or(erly (!C! 12331+',E no0 (!C! 223)3) 0as inapplicable. +he o""icers ha, probable cause to arrest the agent "or carrying loa,e, "irear( 0hen the agent 0as arreste, because he 0as in his car hal" blocF a0ay "ro( "ugiti.e. 15$
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(Go"t $# Cit& o' Si1na" 0i"" (C.D.Cal. 2001) 132 B.Supp.2n, 1221.) Pen. Code 1299.11: :iola!in !he Bail Fu i!i"e #e$o"e%& Pe%'on' ($!: ;! i' a /i'de/eano% !o "iola!e o% $on',i%e !o "iola!e an& ,%o"i'ion o0 !he Bail Fu i!i"e #e$o"e%& Pe%'on' ($!) o% !o hi%e an indi"idual !o a,,%ehend a bail 0u i!i"e) 9no*in !ha! !he indi"idual i' no! au!ho%i<ed b& P.C. 1299..2 !o a,,%ehend a bail 0u i!i"e. Puni'h/en!: 8i'de/eano%: =, !o one &ea% in $oun!& jail and>o% a ?5)... 0ine. Pen. Code 1299.12 (@e*): 5i$en'in P%i"a!e ;n"e'!i a!o%': +he abo.e is speci"ically not inten,e, to e?e(pt "ro( licensure persons other0ise re@uire, to be license, as pri.ate in.estigators pursuant to &&( 1)12 et se*! *rrest ;ptions) A peace o""icer has fi!e options 0hen he or she (aFes an arrest pursuant to (!C! #32 or taFes custo,y o" a prisoner "ro( a pri.ate person- arreste, pursuant to (!C! #31) Release =ithout &harges) 1"- a"ter a subCect has been arreste,- the o""icer "eels that base, upon a,,itional in"or(ation collecte,- the arrest is not Custi"ie, (i.e.- there is insu""icient probable cause)- he or she (ay uncon,itionally release the prisoner pursuant to authority ,escribe, in (!C! #4"+4,+1,. 1"- 0hen arreste, by a pri.ate person- the person changes his or her (in, about 0anting to arrest the subCect- the prisoner (ay si(ply be release, 0ithout any "urther action. !ther0ise- any such arrest an, release (ust be ,ocu(ente, pursuant to (!C! #)1!2- 0ith a certi"icate issue, to the arreste, person by the arresting agency ,escribing such action as a ,etention only. +he legal status o" anyone so release, shall be ,ee(e, a ,etention only: not an arrest. ((!C! #4"+c,) +ote) 1t is also arguable that a la0 en"orce(ent o""icer (ay choose to release a subCect "or 0ho( probable cause does e?ist. +here is nothing in the case or statutory la0 155
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that says that (!C! #4"+4, is the e?clusi.e authority "or releasing an arreste, prisoner. +ote- ho0e.er- (!C! 4311!13 prohibiting la0 en"orce(ent "ro( releasing a Cail in(ate "or the purpose o" allo0ing the in(ate to seeF (e,ical care at a hospital- an, then i((e,iately re%arresting the sa(e in,i.i,ual upon ,ischarge "ro( the hospitalunless the hospital ,eter(ines this action 0oul, enable it to bill an, collect "ro( a thir,%party pay(ent source. ee? an *rrest =arrant) (1.e.- a *+otify =arrant./) Shoul, the peace o""icer ,eter(ine that- although probable cause "or an arrest e?ists- the person (ay not be la0"ully arreste, (e.g.- a (is,e(eanor not in the o""icer s presence or the pri.ate person s presence- or a *stale misdemeanor-/ (see belo0: *"egal Re@uirements of an *rrest/)- or as a ,iscretionary option to taFing the subCect into custo,y or 0riting a (is,e(eanor citation- an arrest report (ay be "ille, out 0ith the appropriate notation (a,e (or bo?- e.g.- *\ noti"y 0arrant-/ checFe,). +his is not an arrest an, re@uires (a"ter a *detention for in!estigation/ ,uring 0hich i,enti"ication in"or(ation is collecte, an, a brie" in.estigation is con,ucte,) the i((e,iate release o" the subCect. +he local prosecuting agency to 0hich the reports are "or0ar,e, 0ill then noti"y the subCect o" 0hen an, 0here to appear in court to ans0er to any charges "ile, in court. Shoul, the person "ail to respon, to this noti"ication- an arrest 0arrant 0ill be sought. Stopping a suspect in a (is,e(eanor o""ense- a noise .iolation- not occurring in the o""icer s presence- at least 0here there are possible alternati.e- less intrusi.e (etho,so" i,enti"ying the suspect- is probably unla0"ul. +he Court is to balance la0 en"orce(ent s interest in cri(e pre.ention 0ith the ,etainee s interest in personal security "ro( go.ern(ent intrusion. (See United States $# 0ens"e& (1&#$) 35& 4.S. 221 6#3 7.8.2n, 5039.) 1n a (is,e(eanor situation- la0 en"orce(ent s interest (ay not out0eigh the suspect s. (United States $# Gri11 (&th Cir. 2002) 3&# B.3r, 1020.)

152
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'ssuance of a ,isdemeanor &itation) A (is,e(eanor arrest "or an o""ense 0hich is not *stale/ an, 0hich did occur in the o""icer s (or a pri.ate citi;en s) presence- but 0hen booFing is either not legal or not appropriate un,er the circu(stances- (ay result in the subCect being cite, an, release, at the scene. Ois,e(eanor citations are in "act an arrest- although the subCect is release, 0ithout booFing- an, (ust there"ore be con,ucte, accor,ing to the rules on (is,e(eanor cri(es occurring in the o""icer s presence- etc. (See belo0: *"egal Re@uirements of an *rrest/) Ois,e(eanor arrestees are- as a general rule- to be cite, an, release, unless one o" the e?ceptions liste, in (!C! #)3!2+i, applies. ((!C! #)3!2+a,) Jote also that all persons release, on a (is,e(eanor citation (ust be booFe, an, "ingerprinte, either at the scene or at the arresting agency at so(e point prior to appearing in court- an,- i" release, prior to ,oing so- shoul, be so noti"ie, o" their responsibility to co(ply. ((!C! #)3!2+5,) GooFing at the scene re@uires the o""icer to use a (obile "ingerprint ,e.ice to taFe all "ingerprints instea, o" (erely a thu(bprint.

$oo?ing into :ail) Ehen one or (ore o" the circu(stances liste, in (!C! #)3!2+i, ,oes e?ist- an, the subCect is other0ise la0"ully arreste, (e.g.- a "elony arrest- or a (is,e(eanor in the o""icer s or pri.ate person s presence 0hich is not *stale./)- the arreste, person (ay be subCecte, to a custo,ial arrest an, transporte, to county Cail "or booFing. Ta?e the ub%ect Directly $efore a ,agistrate) Ehen court is in session- an, a Cu,ge is a.ailable- a subCect (ay be transporte, ,irectly to the Cu,ge. +he o""ense (ust be a "elony- or the con,itions "or a la0"ul (is,e(eanor arrest (ust be present (i.e.- in the presence o" the o""icer or pri.ate person (aFing the arrest an, not stale). See also (!C! #)3!) an, 0!C! 43333!), 43332, 43333, 43334- an, 4333) (belo0)- "or con,itions un,er 0hich 15#

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persons arreste, "or certain in"ractions or (is,e(eanors (ay be taFen i((e,iately be"ore a (agistrate. 2e1a" Re:uirements o' an Arrest: (elonies) A peace o""icer (ay (aFe an arrest "or a "elony- 0ith or 0ithout a 0arrant- at any ti(e- ,ay or night- at any location- 0hether or not the "elony has occurre, in the o""icer s presence- so long as such arrest is supporte, by *probable cause./ ((!C! #32+a,+2,, +3,) Exception) Earrantless arrests in a person s ho(e. (See belo0) See also 0!C! 43331) Ehen probable cause e?ists to belie.e that a particular person has .iolate, a 0ehicle Code "elony- the subCect *shall be ,ealt 0ith in liFe (anner as upon arrest "or the co((ission o" any other "elony-/ accor,ing to the general pro.isions o" the Penal Co,e on "elony arrests. (See )eop"e $# Superior Court @SimonA (1&22) 2 Cal.3r, 1#5- 1&&.) ,isdemeanors and 'nfractions) *'n the Presence/ re@uirement) Ois,e(eanors (an, in"ractions) (ust ha.e occurre, in the o""icer s (or pri.ate person s- in the case o" a pri.ate person s arrest) presence. ((!C! #32+a,+1,, #31!1: *ac(son $# Superior Court (1&$0) &# Cal.App.2n, 1#3: see also 0!C! 43333.) *'n the Presence,/ Defined) *'n the presence/ is co((only interprete, to re"er to ha.ing personal Fno0le,ge that the o""ense in @uestion has been co((itte,- (a,e Fno0n to the o""icer through any o" the o""icer s "i.e senses. (See )eop"e $# ur1ess (1&$&) 120 Cal.App.2n, 35- 31.) +he cri(e o" (aFing annoying or harassing telephone calls- per (!C! 2)3@- is ,one in the listener s presence. ()eop"e $# "oom (2010) 1#$ Cal.App.3th 13&5: harassing phone calls to a police ,ispatcher.) Exceptions) A peace o""icer has statutory authori;ation to a""ect a 0arrantless arrest "or (is,e(eanors 0hich did not occur in the o""icer s presence un,er li(ite, circu(stances) 1. :u!enile *rrests) (/&I Code 22)+a,: In re Samue" 9# (1&&0) 22$ Cal.App.3r, $11.) 15&
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2. Dri!ing =hile #nder the 'nfluence of *lcohol andJor Drugs- 0hen any o" the "ollo0ing circu(stances e?ist (0!C! 43333!))) +a, +he person 0as in.ol.e, in a tra""ic acci,ent. +4, +he person is obser.e, in or about a .ehicle that is obstructing a roa,0ay. +c, +he person 0ill not be apprehen,e, unless i((e,iately arreste,. +d, +he person (ay cause inCury to hi(sel" or hersel" or ,a(age property unless i((e,iately arreste,. +e, +he person (ay ,estroy or conceal e.i,ence o" the cri(e unless i((e,iately arreste,. ()eop"e $# Scho'ie"d (2001) &0 Cal.App.3th &5#: the (etabolic ,estruction o" alcohol in a D41 suspect s bo,y (i.e.- the *burn off/ rate) @uali"ies as the *destruction of e!idence/ "or purposes o" this e?ception.) See also Troppman $# Gour"e& (200$) 125 Cal.App.3th 2$$- at pp. 250%251- 0here it 0as note, that the prior Supre(e Court case o" %ercer $# Department o' %otor 9ehic"es (1&&1) $3 Cal.3r, 2$3- 25#%25&- re@uiring so(e obser.ation o" the .ehicle s (o.e(ent by the arresting o""icer- 0as no longer .ali, case la0 in light o" the a(en,(ent to this statute. 8.en though the o""icer ,i, not obser.e ,e"en,ant s .ehicle (o.ing- 0here the police o""icer ,isco.ere, ,e"en,ant asleep behin, 0heel 0ith his "oot on the braFe- the engine running- an, the gear in ,ri.e- in the (i,,le o" interstate high0ay- ,e"en,ant s arrest "or ,ri.ing 0hile un,er the in"luence 0as la0"ul base, upon the circu(stantial e.i,ence that ,e"en,ant ha, ,ri.en there 0hile un,er the in"luence. (9i""a"o.os $# 4o"in (1&&$) 3$ Cal.App.3th $$5.) 120
< 2013 Robert C. Phillips. All rights reser.e,

+he ol, Cali"ornia rule o" re@uiring a .ali, arrest- e.en o" an unconscious suspect- prior to the e?traction o" a bloo, sa(ple (See )eop"e $# Superior Court 60a,(ins7 (1&22) 5 Cal.3r, 2$2- 252.)- 0as abrogate, by passage o" (ro-osition #- in 1&#2. Jo0- so long as probable cause e?ists to belie.e that the ,e"en,ant 0as ,ri.ing 0hile into?icate,a "or(al arrest is not a prere@uisite to a 0arrantless sei;ure o" a bloo, sa(ple. ()eop"e $# Trotman (1&#&) 213 Cal.App.3r, 330- 33$: )eop"e $# De"toro (1&#&) 213 Cal.App.3r, 1312- 1322- 132$.) 3. $attery on chool <rounds ,uring school hours. ((!C! 243!)) 3. &arrying a "oaded (irearm- in .iolation o" (!C! 2)#)3+a, ("or(erly (!C! 12331+a,+1,. ((!C! 2)#)3+5,- "or(erly (!C! 12331+a,+),+A,) $. *ssault or $attery *gainst the Person of a (irefighter, Emergency ,edical Technician, or Paramedic- per (!C! 241+4, or 243+4,. ((!C! #32!1) 5. Persons Violating a Domestic Violence Protecti!e or Restraining ;rder issue, un,er authority o") CC( )21!2 (Harassment ;rders): Fam! Code, 2233 et se*! (Domestic Violence): (!C! 132!2 (Victim or =itness 'ntimidation): (!C! 242!"1 ( tal?ing): (!C! 1233!3"1+a,+2, (*cts of !iolence, threats, stal?ing, sexual abuse, and harassment, in Domestic Violence): /&I 213!) (During &hild Dependency Proceedings): /&I 1)2)1!33, (Elder or Dependent *dult *buse) or imilar orders "ro( another state- tribe- or territory: 121
< 2013 Robert C. Phillips. All rights reser.e,

. . . 0here the o""icer has probable cause to belie.e the suspect has Fno0le,ge o" the or,er an, has co((itte, an act in .iolation o" the or,er. ((!C! #32+c,+1,) Jote) +his section- an, (!C! 13131+4,- at least 0hen *domestic !iolence/ (per Fam! Code 2343 et se*!- 2233 et se*!- or 1133 et se*!) is in.ol.e,- or 0hen !ictim or witness intimidation (per (!C! 132!2) is in.ol.e,- (aFe this arrest mandatory upon the o""icer- absent *exigent circumstances/ e?cusing the lacF o" an arrest. 2. *ssaults or $atteries upon the suspect s current or "or(er spouse- "ianc]- "ianc]e- a current or "or(er cohabitant (per Fam! Code, 223")- a person 0ith 0ho( the suspect currently is ha.ing or has pre.iously ha, an engage(ent or ,ating relationship (per (!C! 243+f,+13,)- a person 0ith 0ho( the suspect has parente, a chil,- or is presu(e, to ha.e parente, a chil, (per the niform (arenta5e Act: Fam! Code, 1233 et se*!)- a chil, o" the suspect- a chil, 0hose parentage by the suspect is the subCect o" an action un,er the niform (arenta5e Act- a chil, o" a person in one o" the abo.e categories- or any other person relate, to the suspect by consanguinity or a""inity 0ithin the secon, ,egree- 0hen the o""icer has probable cause an, the arrest is (a,e as soon as probable cause arises. ((!C! #32+d,) (!C! 13133+4,: *&ohabitant/ is ,e"ine, in the (enal Code as *t0o unrelate, a,ult persons li.ing together "or a substantial perio, o" ti(e- resulting in so(e per(anency o" relationship. Bactors that (ay ,eter(ine 0hether persons are cohabiting inclu,e- but are not li(ite, to(1) se?ual relations bet0een the parties 0hile sharing the sa(e li.ing @uarters(2) sharing o" inco(e or e?penses122
< 2013 Robert C. Phillips. All rights reser.e,

(3) Coint use or o0nership o" property(3) 0hether the parties hol, the(sel.es out as husban, an, 0i"e($) the continuity o" the relationshipand (5) the length o" the relationship./ Fam! Code, 223": *&ohabitant/ is ,e"ine, in the FamilA Code as a person 0ho regularly resi,es in the househol,. *(ormer &ohabitant/ is ,e"ine, as a person 0ho "or(erly regularly resi,e, in the househol,. (!C! 243+f,+13,: *Dating Relationship/ is ,e"ine, as "re@uent- inti(ate associations pri(arily characteri;e, by the e?pectation o" a""ection or se?ual in.ol.e(ent in,epen,ent o" "inancial consi,erations. #. Elder *buse) Assaults or batteries upon any person 0ho is 5$ years o" age or ol,er an, 0ho is relate, to the suspect by bloo, or legal guar,ianship- 0hen the o""icer has probable cause an, the arrest is (a,e as soon as probable cause arises. ((!C! #32+d,) &. &arrying a &oncealed (irearm- per (!C! 2)433 ("or(erly (!C! 1232))- 0hen a peace o""icer has reasonable (or probable) cause to belie.e a .iolation has occurre, 0ithin the area o" an airport (as *airport/ is ,e"ine, by the (u4! tilities Code, 21313) to 0hich access is controlle, by the inspection o" persons an, property- an, 0hen the arrest is (a,e as soon as reasonable (or probable) cause arises. ((!C! #32+e,) 10. ;perating a Vessel or Recreational Vessel, or ,anipulation of =ater ?is, *@uaplane or imilar De!ice, 0hile un,er the in"luence o" ,rugs an,Nor alcohol- or a,,icte, to the use o" ,rugs. (Far! & %a:! Code, 2))+4,, +c,, +d, or +e,) 4pon in"or(ation "ro( a co((issione,- 0arrant or petty o""icer o" the 4nite, States Coast Luar, establishing *reasonable cause-/ a peace o""icer 123
< 2013 Robert C. Phillips. All rights reser.e,

(ay arrest "or a .iolation o" any the abo.e o""enses. (Su4d! +5,) 11. ;perating a Vessel =hile #nder the 'nfluence of *lcohol andJor Drugs- 0hen the person is in.ol.e, in an acci,ent on the 0aters o" this state0ith *reasonable cause-/ any peace o""icer (ay arrest. (Far! & %a:! Code, 223!1) 9ehic"e Code Violations) +he 0ehicle Code contains li(ite, e?ceptions "or citing a person "or a (is,e(eanor or in"raction e.en though the o""ense cite, "or did not occur in the peace o""icer s presence) 0!C! 1232#+c,) A peace o""icer- or a regularly e(ploye, an, salarie, e(ployee o" a city or county 0ho has been traine, as a tra""ic collision in.estigator upon re.ie0 by a peace o""icer- at the scene o" an acci,ent- (ay cite any ,ri.er in.ol.e, in the tra""ic collision 0ho is unable to pro.i,e e!idence of financial responsibility. 0!C! 43233+a,) A peace o""icer 0ho has success"ully co(plete, a course or courses o" instruction- appro.e, by the Co((ission on Peace !""icer Stan,ar,s an, +raining (i.e.- P.!.S.+.) in the in.estigation o" tra""ic acci,ents (ay cite any person in.ol.e, in a tra""ic acci,ent 0hen the o""icer has probable cause to belie.e the person .iolate, a pro.ision o" the Uehicle Co,e not ,eclare, to be a "elony or a local or,inance an, 0hen the offense cited for was a factor in the occurrence of the traffic accident. Su4d! +d, pro.i,es that the o""ense nee, not occur in the o""icer s presence. Io0e.er- su4d! +c, pro.i,es that such a citation is not consi,ere, as an *arrest./ 9ehic"e Code Par?ing &itations) ParFing .iolations are *ci!il infractions/ only- en"orceable un,er a separate ci.il a,(inistrati.e sche(e- an, subCect to ci.il penalties. (0!C! 43233 et se*!) (See T&"er $# Count& o' A"ameda (1&&$) 33 Cal.App.3th 222: United States $# Choudhr& (&th Cir. 2005) 351 B.3r, 10&2- 1101: #2 Op#Att?&#Gen#Ca"# 32 (1&&&).) Cali"ornia peace o""icers are speci"ically authori;e, un,er the 0ehicle Code to en"orce parFing citations. (0!C! 43232+a,: )eop"e $# 0art (1&&&) 23 Cal.App.3th 32&: United States $# Choudhr&- supra.) 123
< 2013 Robert C. Phillips. All rights reser.e,

A parFing .iolation- e.en though ci.il- is cause "or a police o""icer to stop an, ,etain a .ehicle s ,ri.er ,espite the "act that such a .iolation is but a *pretext/ "or ,etaining the ,ri.er to in.estigate so(e other o""ense "or 0hich the o""icer ,oes not ha.e a reasonable suspicion- per the rule o" -hren $# United States (1&&5) $12 4.S. #05 613$ 7.8,.2n, #&9. (United States $# Choudhr&- supra.) * tale ,isdemeanor Rule)/ +he arrest "or a (is,e(eanor (ust occur at the ti(e- or shortly a"ter- the co((ission o" the o""ense. ()eop"e $# 0ampton (1&#$) 153 Cal.App.3r, 22.) 1" not- it is a *stale misdemeanor/ "or 0hich the ,e"en,ant (ay not be arreste, e.en i" it ha, occurre, in the o""icer s presence. ()eop"e $# Crai1 (1&02) 1$2 Cal. 32- 32.) Ehat is an, 0hat is not stale ,epen,s upon the circu(stances) *Jo har, an, "ast rule can- ho0e.er- be lai, ,o0n 0hich 0ill "it e.ery case respecting 0hat constitutes a reasonable ti(e. Ehat (ay be so in one case un,er particular circu(stances (ay not be so in another case un,er ,i""erent circu(stances. All that can be a""ir(e, 0ith sa"ety is that the o""icer (ust act pro(ptly in (aFing the arrest- an, as soon as possible un,er the circu(stances- an, be"ore he transacts other business. . . . . A(E)e hol, that in or,er to Custi"y an arrest 0ithout 0arrant the arrestor (ust procee, as soon as (ay be to (aFe the arrest. An, i" instea, o" ,oing that he goes about other (atters unconnecte, 0ith the arrest- the right to (aFe the arrest 0ithout a 0arrant ceases- an, in or,er to (aFe a .ali, arrest he (ust then obtain a 0arrant there"or (sic)./ (O"eson $# )incoc( (1&25) 5# 4tah $02- $1$%$15 62$1 P. 23- 259.) *1n or,er to Custi"y a ,elay- there shoul, be a continue, atte(pt on the part o" the o""icer or person apprehen,ing the o""en,er to (aFe the arrest: he cannot ,elay "or any purpose 0hich is "oreign to the acco(plish(ent o" the arrest./ (*ac(son $# Superior Court (1&$0) &# Cal.App.2n, 1#3- 1#2: ne?t ,ay- arrest illegal.) +he stale misdemeanor rule applies to arrests by pri.ate citi;ens- un,er authority o" (!C! #31- as 0ell. (Green $# Department o' %otor 9ehic"es (1&22) 5# Cal.App.3r, $35: arrest (a,e so(e 3$ to 30 (inutes a"ter the obser.ation hel, to be la0"ul: see also O1u"in $# *e''ries (1&$3) 121 Cal.App.2n, 211: 20 (inute ,elay- arrest la0"ul.) 12$
< 2013 Robert C. Phillips. All rights reser.e,

A police ,ispatcher- being subCecte, to ,e"en,ant s nu(erous harassing telephone calls- (ay ,elegate to a police o""icer the responsibility to arrest the ,e"en,ant "or her. +he o""ense- o.er the phone- 0as hel, to be in her presence. Also- the arrest 0as ti(ely in that o""icers respon,e, i((e,iately to 0here ,e"en,ant 0as calling "ro( an, tooF hi( into custo,y. +he arrest 0as hel, to be a la0"ul citi;en s arrest. ()eop"e $# "oom (2010) 1#$ Cal.App.3th 13&5.) anctions for Violations) A .iolation by a peace o""icer o" either the *in the presence-/ or- arguably- the *stale misdemeanor/ rulesor any other statutory (as oppose, to constitutional) li(itation on taFing so(eone into physical custo,y- does not re@uire the suppression o" any e.i,ence- in that these rules are statutory- or non%constitutionally base, case la0- only- an, e.i,ence is suppresse, only 0hen it s ,isco.ery is the ,irect pro,uct o" a constitutional !iolation. ( arr& $# Fo,"er (&th Cir. 1&&0) &02 B.2n, 220- 222: )eop"e $# Dona"dson (1&&$) 35 Cal.App.3th $32: )eop"e $# Trapane (1&&1) 1 Cal.App.3th Supp. 10: see also *ac(son $# Superior Court (1&$0) &# Cal.App.2n, 1#3: an, )eop"e $# %c/a& (2002) 22 Cal.3th 501- 502%51&- a .iolation o" 0!C! 212)3!1 (ri,ing a bicycle in the 0rong ,irection): an, )eop"e $# Gome5 (2003) 112 Cal.App.3th $31- $3&- seat belt .iolation- citing At,ater $# Cit& o' 2a1o 9ista (2001) $32 4.S. 31# 613& 7.8,.2n, $3&9: United States $# %iranda3Guerena (&th Cir. 2005) 33$ B.3r, 1233: )eop"e $# ennett (2011) 1&2 Cal.App.3th &02- &1#.) *Gut the re@uire(ent that a (is,e(eanor (ust ha.e occurre, in the o""icerDs presence to Custi"y a 0arrantless arrest is not groun,e, in the Fourth Amendment./ (-e"sh $# -isconsin (1&#3) 355 4.S. 230- 2$5 6#0 7.8,.2n, 2329: opinion o" Justice Ehite- citing Street $# Surd&(a (3th Cir. 1&23) 3&2 B.2n, 35#- 321%222.) A .iolation by a police o""icer o" a state statute- such statute li(iting the o""icer s right to (aFe a custo,ial arrest or a search- so long as not also in .iolation o" the Fourth Amendment- ,oes not result in the suppression o" the resulting e.i,ence unless (an,ate, by the ter(s o" the statute. Ehile a state is e(po0ere, to enact (ore restricti.e search an, sei;ure rules- .iolation o" those rules that are not also a Fourth Amendment .iolation- ,oes not in.oFe the Fourth Amendment.s e?clusionary rule. (9ir1inia $# %oore (200#) $$3 4.S. 153 6120 7.8,.2n, $$&9: )eop"e $# >inos (2011) 1&2 Cal.App.3th 532- 5$3.) 125
< 2013 Robert C. Phillips. All rights reser.e,

*-he )iolation of a state statute! standin. alone! does not


form the basis for su((ression under the Fourth Amendment.3 ('eo(le v. ardacre (2004) 116 Cal.4((.4th 1292! 1/012 United States $# %iranda3

Guerena (&th Cir. 2005) 33$ B.3r, 1233.) *>t is elemental that the ille.alit* taintin. e)idence and
renderin. it inadmissible is ille.alit* flo+in. from the )iolation of a defendant,s constitutional ri.hts?(rimaril* those in)ol)in. unla+ful searches and sei@ures in )iolation of the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution and the essentiall* identical .uarantee of (ersonal (ri)ac* set forth in article I! section 19! of the California Constitution . "Citations.& $)idence obtained in )iolation of a statute is not inadmissible (er se unless the statutor* )iolation also has a constitutional dimension.3 ('eo(le v. *rannon (197/) /2 Cal.4((./d 971! 97%2

)eop"e $# )i'er (1&#&) 215 Cal.App.3r, &$5- &52%&53.) See also the sa(e reasoning being use, in Rodri1ue5 $# Superior Court (1&##) 1&& Cal.App.3r, 13$3- 1320: suggesting that because a *nighttime/ search ,oes not .iolate any constitutional principles- e.i,ence ,isco.ere, ,uring a nightti(e search 0ithout Cu,icial authori;ation- in .iolation o" the re@uire(ents o" (!C! 1)33, shoul, not result in suppression o" any e.i,ence. An, see )eop"e $# Co""ins (2003) 11$ Cal.App.3th 132) Uiolation o" the a,(inistrati.e pro.isions "or the searching o" prisoners in a prison- absent a constitutional .iolation,oes not re@uire the suppression o" any resulting e.i,ence. +he use o" a *Phlebotomist/ to ,ra0 bloo, "ro( a *Dri.ing 0hile 4n,er the 1n"luence/ (i.e.- *D41/) suspect- as oppose, to using one o" the (e,ical pro"essionals authori;e, by 0!C! 231)#- not being a constitutional .iolation (erely ,ue to the .iolation o" the statute- ,oes not result in the suppression o" any e.i,ence. ()eop"e $# Esa&ian (2003) 112 Cal.App.3th 1031E )eop"e $# %c0u1h (2003) 11& Cal.App.3th 202: )eop"e $# %ate";an (200$) 12& Cal.App.3th 352- 325%322.) A .iolation o" *implied consent law-/ "orcing a *D41/ (Dri.ing Ehile 4n,er the 1n"luence/) suspect to su((it to a bloo, test instea, o" a breath test- being a .iolation o" state la0 only- ,oes not e?pose the o""icer to any ci.il 122
< 2013 Robert C. Phillips. All rights reser.e,

liability. (Ritsche" $# Cit& o' Fountain 9a""e& (200$) 132 Cal.App.3th 102.) Ehile a state (ay i(pose stricter stan,ar,s on la0 en"orce(ent in interpreting its o0n state constitution (i.e.*independent state grounds/)- a prosecution in "e,eral court is gui,e, by the "e,eral interpretation o" the Fourth Amendment an, is not re@uire, to use the state s stricter stan,ar,s. (United States $# ro.st (&th Cir. 200&) $$# B.3r, &#2- &#&%&&1- &&2.) OistaFenly collecting bloo, sa(ples "or inclusion into Cali"ornia s DJA ,ata base (See P.C. V 2&5)- 0hen the ,e"en,ant ,i, not actually ha.e a @uali"ying prior con.iction- ,oes not re@uire the suppression o" the (istaFenly collecte, bloo, sa(ples- nor is it groun,s to suppress the resulting (atch o" the ,e"en,ant s DJA 0ith that le"t at a cri(e scene. ()eop"e $# Ro.inson (2010) 32 Cal.3th 1103- 1115%112&.) +he Jinth Circuit Court o" Appeal is no0 in accor, 0ith the rule o" 9ir1inia $# %oore. (Ed1er"& $# Cit& and Count& o' San Francisco (&th Cir. 2010) $&& B.3r, &35&$$%&$5.) *rrest for an 'nfraction or ,isdemeanor) Release Re@uirement) Persons subCect to citation "or the .iolation o" a cri(e ,ee(e, to be an *infraction/ must be release, on a citation- e?cept in li(ite, circu(stances. 1" the person to be cite, ,oes not ha.e a ,ri.er s license or other satis"actory e.i,ence o" i,enti"ication- the o""icer may (in lieu o" a custo,ial arrest- at the o""icer s ,iscretion) re@uire the arrestee to place a right thu(bprintor le"t thu(bprint or "ingerprint i" the person has a (issing or ,is"igure, right thu(b- on the pro(ise to appear. ((!C! #)3!)) See also (u4lic 8esources Code )1#2!11- "or the authority "or uni"or(e, e(ployees o" a ParFs an, Recreation District to issue (is,e(eanor an, in"raction citations "or .iolations o" state la0- city or county or,inances- or ,istrict rules- regulations- or or,inances 0hen the .iolation is co((itte, 0ithin a recreation "acility an, in the presence o" the e(ployee issuing the citation.

12#
< 2013 Robert C. Phillips. All rights reser.e,

Exceptions) +he e?ceptions to the re@uire(ent that the subCect be release, on his 0ritten pro(ise to appear 0hen arreste, "or an in"raction- as liste, in (!C! #)3!)+a,- are) As speci"ie, in 0!C! 43332- 43333- 4333) an, 4333)!) (see belo0): or +he arrestee re"uses to sign a 0ritten pro(ise to appear: or +he arrestee has no satis"actory i,enti"ication: or +he arrestee- 0ithout satis"actory i,enti"ication- re"uses to pro.i,e a thu(bprint or "ingerprint. Gecause the section is 0ritten in the ,isCuncti.e- it is the opinion o" the State Attorney Leneral that i" the person ,oes not ha.e satis"actory e.i,ence o" i,enti"ication- the o""icer has the ,iscretion to taFe the person into physical custo,y ,espite the "act that the person is 0illing to sign a 0ritten pro(ise to appear an, to pro.i,e a thu(bprint. (200$- Opn#Ca"#Att&#Gen2- ^0$%205) !""icers 0ere entitle, to su((ary Cu,g(ent on plainti"" s "alse arrest clai( "aile, because it 0as un,ispute, that plainti"" re"use, to sign a notice to appear- an, (!C! #3)!)+a, authori;e, plainti"" s arrest an, ,etention "or "ailing to sign the notice to appear. (A1ha $# Rosen1ren (&th Cir. 200#) 225 Be,.Appro?. $2&: 200# 4.S.App. 78T1S &&33: an unpublishe, ,ecision.) See United States $# %ota (&th Cir. 1&&3) &#2 B.2n, 13#30here it 0as hel, that a physical arrest o" a person co((itting a business license in"raction 0as a constitutional .iolation re@uiring the suppression o" e.i,ence) Yuestionable authority a"ter 9ir1inia $# %oore (200#) $$3 4.S. 153 6120 7.8,.2n, $$&9- hol,ing that booFing a suspect "or a non%booFable cri(inal .iolation is not a Fourth Amendment .iolation. (See * anctions for Violations-/ abo.e.) 0!C! 43332: Persons 0ho 0oul, other0ise be cite, an, release, "or a 0ehicle Code in"raction or (is,e(eanor shall be arreste, an, taFen i((e,iately be"ore a (agistrate 0hen the person) Bails to present his ,ri.er s license or other satis"actory e.i,ence o" his i,entity "or e?a(ination: or Re"uses to gi.e his 0ritten pro(ise to appear: or De(an,s an i((e,iate appearance be"ore a (agistrate: or 12&
< 2013 Robert C. Phillips. All rights reser.e,

1s charge, 0ith .iolating 0!C! 231)2 (i.e.- *dri!ing while under the influence./).

*;ther atisfactory E!idence of His 'dentity)/ +he arresting o""icer has the ,iscretion to ,eter(ine 0hat constitutes *other satisfactory e!idence of his identity-/ 0hen the subCect "ails to pro.i,e a ,ri.er s license as re@uire, by the section. ()eop"e $# %onroe (1&&3) 12 Cal.App.3th 1123- 11#2: )eop"e $# %c/a& (2002) 22 Cal.3th 501- 51&%52$.) Io0e.er- that ,iscretion is not unli(ite,. 1,enti"ication ,ocu(ents 0hich are an *effecti!e e@ui!alent/ are presumpti!ely (i.e.- in the absence o" contrary e.i,ence) su""icient. +his 0oul, inclu,e a Cali"ornia i,entity car, (issue, per 0!C! 13333) or any current 0ritten i,enti"ication 0hich contains at a (ini(u( a photograph an, ,escription o" the person na(e, on it- a current (ailing a,,ress- a signature o" the person- an, a serial or other i,enti"ying nu(ber. ()eop"e $# %onroe- supra- at p. 11#5.) +he o""icer is not legally obligate, to (aFe ra,io or other in@uires in an atte(pt to .eri"y the person s oral assertions o" i,entity. (Id.- at p. 11#&: )eop"e $# %c/a&- supra.) An o""icer s re"usal to accept oral state(ents as su""icient e.i,ence o" i,entity 0ill be uphel, on appeal. ()eop"e $# %c/a&- supra: )eop"e $# Grant (1&&0) 212 Cal.App.3r, 13$1- 13$$: see also )eop"e $# Anderson (1&5#) 255 Cal.App.2n, 12$- 12#.) An o""icer s re"usal to accept a Social Security car, uphel, on appeal. ()eop"e $# Far"e& (1&21) 20 Cal.App.3r, 10321035- "n. 2.) See &&( Code 2)223- ,escribing 0hat is consi,ere, to be Gbona fide e!idence of age/ "or purposes o" purchasing alcoholic be.erages) (1) A .ali, .ehicle operator s license containing the person s na(e- ,ate o" birth- physical ,escription an, picture. (2) A .ali, passport issue, by the 4nite, States or a "oreign go.ern(ent. (3) A .ali, (ilitary i,enti"ication car, that inclu,es a ,ate o" birth an, picture o" the person. 1#0
< 2013 Robert C. Phillips. All rights reser.e,

0!C! 43333: *rrestable ;ffenses) +his section lists 12 ,i""erent circu(stances in 0hich an arresting o""icer has the option o" either taFing a person *without unnecessary delay/ be"ore a (agistrateor releasing the person 0ith a 10%,ays 0ritten notice to appear) Uiolation o" 0!C! 13#)2 or 13#)3- relating to inCuring or ta(pering 0ith a .ehicle. Uiolation o" 0!C! 23133 or 23134- relating to recFless ,ri.ing. Uiolation o" 0!C! 2#33+a,- relating to "ailure to stop an, sub(it to an inspection or test o" a .ehicle s lights per 0!C! 2#34. Uiolation o" 0!C! 2#33+a,- relating to "ailure to stop an, sub(it to a braFe test. Uiolation o" 0!C! 2#33+a,- relating to "ailure to stop an, sub(it to a .ehicle inspection- (easure(ent- or 0eighingper 0!C! 2#32- or a re"usal to a,Cust the loa, or obtain a per(it- per 0!C! 2#33. Uiolation o" 0!C! 2#33+a,- relating to continuing to ,ri.e a"ter being la0"ully or,ere, not to ,ri.e by a (e(ber o" the Cali"ornia Iigh0ay Patrol "or .iolating the ,ri.er s hours o" ser.ice or ,ri.er s log regulations- per 0!C! 34)31+a,. Uiolation o" 0!C! 2#33+4,- +c, or +d,- relating to "ailure or re"usal to co(ply 0ith any la0"ul out%o"%ser.ice or,er. Uiolation o" 0!C! 23332 or 23333- relating to ,uties in the e.ent o" an acci,ent. Uiolation o" 0!C! 2313"- relating to participating in a spee, contest or e?hibition o" spee,. Uiolation o" 0!C! 14231, 14231!1, 14231!2, or 14231!)relating to ,ri.ing on a suspen,e, or re.oFe, license. Ehen the person arreste, has atte(pte, to e.a,e arrest. Uiolation o" 0!C! 23332- relating to persons upon .ehicular crossings. Uiolation o" 0!C! 2#13- relating to the re"usal to stop an, sub(it a .ehicle to an inspection o" its si;e- 0eight- an, e@uip(ent. Uiolation o" 0!C! 21421!)- relating to being "oun, on a "ree0ay 0ithin 23 hours o" being cite, "or sa(e- an, re"using to lea.e 0hen la0"ully or,ere, to ,o so by a peace o""icer a"ter ha.ing been in"or(e, that he is subCect to arrest. Uiolation o" 0!C! 2#33+a, relating to being "oun, on a bri,ge or o.erpass 0ithin 23 hours o" being cite, "or sa(e1#1

< 2013 Robert C. Phillips. All rights reser.e,

an, re"using to lea.e 0hen la0"ully or,ere, to ,o so by a peace o""icer pursuant to 0!C! 21"22- a"ter ha.ing been in"or(e, that he is subCect to arrest. Uiolation o" 0!C! 21233!)- relating to ri,ing a bicycle 0hile un,er the in"luence o" alcohol an,Nor ,rugs. Uiolation o" 0!C! 21221!)- relating to operating a (otori;e, scooter 0hile un,er the in"luence o" alcohol an,Nor ,rugs.

0!C! 12#31!)+e,) The #nlicensed Dri!er) *Jot0ithstan,ing (0!C!) Section 43333 or any other pro.ision o" la0- a peace o""icer (ay not ,etain or arrest a person solely on the belie" that the person is an unlicensed dri!er- unless the o""icer has reasonable cause to belie.e the person is un,er the age o" 15 years./ See *ingha) v. "ity o# Manhattan *each (9th Cir. 200/)
/29 1./rd 72/! amended and su(erseded on denial of rehearin. at /41 1./rd 9/92 arrest for dri)in. +ith an ex(ired dri)er,s license! in contra)ention of this statute! sub6ects the offendin. officer to federal ci)il liabilit*9

Yuestionable authority a"ter 9ir1inia $# %oore (200#) $$3 4.S. 153 6120 7.8,.2n, $$&9- hol,ing that booFing a suspect "or a non%booFable cri(inal .iolation is not a Fourth Amendment .iolation. (See * anctions for Violations-/ abo.e.) 0!C! 4333)) +on6Residents) A nonresident 0ho is arreste, "or any .iolation o" the 0ehicle Code an, 0ho "ails to pro.i,e satis"actory e.i,ence o" i,entity and an a,,ress 0ithin this State at 0hich he can be locate, may be taFen i((e,iately be"ore a (agistrate. 0!C! 4333)!)) Traffic *rrest $ail $ond &ertificate) Pro.isions "or the arresting o""icer to recei.e a guarantee, tra""ic arrest bail bon, certi"icate (0ith the re@uire(ents "or such a certi"icate liste,) 0hen a nonresi,ent ,ri.er o" a co((ercial .ehicle o" 2-000 poun,s or (ore (e?clu,ing house cars) is arreste, "or .iolating any pro.ision o" the 0ehicle Code an, "ails to pro.i,e satis"actory e.i,ence o" i,enti"ication and an a,,ress 0ithin the State at 0hich he can be locate,. (!C! #)3!2+i,) ,isdemeanor &itations) A person arreste, "or a misdemeanor (ust also be cite, (on a *misdemeanor citation form/) an, release, unless one o" the "ollo0ing statutory e?ceptions applies) 1#2
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+he person is into?icate,. +he person re@uires (e,ical treat(ent. +he person 0as arreste, "or one or (ore o" the o""enses liste, in 0!C! 43332 or 43333 (see abo.e). +he person has outstan,ing 0arrants. +he person is unable to pro.i,e *satisfactory e!idence of identification/ (see abo.e). Prosecution 0oul, be Ceopar,i;e, by i((e,iate release. Reasonable liFelihoo, that the o""ense 0oul, continue or that persons or property 0oul, be i((inently en,angere, by the release o" the person. +he person ,e(an,s to be taFen be"ore a (agistrate or re"uses to sign the notice to appear. +here is reason to belie.e that the person 0oul, not appear on the citation. +he person 0as subCect to (!C! 1213!1. (!C! 1213!1 prohibits the release o" a person "or a speci"ie, cri(e on his or her o0n recogni;ance- or on bail in an a(ount that is either (ore or less than the a(ount that is containe, in the bail sche,ule "or that o""ense. +his inclu,es the "ollo0ing o""enses) Serious "elonies- per (!C! 11"2!1+c,. Uiolent "elonies- per (!C! 221!)+c,. Do(estic .iolence 0ith corporal inCury- per (!C! 213!). Eitness inti(i,ation- per (!C! 132!1+c,. Spousal rape- per (!C! 222. StalFing- per (!C! 242!". Belony cri(inal threats- per (!C! 422. Ois,e(eanor ,o(estic .iolence- per (!C! 243+e,+1,. Restraining or,er .iolations- per (!C! 213!2- i" the ,etaine, person (a,e threats to Fill or har(- engage, in .iolence against- or 0ent to the resi,ence or 0orFplace o"- the protecte, party.

1t is not unconstitutional to (aFe a custo,ial arrest (i.e.transporting to Cail or court) o" a person arreste, "or a (inor (is,e(eanor (At,ater $# Cit& o' 2a1o 9ista (2001) $32 4.S. 31# 613& 7.8,.2n, $3&9.)- or e.en "or a "ine%only1#3
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in"raction. ()eop"e $# %c/a& (2002) 22 Cal.3th 501- 502: see also United States $# %cFadden (2n, Cir. 2001) 23# B.3r, 1&#- 203.) Cali"ornia s statutory pro.isions re@uire the release o" (is,e(eanor arrestees in (ost circu(stances. (e.g.- see (!C! #)3!), #)3!2, 0!C! 43333, 43)33) Io0e.er.iolation o" these statutory re@uire(ents is not a constitutional .iolation an,- there"ore- should not result in suppression o" any e.i,ence reco.ere, as a result o" such an arrest. ()eop"e $# %c/a&- supra- at pp. 502%51&- a .iolation o" 0!C! 212)3!1 (ri,ing a bicycle in the 0rong ,irection): )eop"e $# Gome5 (2003) 112 Cal.App.3th $31$3&- seat belt .iolation (0!C! 2131)+d,+1,)- citing At,ater $# Cit& o' 2a1o 9ista (2001) $32 4.S. 31# 613& 7.8,.2n, $3&9: )eop"e $# ennett (July 21- 2011) 1&2 Cal.App.3th &02- &1#.) +he 4nite, States Supre(e Court has recently a""ir(e, this principle) A .iolation by a police o""icer o" a state statutesuch statute li(iting the o""icer s right to (aFe a custo,ial arrest or a search- so long as not also in .iolation o" the Fourth Amendment- ,oes not result in the suppression o" the resulting e.i,ence unless (an,ate, by the ter(s o" the statute. Ehile a state is e(po0ere, to enact (ore restricti.e search an, sei;ure rules- .iolation o" those rules that are not also a Fourth Amendment .iolation- ,oes not in.oFe the Fourth Amendment.s e?clusionary rule. (9ir1inia $# %oore (200#) $$3 4.S. 153 6120 7.8,.2n, $$&9: )eop"e $# >inos (2011) 1&2 Cal.App.3th 532- 5$3.) =ith an Existing =arrant of *rrest) (!C! #1#) A peace o""icer ser.ing upon a person a 0arrant o" arrest "or a (is,e(eanor o""ense un,er the 0ehicle Code or un,er any local or,inance relating to stopping- stan,ing- parFing- or operation o" a (otor .ehicle an, 0here no 0ritten pro(ise to appear has been "ile, an, the 0arrant states on its "ace that a citation (ay be use, in lieu o" physical arrest- (ay- instea, o" taFing the person be"ore a (agistrate- prepare a notice to appear an, release the person on his or her pro(ise to appear. 1n such a case1#3
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issuing a citation is ,ee(e, to be co(pliance 0ith ,irections o" the 0arrant. +he o""icer shall en,orse on the 0arrant: *Section #1#- (enal Code- co(plie, 0ith-/ an, return the 0arrant to the (agistrate 0ho issue, it. (!C! #21!1) A person "or 0ho( an arrest 0arrant has been issue, "or a (is,e(eanor o""ense may be release, upon the issuance o" a citation- issue, per (!C! #)3!2 to #)3!#- in lieu o" physical arrest- unless one o" the "ollo0ing con,itions e?ists) +he (is,e(eanor cite, in the 0arrant in.ol.es .iolence. +he (is,e(eanor cite, in the 0arrant in.ol.es a "irear(. +he (is,e(eanor cite, in the 0arrant in.ol.es resisting arrest. +he (is,e(eanor cite, in the 0arrant in.ol.es gi.ing "alse in"or(ation to a peace o""icer. +he person arreste, is a ,anger to hi(sel" or hersel" or others ,ue to into?ication or being un,er the in"luence o" ,rugs or narcotics. +he person re@uires (e,ical e?a(ination or (e,ical care or 0as other0ise unable to care "or his or her o0n sa"ety. +he person has other ineligible charge, pen,ing against hi( or her. +here is reasonable liFelihoo, that the o""ense or o""enses 0oul, continue to resu(e- or that the sa"ety o" persons or property 0oul, be i((e,iately en,angere, by the release o" the person. +he person re"uses to sign the notice to appear. +he person cannot pro.i,e satis"actory e.i,ence o" personal i,enti"ication. +he 0arrant o" arrest in,icates that the person is not eligible to be release, on a citation.

Arrest -arrants)

Defined) A warrant of arrest is a 0ritten or,er- signe, by a (agistratean, generally ,irecte, to a peace o""icer- co((an,ing the arrest o" the ,e"en,ant. ((!C! #13- #14- W #1))

1#$
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A 0arrant 0ill issue *if- and only if- the (agistrate is satis"ie, "ro( the co(plaint that the o""ense co(plaine, o" has been co((itte, an, that there is reasonable groun, to belie.e that the ,e"en,ant has co((itte, it- . . . ./ (Emphasis added: (!C! #13+a,) +he 0arrant (ust be supporte, by a s0orn state(ent (a,e in 0riting- re"lecting the probable cause "or the arrest. ((!C! #11+4,) Io0e.er- an *administrati!e warrant-/ issue, pursuant to 1# !S!C! 4213+a, "or the retaFing o" an allege, parole .iolator- is not subCect to the oath or a""ir(ation re@uire(ent o" the Fourth Amendment. (United States $# Sherman (&th Cir. 2002) $02 B.3r, #5&: noting that the rule is to the contrary 0hen the 0arrant is "or a super.ise, release .iolation- per 1# !S!C! 3)#3+i,- as hel, by United States $# 9ar1as3Ama&a (&th Cir. 2003) 3#& B.3r, &01.) +he *complaint/ (ust be bacFe, by a "actual sho0ing (i.e.- a declaration or affida!it) re"lecting probable cause. (See )eop"e $# Sess"in (1&5#) 5# Cal.2n, 31#.) &ontent) An arrest 0arrant is ,irecte, to *any peace officer- or any public officer or employee authorized to ser!e process where the warrant is for a !iolation of a statute or ordinance which such person has the duty to enforce/ (8(phasis a,,e,)- an, states the "ollo0ing ((!C! #12)) +he cri(e- ,esignate, in general ter(s. +he ,e"en,ant s na(e- or- i" this is unFno0n- any na(e. (8.g.*John Doe./) +he ,ate an, ti(e o" issuance. Gail. +he city or county 0here it is issue,. +he ,uty o" the arresting o""icer to bring the ,e"en,ant be"ore the (agistrate. +he Cu,ge s signature. +he court.

;ther Types of *rrest =arrants) $ench =arrant) An arrest 0arrant "or a ,e"en,ant 0ho has been ,ischarge, on bail an, subse@uently "ails to appear in court. ((!C! "1" et se*!) 1#5
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A bench 0arrant- issue, by a neutral an, ,etache, (agistrate upon a ,e"en,ant s "ailure to appear- is legal Custi"ication "or (aFing entry into a resi,ence in 0hich there is probable cause to belie.e the subCect o" the 0arrant is hi,ing- ,espite the "act that such a 0arrant is issue, 0ithout a "in,ing o" probable cause. (United States $# Gooch (&th Cir. 2002) $05 B.3r, 11$5.) Telephonic *rrest =arrant) An arrest 0arrant utili;ing telephonic co((unication bet0een the (agistrate an, the a""iant- an, "acsi(ile (i.e.- *fax/) trans(ission e@uip(ent or co(puter e%(ailto sen, the necessary ,ocu(ents to the (agistrate "or signature an, return o" the 0arrant to the a""iant. ((!C! #11+c,, +d,, +e, & +f,) See (!C! #11+f, "or the suggeste, 0arrant "or(at. *Rame& =arrant)/ A ter( o" art use, to ,escribe an arrest 0arrant issue, prior to the court "iling o" a cri(inal case against a speci"ic ,e"en,ant. (See )eop"e $# Rame& (1&25) 15 Cal.3r, 253.) +ote) !r,inarily- a prere@uisite to the issuance o" an arrest 0arrant is the "iling o" a co(plaint 0ith the (agistratecharging a "elony originally triable in the superior court o" the county- or 0here the co(plaint is presente, to a Cu,ge in a (is,e(eanor or in"raction case- charging an o""ense triable in that Cu,ge s court. Io0e.er- the "or(al "iling o" a 0ritten co(plaint is not a con,ition prece,ent to issuance o" an arrest 0arrant. ()eop"e $# Case (1&#0) 10$ Cal.App.3r, #25- #32.) 7ong appro.e, by case la0 ()eop"e $# Case, supra: an, )eop"e $# itta(er (1&#&) 3# Cal.3r, 1035- 1020%1022.)pre%"iling arrest 0arrants are no0 authori;e, by statute. ((!C! #11+a,) * *D+*, :ohn Doe/ =arrant) An arrest 0arrant (ust i,enti"y the subCect o" the subCect o" the 0arrant 0ith reasonable certainty. Describing the subCect o" an arrest 0arrant as (erely *John Doe/ 0ith a ,escription o" a particular DJA pro"ile is su""icient to (eet this constitutional re@uire(ent. (State o' -isconsin $# Da.ne& (2003) 2$3 Eis.2n, 33 6553 J.E.1n, 3559.) 1#2
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+he Cali"ornia Supre(e Court is in agree(ent- hol,ing that a DJA pro"ile is an accurate- reliable- an, .ali, (etho, o" i,enti"ying a ,e"en,ant in an arrest 0arrant because it is particular in its ,escription. 1t neither .iolates the Fourth Amendment- Cali"ornia s statutes authori;ing arrest 0arrants (see (!C! #13- #1)- #)"- #23)- nor a ,e"en,ant s ,ue process rights. ()eop"e $# Ro.inson (2010) 32 Cal.3th 1103- 112&%1133.) +ecessity of an *rrest =arrant) Earrantless arrests- at least at any location other than 0ithin one s pri.ate ho(e or other area to 0hich the public ,oes not ha.e rea,y access (see belo0)- ha.e been hel, by the 4nite, States Supre(e Court to be la0"ul- at least 0hen the o""ense is a "elony (0hether or not it occurre, in the o""icer s presence)- or "or any o""ense ("elony or (is,e(eanor) 0hich occurs in the o""icer s presence (see belo0). (United States $# -atson (1&25) 323 4.S. 311 635 7.8,.2n, $&#9.) Surroun,ing a barrica,e, suspect in his ho(e is in e""ect a 0arrantless arrest- Custi"ie, by the e?igent circu(stances. +he passage o" ti(e ,uring the ensuing stan,o"" ,oes not ,issipate that e?igency to 0here o""icers are e?pecte, to seeF the authori;ation o" a Cu,ge to taFe the suspect into physical custo,y. (Fisher $# Cit& o' San *ose (&th Cir. 200&) $$# B.3r, 105&: o.erruling its o0n prior hol,ing (at $0& B.3r, &$2) 0here it 0as hel, that "ailure to obtain an arrest 0arrant ,uring a 12 hour stan,o"" resulte, in an illegal arrest o" the barrica,e, suspect.) er!ice and Return) (elony arrest warrants (ay be e?ecute, anyti(e- any0here- ,ay or night. ((!C! #32+a,, #43) $ut see Stea1a"d $# United States (1&#1) 3$1 4.S. 203 65# 7.8,.2n, 3#9- belo0- (an,ating a search 0arrant to e?ecute an arrest 0arrant in a third party)s ho(e. ,isdemeanor arrest warrants (ay be ser.e, anyti(e- any0here,ay or night- except that 0hen the suspect is not in public but not alrea,y in custo,y (e.g.- in his resi,ence)- the 0arrant (ay not be ser.e, bet0een /.I.. p2m2 and 7I.. a2m2 unless the 0arrant is *endorsed/ "or *night ser!ice/ in 0hich case it (ay be ser.e, at any ti(e. ((!C! #43+4,) 1##
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*+ight er!ice/ (ust be Custi"ie, in the 0arrant a""i,a.it,escribing the nee, to (aFe the arrest in other than the ,ayti(e. (See )eop"e $# /im."e (1&##) 33 Cal.3r, 3#0- 3&3: ,iscussing the nee, "or Custi"ying nightti(e ser.ice "or a search 0arrant.) Euery) 1" an o""icer is alrea,y la0"ully in the house- (ay a (is,e(eanor arrest 0arrant be e?ecute, ,espite the lacF o" a nightti(e en,orse(entM #n?nown. (!C! #43 itsel" ,oes not pro.i,e "or any such e?ception. Gut since this li(itation on arrests has been hel, to be statutory only- an, not o" constitutional origins ()eop"e $# -hitted (1&25) 50 Cal.App.3r, $5&.)- no e.i,ence 0oul, be suppresse, any0ay- (aFing this @uestion (oot. +ecessity of Ha!ing a &opy of The *rrest =arrant) +he la0 conte(plates that 0hen an arrest is (a,e- the o""icer should ha.e a copy o" the 0arrant in his possession. ()eop"e $# Thomas (1&$2) 1$5 Cal.App.2n, 112- 120.) Io0e.er- it has been hel, that there is no .iolation e.en though he ,oes not. ((!C! #42: )eop"e $# %i""er (1&51) 1&3 Cal.App.2n, #3#- #3&.) Io0e.er- i" re@ueste,- the arrestee shall be sho0n a copy o" the 0arrant as soon as it is practicable to ,o so. ((!C! #42) Anoc? and +otice) +he *FnocF an, notice/ rules (see Search Earrants- belo0) apply as 0ell to the e?ecution o" an arrest 0arrant- an, "or 0arrantless arrests 0ithin a resi,ence. ((!C! #44.) +he rule that e.i,ence 0ill not be suppresse, as a result o" a FnocF an, notice .iolation- as ,ictate, by 0udson $# %ichi1an (2005) $32 4.S. $#5 615$ 7.8,.2n, $59 (a search 0arrant case.)- is applicable as 0ell as in a 0arrantless- yet la0"ul- arrest case- pursuant to (!C! #44. (In re Fran( S# (2005) 132 Cal.App.3th 13$.) Procedure *fter *rrest) Disposition of Prisoner) An o""icer (aFing an arrest in obe,ience to a 0arrant (ust procee, 0ith the arrestee as co((an,e, by the 0arrant- or as pro.i,e, by la0. ((!C! #4#) 1#&
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'n6&ounty *rrest =arrants) 1" the o""ense is "or a "elony- an, the arrest occurs in the county in 0hich the 0arrant 0as issue,- the o""icer (aFing the arrest (ust taFe the ,e"en,ant be"ore the (agistrate 0ho issue, the 0arrant or so(e other (agistrate o" the sa(e county. ((!C! #21) +ote) 1n reality- an arrestee is typically taFen to Cail 0here he or she 0ill a0ait the a.ailability o" a (agistrate. ;ut6of6&ounty *rrest =arrants) 1" the ,e"en,ant is arreste, in another county on either a "elony ((!C! #21) or a (is,e(eanor ((!C! #22) 0arrant- the o""icer (ust- 0ithout unnecessary ,elay) 1n"or( the ,e"en,ant in 0riting o" his right to be taFen be"ore a (agistrate in that county: and Jote on the 0arrant that he has so in"or(e, ,e"en,ant: and 4pon being re@ueste, by the ,e"en,ant- taFe hi( be"ore a (agistrate in that county. +hat (agistrate is to a,(it the ,e"en,ant to the bail speci"ie, on the 0arrant- i" any. ((!C! #21- #22) 1" the o""ense is a (is,e(eanor- an, no bail is speci"ie, on the 0arrant- the (agistrate (ay set the bail. ((!C! #22) 1" the ,e"en,ant ,oes not bail out "or any reason- la0 en"orce(ent o""icers "ro( the county 0here the 0arrant 0as issue, ha.e "i.e ($) ,ays (or "i.e ($) court days i" the o""ense is a "elony an, the la0 en"orce(ent agency is (ore than 300 (iles "ro( the county 0here the ,e"en,ant is being hel,) to taFe custo,y o" the ,e"en,ant. ((!C! #21, #22) (See 52 Op#Ca"#Att&#Gen. 2#- 2%15%2&)

1&0
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+ote9

-here are no similar statutor* re=uirements for an out5of5count* arrest made without an arrest +arrant (i.e.! a 7(robable cause3 arrest).

+ote) *rrests without a =arrant: (!C! #4"+a,) An o""icer (or pri.ate person) (aFing an arrest without a warrant shall- 0ithout unnecessary ,elay- taFe the prisoner not other0ise release, be"ore the nearest or (ost accessible (agistrate in the county in 0hich the o""ense is triable- an, a co(plaint stating the charge against the arreste, person shall be lai, be"ore such (agistrate. +ecessity of Ha!ing Probable &ause or Reasonable uspicion) 4ntil recently- it has been hel, that be"ore a police o""icer (ay enter a ho(e- absent consent to enter- the o""icer (ust ha.e *probable cause/ to belie.e the person 0ho is the subCect o" the arrest 0arrant is actually insi,e at the ti(e. (See )eop"e $# *aco.s (1&#2) 33 Cal.3r, 322: United States $# Gorman (&th Cir. 2002) 313 B.3r, 110$: United States $# Dia5 (&th Cir. 2002) 3&1 B.3r, 1023: United States $# )hi""ips (&th Cir. 1&23) 3&2 B.2n, 1131: (United States $# Gooch (&th Cir. 2002) $05 B.3r, 11$5- 11$&- "n. 2: Cue$as $# De Roco (&th Cir. 200#) $31 B.3r, 225: United States $# %a&er (&th Cir. 200#) $30 B.3r, 10&&- 11%3%1103.) *1t is not ,ispute, that until the point o" GuieDs arrest the police ha, the right- base, on the authority o" the arrest 0arrant- to search any0here in the house that Guie (ight ha.e been "oun,- . . ./ (%ar&"and $# uie (1&&0) 3&3 4.S. 32$- 330 610# 7.8,.2n, 225- 2#39.) An arrest 0arrant constitutes legal authority to enter the suspect s resi,ence an, search "or hi(. ()eop"e $# 2e "anc (1&&2) 50 Cal.App.3th 1$2- 153.) *Gecause an arrest 0arrant authori;es the police to ,epri.e a person o" his liberty- it necessarily also authori;es a li(ite, in.asion o" that personDs pri.acy interest 0hen it is necessary to arrest hi( in his ho(e./ (Stea1a"d $# United States (1&#1) 3$1 4.S. 203- 213%21$- "n. 2 65# 7.8,.2n, 3#359.) *+hus- "or Fourth Amendment purposes- an arrest 0arrant "oun,e, on probable cause i(plicitly carries 0ith it the li(ite, authority to enter a ,0elling in 0hich the suspect 1&1
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li.es 0hen there is reason to belie!e the suspect is 0ithin./ (1talics a,,e,: )a&ton $# Ne, Yor( (1&#0) 33$ 4.S. $23503 653 7.8,.2n, 53&- 5519.) +his *reason to belie!e/ language- in (aFing re"erence to the liFelihoo, that the subCect is ho(e at the ti(e the arrest 0arrant is ser.e,- has until recently been interprete, by both state an, "e,eral authority to re@uire "ull%blo0n *probable cause/ to belie.e the suspect is there at that ti(e. (See )eop"e $# *aco.s- supra: United States $# Gorman- supra: an, United States $# )hi""ips- supra: see * ufficiency of E!idence to $elie!e the uspect is 'nside-/ belo0.) Joting that "i.e other "e,eral circuits ha.e rule, that so(ething less than probable cause is re@uire,- an, that the Jinth Circuit is a (inority opinion (see United States $# Gorman- supra.)- the Bourth District Court o" Appeal (Di.. 2) "oun, instea, that an o""icer e?ecuting an arrest 0arrant or con,ucting a probation or parole search (ay enter a ,0elling i" he or she has only a reasonable belief- "alling short o" probable cause to belie.e- the suspect both li.es there an, is present at the ti(e. 8(ploying that stan,ar,the entry into ,e"en,ant s apart(ent to con,uct a probation search 0as la0"ul base, on all o" the in"or(ation Fno0n to the o""icers. Accor,ingly- the court uphel, the trial court s conclusion that the o""icers ha, obCecti.ely reasonable groun,s to conclu,e the ,e"en,antNprobationer li.e, at the subCect apart(ent- an, there"ore the o""icers ha, the right to enter the apart(ent to con,uct a 0arrantless probation search. ()eop"e $# Do,ne& (2011) 1&# Cal.App.3th 5$25$2%552.) Also noting that the Cali"ornia Supre(e Court- in )eop"e $# *aco.s- supra- 0hen rea, correctly (see pg. 32&- "n. 3)- ,i, not "in, that probable cause 0as re@uire,- contrary to popular belie". (Id.- at p. 552.) See * ufficiency of E!idence that the uspect is 'nside-/ belo0. The *Stea1a"d =arrant)/ 1" the person is in a third party)s homeabsent consent to enter- a search warrant "or the resi,ence (ust be obtaine, in a,,ition to the arrest 0arrant. (Stea1a"d $# United States- supra- at pp. 211%222 65# 7.8,.2n, at pp. 3$%$29: )eop"e $# Codinha (1&#2) 13# Cal.App.3r, 152: see (!C! 1)24+a,+2,.) 1&2
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+ote) Securing such a search 0arrant 0ill- o" coursere@uire *probable cause/ to belie.e that the subCect o" the arrest 0arrant is in the place to be searche,. tatute of "imitations) !btaining an arrest 0arrant 0ill *toll/ (i.e.*stop/) the running o" the statute o" li(itations "or the charge, o""ense(s). ((!C! #33- #34: )eop"e $# 2ee (2000) #2 Cal.App.3th 13$2.) Expiration) +here is no statutory re@uire(ent that an arrest 0arrant be e?ecute, 0ithin any particular ti(e li(its. +here"orearrest 0arrants ,o not e?pire- an, ,o not nee, to be rene0e, or e?ten,e,. +hey 0ill re(ain in the syste( until purge,- ser.e,- or recalle, by the court. Effect of an *rrest =arrant on the Exclusion of E!idence after an 'llegal Detention) +he "act that the ,e"en,ant ha, an outstan,ing arrest 0arrant (ay,epen,ing upon the circu(stances- be su""icient o" an inter.ening circu(stance to allo0 "or the a,(issibility o" the e.i,ence sei;e, inci,ent to arrest ,espite the "act that the original ,etention 0as illegal. ()eop"e $# rend"in (200#) 3$ Cal.3th 252: an illegal tra""ic stop.) +he circu(stances to be consi,ere, are) +he te(poral pro?i(ity o" the Fourth Amendment .iolation to the procure(ent o" the challenge, e.i,ence: +he presence o" inter.ening circu(stances (e.g.- an arrest 0arrant): +he "lagrancy o" the o""icial (iscon,uct. (Id.- at pp. 25&%222: citing ro,n $# I""inois (1&2$) 322 4.S. $&0 63$ 7.8,.2n, 3159.) * Defecti!e *rrest =arrant) Arresting a subCect 0ith the goo, "aith belie" that there 0as an outstan,ing arrest 0arrant- only to ,isco.er a"ter the "act that the arrest 0arrant ha, been recalle,- ,oes not re@uire the suppression o" any resulting e.i,ence 0here the (istaFe is the result o" 1&3
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negligence only- an, 0as not recFless or ,eliberate. (0errin1 $# United States (200&) $$$ 4.S. 13$ 6122 7.8,.2n, 3&59.) 1" o""icers (aFing an arrest ha.e probable cause to arrest hi( an, the arrest is other0ise la0"ul (e.g.- in public)- then it is irrele.ant 0hether the arrest 0arrant is in.ali,. (United States $# *ennin1s (&th Cir. 200#) $1$ B.3r, &#0- &#$.) Statutor& 2imitations) Daytime and +ighttime *rrests ((!C! #43)) (elony *rrests) An arrest "or the co((ission o" a "elony (ay be (a,e) =ithout an *rrest =arrant) Any ti(e o" the ,ay or nightin any public place or 0hile alrea,y in custo,y on another charge- 0hether or not the o""ense occurre, in the o""icer s presence. ((!C! #32+a,+2,) Exception) A police o""icer cannot (aFe a 0arrantless arrest 0ithin the subCect s o0n ho(e ()eop"e $# Rame& (1&25) 15 Cal.3r, 253- 225: )a&ton $# Ne, Yor( (1&#0) 33$ 4.S $23 653 7.8,.2n, 53&9.)- or the ho(e o" another person (Stea1a"d $# United States (1&#1) 3$1 4.S. 203 65# 7.8,.2n, 3#.9: see belo0.)- absent an e?ception. Exception to Exception) Ehen the o""icer is alrea,y an,Nor other0ise la0"ully in the ho(e- e?igent circu(stances e?ist- or ,e"en,ant is stan,ing in the threshol,. (See e?a(ples- belo0.) =ith an *rrest =arrant) Any ti(e o" the ,ay or night- in any place- inclu,ing the subCect s o0n ho(e. ((!C! #32+a,)) Exception K/) Cannot (aFe a "elony 0arrant arrest 0ithin a thir, person s ho(e- unless the o""icer also "irst obtains a search 0arrant "or the thir, person s ho(e (See Stea1a"d $# United States, supra- an, belo02) or is alrea,y an, other0ise la0"ully in the thir, person s ho(e.

1&3
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Exception K-) Pri.ate persons (ay not ser.e arrest 0arrants. ((!C! #13- #12) ,isdemeanor Land 'nfraction0 *rrests) =ithout an *rrest =arrant) Any ti(e o" the ,ay or nightin any public place or 0hile alrea,y in custo,y. ((!C! #32+a,+1,) Exception K/) Cannot (aFe a 0arrantless arrest 0ithin the subCect s o0n ho(e ()eop"e $# Rame&2 upra) )a&ton $# Ne, Yor(, supra.)- or the ho(e o" another person (Stea1a"d $# Ne, Yor(- supra- an, belo0.)- absent an e?ception. Exception to Exception) Ois,e(eanor or in"raction co((itte, in the o""icer s presence or the presence o" a pri.ate citi;en (in the case o" a pri.ate person s arrest)0hile alrea,y an,Nor other0ise la0"ully in the ho(e. ()eop"e $# Gra$es (1&5#) 253 Cal.App.2n, 21&: see also e?a(ples- belo0un,er *&ase "aw "imitations-/ HRame&./) Euery) 1" an o""icer is alrea,y la0"ully in the house- (ay a (is,e(eanor arrest 0arrant be e?ecute, ,espite the lacF o" a nightti(e en,orse(entM 4nFno0n. (!C! #43 itsel" ,oes not pro.i,e "or any such e?ception. Gut since this li(itation on arrests has been hel, to be statutory onlyan, not o" constitutional origins ()eop"e $# -hitted (1&25) 50 Cal.App.3r, $5&.)- no e.i,ence 0ill be suppresse, any0ay(aFing this @uestion (oot. Exception K-) Cannot (aFe a 0arrantless arrest "or a (is,e(eanor or in"raction not co((itte, in the o""icer s presence- or the presence o" the pri.ate person (in the case o" a pri.ate person s arrest). Gut see e?ceptions- abo.e. Exception K8) Cannot (aFe a 0arrantless arrest "or a *stale misdemeanor (or infraction)./ (*ac(son $# 1&$
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Superior Court (1&$0) &# Cal.App.2n, 1#3- 1#2: see abo.e.) =ith an *rrest =arrant) Any ti(e o" the ,ay or night- in any place- inclu,ing the subCect s o0n ho(e. ((!C! #32+a,) Exception K/) Cannot (aFe a (is,e(eanor 0arrant arrest at night 0ithin the subCect s ho(e unless the 0arrant is *endorsed for night ser!ice/ by a Cu,ge. ((!C! #43+4,) (See abo.e) *+ighttime/ "or purposes o" an arrest 0arrant is 10)00 p.(. to 5)00 a.(. +he nee, "or a nightti(e en,orse(ent (ust be Custi"ie, be"ore a Cu,ge 0ill appro.e it: i.e.- 0hy ,oes this ,e"en,ant nee, to be arreste, at nightM (See )eop"e $# /im."e (1&##) 33 Cal.3r, 3#0- 3&3: ,iscussing the nee, "or Custi"ying nightti(e ser.ice "or a search 0arrant.) Exception K-) Cannot (aFe a (is,e(eanor 0arrant arrest 0ithin a thir, person s ho(e- unless the o""icer also "irst obtains a search 0arrant "or the thir, person s ho(e (See Stea1a"d $# United States, supra2) or is alrea,y an, other0ise la0"ully in the thir, person s ho(e. Exception K8) Pri.ate citi;ens (ay not ser.e arrest 0arrants. ((!C! #13- #12) )ena" Code B CD6) Victim and =itness &onfidential 'nformation) Re@uires the establish(ent o" proce,ures to protect the con"i,entiality o" *confidential personal information/ o" .icti(s an, 0itnesses. +he section is ,irecte, pri(arily at prosecutors an, the courts- but also contains a pro.ision "or ,ocu(ents "ile, by la0 en"orce(ent 0ith a court in support o" search an, arrest 0arrants: i.e.- an affida!it. Su4d! +4,) *&onfidential personal information/ inclu,es- but is not limited to- a,,resses- telephone nu(bers- ,ri.er s license an, Cali"ornia i,enti"ication car, nu(bers- social security nu(bers,ate o" birth- place o" e(ploy(ent- e(ployee i,enti"ication nu(bers- (other s (ai,en na(e- ,e(an, ,eposit account 1&5
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nu(bers- sa.ings or checFing account nu(bers- an, cre,it car, nu(bers. "i!e "ineups) An e? parte court or,er re@uiring an un%charge, cri(inal suspect to sub(it to a li.e lineup- e.en though there is probable cause to arrest the subCect- is unen"orceable. +here is no statutory proce,ure "or acco(plishing such a proce,ure. (Good,in $# Superior Court (2001) &0 Cal.App.3th 21$.) Case 2a, 2imitations) Rame&: =ithin ;ne)s ;wn Residence) Earrantless arrests 0ithin a pri.ate resi,ence are restricte, because o" the constitutional right to pri.acy interests a person- e.en cri(inal suspects- ha.e 0ithin their o0n ho(e. (See belo0) <eneral Rule) Arrests in one s ho(e "or a "elony or (is,e(eanor (ay only be (a,e 0ith prior Cu,icial authori;ation in the "or( o" an arrest 0arrant. ()eop"e $# Rame& (1&25) 15 Cal.3r, 253- 225: )a&ton $# Ne, Yor( (1&#0) 33$ 4.S. $23 653 7.8,.2n, 53&9.) Police o""icers nee, either (1) an arrest 0arrant or (2) probable an, e?igent circu(stances to la0"ully enter a person s ho(e to arrest its occupant. (/ir( $# 2ouisiana (2002) $35 4.S. 53$ 61$3 7.8,.2n, $&&9.) Io0e.er- surroun,ing a barrica,e, suspect in his ho(e is in e""ect a 0arrantless arrest- Custi"ie, by the e?igent circu(stances. +he passage o" ti(e ,uring the ensuing stan,o"" ,oes not ,issipate that e?igency to 0here o""icers are e?pecte, to seeF the authori;ation o" a Cu,ge to taFe the suspect into physical custo,y. (Fisher $# Cit& o' San *ose (&th Cir. 200&) $$# B.3r, 105&: o.erruling its prior hol,ing (at $0& B.3r, &$2) 0here it 0as rule, that "ailure to obtain an arrest 0arrant ,uring a 12%hour stan,o"" resulte, in an illegal arrest o" the barrica,e, suspect.) Exceptions) +here are nu(erous exceptions to this rule) &onsent) Ehen the occupant o" a house consents to the police o""icers entry o" his or her ho(e. ()eop"e $# Superior Court 6/enner7 (1&22) 23 Cal.App.3r, 5$- 5#: )eop"e $# )eterson (1&2#) #$ Cal.App.3r, 153- 121: see also )eop"e $# Rame&- supra- at p. 22$: an, )a&ton $# Ne, 1&2
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Yor(- supra- at p. $#3 653 7.8,.2n, at p. 53&9: an, )eop"e $# Ne,ton (1&#0) 102 Cal.App.3r, $5#- $2#.) Gut- *an allege, consenter (ust be a0are o" the purpose o" the re@ueste, entry an, a consent obtaine, tricFery or subter"uge ren,ers a subse@uent search an, sei;ure in.ali,./ ()eop"e $# Superior Court 6/enner7- supra.- at p. 5&: (erely asFing "or per(ission to enter *to talF to/ the suspect ,oes not Custi"y the 0arrantless entry an, arrest: see also In re *ohnn& 9# (1&2#) #$ Cal.App.3r, 120- 132.) Per(ission to enter nee, not be an e?press consent. AsFing the ho(eo0ner "or ,e"en,ant an, "or per(ission to *co(e in an, looF aroun,/ 0hen it 0as ,enie, that he 0as present 0as reasonably interprete, by the police as consent to enter to "in, ,e"en,ant "or any purpose that they ,esire,inclu,ing arrest. ()eop"e $# Ne,ton- supra.) Bor the o""icers to .ali,ly rely upon consent- they (ust reasonably an, in goo, "aith belie.e that the person gi.ing consent ha, the authority to consent to their entry into the resi,ence. ()eop"e $# Escudero (1&2&) 23 Cal.3r, #00- #05.) #nderco!er Entries) Consent obtaine, by o""icers 0orFing un,erco.er- "or the purpose o" continuing an in.estigation- is .ali,. 1t is the *intrusion into-/ not the arrest 0hile insi,e- 0hich o""en,s the constitutional stan,ar,s un,er Rame&. Arresting the ,e"en,ant a"ter ha.ing gaine, la0"ul entry is not a Rame& .iolation. ()eop"e $# E$ans (1&#0) 10# Cal.App.3r, 1&3- 1&5.) *+he Fourth Amendment ,oes not protect Aa 0rong,oer s (isplace, belie" that a person 0ho( he .oluntarily con"i,es his 0rong,oing 0ill not re.eal it. / (Tou.us $# Superior Court (1&#1) 113 Cal.App.3r, 32#3#3.) An, Cust because the un,erco.er o""icer has (o(entarily le"t the resi,ence- such action "ollo0e, i((e,iately by the reentry o" the arresting o""icers- ,oes not .iolate Rame& or 1&#
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)a&ton. ()eop"e $# Cespedes (1&#2) 1&1 Cal.App.3r, 25#.) Gut the reentry (ust be si(ultaneous 0ithor i((e,iately a"ter- the un,erco.er o""icer s e?it. ()eop"e $# E""ers (1&#0) 10# Cal.App.3r, &33: arrest unla0"ul 0hen a"ter the *buy-/ ,uring an un,erco.er narcotics in.estigation- the police ,ro.e to a parFing lot one (ile a0ay- spent ten to t0enty (inutes "or(ulating a plan to arrest the ,e"en,ant- an, then returne, an, reentere, the house to (aFe the arrest.) 8.i,ence obser.e, in plain .ie0 by o""icers entering a resi,ence 0ith the suspect s consent an, 0ith e?igent circu(stances- 0hile the o""icers ,i, a protecti.e s0eep an, checF "or .icti(s o" a shooting- Custi"ie, a later 0arrantless entry to sei;e an, process that e.i,ence so long as the police ,i, not gi.e up control o" the pre(ises. ()eop"e $# Superior Court 6Chapman7 (2012) 203 Cal.App.3th 1003- 1013%1021: o""icers le"t one o""icer insi,e to secure the scene an, the ,ecease, .icti( 0hile a0aiting in.estigators- cri(inologists- an, the coroner.) Exigent circumstances) *A(A) 0arrantless intrusion (ay be Custi"ie, by hot pursuit o" a "leeing "elon- or imminent destruction o" e.i,ence 6citation9- or the nee, to pre.ent a suspect s escape- or the ris? of danger to the police or to other persons insi,e or outsi,e the ,0elling. 6citations9/ (1talics a,,e,: %innesota $# O"son (1&&0) 3&$ 4.S. &1- 100 610& 7.8,.2n, #$- &$9.) 8?a(ples) A 0arrantless entry into ,e"en,ant s resi,ence base, upon 0itness in"or(ation that ,e"en,ant- an ar(e, robber- ha, entere, the ho(e (inutes earlier0as la0"ul. (-arden, %ar&"and )enitentiar& $# 0a&den (1&52) 3#2 4.S. 2&3 61# 7.8,.2n, 2#29.) Ehere ,e"en,ant- the suspect in an ongoing ,rug transaction- ha, been stan,ing in the ,oor0ay 0ith a bro0n paper bag in her han,- retreate, into the .estibule o" her ho(e as police o""icers pulle, up to her house shouting *police-/ "ollo0ing her into the 1&&
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house 0as la0"ul. (United States $# Santana (1&25) 322 4.S. 3# 63& 7.8,.2n, 3009.) *(resh or Hot Pursuit-/ or at the en, o" a *substantially continuous in!estigation)/ A continuous in.estigation "ro( cri(e to arrest o" the subCect in his ho(e- 0ithin a li(ite, ti(e perio, (e.g.- 0ithin hours)- an, 0ithout an opportunity to stop an, obtain an arrest 0arrant- is *fresh pursuit./ 1t is not necessary that the suspect be physically in .ie0 ,uring the *pursuit./ ()eop"e $# Escudero (1&2&) 23 Cal.3r, #00- #0&%#10: In re 2a$o&ne %# (1&&0) 221 Cal.App.3r, 1$3: )eop"e $# Gi".ert (1&5$) 53 Cal.2n, 5&0: United States $# *ohnson (&th Cir. 2000) 202 B.3r, $3#.) Ehere there 0as a t0o an, a hal" hour in.estigation bet0een a robbery%(ur,er an, the location o" the ,e"en,ant s ho(e- the o""icers 0ere "oun, to be in *fresh pursuit-/ Custi"ying a 0arrantless entry to looF "or the suspect. ()eop"e $# Gi".ert (1&5$) 53 Cal.2n, 5&0- 205.) Ehen o""icers contact a rape .icti( hal" a blocF "ro( the cri(e scene- less than an hour a"ter the rape ()eop"e $# -hite (1&#5) 1#3 Cal.App.3r 11&&1203%1203.)- or i((e,iately across the street (inutes a"ter she escape, "ro( the sleeping suspect ()eop"e $# /i"patric( (1&#0) 10$ Cal.App.3r, 30130&%311.)- it is *fresh pursuit/ 0hen the o""icers go to the respecti.e suspects ho(es- (aFe a 0arrantless entry- an, arrest the suspects. +his 0as "oun, to be necessary to pre.ent the escape o" the suspect an, the ,estruction o" e.i,ence. +racing an ar(e, robbery suspect by the .ehicle ,escription an, license nu(ber to a particular resi,ence- Custi"ies a 0arrantless entry. ()eop"e $# Dau1hhetee (1&#$) 15$ Cal.App.3r, $23.) +he entry an, securing o" a ho(e pen,ing the obtaining o" a search 0arrant- i((e,iately "ollo0ing a gang shooting- 0as Custi"ie, 0hen it 0as belie.e, that a secon, shooter an, the "irear(s use, 0ere liFely in the house. (In re E"i5a.eth G# (2001) ## Cal.App.3th 3&5.) 200
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Presence o" an ar(e, suspect- 0ho ha, co((itte, a .icious (ur,er 0ho 0as liFely to "lee- 0ith the possibility that ,e"en,ant 0oul, ,ispose o" e.i,ence: 0arrantless entry an, arrest 0as la0"ul. ()eop"e $# -i""iams (1&#&) 3# Cal.3r, 1112- 113#% 113&.) A strong reason to belie.e that ,e"en,ant 0as the Filler in the (ur,er o" t0o (en- that he 0as probably ar(e, an, at a particular apart(ent- an, that he 0as liFely to "lee i" not i((e,iately arreste,- Custi"ie, the 0arrantless entry. ()eop"e $# aci1a"upo (1&&1) 1 Cal.3th 103- 122%123.) !""icers (ay e.en pursue a person into his ho(e upon atte(pting to cite hi( "or an in"raction 0here the suspect "lees into his ho(e. +he ,e"en,ant s resistance con.erts the o""ense into a (is,e(eanor *resisting arrest/ (i.e.- (!C! 14#+a,)- an, allo0s "or a *hot pursuit/ into the suspect s house to arrest hi( on that charge. ()eop"e $# 2"o&d (1&#&) 215 Cal.App.3r, 132$: citing United States $# Santana (1&25) 322 4.S. 3#- 32%33 63& 7.8,.2n" 3009.) Gut see United States $# *ohnson (&th Cir. 2001) 2$5 B.3r, #&$- &0#- "n. 5: an, Sims $# Stanton (&th Cir. Jan. 15- 2013) >> B.3r, >> 62013 4.S. App. 78T1S 10$29- 0here it 0as held that Hhot pursuit/ ,oes not allo0 "or the chasing o" a suspect into a pri.ate resi,ence e?cept 0here the un,erlying o""ense is a "elony- or in other i,enti"ie, *rare circu(stances./ Ia.ing use, a tracFing ,e.ice to "ollo0 ,e"en,ants 0ith stolen stereo speaFers to a particular house- the i((e,iate 0arrantless entry an, search 0as Custi"ie, by the reasonable "ear that ,e"en,ants 0oul, ,isasse(ble- ,estroy or hi,e the speaFersan, 0ash o"" i,enti"ying "luorescent po0,er i" they 0aite, "or a 0arrant. ()eop"e $# 0u"" (1&&$) 33 Cal.App.3th 133#- 13$$.) Earrantless entry to arrest a D41 (i.e.- *Dri!ing while #nder the 'nfluence/) suspect) 201
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'llegal) -e"sh $# -isconsin (1&#3) 355 4.S. 230 6#0 7.8,.2n, 2329- 0here the state treate, a person s "irst D41 o""ense as a non% cri(inal o""ense- subCecting the suspect to ci.il "or"eiture only. "egal) )eop"e $# 0ampton (1&#$) 153 Cal.App.3r, 22- 33- 0here a 0arrantless entry 0as uphel, to pre.ent the ,estruction o" e.i,ence (the bloo,Nalcohol le.el) an, there 0as reason to belie.e ,e"en,ant inten,e, to resu(e ,ri.ing. -e"sh can be ,istinguishe, by the si(ple "act that Cali"ornia treats D41 cases as serious (is,e(eanors. "egal) 8ntering a house 0ithout consent or a 0arrant to taFe a suspecte, D41 ,ri.er into custo,y an, to re(o.e hi( "ro( the house "or i,enti"ication an, arrest by a pri.ate citi;en 0ho sa0 ,e"en,ant s ,ri.ing- hel, to be legal. +he "act that the ,e"en,ant s bloo,Nalcohol le.el (ight ,issipate to so(e ,egree pen,ing the obtaining o" a telephonic arrest 0arrant- plus the "act that the suspect (ight lea.e an, ,ri.e again- 0as su""icient cause to establish an e?igent circu(stance. ()eop"e $# Thompson (2005) 3# Cal.3th #11.) +ote) +he Court ,i""erentiate, on its "acts -e"sh $ -isconsin (1&#3) 355 4.S. 230 6#0 7.8,.2n, 2329- 0here it 0as hel, that a "irst ti(e D41- being no (ore than a ci.il o""ense 0ith a [200 "ine un,er Eisconsin la0- 0as not aggra.ate, enough to allo0 "or a 0arrantless entry into a resi,ence to arrest the perpetrator. +he cut o"" bet0een a (inor an, a serious o""ense see(s to be 0hether or not the o""ense is one "or 0hich incarceration is a potential punish(ent. ()eop"e $# Thompsonsupra- at pp. #21%#23- citing I""inois 202
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$# %cArthur (2001) $31 4.S. 325335- 332 613# 7.8,.2n, #3#9: an, noting (at pp. #22%#23) that the Jinth Circuit s opinion on this issue is a (inority opinion.) 'llegal) +he Jinth Circuit Court o" Appealarguing the continuing .ali,ity o"- -e"shhel, that Cali"ornia s interpretation un,er Thompson is 0rong- an, that a 0arrantless entry into a ho(e to arrest a (is,e(eanor ,ri.ingS0hile%un,er%the%in"luence suspect is a Fourth Amendment .iolation. (0op(ins $# on$icino (&th Cir. 200&) $23 B.3r, 2$225#%25&: "in,ing that 0arrantless entries into resi,ences in (is,e(eanor cases *0ill sel,o(- i" e.er- Custi"y a 0arrantless entry into the ho(e./) 8ntering a resi,ence 0ith probable cause to belie.e only that the non%booFable o""ense o" possession o" less than an ounce o" (ariCuana is occurring (F&S 113)1+4,)- is closer to the -e"sh situation- being a *nonCailable o""ense-/ an, a .iolation o" the Fourth Amendment 0hen entry is (a,e 0ithout consent. ()eop"e $# 0ua (200#) 1$# Cal.App.3th 1022: )eop"e $# Torres et a"! (2012) 20$ Cal.App.3th &#&- &&3%&&#.) +he Torres Court also reCecte, as *speculation/ the People s argu(ent that there being "our people in the ,e"en,ants hotel roo( in,icte, that a *(ariCuana% s(oFing party/ 0as occurring- 0hich probably in.ol.e, a booFable a(ount o" (ariCuana. ()eop"e $# Torres et a"!- supraat p. &&5.) 8ntering the curtilage o" a ho(e in pursuit o" a suspect 0ith the intent to ,etain hi( 0hen the subCect is ignoring the o""icer s ,e(an,s to stop- at 0orst a (is,e(eanor .iolation o" (!C! 14#)- is illegal. +he 0arrantless "resh or hot pursuit o" a "leeing suspect into a resi,ence (or the curtilage o" a resi,ence) is li(ite, to "elony suspects only. (Sims 203
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$# Stanton (&th Cir. Jan. 15- 2013) >> B.3r, >> 62013 4.S. App. 78T1S 10$2920 +his decision is based upon the +inth &ircuit)s interpretation of the #nited tates upreme &ourt decision in -e"sh $ -isconsin (1&#3) 355 4.S. 230 6#0 7.8,.2n, 2329- an, con"licts 0ith the Cali"ornia Supre(e Court s reasoning in )eop"e $# Thompson (2005) 3# Cal.3th #11 (see *Earrantless entry to arrest a D41 (i.e.*Dri!ing while #nder the 'nfluence/) suspect-/ abo.e). +ote) +he issue is 0hether a 0arrantless entry into a resi,ence in pursuit o" a "leeing suspect is unla0"ul 0hen the suspecte, o""ense is any (is,e(eanor or less (Jinth Circuit s rule)- or "or non%booFable in"ractions only (Cali"ornia rule). A reasonable belie" in the i((inent threat to li"e or the 0el"are o" a person 0ithin the ho(e- 0ith probable cause to belie.e a (issing person 0as insi,e- an, a reasonable belie" that the person insi,e nee,e, ai,- Custi"ie, a 0arrantless entry. ()eop"e $# Coddin1ton (2000) 23 Cal.3th $2&- $#0.) Exigent &ircumstances- Custi"ying a 0arrantless resi,ential arrest- inclu,e an e.aluation o" the "ollo0ing circu(stances) +he gra.ity o" the o""ense: Ehether the suspect is reasonably belie.e, to be ar(e,: Ehether probable cause is clear: Ehether the suspect is liFely to be "oun, on the pre(ises: an, +he liFelihoo, that the suspect 0ill escape i" not pro(ptly arreste,. ()eop"e $# -i""iams (1&#&) 3# Cal.3r, 1112113#%113&.)

203
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!""icers are already lawfully inside 0hen probable cause ,e.elops. ()eop"e $# Rame&- supra: )eop"e $# D&(e (1&&0) 223 Cal.App.3r, 53#- 5$2%5$&- 551.) ee United States $# ro.st (&th Cir. 200&) $$# B.3r, &#2- &&2: an, )eop"e $# %cCarter (1&#1) 112 Cal.App.3r, #&3- &0#: both cases 0ith o""icers insi,e e?ecuting search 0arrants.

De"en,ant is standing in the threshold) Case la0 has consistently hel, that an arrest 0ithout a 0arrant- either outsi,e or e!en with the suspect standing in the threshold o" his o0n ho(e- is la0"ul. Bor e?a(ple) A 0arrantless arrest at the threshol, o" ,e"en,ant s (otel roo(- 0here ,e"en,ant opene, the ,oor in response to the o""icers FnocF an, a"ter ha.ing looFe, outsi,e an, seeing the o""icers stan,ing at the ,oor- is la0"ul. )a&ton ,ra0s a *bright line/ at the threshol,. So long as the o""icers ,i, not (isi,enti"y the(sel.es or use coercion to get ,e"en,ant to open the ,oor- an, ,e"en,ant ac@uiesce, in the proce,ure- he is subCect to a 0arrantless arrest. +he "act that ,e"en,ant 0as physically insi,e the ,oor is also irrele.ant so long as the o""icers are outsi,e at the ti(e the arrest is (a,e. (United States $# 9aneaton (&th Cir. 1&&$) 3& B.3r, 1323- 1325%1322) Ehere o""icers use no "orce- threats- or subter"uge- a suspect s ,ecision to open the ,oor e?poses hi( to a public place- an, the pri.acy interests protecte, by )a&ton are not .iolate,.) De"en,ant- stan,ing in her ,oor0ay as o""icers approache,- is in public. Burther- she (ay not ,e"eat an arrest 0hich has been set in (otion by atte(pting to escape into a pri.ate place. (United States $# Santana (1&25) 322 4.S. 3# 63& 7.8,.2n, 3009.) Ehen the o""icer atte(pte, to arrest ,e"en,ant in the threshol, o" her apart(ent ,oor- only to ha.e her pull a0ay an, into the apart(ent- the o""icer (ay "ollo0 her in to co(plete the arrest he ha, set 20$

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in (otion on her ,oorstep. ()eop"e $# 0ampton (1&#$) 153 Cal.App.3r, 22- 3$%35.) Howe!er- arresting ,e"en,ant 0ho 0as still in be,e.en though he coul, (an, ,i,) reach the ,oor an, open it "ro( his be,- 0as a .iolation o" )a&ton. 1t is irrele.ant that the o""icer 0as still outsi,e the resi,ence 0hen he pronounce, ,e"en,ant un,er arrest in that it is the ,e"en,ant s location- an, not the o""icer s- that is i(portant. (United States $# =uaempts (&th Cir. 200$) 311 B.3r, 1035.) A parolee (an,- there"ore- presu(ably- a probationer 0ho is on search an, sei;ure Fourth Amendment 0ai.er con,itions) (ay be arreste, in his ho(e 0ithout the necessity o" a 0arrant. Police are authori@ed to enter a
house +ithout a +arrant +here the sus(ect is a (arolee +ho had no le.itimate ex(ectation of (ri)ac* a.ainst +arrantless arrests. ('eo(le v. +e,is (1999) 74 Cal.4((.4th 662! 55$%523: In re Fran( S# (2005) 132

Cal.App.3th 13$- 1$1.) 'n!iting Defendant ;utside) +he ,e"en,ant (ay e.en be *in!ited/ outsi,e- e.en though the o""icer s intent to arrest is not ,isclose,. Ehen the ,e"en,ant lea.es the protection o" his ho(e- Rame& ,oes not apply an, the arrest outsi,e is la0"ul. ()eop"e $# Ti""er& (1&2&) && Cal.App.3r, &2$- &2&% &#0: )eop"e $# Green (1&#3) 135 Cal.App.3r, 35&- 322: )eop"e $# *ac(son (1&#5) 1#2 Cal.App.3r, 3&&- $0$: 0art $# )ar(s (&th Cir. 2005) 3$0 B.3r, 10$&- 105$.) A suspect (ay be arreste, 0ithout a 0arrant 0hen he is in public. Case la0 tells us that any0here*0hether it be the ,ri.e0ay- la0n- or "ront porch-/ 0hich are *open to Aco((on or Ageneral use / by those 0ishing to contact the resi,ent o" a house- are *public places./ ()eop"e $# O"son (1&21) 1# Cal.App.3r, $&2- $&#.) See In re Dann& 0# (2002) 103 Cal.App.3th &2- "or a thorough ,iscussion o" the la0 on *public places/ as it relates to the 23 separate statutes 0here such is an ele(ent. An, 0hile it is illegal "or a police o""icer to use a ruse to (aFe a 0arrantless entry into a suspect s 205
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ho(e- it has been hel, that it is not illegal to tricF the suspect out. ()eop"e $# Rand (1&22) 23 Cal.App.3r, $2&- $#3.) Bor e?a(ple) Calling the suspect s house an, "alsely telling hi( the police are co(ing 0ith a 0arrant- causing ,e"en,ant- by his o0n choice- to atte(pt to "lee his resi,ence 0ith the contraban,- is la0"ul. +here is no constitutional .iolation in arresting hi( 0hen he co(es outsi,e. (I.id.: )eop"e )orras (1&2&) && Cal.App.3r, #23: but note this Court s in.itation to the Cali"ornia Supre(e Court to re.ie0 the la0"ulness o" purposely e.a,ing Rame& in this (anner (pp. #2&%##0) an, the Supre(e Court s re"usal to ,o so by ,enying appellant s petition "or a hearing.) +hese cases- ho0e.er- are 0hen an o""icer has probable cause to arrest the suspect. Ehere there is no pre%e?isting probable cause- using a ruse to tricF people outsi,e ,uring a narcotics in.estigation at an apart(ent co(ple?- "or the purpose o" con"ronting as (any people as they coul, lure outsi,e (resulting in the ,e"en,ant s illegal ,etention 0hen he 0as surroun,e, by a tea( o" o""icers all ,resse, in rai, gear) is illegal. *A ,eception use, to gain entry into a ho(e an, a ruse that lures a suspect out o" a resi,ence is a ,istinction 0ithout (uch ,i""erence. . . ./ ()eop"e $# Re&es (2000) #3 Cal.App.3th 2- 12%13.) $ut see In re R#/# (200#) 150 Cal.App.3th 151$0here the Court critici;e, the police tactic o" in.iting a ,runF suspect out "ro( a non%public location onto the public street an, then arresting hi( "or being *,runF in public-/ ruling that such 0as illegal arrest e.en though he *.oluntarily ac@uiesce,/ to go to a public place. 1t is unFno0n i" this ruling can be applie, to a Rame& situation as 0ell.

202
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+here is e.en so(e authority allo0ing a police o""icer to order the ,e"en,ant out o" his house- a"ter 0hich he is arreste,. Rame& "orbi,s 0arrantless entries only- an, is not a rele.ant issue 0hen the ,e"en,ant is arreste, in public- no (atter ho0 he ca(e to be in public. ()eop"e $# Trude"" (1&#$) 123 Cal.App.3r, 1221- 122#%1230.) Io0e.er- it has been hel, that 0hen o""icers are outsi,e 0ith guns ,ra0n- or,ering ,e"en,ant to co(e out- he has in e""ect been sei;e, (i.e.- arreste,) 0hile in his house. 7ea.ing the house un,er such coerci.e circu(stances is not an e?ception to Rame&N)a&ton. (United States $# A"3 A55a,a& (&th Cir. 1&#$) 2#3 B.2n, #&0- #&3% #&$: Fisher $# Cit& o' San *ose (&th Cir. 200&) $$# B.3r, 105&, 1023%102$.) ufficiency of E!idence to $elie!e the uspect is 'nside) +he a(ount o" e.i,ence a la0 en"orce(ent o""icer (ust ha.e in,icating that a cri(inal suspect is in "act presently insi,e his o0n resi,ence in or,er to Custi"y a non%consensual entry- 0ith or 0ithout an arrest 0arrant- has been ,ebate, o.er the years) +he 4nite, States Supre(e Court- in )e&ton $# Ne, Yor( (1&#0) 33$ 4.S. $23 653 7.8,.2n, 53&9- (erely states that a police o""icer (ust ha.e a *reason to belie!e/ the suspect is insi,e his resi,ence- 0ithout ,e"ining the phrase. A Cali"ornia lo0er appellate court "oun, that the o""icers nee,e, a *reasonable belief-/ or *strong reason to belie!e-/ the suspect 0as ho(e. ()eop"e $# -hite (1&#5) 1#3 Cal.App.3r, 11&&- 1203%120&: reCecting the ,e"ense argu(ent that "ull *probable cause/ to belie.e the subCect 0as insi,e is re@uire,: see also United States $# %a1"uta (11th Cir. 1&&$) 33 B.3r, 1$30- 1$3$- using a *reasonable belief/ stan,ar,.) !ther authority in,icates that a "ull (easure o" *probable cause/ is re@uire,. (See Dorman $# United States (D.C. Cir. 1&20) 33$ B.2n, 3#$- 3&3: see also United States $# )hi""ips (&th Cir. 1&23) 3&2 B.2n, 1131: a locFe, co((ercial establish(ent- at night: United States $# Gorman (&th Cir. 2002) 313 B.3r, 110$: ,e"en,ant in his girl"rien, s house 0ith 0ho( he 0as li.ing: an, United 20#
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States $# Dia5 (&th Cir. 2002) 3&1 B.3r, 1023: an, United States $# Gooch (&th Cir. 2002) $05 B.3r, 11$5- 11$&- "n. 2.) 1t has been argue, that the Cali"ornia Supre(e Courtinterpreting the language o" (!C! #44 (i.e.- *reasonable grounds for belie!ing him to be (inside)/)- has "oun, that any arrest- 0ith or 0ithout an arrest 0arrant- re@uires probable cause to belie.e the subCect is insi,e in or,er to Custi"y a non%consensual entry into a resi,ence. ()eop"e $# *aco.s (1&#2) 33 Cal.3r, 322- 32#%32&.) Joting that "i.e other "e,eral circuits ha.e rule, that so(ething less than probable cause is re@uire,- an, that the Jinth Circuit is a (inority opinion (see United States $# Gorman- supra.)- the Bourth District Court o" Appeal (Di.. 2) "oun, instea, that an o""icer e?ecuting an arrest 0arrant or con,ucting a probation or parole search (ay enter a ,0elling i" he or she has only a reasonable belief- "alling short o" probable cause to belie.e- the suspect li.es there an, is present at the ti(e. 8(ploying that stan,ar,- the entry into ,e"en,ant s apart(ent to con,uct a probation search 0as la0"ul base, on all o" the in"or(ation Fno0n to the o""icers. Accor,ingly- the court uphel, the trial court s conclusion that the o""icers ha, obCecti.ely reasonable groun,s to conclu,e the ,e"en,antNprobationer li.e, at the subCect apart(ent an, 0as present at the ti(e- an, there"ore the o""icers ha, the right to enter the apart(ent to con,uct a 0arrantless probation search. ()eop"e $# Do,ne& (2011) 1&# Cal.App.3th 5$2- 5$2%552.) Also noting that the Cali"ornia Supre(e Court- in )eop"e $# *aco.s- supra (pg. 32&- "n. 3)- ,i, not "in, that probable cause 0as re@uire,- contrary to popular belie". (Id.- at p. 552.) +he Jinth Circuit- in a case ,ealing 0ith 0hether the subCect o" a Bourth 0a.ier search in "act li.es at the place to be searche,- hol,s by the probable cause stan,ar,. (United States $# o"i$ar (&th Cir. 2012) 520 B.3r, 10&1- 10&3%10&$.) =ithin a Third Person)s Home) Probable cause Custi"ying an arrest 0arrant "or one person ,oes not authori;e entry into to a thir, person s ho(e to looF "or the subCect o" the arrest 0arrant. +o ,o so .iolates the pri.acy interests o" the thir, party. +here"ore- a search warrant- base, upon probable cause to belie.e the 0ante, 20&
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subCect is in "act in the ho(e o" the thir, party (absent e?igent circu(stances)- is necessary. (Stea1a"d $# United States (1&#1) 3$1 4.S. 203 65# 7.8,.2n, 3#9: )eop"e $# Codinha (1&#2) 13# Cal.App.3r, 152: so(eti(es re"erre, to as a * teagald =arrant./ See also (!C! 1)24+a,+2,: legal authori;ation "or obtaining such a search 0arrant.) +he arrestee- i" ,oing no (ore than (erely .isiting the la0"ul resi,ent- probably has no stan,ing to contest the unla0"ul entry o" another s house. (United States $# Under,ood (&th Cir. 1&#3) 212 B.2n, 3#2.) 1t is 0hen a police o""icer obtains e.i,ence against the thir, party ho(eo0ner- 0hile looFing "or the subCect o" the arrest- that Stea1a"d beco(es an issue. +he ho(eo0ner- in such a case- has stan,ing to contest the 0arrantless entry o" his house in ,e"ense at his o0n prosecution. (Stea1a"d $# United States- supra- at pp. 212- 215 65# 7.8,.2n, at pp. 3$3#9.) Gut- there is so(e authority that- as an o.ernight guest in another s apart(ent- ,e"en,ant 0ith an outstan,ing arrest 0arrant does ha.e stan,ing to contest the entry o" the be,roo( in 0hich he is staying 0hen ,one 0ithout a search 0arrant. ()eop"e $# 0ami"ton (1&#$) 15# Cal.App.3r, 10$#.) A "re@uent .isitor- 0ith "ree reign o" the house ,espite the "act that he ,i, not stay o.ernight- (ight also ha.e stan,ing to contest an allege,ly illegal entry o" a thir, person s ho(e. ()eop"e $# Ste,art (2003) 113 Cal.App.3th 232.) 0ami"ton an, Ste,art ha.e so(e support in %innesota $# O"son (1&&0) 3&$ 4.S. &1 610& 7.8,.2n, #$9: an, )eop"e $# Ti""er& (1&2&) && Cal.App.3r, &2$- &2#%&2&. +he Jinth Circuit Court o" Appeal has interprete, )e&ton?s *reason to belie!e/ re@uire(ent (See also United States $# Under,ood (&th Cir. 1&#3) 212 B.2n, 3#2.) as necessitating *probable cause/ to belie.e a suspect is insi,e a thir, person s ho(e be"ore a non%consensual entry (ay be (a,e. (United States $# Gorman (&th Cir. 2002) 313 B.3r, 110$: atte(pt to ser.e an arrest 0arrant re@uires *probable cause/ to belie.e the subCect o" the 0arrant is insi,e.) Cali"ornia s Bourth District Court o" Appeal has hel, other0ise- "in,ing that only a reasonable belief- "alling 210
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short o" probable cause to belie.e- that the suspect li.es there an, is present at the ti(e- is necessary to Custi"y a non%consensual entry. ()eop"e $# Do,ne& (2011) 1&# Cal.App.3th 5$2- 5$2%552.) Also noting that the Cali"ornia Supre(e Court- in )eop"e $# *aco.s- supra (pg. 32&- "n. 3)- ,i, not "in, that probable cause 0as re@uire,- contrary to popular belie". (Id.- at p. 552.) +ote) +he *present at the time/ re@uire(ent apparently only applies to e?ecuting an arrest 0arrant. 1t has ne.er been re@uire, that a person on a Fourth 0a.ier be ho(e at the ti(e o" a 0arrantless entry an, search. (See )eop"e $ 2i"ientha" (1&2#) 22 Cal.3r, #&1- &00.) &onse@uences of a Rame&J)a&ton Violation) A 0arrantless arrest in the ho(e- in .iolation o" )a&ton $# Ne, Yor(- supra- an, )eop"e $# Rame&- supra- does not in.ali,ate a later state(ent (a,e to police 0hich 0as not *an exploitation of the illegal entry./ (Ne, Yor( $# 0arris (1&&0) 3&$ 4.S. 13 610& 7.8,.2n, 139: )eop"e $# -at(ins (1&&3) 25 Cal.App.3th 1&- 2&%31: United States $# %anue" (&th Cir. 1&#3) 205 B.2n, &0#- &11%&12.) See also )eop"e $# %ar:ue5 (1&&2) 1 Cal.3th $$3$5&: 0arris rule applies to an arrest (a,e 0ith probable cause but in .iolation o" the Cali"ornia Constitution an, )eop"e $# Rame&- supra. 8.en 0here Rame& an, )a&ton are .iolate,- so long as the police ha.e probable cause to (aFe the arrest- only e.i,ence secure, in the ho(e is subCect to suppression. De"en,ant s arrest is not suppresse,- nor are his state(ents later (a"ter lea.ing the house) (a,e to police as a pro,uct o" that arrest. ()eop"e $# -at(ins- supra.) Con,ucting an illegal parole search 0ithin a ho(e 0here there e?ists probable cause to arrest the subCect (e.en though he 0as only ,etaine,) 0ill not cause the suppression o" a con"ession obtaine, a"ter the subCect co(es to the la0 en"orce(ent o""icer s o""ice 0here he is interrogate,. (United States $# 211
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Cra,'ord (&th Cir. 2003) 322 B.3r, 103#- 10$3% 10$&.) Si(ilarly- physical e!idence reco.ere, "ro( the ,e"en,ant s person upon searching hi( at the police station- shoul, also be a,(issible. ()eop"e $# -at(ins- supra- at p. 31- "n. #: citing out%o"%state authority.) +his is supporte, by ,icta in )eop"e $# %ar:ue5- supra- at p. $5&- 0here the Court note, that a Rame& .iolation- *0oul, re@uire suppression solely o" e.i,ence obtaine, "ro( searching the ho(e at the ti(e o" the arrest./ +ote) Ehat this (eans is that shoul, a court rule that Rame&E)a&ton has been .iolate,- any oral or physical e.i,ence sei;e, "ro( the ,e"en,ant a"ter re(o.ing hi( "ro( the ho(e 0ill not be suppresse,- being the pro,uct o" a la0"ul arrest an, not the pro,uct o" the illegal entry into the resi,ence. 1n other 0or,s- ,on t @uestion or search the in,i.i,ual until he has been re(o.e, "ro( the ho(e in any case 0here the entry is @uestionable. $ut +ote) 8arlier case authority has in,icate, that a Rame& .iolation is but one "actor "or the court to consi,er in ,eter(ining 0hether the ,e"en,ant s subse@uent con"ession is a pro,uct o" his "ree 0ill. ()eop"e $# Trude"" (1&#$) 123 Cal.App.3r, 12211231%1232.) */noc( and Notice)/ *+o (aFe an arrest- a pri.ate person- i" the o""ense is a "elony- an, in all cases a peace o""icer- (ay breaF open the ,oor or 0in,o0 o" the ho(e in 0hich the person to be arreste, is- or in 0hich they ha.e reasonable groun,s "or belie.ing the person to be- a"ter ha.ing ,e(an,e, a,(ittance an, e?plaine, the purpose "or 0hich a,(ittance is ,esire,./ ((!C! #44) See *Anoc? and +otice:/ un,er * earch =arrants-/ belo0. )ro."ems: *rresting for the =rong ;ffense) As long as- 0hen arreste,- probable cause to arrest "or some o""ense 0as present- it is irrele!ant that ,e"en,ant 0as arreste, "or 212
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the 0rong o""ense. ()eop"e $# 2e,is (1&#0) 10& Cal.App.3r, $&&50#%50&: In re Dona"d 2# (1&2#) #1 Cal.App.3r, 220- 22$: see also )eop"e $# Richardson (200#) 33 Cal.3th &$&- &##%&&0: an, )eop"e $# Carmona (2011) 1&$ Cal.App.3th 13#$- 13&1.) Jo sanctions 0ill be i(pose, "or ha.ing selecte, the 0rong charge. *SubCecti.e intentions (o" the arresting o""icer) play no role in or,inary- probable%cause Fourth Amendment analysis./ (-hren $# United States (1&&5) $12 4.S. #05- #13 613$ 7.8,.2n, #&- &#9.) *(A)n o""icer s reliance on the 0rong statute ,oes not ren,er his actions unla0"ul i" there is a right statute that applies to the ,e"en,ant s con,uct./ (In re *ustin /# (2002) &# Cal.App.3th 5&$: Stopping ,e"en,ant "or his thir, (rear 0in,o0) braFe light out ,espite not Fno0ing the correct legal Custi"ication "or "in,ing that the inoperable light 0as in .iolation o" the 0ehicle Code.) See also )eop"e $# Rodri1ue5 (1&&2) $3 Cal.App.3th 12$0: ,e"en,ant arreste, "or ho(ici,e "or 0hich there 0as no probable cause- 0hile the o""icer ,i, ha.e probable cause to belie.e ,e"en,ant ha, in "act co((itte, another ho(ici,e: arrest la0"ul. Arresting ,e"en,ant "or *littering/ (per (!C! 314!4) "or urinating in public 0as a la0"ul arrest e.en though the o""icer use, the 0rong o""ense. De"en,ant s actions 0ere in "act a .iolation o" (!C! 313- 312- "or ha.ing create, a public nuisance. ()eop"e $# %cDona"d (2005) 132 Cal.App.3th $21- $30.) +he 4nite, States Supre(e Court has rule, that so long as a police o""icer has probable cause to arrest "or some o""ense- it (atters not that- subCecti.ely- the o""icer erroneously belie.e, that he only ha, probable cause "or another o""ense. (De$enpec( $# A"'ord +2003) $33 4.S. 135 6150 7.8,.2n, $329: reCecting the Jinth Circuit Court o" Appeals opinion that arresting "or the 0rong o""ense 0as only la0"ul i" the t0o o""enses 0ere *closely (or Afactually ) related-/ as ,escribe, in Gasho $# United States (&th Cir. 1&&3) 3& B.3r, 1320132#: an, A"'ord $# 0aner (&th Cir. 2003) 333 B.3r, &22: petition grante,.) +he Jinth Circuit 0as .irtually alone on this issue- 0ith other "e,eral circuits "ollo0ing the sa(e rule as Cali"ornia. (See United States $# )u"$ano ($th Cir. 1&#0) 52& B.2n, 213
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11$1: United States $# Saunders ($th Cir. 1&23) 325 B.2n, $: /"in1"er $# United States (#th Cir. 1&5&) 30& B.2n, 2&&: United States e! re" 2a e""e $# 2a9a""ee (2n, Cir. 1&2$) $12 B.2n, 2$0: Richardson $# onds (2th Cir. 1&##) #50 B.2n, 1322: /ni1ht $# *aco.son (11th Cir. 2002) 300 B.3r, 1222.) Howe!er: an arrest "or 0hat the o""icer belie.es to be a "elony- an, 0hich ,i, not occur in the o""icer s presence- but 0hich is in "act only a (is,e(eanor- (ay be an illegal arrest- per (!C! #32+a,+1, (i.e.- (is,e(eanor not in the o""icer s presence.)- an,Nor the *stale (is,e(eanor/ rule (see abo.e). ,ista?en $elief in Existence of Probable &ause to *rrest or earch, an *rrest =arrant, or that a Fourth =ai!er Exists, $ased upon Erroneous 'nformation recei!ed from Various ources) Problem) An o""icer arrests an,Nor searches a person un,er the (istaFen belie" that there is an arrest 0arrant outstan,ing "or the person- the person is subCect to a *Fourth =ai!er/ (i.e.- he has pre.iously 0ai.e, his Fourth Amendment search an, sei;ure rights)- or the o""icer is gi.en other erroneous in"or(ation through either court- la0 en"orce(ent- or other o""icial channels. Rule) +he 4nite, States Supre(e Court initially hel, that an o""icer s *good faith/ 0ill .ali,ate the resulting arrest an,Nor search- at least in those cases 0here the erroneous in"or(ation ca(e "ro( a *court source./ (Ari5ona $# E$ans (1&&$) $13 4.S. 1 6131 7.8,.2n, 339: see also )eop"e $# Do,nin1 (1&&$) 33 Cal.App.3th 1531.) Extension of Rule) +he 4nite, States Supre(e Court subse@uently rule, (in a $%to%3 ,ecision) that an o""icer s goo, "aith reliance on erroneous in"or(ation 0ill not in.ali,ate an arrest e.en 0hen that in"or(ation co(es "ro( a la0 en"orce(ent source- so long as the error 0as base, upon non%reoccurring negligence only. Deliberate illegal acts- or a recFless ,isregar, "or constitutional re@uire(entsor reoccurring or syste(atic negligence- 0ill not e?cuse the resulting unla0"ul arrest. (0errin1 $# United States (200&) $$$ 4.S. 13$ 6122 7.8,.2n, 3&59.) Reasoning) +his is because the *Exclusionary Rule/ 0as i(ple(ente, pri(arily to ,eter intentional or recFless police misconduct: not (iscon,uct by the courts or other non%la0 en"orce(ent sources- or e.en la0 en"orce(ent 0hen their error 0as si(ply non%reoccurring negligence. 1t is not necessary to 213
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suppress the resulting e.i,ence 0hen to ,o so ,oes not "urther the purposes o" the Exclusionary Rule. (Ari5ona $# E$ans- supra. At pp. 1$%15 6131 7.8,.2n, at pp. 32%3#9: United States $# 2eon (1&#3) 35# 4.S. #&2- &20%&21 6#2 7.8,.2n, 522- 5&29: )eop"e $# -i""is (2002) 2# Cal.3th 22: )eop"e $# Te""e5 (1&#2) 12# Cal.App.3r, #25- ##0: I""inois $# /ru"" (1&#2) 3#0 4.S. 330 6&3 7.8,.2n, 3539.) *(8).i,ence shoul, be suppresse, Aonly i" it can be sai, that the la0 en"orce(ent o""icer ha, Fno0le,ge- or (ay properly be charge, 0ith Fno0le,ge- that the search 0as unconstitutional un,er the Fourth Amendment. / (I""inois $# /ru""- supra.- at pp. 33#%33&.) *+o trigger the e?clusionary rule- police con,uct (ust be su""iciently ,eliberate that e?clusion can (eaning"ully ,eter it- an, su""iciently culpable that such ,eterrence is 0orth the price pai, by the Custice syste(./ (0errin1 $# United States- supra.- at p. 133.) "aw Enforcement !s2 +on6"aw Enforcement ource) A"ter the ,ecision in Ari5ona $# E$ans (1&&$)- an, be"ore 0errin1 $# United States- supra- Cali"ornia courts ,ebate, 0hat 0as a la0 en"orce(ent source- an, 0hat 0as not- interpreting E$ans as establishing a bright line test "or the issue. +hese cases 0ill liFely still be rele.ant in those cases 0here it is ,eter(ine, to be a la0 en"orce(ent source an, in.ol.es ,eliberate illegal acts- recFless ,isregar, "or constitutional re@uire(ents- or reoccurring or syste(atic negligence. "aw enforcement source cases 0here the resulting e.i,ence 0as suppresse,) Police &omputer Records) Arrest base, upon an arrest 0arrant 0hich 0as suppose, to ha.e been recalle, si? (onths earlier- but 0hich 0as still re"lecte, as outstan,ing in the police ,epart(ent s co(puter syste(. ()eop"e $# Ramire5 (1&#3) 33 Cal.3r, $31- $33%$33: )eop"e $# Armstron1 (1&&1) 232 Cal.App.3r, 22#- 231: %iranda $# Superior Court (1&&3) 13 Cal.App.3th 152#.) Parole is a la0 en"orce(ent source. 8rroneous in"or(ation "ro( a state Depart(ent o" Corrections parole o""icer resulte, in a belie" that the ,e"en,ant 0as subCect to a Fourth Ea.ier. +he resulting 21$
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0arrantless search 0as hel, to be illegal. ()eop"e $# -i""is (2002) 2# Cal.3th 22.) Gut see )eop"e $# Te""e5 (1&#2) 12# Cal.App.3r, #25- 0here erroneous in"or(ation "ro( Parole ,i, not preclu,e the use o" the *<ood (aith/ e?ception to the e?clusionary rule. +his case is o" @uestionable .ali,ity gi.en the rule in -i""is. Exception) Ehere an o""icer is erroneously tol, that the ,e"en,ant is on parole- only to "in, out later that he 0as subCect to a probationary Fourth 0ai.er instea,- the search 0ill be uphel,. 1t is not rele.ant 0hat type o" Fourth 0a.ier applies to the ,e"en,ant- the o""icer acting in *good faith./ ()eop"e $# 0i"" (2003) 11# Cal.App.3th 1333.) Probation) Gase, upon the reasoning o" )eop"e $# -i""is (2002) 2# Cal.3th 22- it 0as hel, that an a,ult Probation Depart(ent- e.en 0hen the error 0as (a,e by a clerF- is a law enforcement source. +his Court @uestione, the continuing .ali,ity o" In re Arron C# (1&&2) $& Cal.App.3th 135$ ("in,ing Ju.enile Probation to be a court source)- but note, that Arron C# ,ealt 0ith *Ju.enile Probation-/ 0hich 0orFs closer 0ith the courts than ,oes a,ult probation ,epart(ents. ()eop"e $# Fer1uson (2003) 10& Cal.App.3th 352.) See In re Arron (1&&2) $& Cal.App.3th 135$belo0. Exception) Although e.i,ence o" a ,ri.ing un,er the in"luence .iolation is subCect to suppression in a cri(inal prosecution 0hen it is ,isco.ere, as a pro,uct o" a tra""ic stop base, upon out,ate, police recor,s that the .ehicle ,e"en,ant 0as ,ri.ing 0as stolen- that sa(e e.i,ence 0ill not be suppresse, in Department of ,otor Vehicles administrati!e proceedings in.ol.ing the suspension o" ,e"en,ant s ,ri.er s license. ()ar( $# 9a"$erde (2002) 1$2 Cal.App.3th #22.) 215
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Jon%la0 en"orce(ent source cases 0here the resulting e.i,ence 0as not suppresse,) (ourth =a!ier 'nformation from the &ourts) 8rroneous in"or(ation concerning 0hether ,e"en,ant 0as still on probation an, subCect to a Fourth Eai.er- the error create, by a court cler?- is a *court source./ ()eop"e $# Do,nin1 (1&&$) 33 Cal.App.3th 1531.) Io0e.er- the Court in Do,nin1 note, that once la0 en"orce(ent is on notice o" the ,e"ects in the court syste(- *good faith/ (ay not apply the ne?t ti(e. ()eop"e $# Do,nin1, supra- at p. 15$2- "n. 25: *Ee caution- ho0e.er- that 0here the police ,epart(ent has Fno0le,ge o" "la0s in a recor, or ,ata base syste(- it 0oul, not see( Aob%ecti!ely reasonable to rely solely on it 0ithout taFing a,,itional steps to ensure its accuracy./) Re!ersed Prior &on!iction) A probationary Fourth Eai.er con,ition "ro( a prior case that 0as legally in e""ect at the ti(e o" the search in issue Custi"ies the search. +he "act that the prior con.iction is subse@uently .acate,- thus nulli"ying the search con,ition- ,oes not retroacti.ely (aFe the search in issue illegal. ()eop"e $# %i""er (2003) 123 Cal.App.3th 215.) Ehere ,e"en,ant s prior con.iction 0as o.erturne, on appeal- but only a"ter o""icers con,ucte, a probationary search base, upon that con.iction. Sa(e result as in %i""er. *(+)he integrity o" the process is best ser.e, . . . by a rule 0hich ,eter(ines the .ali,ity o" the search on the basis o" the legal situation 0hich e?its at the ti(e the search is (a,e./ ()eop"e $# Fie"ds (1&#1) 11& Cal.App.3r, 3#5- 3&0.) "egislati!e ource) Relying upon a statute authori;ing a 0arrantless a,(inistrati.e searcha"ter 0hich that statute is later ,eclare, to be 212
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unconstitutional- is la0"ul as ha.ing co(e "ro( a *legislati!e source/ (I""inois $# /ru"" (1&#2) 3#0 4.S. 330 6&3 7.8,.2n, 3539.)- in that the e?clusionary rule 0as not create, to punish the 7egislature any (ore than it 0as create, to punish the courts. ee also: %ichi1an $# DeFi""ippo (1&2&) 333 4.S. 31- 32%3# 651 7.8,.2n, 333- 33&% 3$09: goo, "aith reliance on an or,inance that 0as later ,eclare, to be unconstitutional. +he allege, unconstitutionality o" a statutethe .iolation "or 0hich ser.es as the basis "or a search 0arrant- is irrele.ant so long as o""icers reasonably relie, upon the statute s .ali,ity at the ti(e o" the obtaining o" the search 0arrant. (United States $# %ee( (&th Cir. 2003) 355 B.3r, 20$- 213.) Department of ,otor Vehicles ource) 1n.ali, in"or(ation concerning the status o" a .ehicle s registration- entere, into the syste( by a non%la0 en"orce(ent *,ata entry clerF-/ is a non%la0 en"orce(ent source. +he o""icer s arrest an, search in reasonable reliance upon recor,s sho0ing that the ,e"en,ant s .ehicle s registration 0as e?pire, an, that a "rau,ulent tab ha, been place, on the license plate (,isplaying "alse registration tabs- per 0!C! 23- 31- 4231 an, 43333!1)- 0as uphel, un,er the *good faith/ e?ception. ()eop"e $# 0ami"ton (2002) 102 Cal.App.3th 1311.) :u!enile Probation) At least 0ithin the Ju.enile Court- Probation is (ore aligne, 0ith the courts than la0 en"orce(ent- an, is there"ore a *court source./ 8rroneous in"or(ation "ro( Ju.enile Probation ,oes not preclu,e application o" good faith to sa.e the resulting search. (In re Arron C# (1&&2) $& Cal.App.3th 135$.) Reliance upon a Cu.enile s Fourth Ea.ier.ali, at the ti(e- Custi"ies a search irrespecti.e o" 0hether the 0a.ier 0as 21#
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la0"ully i(pose,. ()eop"e $# Rios (2011) 1&3 Cal.App.3th $#3- $&2%$&#.) $ut see )eop"e $# 0o,ard (1&#3) 152 Cal.App.3r, #- at pp. 1&%21- 0here Probation (erely "aile, to in"or( a police o""icer o" the correct li(its o" a particular probation search con,ition. +he Court hel, the resulting search to be illegal. 0o,ardho0e.er- is critici;e, by both Do,nin1supra- at p. 15$2- "n. 12- an, Arron C#supra- at p. 1322. *rresting and earching in 'gnorance of an Existing =arrant of *rrest) An arrest an, search o" a person 0ithout probable cause cannot be .ali,ate, a"ter the "act 0hen it is belate,ly ,isco.ere, that an arrest 0arrant e?ists "or that person. (%oreno $# aca (&th Cir. 200$) 331 B.3r, 533- 53#%531.) +his (ay no longer be .ali, authority in light o" the ,ecision in 0errin1 $# United States- supra. See * earching =hile 'n 'gnorance of a earch &ondition-/ un,er *(ourth =ai!er earches-/ belo0. ,inors and &urfew) +here is a split o" authority on the legality o" *arresting/ a (inor "or a cur"e0 .iolation) Oinors .iolating cur"e0 (ay be stopped- detained- an, transported to a cur"e0 center- the police station- or other "acility 0here the (inor can a0ait the arri.al o" a parent or other responsible a,ult. A search o" the (inor prior to placing hi( in a cur"e0 center 0ith other chil,ren is also reasonable. (In re Ian C# (2001) #2 Cal.App.3th #$5.) Ge"ore Ian C#- it 0as hel, that a cur"e0 .iolation did not Custi"y the transportation o" a (inor to a police station "or interrogationsuch a custo,ial arrest not being one o" the alternati.es allo0e, un,er the Eel"are an, 1nstitutions Co,e- re"erring to /&I 231, 222, 222 an, 222!). +he Court "urther hel, that such a transportation- as an illegal arrest- 0as also a .iolation o" the Fourth Amendment. (In re *ustin # (1&&&) 5& Cal.App.3th #2&.) In re *ustin # 0as critici;e, in the later ,ecision o" In re Char"es C# (1&&&) 25 Cal.App.3th 320. +he Court in Char"es C# hel, that the arrest an, transportation o" a (inor to a police station "or a 21&
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.iolation o" cur"e0- at least 0here the (inor s parents coul, not be locate, 0hile still in the "iel,- 0as not i(proper. 4n,er such circu(stances- taFing the (inor to a police station is the least intrusi.e alternati.e le"t to the o""icer. (/&I 222) Burther /&I 231+4,+2, pro.i,es that a (inor as ,escribe, by /&I 231 (0hich inclu,es cur"e0 .iolators) (ay be taFen into custo,y an, hel, in a *secure facility-/ 0hich inclu,es a police station- so long as not con"ine, 0ith a,ults- "or up to 23 hours 0hile the (inor s parents are locate,. 7astly- the Court hel, that e.en i" in .iolation o" the Eel"are an, 1nstitutions Co,e- the Fourth Amendment is not .iolate, by transporting a cur"e0 .iolator to a police station- so suppression o" any resulting e.i,ence is not re@uire,. +he Court "urther note, that taFing a (inor *into temporary custody-/ as authori;e, by /&I 22)- is the "unctional e@ui.alent o" an arrest. (In re Char"es C#, supra- at p. 32$- "n. 3: see also In re Thierr& S# (1&22) 1& Cal.3r, 222- 233- "n. 5: an, In re *ustin #- supra- at p. ##&.) +ote) In re Char"es C#, supra- is the better rule. In re *ustin #supra- critici;e, by both Char"es C# (at pp. 325%322.) an, In re Ian C#- supra- at p. #50- is a straine, ,ecision at best- an, o" @uestionable .ali,ity. ,inors and Truancy) !bser.ation o" a (inor carrying a bacFpacF on the street ,uring school hours 0ithin se.eral (iles o" a high school 0as su""icient cause to stop an, ,etain the (inor an, in@uiry as to his status as a stu,ent. Ehen ,e"en,ant 0as unable to pro.i,e a satis"actory reason "or 0hy he 0as out o" school- an, ha, i,enti"ication in so(eone else s na(e- he 0as properly arreste, "or being truant (?d! Code, 4#224) an, searche, inci,ent to arrest. (In re 0um.erto O! (2000) #0 Cal.App.3th 232: reco.ery o" a ,agger "ro( his bacFpacF 0as la0"ul.) In'ormation )ro$ided to an Arrested )erson: )#C# B F61: 'nformation to be Pro!ided) +he person (aFing the arrest (ust in"or( the person being arreste, o" the "ollo0ing) +he intention to arrest hi(: +he cause o" the arrest (i.e.- the charges): an, 220
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+he authority to (aFe it. ()eop"e $# Superior Court @2o1ueA (1&23) 3$ Cal.App.3r, 1- $.) 8?ceptions) +here is no nee, to co(ply 0ith the abo.e 0hen) +he person (aFing the arrest has reasonable cause to belie.e that the person to be arreste, is actually engage, in the co((ission o"- or an atte(pt to co((it- an o""ense (See )eop"e $# Darne"" (1&$1) 102 Cal.App.2n, $31 $3$: )eop"e $# Thomas (1&$2) 1$5 Cal.App.2n, 112- 130: )eop"e $# 9a"en5ue"a (1&$&) 121 Cal.App.2n, 331- 333.): or +he person to be arreste, is pursue, i((e,iately a"ter co((ission o" the o""ense- or a"ter an escape. (See )eop"e $# )oo" (1#5$) 22 Cal. $22- $25: A""en $# %cCo& (1&33) 13$ Cal.App. $00- $0#: )eop"e $# Camp.e"" (1&22) 22 Cal.App.3r, #3&- #$3: an, *ohanson $# Department o' %otor 9ehic"es (1&&$) 35 Cal.App.3th 120&- 121#.)

8.en 0here an e?ception applies- i" the arrestee asFs 0hat he or she is being arreste, "or- he or she (ust be tol,. ((!C! #41) (oreign +ationals: (!C! #34c+a,+1,) *d!isal to *rresteeJDetainee) 4pon the arrest an, booFing or ,etention "or (ore than t0o (2) hours o" a Fno0n or suspecte, "oreign national- the arresteeN,etainee shall be a,.ise, *without delay/ that he or she has a right to co((unicate 0ith an o""icial "ro( the consulate o" his or her nati.e country. 1" the arresteeN,etainee chooses to e?ercise that right- the peace o""icer shall noti"y the pertinent o""icial in his or her agency or ,epart(ent o" the arrest or ,etention an, that the "oreign national 0ants his or her consulate noti"ie,. ()eop"e $# Enraca (2012) $3 Cal.3th 23$2$5%2$#: )eop"e $# %endo5a (2002) 32 Cal.3th 5#5- 20&.) +his is a statutory enact(ent o" the 1&53 0ienna Con:ention on Consular 8elations- Article 32: a +reaty signe, by the 4nite, States an, 15& other countries. Although there is so(e ,isagree(ent- it is generally accepte, that a "oreign national has the *standing/ necessary to in.oFe the pro.isions o" the 0ienna Con:ention in so "ar as they re@uire notice to an 221
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arresteeN,etainee o" his right to contact his consulate. (See United States $# Super$i""e (Uir. 1slan,s- 1&&&) 30 B.Supp.2n, 522- 525%52#.) +he 4nite, States Supre(e Court- until recently (see belo0)- ,ecline, to ,eci,e 0hether a "oreign national 0ho ha, not been a,.ise, o" his rights un,er the 0ienna Con:ention ha, an en"orceable right in 4.S. courts. (Sanche532"amas $# Ore1on (2005) $3# 4.S. 331- 333 615$ 7.8,.2n, $$29: assu(ing "or the saFe o" argu(ent that they ,i,- 0hile speci"ically ,eclining to ,eci,e the issue. Bour ,issenting opinions 0oul, ha.e hel, that the ,e"en,ants ha, a right to raise these issues. (Id.- at pp. 35&%32#.) +he o""icer s ,epart(ent is responsible "or (aFing the re@ueste, noti"ication. (su4d! +a,+2,) +he 0ienna Con:ention also pro.i,es that any co((unication a,,resse, to the consular post by the person arreste,- in prison- custo,y or ,etention shall be "or0ar,e, by the authorities *without delay./ (Art! 32+1, +4,) +he la0 en"orce(ent o""icial in charge o" a custo,ial "acility 0here a "oreign national is house, shall ensure that the arrestee is allo0e, to co((unicate 0ith- correspon, 0ith- an, be .isite, by- a consular o""icer o" his or her country. (su4d! +a,+3,) 7ocal la0 en"orce(ent agencies are to incorporate these re@uire(ents into their respecti.e policies an, proce,ures. (su4d! +c,) *utomatic +otice to (oreign &ountry) Bi"ty%si? ($5) countries are liste, in su4di:ision +d, 0hich must be noti"ie, o" the arrest or ,etention (pursuant to su4d! +a,+1,: i.e.- (ore than 2 hours) o" one o" their "oreign nationals *0ithout regar, to an arreste, or ,etaine, "oreign national s re@uest to the contrary./ +ote) Although Oe?ico is one o" the 120 (0hich inclu,es the 4nite, States) countries that signe, the Con.ention- it is not one o" the countries liste, that (ust be automatically noti"ie, o" the arrest- booFing or ,etention o" a "oreign national.

222
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anctions for Violations) 1t has been generally accepte, that a .iolation o" the pro.isions o" the 0ienna Con:ention an,presu(ably- this statute- will not result in the suppression o" any e.i,ence. (United States $# 2om.era3Camor"in1a (&th Cir. 2000) 205 B.3r, ##2: )eop"e $# Corona (2001) #& Cal.App.3th 1325: United States $# Rodri1ue53)reciado (&th Cir. 200$) 3&& B.3r, 111#- 1130.) Jot in"or(ing a Japanese national o" his right to contact the Japanese consulate upon his arrest is not a .iolation o" the Da-an Con:ention- Article 12+1,. 8.en i" Article 12+1, coul, be interprete, as re@uiring such noti"ication- a .iolation 0oul, not result in the suppression o" the ,e"en,ant s later state(ents nor any physical e.i,ence reco.ere, as the result o" a consensual search. (United States $# Amano (&th Cir. 2000) 22& B.3r, #01- #03.) Japan- although a signatory to the 0ienna Con:ention- is not one o" the $5 countries liste, in (!C! #34c that (ust be noti"ie, upon the arrest or ,etention o" one o" their citi;ens. +he 4nite, States Supre(e Court- until recently- has reCecte, appeals on this issue on procedural groun,s,eclining to ,eci,e this issue on its (erits. (See reard $# Greene (1&&#) $23 4.S. 321 6130 7.8,.2n, $2&9.) Howe!er- a nu(ber o" Custices ha.e e?presse, ,issatis"action 0ith a.oi,ing the issue- in generalan, not sanctioning states "or .iolating the Con:ention- in particular. (See also Torres $# %u""in (2003) $30 4.S. 103$ 61$2 7.8,.2n, 3$39.) +he *'nternational &ourt of :ustice/ (1CJ)- in a la0suit brought against the 4nite, States by Oe?ico an, ,eci,e, on Oarch 31- 2003- "oun, that there are $3 ,eath ro0 in(ates (22 o" 0hich are in Cali"ornia) 0ho 0ere not pro.i,e, 0ith a noti"ication o" their consular rights- in .iolation o" the 0ienna Con:ention. +he Court conclu,e, that the o""en,ing state an, local Curis,ictions .iolating these re@uire(ents 0ere *obligated/ to re.ie0 an, reconsi,er these cases. (See %e!ico $# United States o' America 6A$ena7 (2003) 2003 1.C.J. Jo. 12#.) +he 4nite, States Supre(e Court- in Sanche53 2"amas $# Ore1on (2005) $3# 4.S. 331- 3$1%3$5 615$ 7.8,.2n, $$29- 0hile "in,ing that the rulings o" 223
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the 1CJ ,eser.e, *respectful consideration-/ hel, that they 0ere not bin,ing upon 4.S. courts an, ,ecline, to "ollo0 their gui,ance on this issue. 1n Oay- 200$- the 4nite, States Supre(e Court ,is(isse, as i(pro.i,ently grante, a 0rit o" certiorari in a +e?as case challenging state la0 en"orce(ent o""icers "ailure to pro.i,e a capital ,e"en,ant- an, Oe?ican national- 0ith a 0ienna Con:ention noti"ication. (%ede""in $# Dret(e (200$) $33 4.S. 550 6151 7.8,.2n, &#29.) +he Court in %ede""in $# Dret(e ,i, not ,is(iss the 0rit out o" a lacF o" interest- ho0e.er- but rather because the ,e"en,ant initiate, ne0 procee,ings in the +e?as courts- base, upon the 1CJ s latest pronounce(ent (%e!ico $# United States o' America 6A$ena7- supra.) an, an e?ecuti.e or,er issue, by Presi,ent Gush "or A(erican courts to re.ie0 .iolations o" the 0ienna Con:ention (see 'nternational Herald Tribune (3N3N0$)- that (ight 0ell resol.e the issues. 8.en so- "our 4.S. Supre(e Court Custices ,issente,- noting that *(n)onco(pliance 0ith our treaty obligations is especially 0orriso(e in capital cases-/ an, that the ,e"en,ant in this case ha, raise, so(e *,ebatable/ issues that *suggest the .ery real possibility o" his .ictory in state court./ (%ede""in $# Dret(e- supra.) +he 4nite, States Supre(e Court "inally rule, on the issues o" (1) the proper re(e,y "or an Article 32 .iolation an, (2) 0hether "ailing to raise the issue at the trial court le.el preclu,e, the raising o" the issue post%con.iction. (Sanche532"amas $# Ore1on (2005) $3# 4.S. 331 615$ 7.8,.2n, $$29 (Coine, 0ith usti""o $# *ohnson (^0$%$1)- a case "ro( the Uirginia Supre(e Court). 1n these t0o casesthe Court hel, that a .iolation o" the Uienna Con.ention ,oes not 0arrant the suppression o" e.i,ence- inclu,ing a ,e"en,ant s state(ents. +he Court also hel, (in the usti""o $# *ohnson portion o" the ,ecision) that "ailing to raise the issue in the state courts 0ill preclu,eproce,urally- the ,e"en,ant "ro( litigating the issue by 0ay o" a "e,eral 0rit o" habeas corpus.

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+ot decided 0as 0hether the 0ienna Con:ention grants in,i.i,uals en"orceable rights in a state courtor 0hether the pro.isions o" the Con:ention are so(ething to be en"orce, .ia political channels bet0een countries- the Court assu(ing- "or the saFe o" argu(ent- that such rights 0ere en"orceable 0ithout ,eci,ing the issue. (Sanche532"amas $# Ore1on- supra.- a p. 333.) Bour ,issenting opinions 0oul, ha.e speci"ically hel, that the ,e"en,ants ha, a right to raise these issues. (Id.- at pp. 35&%32#.) $ut note) An e?tra,ite, ,e"en,ant has stan,ing to seeF en"orce(ent o" an e?tra,ition treaty s restrictions on the potential punish(ent to 0hich he (ay be subCecte,. ( enite5 $# Garcia (&th Cir. 2002) 325 B.3r, 525: e?tra,ite, "ro( Uene;uela un,er the un,erstan,ing that he 0oul, not be subCecte, to the ,eath penalty or a li"e sentence.) +he 0ienna Con:ention ,oes not pro.i,e a "oreign national any rights that are en"orceable in a 42 !S!C! 1"#3 ci.il rights suit against la0 en"orce(ent "or .iolating the person s rights pro.i,e, "or un,er the Con:ention. (Corne;o $# Count& o' San Die1o (&th Cir. 2002) $03 B.3r, #$3.) +hen- in Jo.e(ber- 2005- the +e?as appellate court re"use, to co(ply 0ith the presi,ent s co((an, to pro.i,e ,e"en,ants 0hose Uienna Con.ention rights 0ere .iolate, 0ith a hearing on the issue- ,eci,ing that it 0oul, not allo0 Jose 8rnesto Oe,ellin to "ile a secon, habeas petition seeFing relie". (%ede""in $# Te!as- 05%&#3.) +he 4nite, States Supre(e Court uphel, +e?as on this issue- "in,ing that the ter(s o" the 0ienna Con:ention are not *sel"%e?ecuting-/ ,i, not ha.e the "orce o" ,o(estic la0- an, 0ere not bin,ing on 4.S. Courts. +he Court also hel, that the Presi,ent ha, no authority to ,ictate the proce,ures to be use, in state court an, there"ore coul, not legally or,er state courts to gi.e prisoners hearings on this issue. (%ede""in $# Te!as (200#) $$2 4.S. 3&1 6120 7.8,.2n, 1&09.) See also In re %artine5 (200&) 35 Cal.3th &3$- 0here the Cali"ornia Supre(e Court conclu,e, that petitioner 0as preclu,e, "ro( rene0ing his Uienna Con.ention clai( because he ha, pre.iously raise, the issue an, the court 22$
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ha, ,enie, relie" on its (erits. +here"ore- his petition 0as successi.e- an, he "aile, to ,e(onstrate any change o" circu(stance or the applicability o" any e?ception to the proce,ural bar o" successi.eness to 0arrant reconsi,eration o" his clai(. +he Cali"ornia Supre(e Court has hel, that e.en assu(ing a ,e"en,ant is not a,.ise, o" his consular rights in .iolation o" the Uienna Con.ention- relie" 0ill not be grante, absent a sho0ing o" preCu,ice. ()eop"e $# %endo5a (2002) 32 Cal.3th 5#5- 20&%211.) Bailing to a,.ise an arreste, Bilipino (ur,er suspect o" his right to ha.e his consulate noti"ie, o" his arrest ,oes not- by itsel"- ren,er a con"ession ina,(issible. ()eop"e $# Enraca (2012) $3 Cal.3th 23$- 2$5%2$#.) 4sing the sa(e reasoning- ,e"en,ant s clai( un,er the 4nite, States bilateral consular con.ention 0ith the Philippines also "aile,. (Id- at p. 2$#.) +ote also (!C! #344+a,) 7a0 en"orce(ent agencies are re@uire, to *"ully cooperate/ 0ith the 4nite, States 1((igration an, Jaturali;ation Ser.ice 0hen it is suspecte, that an arreste, person is in the 4nite, States in .iolation o" "e,eral i((igration la0s. Su4d! +4,: Such cooperation is to inclu,e the "ollo0ing) +1,: Atte(pt to .eri"y the legal i((igration status o" such person through @uestioning that person an, ,e(an,ing ,ocu(entation. +2,: Joti"y the person o" his or her apparent status as an alien 0ho is present in the 4nite, States illegally an, in"or( hi( or her that- apart "ro( any cri(inal Custice procee,ings- he or she (ust either obtain legal status or lea.e the 4nite, States. +3,: Joti"y the Cali"ornia Attorney Leneral an, the 4nite, States 1((igration an, Jaturali;ation Ser.ice o" the apparent illegal status o" the person an, pro.i,e any a,,itional in"or(ation that (ay be re@ueste, by any other public entity. Su4d +c,: *Any legislati.e- a,(inistrati.e- or other action by a city- county- or other legally authori;e, local 225
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go.ern(ental entity 0ith Curis,ictional boun,aries- or by a la0 en"orce(ent agency- to pre.ent or li(it the cooperation re@uire, by su4di:ision +a, is e?pressly prohibite,./ +he constitutionality o" this section is @uestionable. (See 2ea1ue $# United 2atin American Citi5ens $# -i"son (C.D. Cal. 1&&$) &0# B.Supp. 2$$.) %iranda: Any person 0ho is arreste,- or 0ho is subCecte, to a contact 0ith la0 en"orce(ent 0hich has the "or(al attributes o" an arrest- an, is @uestione,- (ust "irst be a,.ise, o"- acFno0le,ge his un,erstan,ing o"an, "reely an, .oluntarily 0ai.e- his Fifth Amendment right against sel"% incri(ination- pursuant to %iranda $# Ari5ona (1&55) 3#3 4.S. 335 615 7.8,.2n, 5&39.) See *%iranda and the "aw-/ Secon, 8,ition- to be publishe, January- 2013. ,inors W /&I 22)+c,: 1n any case 0here a minor (person un,er the age o" 1#) is taFen *into temporary custody/ 0ith probable cause to belie.e he or she is in .iolation o" /&I 231 or 232 (i.e.- ,elin@uent or status o""en,er)- or that he or she has .iolate, an or,er o" the Cu.enile court or escape, "ro( any co((it(ent or,ere, by the Cu.enile court- the o""icer shall a,.ise such (inor that anything he says can be use, against hi( or heran, shall a,.ise the (inor o" his or her constitutional rights inclu,ing the right to re(ain silent- the right to ha.e counsel present ,uring any interrogation- an, the right to ha.e appointe, counsel i" he or she is unable to a""or, counsel. A %iranda%style a,(onish(ent ob.iously co.ers these re@uire(ents. (See %iranda $# Ari5ona (1&55) 3#3 4.S. 335 615 7.8,.2n, 5&39.) +his a,(onish(ent- un,er the ter(s o" the statute (/&I 22)+c,)is to be (a,e 0hether or not the (inor is to be subCecte, to a custo,ial interrogation. Io0e.er- there is no sanction "or a "ailure to co(ply 0ith the re@uire(ents o" this statute- unless- o" coursethe (inor is in "act interrogate, in 0hich case the stan,ar, %iranda rules apply. +ote) +he statute ,oes not re@uire that this a,(onish(ent be (a,e *immediately/ upon arrest. A (inor 0ho is taFen *into temporary custody-/ as authori;e, by /&I 22)- has been arrested. (In re Char"es C# (1&&&) 25 222
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Cal.App.3th 320- 32$: see also In re Thierr& S# (1&22) 1& Cal.3r, 222- 233- "n. 5.) See also 1# !S!C! )333- "or a si(ilar "e,eral re@uire(ent. Section )333 re@uires that "e,eral la0 en"orce(ent agents also noti"y the parents o" a Cu.enile s rights- an, that it be ,one *i((e,iately/ a"ter the chil, is taFen into custo,y. A one%hour ,elay in noti"ying the parents o" the Cu.enile s %iranda rights 0as not unreasonable gi.en the "act that it 0as ,one as soon as it 0as ,isco.ere, that the arreste, subCect 0as a Cu.enile. (United States $# -end& G# (&th Cir. 2001) 2$$ B.3r, 251.) *lso- 0hen a (inor taFen be"ore a probation o""icer pursuant to /&I 222 (Alternati.e Dispositions "or Oinors in +e(porary Custo,y Ehen Ju.enile Court Procee,ings are not Re@uire,)- an, it is allege, that the (inor is a person ,escribe, in /&I 231 (Status !""en,er) or 232 (Delin@uent)- the probation o""icer *shall/ i((e,iately a,.ise the (inor an, his parent or guar,ian o" rights e@ui.alent to those pro.i,e, in the %iranda ,ecision. (/&I 221!)) Fo""o,3Up Re:uirements A'ter Arrest: ;ther Rights of the *rrestee) Right to *ccess to an *ttorney- per (!C! #2)+4,) Any attorney entitle, to practice in the courts o" recor, o" Cali"ornia (ay- at the re@uest o" the prisoner or any relati.e o" the prisoner- .isit the prisoner. Any o""icer ha.ing charge o" the prisoner 0ho 0ill"ully re"uses or neglects to allo0 that attorney to .isit a prisoner is guilty o" a misdemeanor- an, *shall "or"eit an, pay to the party aggrie.e, the su( o" [$00- to be reco.ere, by action in any court o" co(petent Curis,iction./ (I.id#) Ehile the section ,oes not speci"y when an attorney- at the re@uest o" the prisoner or a relati.e- shoul, be allo0e, to see the prisoner- it is suggeste, the re@uest be honore, as soon as is practical. +he courts ten, to be critical o" any purpose"ul ,elay in allo0ing an in%custo,y suspect to consult 0ith his attorney. (See )eop"e $# Stro."e (1&$1) 35 Cal.2n, 51$- 52$%525: *+he con,uct o" the o""icers (re"using 22#
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to allo0 ,e"en,ant s attorney access to hi( 0hile o""icers obtaine, a con"ession) . . . was patently illegal./ Howe!er- see )eop"e $# 2edesma (1&##) 203 Cal.App.3r, 5#2- 5&$%5&5- an, "n. #) Uiolating (!C! #2)+4, is not a constitutional .iolation re@uiring the suppression o" the ,e"en,ant s state(ents 0here the ,e"en,ant ha, other0ise 0ai.e, his rights un,er %iranda. Right to *ccess to a Physician or Psychiatrist) (!C! #2)!)) Any physician or surgeon- inclu,ing a psychiatrist- or psychologist 0ith a ,octoral ,egree an, t0o years e?perience- license, to practice in this state- e(ploye, by the prisoner or his attorney- shall be per(itte, to .isit the prisoner 0hile he or she is in custo,y. +ote) +he statute pro.i,es no sanction "or "ailing to co(ply 0ith this pro.ision. Right to Telephone &alls- per (!C! #)1!)+a,) An arreste, person has the right- i((e,iately a"ter booFing an,- e?cept 0hen physically i(possible- no later than three (3) hours a"ter arrest- to (aFe at least three (3) co(plete, telephone calls. +he calls are to be "ree i" co(plete, in the local calling area- an, are at the arrestee s e?pense i" outsi,e the local area. +he calls (ust be allo0e, i((e,iately on re@uest- or as soon as practicable. +he calls (ay be (a,e to) An attorney o" the arrestee s choice- public ,e"en,er- or other attorney assigne, to assist in,igents (0hich (ay not be (onitore,). A bail bon,s(an. A relati.e or other person. +his in"or(ation- inclu,ing the phone nu(ber o" the public ,e"en,er or other attorney assigne, to assist in,igent ,e"en,ants- (ust be poste,. (Su4d! +4,) (n a%%e'!in o% boo9in o00i$e% i' al'o %e7ui%ed !o in7ui%e a' !o *he!he% an a%%e'!ed ,e%'on i' a $u'!odial ,a%en! *i!h %e',on'ibili!& 0o% a /ino% $hild and i0 'o) !o no!i0& !he a%%e'!ee !ha! he o% 'he i' en!i!led !o /a9e !*o addi!ional !ele,hone $all' (0o% a !o!al o0 5) !o a%%an e $hild $a%e. (Su4d! +c,) 22&
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(olice facilities and places of detention shall post a sign stating that a custodial parent %ith responsibility for a minor child has the right to t%o additional telephone calls' (4ubd. (d)) 1" the arrestee so re@uests- the three telephone calls shall be allo0e, *immediately-/ or as soon as is practicable. (Su4d! +e,) +he signs poste, pursuant to the abo.e shall (aFe the speci"ie, noti"ications in 8nglish an, any non% 8nglish language spoFen by a substantial nu(ber o" the public- as speci"ie, in 9o:.t! Code 12"2!20ho are ser.e, by the police "acility or place o" ,etain(ent. (Su4d! +f,) +he rights an, ,uties set "orth in this section shall be en"orce, regar,less o" the arresteeDs i((igration status. (Su4d! +5,) +his section is not inten,e, to *abrogate a la0 en"orce(ent o""icer s ,uty to a,.ise a suspect o" his or her right to counsel or o" any other right./ (Su4d! +h,) 1t is a misdemeanor to 0ill"ully ,epri.e an arreste, person o" these rights. (Su4d! +i,) +he only recogni;e, e?ception to this rule is *physical impossibility./ (Car"o $# Cit& o' Chino (&th Cir. 1&&2) 10$ B.3r, 3&3.) Io0e.er- the allege, "act that ,e"en,ants 0ere ,enie, right to call an attorney i((e,iately a"ter they 0ere booFe, ha, no bearing on a,(issibility o" any e?traCu,icial state(ents (a,e prior to ti(e 0hen ,e"en,ants 0ere booFe,. ()eop"e $# Stout (1&52) 55 Cal.2n, 1#3.) Case 7a0) Plainti"" s ci.il rights 0ere .iolate, by ,enying her access to a telephone 0hile she 0as Caile, a"ter her arrest on charges o" ,ri.ing 0hile un,er the in"luence o" alcohol. +he state right to a post% 230
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booFing telephone call ((!C! #)1!)) creates a liberty interest protecte, by the Fourteenth Amendment o" the 4nite, States Constitution: an, due process protections o" prisoners liberty rights 0ere clearly establishe, long be"ore plainti"" 0as arreste, in 1&&1. (Car"o $! Cit& o' Chino- supra.) Howe!er- 0ithhol,ing per(ission to a (otoristarreste, "or ,ri.ing a (otor .ehicle on a public high0ay 0hile un,er the in"luence o" into?icating li@uor- "ro( telephoning an attorney 0ithin the statutory three%hour perio, a"ter his arrest ((!C! #)1!))- 0as not a ,enial o" ,ue process 0here booFing proce,ures co((ence, appro?i(ately t0o hours an, t0enty%"i.e (inutes "ro( the ti(e o" arrest an, 0here- i" ,e"en,ant ha, been per(itte, to (aFe the call then- an, as a result o" legal a,.ice consente, to sub(it to a che(ical test- the results o" such test 0oul, ha.e little or no probati.e .alue. (2ac& $ Orr (1&5&) 225 Cal App 2n, 1&#.) Police (ay re@uire arrestee "irst to ,isclose telephone nu(ber o" person to 0ho( call is being place,- an, then place the call an, o.ertly listen to ,e"en,antDs si,e o" any non%attorney%client con.ersation 0ithout in.a,ing ,e"en,ant s right to pri.acy an, 0ithout i(plicating his pri.ilege against sel"%incri(ination. ()eop"e $# Siripon1s (1&##) 3$ Cal.3r, $3#.) *lso- ,enial o" arreste, personDs right to (aFe telephone call to bail bon,s(an ,i, not preCu,ice hi( 0here there 0as no su""icient sho0ing that such a ,enial resulte, in ,enial o" "air trial in the (atter or pre.ente, hi( "ro( obtaining an, presenting e.i,ence o" his innocence. (In re Ne,.ern (1&51) $$ Cal 2n, $0#.) ,inors: /&I 221+4,) Arreste, Cu.eniles shall be a,.ise, o"- an, ha.e the right to (aFe two (2) co(plete, telephone calls upon being taFen to a place o" con"ine(ent an,- e?cept 0hen physically i(possible- 0ithin one (1) hour a"ter being taFen into custo,y.

231
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+he calls are to be to a parent or guar,ian- a responsible relati.e- or to the (inor s e(ployer- an, the secon, call to an attorney. +he calls are to be at public e?pense- i" local- an, (a,e in the presence o" a public o""icer or e(ployee. Eill"ully ,epri.ing a (inor o" his or her right to (aFe these calls is a (is,e(eanor. Uiolating this section is not groun,s "or e?clu,ing e.i,ence. ()eop"e $# Casti""e (2003) 10# Cal.App.3th 35&- 3#&%3&0: .acate, an, re(an,e, on other groun,s. See also )eop"e $# 2essie (2010) 32 Cal.3th 11$2- 1151- "n. 2- an, 115&%1120.) Su4d! +a, re@uires an o""icer to *ta?e immediate steps/ to noti"y a parent- guar,ian or responsible a,ult o" the "act an, location o" a (inor taFen to Cu.enile hall or other place o" con"ine(ent. ;ther tatutory ;bligations of the *rresting ;fficer) (!C! #344+a,) 7a0 en"orce(ent agencies are re@uire, to *fully cooperate/ 0ith the 4nite, States 1((igration an, Jaturali;ation Ser.ice 0hen it is suspecte, that an arreste, person is in the 4nite, States in .iolation o" "e,eral i((igration la0s. Su4d! +4,) Such cooperation is to inclu,e the "ollo0ing) +1,) Atte(pt to .eri"y the legal i((igration status o" such person through @uestioning that person an, ,e(an,ing ,ocu(entation. +2,) Joti"y the person o" his or her apparent status as an alien 0ho is present in the 4nite, States illegally an, in"or( hi( or her that- apart "ro( any cri(inal Custice procee,ings- he or she (ust either obtain legal status or lea.e the 4nite, States. +3,) Joti"y the Cali"ornia Attorney Leneral an, the 4nite, States 1((igration an, Jaturali;ation Ser.ice o" the apparent illegal status o" the person 232
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an, pro.i,e any a,,itional in"or(ation that (ay be re@ueste, by any other public entity. Su4d +c,) *Any legislati.e- a,(inistrati.e- or other action by a city- county- or other legally authori;e, local go.ern(ental entity 0ith Curis,ictional boun,aries- or by a la0 en"orce(ent agency- to pre.ent or li(it the cooperation re@uire, by su4di:ision +a, is e?pressly prohibite,./ (!C! #4#) An o""icer (aFing an arrest in obedience to a warrant must procee, 0ith the arrestee as co((an,e, by the 0arrant- or as pro.i,e, by la0. (!C! #4"+a,) An o""icer (or pri.ate person) (aFing an arrest without a warrant shall- 0ithout unnecessary ,elay- taFe the prisoner not other0ise release, be"ore the nearest or (ost accessible (agistrate in the county in 0hich the o""ense is triablean, a co(plaint stating the charge against the arreste, person shall be lai, be"ore such (agistrate. (!C! #4"+4,) Any peace o""icer (ay release from custodyinstea, o" taFing such person be"ore a (agistrate- any person arreste, 0ithout a 0arrant 0hene.er) +he o""icer is satis"ie, that there are insu""icient groun,s "or (aFing a cri(inal co(plaint against the person. (Su4d! +4,+1,) +he person arreste, 0as arreste, "or into?ication only- an, no "urther procee,ings are ,esirable. (Su4d! +4,+2,) +he person 0as arreste, only "or being un,er the in"luence o" a controlle, substance or ,rug an, such person is ,eli.ere, to a "acility or hospital "or treat(ent an, no "urther procee,ings are ,esirable. (Su4d! +4,+3,) +ote) 1t is also arguable that a la0 en"orce(ent o""icer (ay choose to release a subCect "or 0ho( probable cause does e?ist. +here is nothing in the case or statutory la0 that says that (!C! #4"+4, is the e?clusi.e authority "or releasing an arreste, prisoner. +ote- ho0e.er- (!C! 4311!13- prohibiting la0 en"orce(ent "ro( releasing a Cail in(ate "or the purpose o" allo0ing the in(ate to seeF (e,ical care at a hospital- an, then i((e,iately re%arresting the 233
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sa(e in,i.i,ual upon ,ischarge "ro( the hospitalunless the hospital ,eter(ines this action 0oul, enable it to bill an, collect "ro( a thir,%party pay(ent source. (!C! #4"+c,) Any recor, o" arrest o" a person release, pursuant to (!C! #4"+4,+1, or +3, shall inclu,e a recor, o" release- an, shall therea"ter be ,ee(e, a ,etention only. Ci$i" 2ia.i"it&) +here shall be no ci.il liability on the part o"- an, no cause o" action shall arise against- any peace o""icer acting 0ithin the scope o" his or her authority- "or "alse arrest or "alse i(prison(ent arising out o" any arrest 0hen) (!C! #32 +a,- +4,) Such arrest 0as la0"ul or 0hen the o""icer- at the ti(e o" the arrest- ha, reasonable or probable cause to belie.e the arrest 0as la0"ul. (!C! #3#) A (agistrate orally or,ere, the o""icer to arrest a person 0ho 0as co((itting a public o""ense in the (agistrate s presence. (!C! #3") An o""icer 0as respon,ing to an oral re@uest "or assistance in (aFing an arrest.

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Chapter G
Searches and Sei5ures) Thin1s Su.;ect to Search and Sei5e: E!idence of a crime. &ontraband. 'nstrumentalities of a crime. (ruits of a crime. ()eop"e $# Tha&er (1&5$) 53 Cal.2n, 53$: -arden, %ar&"and )enitentiar& $# 0a&den (1&52) 3#2 4.S. 2&3 61# 7.8,.2n, 2#29: Guidi $# Superior Court (1&23) 10 Cal.3r, 1.) Searches and Sei5ures: eizure) A sei;ure o" property occurs 0hen there is so(e (eaning"ul inter"erence 0ith an in,i.i,ual s possessory interest in that property. (United States $# *e''erson (&th Cir. 200&) $55 B.3r, &2#- &33citing United States $# *aco.son (1&#3) 355 4.S. 10&- 113 6#0 7.8,.2n, #$9: United States $# /aro (1&#3) 35# 4.S. 20$- 213 6#2 7.8,.2n, $309.) earch) A search occurs 0hen an e?pectation o" pri.acy that society is prepare, to consi,er reasonable is in"ringe, upon. +he Fourth Amendment protects against trespassory searchesbut only 0ith regar, to those ite(s (=persons, houses, papers, and effects=) that it enu(erates. (United States $# *ones (Jan. 23- 2012) $5$ 4.S. >>- >>>- 6132 S.Ct. &3$: 1#1 7.8,.2n, &119: hol,ing that placing a tracFing ,e.ice on a suspect s .ehicle (i.e.- the .ehicle co(ing 0ithin the category o" *effects/) an, then (onitoring its (o.e(ent is legally a *search./) Ta?ing a D+* sample .ia a *buccal s0ab/ o" the (outh is a search un,er the Fourth Amendment. (Friedman $# oucher (&th Cir. 200&) $#0 B.3r, #32- #$2%#$3.) Aey in a "oc?) Ehether or not police using a Fey in a locF- 0here the locF is other0ise e?pose, to public .ie0 (e.g.- the "ront ,oor to a suspect s house)- is a search has been subCect to a ,i""erence o" opinion. (See )eop"e $# Ro.inson (2012) 20# Cal.App.3th 232232%2$$: ,iscussing the con"licting cases- but noting that it nee, 23$
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not be ,eci,e, in this case because e.en i" it 0as a search- the search 0as not unreasonable because 0hen balance, 0ith the go.ern(ental interest it ser.e,- the intrusion 0as (ini(al. 1nserting an, turning a Fey in a locF hel, to be a search) United States $# Concepcion (2th Cir. 1&&1) &32 B.2n, 1120- 1122.) Conclu,ing that testing a Fey in an apart(ent ,oor locF 0as a search. *A Feyhole contains informationPin"or(ation about 0ho has access to the space beyon,. As the 6F7ourth 6A7mendment protects pri.ate in"or(ation rather than "or(al ,e"initions o" property- 6citations9- the locF is a potentially protecte, ;one. An, as the tu(bler o" a locF is not accessible to strangers . . . the use o" an instru(ent to e?a(ine its 0orFings (that is- a Fey) looFs a lot liFe a search. . . . 6_9 Gecause the agents obtain in"or(ation "ro( the insi,e o" the locF- 0hich is both use, "re@uently by the o0ner an, not open to public .ie0- it see(s irresistible that inserting an, turning the Fey is a Asearch. / Io0e.er- the Court hel, that the Fourth Amendment 0as not .iolate, in that the insertion o" the Fey into the ,oor locF 0as such a *minimal intrusion./ (Id.- at p. 1123.) (See *,inimal 'ntrusion Exception-/ belo0.) )orti""o3Re&es (&th Cir. 1&2$) $2& B.2, #33- #3#) Putting a Fey into the ,oor locF o" a UolFs0agen auto(obile hel, to be *the beginning o" the search/ an, thus the *reasonable e?pectancy o" pri.acy/ ,octrine o" /at5 $# United States (1&52) 3#& 4.S. 332 61& 7.8,.2n, $259 applies. 1nserting an, turning a Fey in a locF hel, not to be a search) United States $# Sa"1ado (5th Cir. 2001) 2$0 B.3r, 33#- 3$5) *(+)he (ere insertion o" a Fey into a(n apart(ent ,oor) locF- by an o""icer 0ho la0"ully possesses the Fey an, is in a location 0here he has a right to be- to ,eter(ine 0hether the Fey operates the locF- is not a search./ 235
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United States $# 0a,(ins (1st Cir. 1&&#) 13& B.3r, 2&- 33- "n. 1) *(1)nsertion o" a Fey into the locF o" a storage co(part(ent "or the purpose o" i,enti"ying o0nership ,oes not constitute a search./ United States $# 2&ons (1st Cir. 1&&0) #&# B.2n, 210212%213) 1insertion o" Fey into pa,locF o" storage unit "or purpose o" i,enti"ying o0nership ,i, not in"ringe on any reasonable e?pectation o" pri.acy. United States $# De arde"e.en (5th Cir. 1&3#) 230 B.2n, 330- 333) +he ,e"en,ant ha, no *reasonable e?pectation o" pri.acy in the i,entity o" his .ehicle./ A set o" car Feys la0"ully "oun, in ,e"en,ant s possession a"ter his arrest 0ere "oun, to "it the ,oor an, trunF locFs o" a car "oun, in a parFing lot an, suspecte, to belong to ,e"en,ant. %athis $# State (AlasFa 1&#&) 22# P.2n, 1151- 115$) *1nsertion o" the Fey ,i, not constitute a search o" the locFer- but (erely an i,enti"ication o" it as belonging to the 6,e"en,ants9./ )eop"e $# Carro"" (1&23) 12 1ll.App.3r, #5&- #2$% #25) 1nsertion an, turning o" a Fey in the "ront ,oor o" ,e"en,ant s apart(ent hel, not to be a search. 1t is possible that the recent 4nite, States Supre(e Court case o" United States $# *ones (Jan. 23- 2012) $5$ 4.S. >> 6132 S.Ct. &3$: 1#1 7.8,.2n, &119.)- ree(phasi;ing the Co((on 7a0 theory that a trespassory intrusion- 0here the go.ern(ent physically intru,es into a constitutionally protecte, area- is a search- an, subCect to the restrictions o" the Fourth Amendment- arguably tipping the scale to "in,ing that any use o" a Fey in a locF belonging to a ,e"en,ant to be a search. (See )eop"e $# Ro.inson (2012) 20# Cal.App.3th 232- 233- "n. 11- W 233.) Howe!er- in a post%*ones case- the 8ight Circuit Court o" Appeal conclu,e, that a police ,etecti.e ,i, not co((it a trespass 0hen he locate, a suspect s car in a parFing lot by using the suspect s Fey "ob to trigger the carDs alar(. +he court reasone, that the ,etecti.e ha, la0"ully sei;e, the Fey "ob an, the *(ere trans(ission o" electric signals alone/ through the Fey "ob 0as not a trespass on the car. (United States $# Co,an (#th Cir. 2012) 523 B.3r, &32- &$5.) 232
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earch !s2 eizure) A 0arrantless seizure o" a container o" contraban, ,oes not necessarily also allo0 "or a 0arrantless search o" that container. (Ro.e& $# Superior Court 6)eop"e7 (2011) 200 Cal.App.3th 1.) Petition "or re.ie0 0as grante, by the Cali"ornia Supre(e Court in this case (Jan. 1#- 2012)- 0ith the ,ecision being ,epublishe,(aFing Ro.e& no longer a.ailable "or citation. +he stan,ar,s applicable to these t0o concepts are .ery si(ilar- i" not the sa(e. As the Supre(e Court has note,) *Although the interest protecte, by the Fourth Amendment inCunction against unreasonable searches is @uite ,i""erent "ro( that protecte, by its inCunction against unreasonable sei;ures 6citation9- neither the one nor the other is o" in"erior 0orth or necessarily re@uires only lesser protection. Ee ha.e not else0here ,ra0n a categorical ,istinction bet0een the t0o inso"ar as concerns the ,egree o" Custi"ication nee,e, to establish the reasonableness o" police action- an, 0e see no reason "or a ,istinction in the particular circu(stances be"ore us here./ (Ari5ona $# 0ic(s (1&#2) 3#0 4.S. 321- 32# 6&3 7.8,.2n, 3329.) Genera" Ru"e) 1n or,er "or a search to be la0"ul- a search warrant- supporte, by probable cause- (ust "irst be obtaine,. (Fourth Amendment, nited States Constitution: Art 1, 13, California Constitution) earch =arrant) *(A)n or,er in 0riting- in the na(e o" the people- signe, by a (agistrate- ,irecte, to a peace o""icer- co((an,ing hi( or her to search "or a person or persons- a thing or things- or personal property- an, bring it be"ore the (agistrate./ ((!C! 1)23) Probable &ause) Roughly the sa(e stan,ar,s apply 0hether the issue is an arrest or a search. (S(e"ton $# Superior Court (1&5&) 1 Cal.3r, 1331$0.) See **rrests-/ abo.e- an, * earches with a earch =arrant-/ belo0. )resumptions) Searches an, sei;ures are presu(e,- as a general rule- to be unreasonable in the absence o" su""icient *indi!idualized suspicion/ o" 0rong,oing to support a "in,ing o" *probable cause./ (Chand"er $# %i""er (1&&2) $20 4.S. 30$- 30# 6132 7.8,.2n, $13- $1&9.) *nd then- e.en 0ith probable cause- searches 0ithout a search warrant are presu(e, to be unlawful- absent one o" the narro0ly construe, e?ceptions 23#
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to the search 0arrant e?ception. (%ince& $# Ari5ona (1&2#) 332 4.S. 3#$3&0 6$2 7.8,.2n, 2&0- 2&#%2&&9: In re T&re"" *# (1&&3) # Cal.3th 5#- 25: re.erse, on other groun,s.) +he prosecution bears the bur,en o" Custi"ying a 0arrantless search- re@uiring proo" o" a recogni;e, e?ception to the search 0arrant re@uire(ent. (-e"sh $# -isconsin (1&#3) 355 4.S. 23023&%2$0 6#0 7.8,.2n, 232- 232%2339: )eop"e $# *ames (1&22) 1& Cal.3r, &&- 105.) Remed& 'or 9io"ations: The *Exclusionary Rule)/ Earrantless searchesper"or(e, 0ithout probable cause an, 0ithout an e?ception to the 0arrant re@uire(ent (or e.en 0hen a 0arrant is use,- but 0here the 0arrant is later ,eter(ine, to be legally ,e"ecti.e)- subCects any reco.ere, e.i,ence to exclusion from being used as e!idence in court. (-ee(s $# United States (1&13) 232 4.S. 3#3 6$# 7.8,. 5$29.) The Fourth Amendment) Although the Fourth Amendment 0as originally inten,e, to restrict the actions o" the "e,eral go.ern(ent onlythe sa(e e?clusionary rule- as a .iolation o" the Fourteenth Amendment *due process/ clause- is applicable to the states (0hich inclu,es counties an, (unicipalities) as 0ell. (%app $# Ohio (1&51) 352 4.S. 533 65 7.8,.2n, 10#1.) Reasoning) Uiolating one s Fourth Amendment rights is such a "un,a(ental- i(portant- issue that to ,o so is auto(atically a .iolation o" the Fourteenth Amendment ,ue process rights o" the person subCecte, to the illegal search or sei;ure. (I.id.) See *Exclusionary Rule-/ un,er *The Fourth Amendment, United States Constitution-/ abo.e. ,otion to uppress) Cali"ornia tests the constitutionality o" a search or sei;ure (i.e.- Fourth Amendment issues) .ia the proce,ures as spelle, out in (!C! 1)3#!).) *1n ruling on a (otion to suppress- the trial court is charge, 0ith (1) "in,ing the historical "acts: (2) selecting the applicable rule o" la0: and (3) applying the "or(er to ,eter(ine 0hether or not the rule o" la0 as applie, to the establishe, "acts has been .iolate,./ ()eop"e $# )arson (200#) 33 Cal.3th 332- 33$: citing )eop"e $# A&a"a (2000) 23 Cal.3th 233- 22&.) 23&
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+he appellate court then *re.ie0(s) the trial court s resolution o" the "irst in@uiry (abo.e)- 0hich in.ol.es @uestions o" "act- un,er the ,e"erential substantial%e.i,ence stan,ar,- but subCect(s) the secon, an, thir, in@uires to in,epen,ent re.ie0./ ()eop"e $# )arson- supra- citing )eop"e $# A&a"a- supra.- an, )eop"e $# -ea$er (2001) 25 Cal.3th 25- &23.) (ruit of the Poisonous Tree) +he e.i,ence that is suppresse, is li(ite, to the direct products o" the constitutional .iolation: i.e.- the *fruit of the poisonous tree./ (-on1 Sun $# United States (1&53) 321 4.S. 321 6& 7.8,.2n, 3319.) See *(ruit of the Poisonous Tree-/ un,er *The Fourth Amendment- United States Constitution- abo.e. *8.i,ence obtaine, by such illegal action o" the police is A"ruit o" the poisonous tree- 0arranting application o" the e?clusionary rule i"- Agranting establish(ent o" the pri(ary illegality- the e.i,ence to 0hich instant obCection is (a,e has been co(e at by e?ploitation o" the illegality or instea, by (eans su""iciently ,istinguishable to be purge, o" the pri(ary taint. / (United States $# Cra,'ord (&th Cir. 2003) 322 B.3r, 103#- 10$3- @uoting ro,n $# I""inois (1&2$) 322 4.S. $&0- at p. $&& 63$ 7.8,.2n, 3159.) Jot all courts are in agree(ent that such a re(e,y is reser.e, e?clusi.ely "or constitutional .iolations. (See ,iscussion in United States $# 2om.era3Camor"in1a (&th Cir. 2000) 205 B.3r, ##2- ##5%##2- an, in the ,issenting opinion- p. #&3.) 8?a(ples) !bser.ations (a,e a"ter an unla0"ul- 0arrantless entry into a structure cannot be use, to establish probable cause "or later obtaining a search 0arrant. (%urra& $# United States (1&##) 3#2 4.S. $33- $30 6101 7.8,.2n, 322- 3#29: urro,s $# Superior Court (1&23) 13 Cal.3r, 23#- 2$1.) A consent to search gi.en *i((e,iately "ollo0ing an illegal entry or search/ is in.ali, because it *is inseparable "ro( the unla0"ul con,uct./ ()eop"e $# Ro.erts (1&$5) 32 Cal.2n, 323- 322.) A consent to enter a resi,ence- obtaine, i((e,iately a"ter a co%resi,ent s arrest on the "ront porch an, a 230
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conte(poraneous illegal protecti.e s0eep o" the resi,encehel, to be in.ali, as the "ruit o" the illegal protecti.e s0eep. Plain sight obser.ations (a,e insi,e the resi,ence ,uring the allege,ly consensual entry 0ere hel, to be illegal. ()eop"e $# -erner (2012) 202 Cal.App.3th 11&$1210%1212.) Exceptions) Pri!ate persons (unless 0orFing as an *agent of law enforcement/) (ay .iolate a subCect s constitutional rights 0ithout threat o" suppression- in that the constitutional protections apply to go!ernment searches only. ()eop"e $# *ohnson (1&32) 1$3 Cal.App.2n, #23.) A licensed pri!ate in!estigator 0ho is acting in "urtherance o" a pri.ate interest- rather than "or a la0 en"orce(ent or go.ern(ent purpose- is not subCect to the restrictions o" the Fourth Amendment. ()eop"e $# %an1ie'ico (1&22) 2$ Cal.App.3r, 1031- 1035%1032: )eop"e $# De *uan (1&#$) 121 Cal.App.3r, 1110- 111&.) $ail bondspersons an, *$ounty Hunters-/ although allo0e, to taFe a ,e"en,ant into custo,y ((!C! #41!), 1333, 1331,- they are acting as pri.ate citi;ens an, are not subCect to the 8?clusionary Rule. ()eop"e $# 0ou"e (1&20) 13 Cal.App.3r, #&2- #&$: 2andr& $# A3A."e ondin1, Inc# (1&&5) 2$ B.3r, 200- 203%20$.) 8.en an off6duty police officer *may/ not be acting as a la0 en"orce(ent o""icer in con,ucting a search- 0hen he acts in his capacity as a pri.ate citi;en- an, through (ere curiosity. ()eop"e $# -achter (1&25) $# Cal.App.3r, 311&20%&23: see also )eop"e $# )eterson (1&22) 23 Cal.App.3r, ##3- #&3: o""%,uty police trainee acting out o" concern "or his o0n sa"ety.) Exception to Pri!ate Persons Exception) **gents of "aw Enforcement)/ Anyone acting at the re@uest o"- or un,er the ,irection o"- a la0 en"orce(ent o""icer- is an agent o" the police an, is hel, to the sa(e stan,ar,s as the police. ()eop"e $# Fierro (1&5$) 235 Cal.App.2n, 333- 332.) 231
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Sei;ure o" bloo, by a state hospital- 0orFing 0ith la0 en"orce(ent (i.e.- an *agent/ o" la0 en"orce(ent)- taFing an, testing bloo, "ro( e?pectant (others an, testing "or ,rugs- hel, to be an illegal go.ern(ental search. (Fer1uson et a"# $# Cit& o' Char"eston (2001) $32 4.S. 52 613& 7.8,.2n, 20$9.) 1n ,eter(ining 0hether a person is acting as a police agent- t0o "actors (ust be consi,ere,) (1) Ehether the go.ern(ent Fne0 o" an, ac@uiesce, in the pri.ate search: an, (2) 0hether the pri.ate in,i.i,ual inten,e, to assist la0 en"orce(ent orinstea,- ha, so(e other in,epen,ent (oti.ation. +he "irst "actor re@uires e.i,ence o" (ore than (ere Fno0le,ge an, passi.e ac@uiescence by a police o""icer be"ore "in,ing an agency relationship. 1t taFes so(e e.i,ence o" a police o""icer s control or encourage(ent. As "or the secon, "actor- a ,ual purpose (e.g.- to help the police and hi(sel") is not enough. ()eop"e $# -i"(inson (200#) 153 Cal.App.3th 1$$3- 1$53%1$5&: also reCecting Cali"ornia s pre%Proposition # stricter stan,ar,s.) A ci.il rights action pursuant to 42 !S!C! 1"#3 0as hel, to be proper against non%la0 en"orce(ent e(ployees o" a pri.ate corporation that operate, a "e,eral prison un,er contract. ()o""ard $# GEO Group, Inc# (&th Cir. 2010) 502 B.3r, $#3.) The *<ood (aith/ Exception) 1n those cases 0here en"orcing the *Exclusionary Rule/ 0oul, not a,.ance its re(e,ial purposese.i,ence sei;e, unla0"ully 0ill not be suppresse,. (I""inois $# /ru"" (1&#2) 3#0 4.S. 330- 332 6&3 7.8,.2n, 353- 3239: United States $# 2eon (1&#3) 35# 4.S. #&2- &20%&21 6#2 7.8,.2n, 5225&29: 0errin1 $# United States (200&) $$$ 4.S. 13$ 6122 7.8,.2n, 3&59.) See *<ood (aith-/ belo0- an, *,ista?en $elief in Existence of Probable &ause to *rrest or earch, an *rrest =arrant, or that a Fourth =ai!er Exists, $ased upon Erroneous 'nformation recei!ed from Various ources-/ abo.e. The Taint has been *ttenuated) *(L)ranting establish(ent o" the pri(ary illegality-/ 0hether or not the resulting e.i,ence is subCect 232
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to suppression is a @uestion o" 0hether *the e.i,ence . . . has been co(e at by e?ploitation o" that illegality or instea, by (eans su""iciently ,istinguishable to be purge, o" the pri(ary taint./ (-on1 Sun $# United States (1&53) 321 4.S. 321- 3#2%3## 6& 7.8,.2n, 331- 3$$9.) 1n ,eter(ining 0hether the *primary taint/ (i.e.- an illegal search- ,etention or arrest) has been su""iciently *purged/ re@uires consi,eration o" three "actors) +he *temporal proximity/ bet0een the illegal act an, the resulting e.i,ence. +he presence o" any *inter!ening circumstances:/ and +he *purpose and flagrancy/ o" the o""icial (iscon,uct. (Ta&"or $# A"a.ama (1&#2) 3$2 4.S. 5#2- 5&0 623 7.8,.2n, 313- 31&9: see also United States $# Cra,'ord (&th Cir. 2003) 323 B.3r, 200- 21&%222: ro,n $# I""inois (1&2$) 322 4.S. $&0- 500%50$ 63$ 7.8,.2n, 315- 32$%32#9: /aupp $# Te!as (2003) $3# 4.S. 525- 533 61$$ 7.8,.2n, #13- #22.) A %iranda a,(onish(ent an, 0ai.er- alone- is legally insu""icient to attenuate the taint o" an illegal arrest. ( ro,n $# I""inois- supra: /aupp $# Te!as- supra.) +he "act that the ,e"en,ant ha, an outstan,ing arrest 0arrant (ay- ,epen,ing upon the circu(stances- be su""icient o" an inter.ening circu(stance to allo0 "or the a,(issibility o" the e.i,ence sei;e, inci,ent to arrest ,espite the "act that the original ,etention 0as illegal. ()eop"e $# rend"in (200#) 3$ Cal.3th 252: an illegal tra""ic stop.) +he circu(stances to be consi,ere, are) +he te(poral pro?i(ity o" the Fourth Amendment .iolation to the procure(ent o" the challenge, e.i,ence: +he presence o" inter.ening circu(stances (e.g.- an arrest 0arrant): 233
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+he "lagrancy o" the o""icial (iscon,uct. (Id.- at pp. 25#%222: citing ro,n $# I""inois (1&2$) 322 4.S. $&0 63$ 7.8,.2n, 3159.)

De"en,ant- the passenger in a (otor .ehicle stoppe, "or illegally tinte, 0in,o0s (0!C! 2213#+a,)- 0as arreste, on an outstan,ing arrest 0arrant. 8.en ha, the tra""ic stop ha, been illegal- the ,isco.ery o" the arrest 0arrant 0as su""icient to attenuate any possible taint o" an illegal tra""ic stop. +)eop"e $# Carter (2010) 1#2 Cal.App.3th $22- $2&%$30.) 1n a "e,eral asset "or"eiture procee,ing- the C8! o" a (ariCuana ,ispensary "iling an a""i,a.it a,(itting to the ,ispensary s connection to (oney s illegally sei;e, .ia a search 0arrant later ,eter(ine, to be in.ali,- e.en though the a""i,a.it 0as "ile, so(e t0o (onths a"ter the sei;urehel, to still be the pro,uct o" the illegal search 0here the only 0ay "or the ,ispensary to get the (oney bacF 0as to "ile the a""i,a.it in response to the Lo.ern(ent s atte(pt to retain the (oney. (United States $# H1FD,61D#77 in U#S# Currenc& (&th Cir. 2010) $&0 B.3r, &32- &3&%&$3.) =hen the Purposes of the Exclusionary Rule are +ot er!ed) +he 8?clusionary Rule is not inten,e, to pre.ent all police (iscon,uct or as a re(e,y "or all police errors. *The use of the exclusionary rule is an exceptional remedy typically reser!ed for !iolations of constitutional rights./ (United States $# Smith (&th Cir. 1&&&) 1&5 B.3r, 1033- 1030.) *+o trigger the e?clusionary rule- police con,uct (ust be su""iciently ,eliberate that e?clusion can (eaning"ully ,eter it- an, su""iciently culpable that such ,eterrence is 0orth the price pai, by the Custice syste(./ (0errin1 $# United States (200&) $$$ 4.S. 13$ 6122 7.8,.2n, 3&59: see also )eop"e $# 2ea" (200&) 12# Cal.App.3th 1021- 1053% 105$.) +he e?clusionary rule shoul, only be use, 0hen necessary to ,eter *,eliberate- recFless- or grossly negligent con,uctor in so(e circu(stances- recurring or syste(atic negligence./ (0errin1 $# United States- at p. 133 612& S.Ct. at p. 202.9.) 233
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+he sei;ure o" ,e"en,ant s .ehicle base, upon it ha.ing been reporte,- an, in the co(puter syste(- as *stolen-/ e.en though the ,e"en,ant s ac@uisition o" the .ehicle ,i, not "it *neatly/ into the ele(ents o" 0!C! 13#)1 (i.e.- the .ehicle 0as purchase, "ro( a ,ealership- albeit 0ith ,e"en,ant pro.i,ing the ,ealer 0ith "rau,ulent in"or(ation in his application "or cre,it- a"ter 0hich ,e"en,ant cease, (aFing pay(ents)- ,i, not (aFe the sei;ure *unreasonable./ +here 0as no ba, "aith on the part o" the ,etecti.e 0ho entere, the .ehicle into the co(puter syste( as stolen. +he sei;ing o""icers 0ere entitle, to rely upon the in"or(ation as containe, in the co(puter syste(. (United States $# Noster (&th Cir. 200&) $&0 B.3r, 523- 52&% 533.) Gut note that accor,ing to the Jinth Circuit Court o" Appeal- a search inci,ent to arrest that 0as la0"ul prior to the ,ecision in Ari5ona $# Gant (200&) $$5 4.S. 332 6123 7.8,.2n, 3#$9- is still subCect to the ne0 rule in Gantapplying the rule retroacti.ely- in any case that 0as not yet "inal as o" the ,ate o" the ,ecision in Gant (April 21- 200&). +he o""icer s goo, "aith in applying the prior rule is irrele.ant. (United States $# Gon5a"e5 (&th Cir. 200&) $2# B.3r, 1130.) The ,inimal 'ntrusion Exception: +he 4nite, States Supre(e Court has recogni;e,- at least by in"erence- that in those instances 0here there is a *minimal intrusion/ into a ,e"en,ant s pri.acy rightssuppression o" the resulting e.i,ence (ay not be re@uire,. *Ehen "ace, 0ith special la0 en"orce(ent nee,s,i(inishe, e?pectations o" pri.acy- minimal intrusions- or the liFe- 6it9 has "oun, that certain general- or in,i.i,ualcircu(stances (ay ren,er a 0arrantless search or sei;ure reasonable./ (1talics a,,e,: I""inois $# %cArthur (2001) $31 4.S. 325- 330 613# 7.8,.2n, #3#9.) *(A)lthough a 0arrant (ay be an essential ingre,ient o" reasonableness (uch o" the ti(e- "or less intrusi.e searches it is not/ (United States $# Concepcion (2th Cir. 1&&1) &32 B.2n, 1120- 1122: the issue being 0hether turning a Fey in a ,oor locF 0as a search- but such a (ini(al intrusion that a search 0arrant 0as not necessary.) 23$
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Eithout obtaining a 0arrant- the police searche, the ,e"en,ant s cell phone "or its phone nu(ber. +he police later use, the nu(ber to subpoena the phone s call history "ro( the telephone co(pany. 8.en though there 0as no urgent nee, to search the cell phone "or its phone nu(ber- the Se.enth Circuit pointe, out *that bit o" in"or(ation (ight be so tri.ial that its sei;ure 0oul, not in"ringe the Fourth Amendment./ (United States $# F"ores32ope5 (2th Cir. 2012) 520 B.3r, #03- #05%#02.) Cali"ornia s Birst District Court o" Appeal (Di.. $) has "oun, this theory to be a 0hole separate e?ception to the search 0arrant re@uire(ent- calling it the *Oini(al 1ntrusion 8?ception./ ()eop"e $# Ro.inson (2012) 20# Cal.App.3th 232- 235%2$$: *+he (ini(al intrusion e?ception to the 0arrant re@uire(ent rests on the conclusion that in a .ery narro0 class o" Asearches the pri.acy interests i(plicate, are Aso s(all that the o""icers ,o not nee, probable cause: "or the search to be reasonable./ (Id.- at p. 232.) Joting that searches o" the person- at least absent an o""icer%sa"ety issue- an, searches o" a resi,ence(ay be outsi,e the scope o" the (ini(al intrusion theory. (Id.- at p. 23&.) *Although the 4nite, States Supre(e Court has not clearly articulate, the para(eters o" the e?ception"e,eral authorities pro.i,e su""icient support "or conclu,ing that in appropriate circu(stances- the (ini(al intrusion e?ception to the 0arrant re@uire(ent (ay be applie, to uphol, 0arrantless searches base, on less than probable cause. Ooreo.er- although the high court s ,ecisions in the area ha.e pri(arily been Custi"ie, by o""icer sa"ety concerns (Citations)- nothing in the high court s Curispru,ence appears to preclu,e the possibility that a Custi"ication less than o""icer sa"ety coul, be su""icient to Custi"y an intrusion as (ini(al as that in.ol.e, in the present case./ (Id.- at pp. 23&%2$0.) Also- the "act that the ,e"en,ant s "ront ,oor 0as 0ithin the curtilage o" his ho(e- 0hich also enCoys Fourth Amendment protection- ,oes not alter the result. Ehen the "ront ,oor being an area open to 235
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the general public- there 0as no .iolation in approaching the ,oor an, inserting the Fey. (Id.- at p. 2$3- "n. 23.) tatutory6;nly Violations) Rele.ant e.i,ence 0ill not be suppresse, unless suppression is re@uire, by the Fourth Amendment to the nited States Constitution- or 0hen a statute .iolate, by la0 en"orce(ent co((an,s suppression by its ter(s. (Cal! Const!, Art! 1, 2#+d,: In re 2ance -# (1&#$) 32 Cal.3r, #23- ##5%##2: )eop"e $# Ti""er& (1&#&) 211 Cal.App.3r, 1$5&1$2&: )eop"e $# 2epei.et (1&&2) 3 Cal.App.3th 120#- 1212%1213.) See (!C! 232- 0hich (aFes it a "elony "or a person to ea.es,rop on a *confidential communication-/ and that the result o" any such ea.es,ropping 0ill not be a,(issible in court. (Su4d! +d,) +ote) Jot all courts are in agree(ent that such a re(e,y is reser.e, e?clusi.ely "or constitutional .iolations. (See ,iscussion in United States $# 2om.era3Camor"in1a (&th Cir. 2000) 205 B.3r, ##2- ##5%##2- an, in the ,issenting opinion- p. #&3.) 8?a(ples o" Statutory Uiolations !nly) 1t is not unconstitutional to (aFe a custo,ial arrest (i.e.- transporting to Cail or court) o" a person arreste, "or a (inor (is,e(eanor (At,ater $# Cit& o' 2a1o 9ista (2001) $32 4.S. 31# 613& 7.8,.2n, $3&9.)- or e.en "or a "ine%only- in"raction. ( )eop"e $# %c/a& (2002) 22 Cal.3th 501- 502: see also United States $# %cFadden (2n, Cir. 2001) 23# B.3r, 1&#- 203.) Cali"ornia s statutory pro.isions re@uire the release o" (is,e(eanor arrestees in (ost circu(stances. (8.g.- see (!C! #)3!), #)3!2, 0!C! 43333, 43)33) Io0e.er- .iolation o" these statutory re@uire(ents is not a constitutional .iolation an,there"ore- should not result in suppression o" any e.i,ence reco.ere, as a result o" such an arrest. ()eop"e $# %c/a&- supra- at pp. 502%51&- a .iolation o" 0!C! 212)3!1 (ri,ing a bicycle in the 0rong ,irection): )eop"e $# Gome5 (2003) 112 Cal.App.3th $31- $3&- seat belt .iolation (0!C! 232
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2131)+d,+1,)- citing At,ater $# Cit& o' 2a1o 9istasupra: )eop"e $# ennett (2011) 1&2 Cal.App.3th &02- &1#.) See also 9ir1inia $# %oore (200#) $$3 4.S. 153 6120 7.8,.2n, $$&9- ,ri.ing on a suspen,e, license. Custo,ial arrest "or a (is,e(eanor that ,i, not occur in the o""icer s presence- in .iolation o" (!C! #32+a,+1,. ()eop"e $# Dona"dson (1&&$) 35 Cal.App.3th $32- $3&: )eop"e $# Trapane (1&&1) 1 Cal.App.3th Supp. 10- 12%13.) A *?noc? and notice/ .iolation) Uiolating the ter(s o" (!C! #44 an,Nor 1)31 (Cali"ornia s statutory *FnocF an, notice/ re@uire(ents) ,oes not necessarily also .iolate the Fourth Amendment. (-i"son $# Ar(ansas (1&&$) $13 4.S. &22 6131 7.8,.2n, &259: )eop"e $# 4a.e""e (1&&5) $0 Cal.App.3th 12#2.) Ehether or not it ,oes ,epen,s upon the circu(stances. (See *Anoc? and +otice-/ belo0.) Gut e.en 0hen such a .iolation is ,eter(ine, to ha.e been ,one contrary to the ,ictates o" the Fourth Amendment- the 8?clusionary Rule has recently been hel, to be an inappropriate re(e,y- at least in (ost cases. (0udson $# %ichi1an (2005) $32 4.S. $#5 615$ 7.8,.2n, $59.) Per 0udson- the suppression o" e.i,ence is only necessary 0here the interests protecte, by the constitutional guarantee that has been .iolate, 0oul, be ser.e, by suppressing the e.i,ence thus obtaine,. +he interests protecte, by the FnocF an, notice rules inclu,e hu(an li"e- because *an unannounce, entry (ay pro.oFe .iolence in suppose, sel"%,e"ense by 23#
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the surprise, resi,ent./ Property rights are also protecte, by pro.i,ing resi,ents an opportunity to pre.ent a "orcible entry. An,- *pri.acy an, ,ignity/ are protecte, by gi.ing the occupants an opportunity to collect the(sel.es be"ore ans0ering the ,oor. (I.id.) +he Court also rule, in 0udson that because ci.il suits are (ore rea,ily a.ailable than in 1&13 0ith the e?clusionary rule 0as "irst announce,- an, because la0 en"orce(ent o""icers- being better e,ucate,- traine, an, super.ise,- can be subCecte, to ,epart(ental ,iscipline- suppressing the pro,uct o" a FnocF an, notice .iolation is no longer a necessary re(e,y. (I.id.) +he rule as ,ictate, by 0udson (a search 0arrant case) is applicable as 0ell as in a 0arrantless- yet la0"ul- arrest case- pursuant to (!C! #44. (In re Fran( S# (2005) 132 Cal.App.3th 13$.) Io0e.er- 0udson is not to be interprete, to (ean that the 8?clusionary Rule is to be scrape,. 1ntentionally unla0"ul la0 en"orce(ent actions 0ill still be subCect to the 8?clusionary Rule 0here necessary to ,iscourage "uture illegal police acti.ities. ()eop"e $# Rodri1ue5 (2005) 133 Cal.App.3th 1132: case re(an,e, "or a ,eter(ination 0hether police "abricate, probable cause "or a tra""ic stop- 0hich le, to the ,isco.ery o" an outstan,ing arrest 0arrant- the search inci,ent thereto resulting in reco.ery o" controlle, substances.) Uiolation o" a go!ernment agency regulation (i.e.not a statute or a constitutional principle) also ,oes not necessitate suppression o" the resulting e.i,ence. (United States $# Ani (&th Cir. 1&&#) 13# B.3r, 3&0.) 23&

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Possible .iolation o" an 1n,ian Reser.ation statute or rule- not in.ol.ing a constitutional principle- 0ill not result in the suppression o" any e.i,ence. (United States $# ecerra3Garcia (&th Cir. 200$) 3&2 B.3r, 1152- 1123.) OistaFenly collecting bloo, sa(ples "or inclusion into Cali"ornia s DJA ,ata base (See P.C. V 2&5)0hen the ,e"en,ant ,i, not actually ha.e a @uali"ying prior con.iction- is not a Fourth Amendment .iolation- but e.en i" it 0ere- it ,oes not re@uire the suppression o" the (istaFenly collecte, bloo, sa(ples- nor is it groun,s to suppress the resulting (atch o" the ,e"en,ant s DJA 0ith that le"t at a cri(e scene. ()eop"e $# Ro.inson (2010) 32 Cal.3th 1103- 1115%112&.)

Doctrine of 'ne!itable Disco!ery) 8.i,ence sei;e, unla0"ully 0ill be hel, to be a,(issible in those instances 0here- but "or the illegal search- there is a *reasonable possibility/ that the e.i,ence 0oul, ha.e been la0"ully "oun, by other (eans. (%urra& $# United States (1&##) 3#2 4.S. $33- $3& 6101 7.8,.2n, 3229: Ni! $# -i""iams (1&#3) 352 4.S. 332 6 #1 7.8,.2n, 3229: )eop"e $# Superior Court 6-a"(er7 (2005) 133 Cal.App.3th 11#3- 1213% 1212: )eop"e $# Redd (2010) 3# Cal.3th 5&1- 221.) 1ne.itable ,isco.ery does not apply- ho0e.er- (erely because the o""icers ha, probable cause an, coul, ha.e gotten a search 0arrant. (0udson $# %ichi1an (2005) $32 4.S. $#5 615$ 7.8,.2n, $59: )eop"e $# Ro."es (2000) 23 Cal.3th 2#&: )eop"e $# Superior Court 6-a"(er7- supra- at p. 121$.) Stoppe, an, physically arreste, "or ,ri.ing on a suspen,e, license (0ith a prior con.iction "or the sa(e)- ,e"en,ant 0as secure, in the bacF seat o" a patrol car. +he subse@uent search o" his .ehicle- resulting in the reco.ery o" cocaine an, an illegal "irear( (,e"en,ant being a con.icte, "elon) 0as "oun, to be in .iolation o" the rule o" Ari5ona $# Gant (200&) $$5 4.S. 332 6123 7.8,.2n, 3#$90here it 0as hel, that once ,e"en,ant is arreste, an, secure,- a *search inci,ent to arrest/ o" the subCect s .ehicle is not la0"ul unless there is so(e reason to belie.e that e.i,ence rele.ant to the cause o" arrest (ay be "oun,. 2$0
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(See * earches of Vehicles-/ belo0.) Io0e.er- the e.i,ence 0as hel, to be a,(issible any0ay un,er the *inevitable discovery rule3 in that the )ehicle +as to be i(poun,e, an, subCecte, to an in.entory search: (United +he prosecution has the bur,en o" pro.ing "acts an, circu(stances Custi"ying the ine.itable ,isco.ery ,octrine

States v. !uckes (9th Cir. 2009) %86 1./rd 71/! 7165719.)

b* a (re(onderance of the e)idence. 1ailin. to do so! the rule +ill not be used b* a court to allo+ the admission of e)idence other+ise disco)ered ille.all*. ()eop"e $# E$ans

(2011) 200 Cal.App.3th 23$- 2$$%2$5: )eop"e $# Superior Court 6Chapman7 (2012) 203 Cal.App.3th 1003- 1021% 1022.) 8.i,ence lying un,er the ,ecease, 0oul, ha.e ine.itably been "oun, an, gi.en to the police 0hen the Coroner s in.estigator tooF charge o" the bo,y an, (o.e, it. (()eop"e $# Superior Court 6Chapman7 (2012) 203 Cal.App.3th 1003- 1021%1022: +he Coroner (ay ,eli.er any property or e.i,ence relate, to the in.estigation or prosecution o" a cri(e to the la0 en"orce(ent agency or ,istrict attorney. (9o:t! Code 214"1!3+4,) +he ine.itable ,isco.ery ,octrine 0as hel, to be inapplicable 0here there 0as no e.i,ence that the ,e"en,ant s .ehicle 0as going to be subCecte, to an in.entory search beyon, that 0hich 0as alrea,y ,one- an, 0here the to0 yar, e(ployees testi"ie, to in.entorying ite(s in plain sight only. ()eop"e $# E$ans (2011) 200 Cal.App.3th 23$- 2$$%2$5: cocaine hi,,en in the .ehicle s air .ents.) *n in%ured person (ay be searche, 0ithout a 0arrant or probable cause. 1t is reasonable "or a police o""icer to atte(pt to i,enti"y an inCure, person. 1n "act- he has a ,uty to ,o so. Anything the o""icer sees in the process is a,(issible in court. ()eop"e $# Gon5a"es (1&50) 1#2 Cal.App.2n, 225.) E!idence of identity- as 0ith ,e"en,ant s person itsel"- is not subCect to suppression- *regar,less o" the nature o" the .iolation lea,ing to his i,entity./ (United States $# Gudino (&th Cir. 2003) 325 B.3r, &&2.) See also United States $# Garcia3 e"tran (&th Cir. 2003) 3#& B.3r, #53: "ingerprints use, "or i,entity purposes only 2$1
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are not subCect to suppression "or a Fourth Amendment .iolation (i.e.- illegal arrest here). Case re(an,e,ho0e.er- "or a ,eter(ination 0hether ,e"en,ant s "ingerprints 0ere sei;e, "or *in!estigatory purposes/ as oppose, to establish i,entity- in 0hich case they are subCect to suppression. 1t is a rule o" la0 that neither a person s body nor his or her identity is subCect to suppression- *e.en i" it is conce,e, that an unla0"ul arrest- search- or interrogation occurre,./ (Immi1ration and Natura"i5ation Ser$ice $# 2ope53 %endo5a (1&#3) 35# 4.S. 1032- 103&%1030 6#2 7.8,.2n, 22#9.) Bor purposes o" this rule- it (aFes no ,i""erence that the illegal arrest- search or interrogation 0as *egregious/ in nature: e.g.- the result o" *racial profiling./ (United States $# Gudino- supra.) 'mpeachment E!idence) 8.i,ence illegally sei;e, (ay be intro,uce, "or the purpose of impeaching the ,e"en,ant s testi(ony gi.en in both ,irect e?a(ination (-a"der $# United States (1&$3) 332 4.S 52 6&# 7.8,. $039.) an, cross%e?a(ination- so long as the cross%e?a(ination @uestions are other0ise proper. (United States $# 0a$ens (1&#0) 335 4.S. 520 653 7.8,.2n, $$&9.) Cali"ornia authority prior to passage o" (ro-osition # (+he *Truth in E!idence 'nitiati!e/)- to the e""ect that e.i,ence suppresse, pursuant to a (otion brought un,er authority o" (!C! 1)3#!) is suppresse, "or all purposes (i.e.- )eop"e $# e""eci (1&2&) 23 Cal.3r, #2&- ##2%###.)- 0as abrogate, by (ro-osition #. Jo0- it is clear that suppresse, e.i,ence (ay be use, "or purposes o" i(peach(ent shoul, the ,e"en,ant testi"y an, lie. ()eop"e $# %oore (1&##) 201 Cal.App.3r, #22- ##3%##5.) Also- suppresse, e.i,ence pursuant to (!C! 1)3#!)+d, is a,(issible at the ,e"en,ant s probation re.ocation hearing unless the o""icer s actions 0ere egregious. *(+)he e?clusionary rule ,oes not apply in probation re.ocation hearings- unless the police con,uct at issue shocFs the conscience./ (Citations o(itte,: )eop"e $# 2a5"o (2012) 205 Cal.App.3th 1053- 105#%1022.) 2$2
< 2013 Robert C. Phillips. All rights reser.e,

Asset Bor"eiture Procee,ings) 8.i,ence sei;e, illegally (ay still be subCect to asset "or"eiture procee,ings so long as there is a,(issible probable cause supporting the conclusion that the e.i,ence is the pro,uct o" the ,e"en,ant s illegal acti.ity. (United States $# H1FD,61D#77 in U#S# Currenc& (&th Cir. 2010) $&0 B.3r, &32- &3#%&3&.) Standin1) Defined) +he right o" an in,i.i,ual to contest the illegality o" a search an, sei;ure. !nly the person whose rights are being !iolated has *standing/ to challenge an allege, go.ern(ental constitutional .iolation. (Ra(as $# I""inois (1&2#) 33& 4.S. 12#- 13#%13& 6$# 7.8,.2n, 3#2- 3&2%3&#9: %innesota $# Carter (1&&#) $2$ 4.S. #3 6132 7.8,.2n, 3239.) Ehether or not a person has *standing/ to challenge the legality o" a search is a (i?e, @uestion o" "act (i.e.- ,eter(ining the circu(stances) an, la0 (i.e.- ,eter(ining 0hether the "acts Custi"y a "in,ing that the ,e"en,ant has a legiti(ate e?pectation o" pri.acy un,er the la0). (United States $# Sin1"eton (&th Cir. 1&&3) &#2 B.2n, 1333- 1332: United States $# H67,CGG in United States Currenc& (&th Cir. 200&) $$3 B.3r, 2$2- 2$$%2$5.) !ne (ust ha.e a legiti(ate possessory interest in the property sei;e,- or a legiti(ate pri.acy interest in the area searche,- or a personal liberty interest that 0as in"ringe,. (See )eop"e $# Ro&.a" (1&&#) 1& Cal.3th 3#1.) Clai(ing o0nership o" the property being sei;e, ,oes not establish that the ,e"en,ant ha, a reasonable e?pectation o" pri.acy in that property. +he *possessory interest/ (ust be a *legitimate/ one: i.e.- e?clu,ing contraban, an, other ite(s not la0"ully in the subCect s possession. (See Ra,"in1s $# /entuc(& (1&#0) 33# 4.S. &#- 10$%105 65$ 7.8,.2n, 5339: United States $# )u""iam (&th Cir. 200$) 30$ B.3r, 2#2- 2#5: see also United States $# H67,CGG in United States Currenc&- supra.- at p. 2$5.) See also )eop"e $# -arren (1&&0) 21& Cal.App.3, 51&523) *(J)o pri.acy right guarantee, by the Fourth Amendment is in"ringe, by the search an, sei;ure o" a Fno0n illicit substance./

2$3
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Reasonable Expectation of Pri!acy) +he @uestion really is 0hether the ,e"en,ant- as oppose, to so(eone else- ha, a *reasonable (or Glegitimate ) expectation of pri!acy/ in the place being searche, or the ite(s being sei;e,. +he "e,eral cases ha.e gotten a0ay "ro( using the ter( *standing/ 0hile (o.ing to0ar,s a ,iscussion o" one s *reasonable/ or *legitimate expectation of pri!acy./ (Ra(as $# I""inois- supra- at p. 133 6$# 7.8,.2n, at p. 3019: United States $# Da$is (&th Cir. 2003) 332 B.3r, 1153- 1152: United States $# Ca&men (&th Cir. 200$) 303 B.3r, 11&5- 11&&% 1200.) Cali"ornia courts ha.e been encourage, to ,o the sa(e. (See )eop"e $# A&a"a (2000) 23 Cal.3th 22$- 2$3- "n. 3: )eop"e $# %a1ee (2011) 1&3 Cal.App.3th 12#- 1#3- "n. 3.) *+he touchstone o" Fourth Amendment analysis is 0hether a person has a Aconstitutionally protecte, reasonable e?pectation o" pri.acy. / (Ca"i'ornia $# Cirao"o (1&#5) 325 4.S. 202- 211 6&0 7.8,.2n, 210- 21$9.) *(+)o say that a party lacFs 6F9ourth 6A9mendment stan,ing is to say that his reasonable e?pectation o" pri.acy has not been in"ringe,./ (1talics in original: United States $# SDI Future 0ea"th, Inc# (&th Cir. 200&) $5# B.3r, 5#3- 5&$: citing United States $# Ta(eta (&th Cir. 1&&1) &23 B.2n, 55$- 55&.) Test) Ehether or not a person has *standing/ to challenge the constitutionality o" a search has been ,escribe, by the 4nite, States Supre(e Court in Ra(as $# I""inois- supra- as "ollo0s) *(E)hether the challenge, search an, sei;ure .iolate, the Fourth Amendment rights o" a cri(inal ,e"en,ant 0ho seeFs to e?clu,e the e.i,ence obtaine, ,uring it/ (Id.- at p. 130.)- *0hether the ,ispute, search an, sei;ure has in"ringe, an interest o" the ,e"en,ant 0hich the Fourth Amendment 0as ,esigne, to protect/ (I.id2)- or *0hether the person 0ho clai(s the protection o" the (Fourth, Amendment has a legiti(ate e?pectation o" pri.acy in the in.a,e, place/ (Id! at p. 133.). ()eop"e $# Ste,art (2003) 113 Cal.App.3th 232- 23&.) *6S9ubCecti.e e?pectations o" pri.acy that society is not prepare, to recogni;e as legiti(ate ha.e no 6Fourth Amendment9 protection. ()eop"e $# 2eon (200$) 131 Cal.App.3th &55- &23.) *+he absence o" a right to e?clu,e others "ro( access to a situs is an i(portant "actor (ilitating against a legiti(ate e?pectation o" pri.acy./ (United States $# autista (&th Cir. 2003) 352 B.3r, $#3$#&: citing Ra,"in1s $# /entuc(& (1&#0) 33# 4.S. &#- 10$ 65$ 7.8,.2n, 533- 5329.)

2$3
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+he e?istence o" a *reasonable expectation of pri!acy/ (ust be ,eter(ine, by an analysis o" the *totality of the circumstances./ ()eop"e $# /our& (1&#&) 213 Cal.App.3r, 525- 5#5 In re Rud& F# (2003) 112 Cal.App.3th 1123- 1132.) Aban,on(ent o" property- eli(inating any reasonable e?pectation o" pri.acy in that property- is an issue o" the ,e"en,ant s apparent intent as ,eter(ine, by an obCecti.e e.aluation o" the circu(stances. +he ,e"en,ant s actual intent is irrele.ant. ()eop"e $# )arson (200#) 33 Cal.3th 332- 332%33#.) +he issue is *0hether the person so relin@uishe, his interest in the property that he no longer retaine, a reasonable e?pectation o" pri.acy in it at the ti(e o" the search./ (Id.at p. 335.) +here is no pri.acy right in the (outhpiece o" the PAS ,e.ice- 0hich 0as pro.i,e, by the police an, 0here ,e"en,ant aban,one, any e?pectation o" pri.acy in the sali.a he ,eposite, on the ,e.ice 0hen he "aile, to 0ipe it o"". Ehether ,e"en,ant subCecti.ely e?pecte, that the genetic (aterial containe, in his sali.a 0oul, beco(e Fno0n to the police 0as irrele.ant because he ,eposite, it on a police ,e.ice an, thus (a,e it accessible to the police. +he o""icer 0ho a,(inistere, the PAS test testi"ie, that use, (outhpieces 0ere nor(ally ,iscar,e, in the trash. +hus- any subCecti.e e?pectation ,e"en,ant (ay ha.e ha, that his right to pri.acy 0oul, be preser.e, 0as unreasonable. ()eop"e $# Thomas (2011) 200 Cal.App.3th 33#.) A ,e"en,ant has the bur,en o" pro.ing that he ha, stan,ing to contest a 0arrantless search. 1n other 0or,s- he (ust "irst pro.e that he ha, a reasonable e?pectation o" pri.acy in the areas searche,. A person seeFing to in.oFe the protection o" the Bourth A(en,(ent (ust ,e(onstrate both that he harbore, a subCecti.e (i.e.- in his o0n (in,) e?pectation o" pri.acy an, that the e?pectation 0as obCecti.ely reasonable. An obCecti.ely reasonable e?pectation o" pri.acy is one that society is 0illing to recogni;e as reasonable. A(ong the "actors consi,ere, in (aFing this ,eter(ination are 0hether a ,e"en,ant has a possessory interest in the thing sei;e, or place searche,: 0hether he has the right to e?clu,e others "ro( that place: 0hether he has e?hibite, a subCecti.e e?pectation that it 0oul, re(ain "ree "ro( go.ern(ental in.asion: 0hether he 2$$
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tooF nor(al precautions to (aintain his pri.acy: an, 0hether he 0as legiti(ately on the pre(ises. ()eop"e $# Nishi (-./-0 -.1 &al2*pp23th 453, 45464789 defendant held to not ha!e an expectation of pri!acy in his tent on public land without a permit, nor the area around his tent20 Prior &alifornia Rule: *Vicarious tanding)/ 8.eryone charge, 0ith a cri(inal o""ense resulting "ro( a search or sei;ure coul, challenge the constitutionality o" that search or sei;ure- 0ithout the necessity o" sho0ing *standing./ (8.g.- )eop"e $# %artin (1&$$) 3$ Cal.2n, 2$$- 251.) +his theory- long since reCecte, by the 4nite, States Supre(e Court (see United States $# Sa"$ucci (1&#0) 33# 4.S. #3- &2 65$ 7.8,.2n, 51&9.)- 0as abrogate, by passage o" (ro-osition # (Cal! Const!, Art! 1, 2#+d,) in June- 1&#2. Cali"ornia no0 "ollo0s the "e,eral rule. (In re 2ance -# (1&#$) 32 Cal.3r, #23- ##5%##2: )eop"e $# Ne"son (1&#$) 155 Cal.App.3r, 120&- 1213.) Rules for Determining tanding) $urden of Proof) +he ,e"en,ant bears the bur,en o" sho0ing he or she ha, a reasonable expectation of pri!acy in the place searche, or the thing sei;e,. (Ra(as $# I""inois (1&2#) 33& 4.S. 12#- 131"n. & 6$# 7.8,.2n, 3#2- 3&&%3009: )eop"e $# %c)eters (1&&2) 2 Cal.3th 113#- 1121: )eop"e $# Shepherd (1&&3) 23 Cal.App.3th #2$#2#: )eop"e $# Co,an (1&&3) 31 Cal.App.3th 2&$- 2&#: United States $# Ca&men (&th Cir. 200$) 303 B.3r, 11&5- 11&&%1200: United States $# H67,CGG in United States Currenc& (&th Cir. 200&) $$3 B.3r, 2$2- 2$5: )eop"e $# %a1ee (2011) 1&3 Cal.App.3th 12#1#3.) Io0e.er- the court has the ,iscretion to or,er the prosecution to present its e.i,ence be"ore the ,e"en,ant pro.es his stan,ing. ()eop"e $# Contreras (1&#&) 210 Cal.App.3r, 3$0.) Although the prosecution (ay not taFe *contra,ictory positions in or,er to ,e"eat an asserte, e?pectation o" pri.acy-/ the ,e"en,ant is *not Aentitle, to rely on the go.ern(entDs allegations in the plea,ings- or positions the go.ern(ent has taFen in the case- to establish stan,ing. / (United States $# 2on1 (&th Cir. 2002) 301 B.3r, 10&$- at p. 1100- citing United States $# 4ermeno (&th Cir. 1&&$) 55 B.3r, 10$#- 1052.) (actors to consi,er) 2$5
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Ehether the ,e"en,ant has a property or possessory interest in the thing sei;e, or the place searche,: Ehether he has a right to e?clu,e others "ro( that place: Ehether he has e?hibite, a subCecti.e e?pectation that the place 0oul, re(ain "ree "ro( go.ern(ental in.asion: Ehether he tooF nor(al precautions to (aintain his pri.acy: Ehether he 0as legiti(ately on the pre(ises: and Ehether the ,e"en,ant 0as present at the place searche, *for a commercial purpose/ (no stan,ing) or 0as there as an *o!ernight guest/ (stan,ing) 0ith the Fno0le,ge an, per(ission o" an i,enti"iable host. ()eop"e $# Shepherd (1&&3) 23 Cal.App.3th #2$- #2#: United States $# Si"$a et a"# (&th Cir. 2001) 232 B.3r, 10$1: )eop"e $# Ste,art (2003) 113 Cal.App.3th 232- 2$0: In re Rud& F# (2003) 112 Cal.App.3th 1123- 1132.)

;n *ppeal) Ehether or not an in,i.i,ual s e?pectation o" pri.acy 0as obCecti.ely reasonable is re.ie0e, by an appellate court *de no!o./ (United States $# autista (&th Cir. 2003) 352 B.3r, $#3$##%$#&.) tanding: Examples) Vehicles) +he owner- or a borrower o" .ehicle 0ith the o0ner s per(ission (i.e.- a person in la0"ul possession)- has standing to challenge the search o" the .ehicle. ()eop"e $# 2eonard (1&#2) 1&2 Cal.App.3r, 23$- 23#: )eop"e $# Ne"son (1&#$) 155 Cal.App.3r, 120&: United States $# /o$ac (&th Cir. 1&#5) 2&$ B.2n, 1$0&- 1$10%1$11- o0ner: United States $# )orti""o (&th Cir. 1&#0) 533 B.2n, 13131312- borro0er.) A passenger in a .ehicle that he neither o0ns nor leases lac?s standing to obCect to a search o" areas 0ithin the .ehicle- such as the glo.e co(part(ent- the trunF- or 2$2
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un,erneath the seat. (Ra(as $# I""inois (1&2#) 33& 4.S. 12# 6$# 7.8,.2n, 3#29: United States $# )orti""o (&th Cir. 1&#0) 533 B.2n, 1313- 1312: United States $ )u""iam (&th Cir. 200$) 30$ B.3r, 2#2- 2#$%2#5.) $ut- the passenger as 0ell as the dri!er has stan,ing to obCect to the basis "or a .ehicle s initial stop or ,etention. ( rend"in $# Ca"i'ornia (2002) $$1 4.S. 23& 615# 7.8,.2n, 1329: see belo0.): see also )eop"e $# 2ion.er1er (1&#5) 1#$ Cal.App.3r, Supp. 1: United States $# T,i""e& (&th Cir. 2000) 222 B.3r, 10&2- 10&$: United States $# Co"in (&th Cir. 2002) 313 B.3r, 33&- 332%333: )eop"e $# 2amont (2003) 12$ Cal.App.3th 303.) !ne 0ho steals a car ()eop"e $# Shepherd- supra.) or 0ho is si(ply an occupant o" a stolen car ()eop"e $# Catuto (1&&0) 212 Cal.App.3r, 213: )eop"e $# %e"n&( (1&&2) 3 Cal.App.3th 1$32- 1$33.)- or is caught ,ri.ing a stolen .ehicle ()eop"e $# Carter (200$) 35 Cal.3th 1113- 113&% 1132.) that is later searche,- has no stan,ing to challenge the later search o" that car. De"en,ant ha, no stan,ing to challenge the illegal search o" another person s .ehicle 0hich resulte, in reco.ery o" in"or(ation use, to obtain a search 0arrant "or ,e"en,ant s ho(e. ()eop"e $# %adrid (1&&2) 2 Cal.App.3th 1###1#&5.) A person ,ri.ing a rental .ehicle- 0hen the person is neither an authori;e, ,ri.er un,er the rental contract nor ,ri.ing the .ehicle 0ith the renter s per(ission- ,oes not ha.e stan,ing to challenge the search o" a .ehicle. (United States $# Thomas (&th Cir. 2005) 332 B.3r, 11&1: noting that (erely being an unauthori;e, ,ri.er- per the ter(s o" the rental agree(ent- 0ill not ,epri.e a person o" stan,ing. 1n this case- it 0as the ,e"en,ant s "ailure to present any e.i,ence that he 0as ,ri.ing the car 0ith the per(ission o" the person 0ho rente, it that ,epri.e, hi( o" stan,ing to contest the search o" the car.) +he 4nite, States Supre(e Court has recently re.erse, the Cali"ornia Supre(e Court on the issue o" 0hether the passenger is ,etaine, by .irtue o" being in the car 0hen it is initially stoppe,- an, hel, that at least in a pri.ate (otor .ehicle (as oppose, to a ta?i- bus- or other co((on 2$#
< 2013 Robert C. Phillips. All rights reser.e,

carrier)- the passenger in a .ehicle stoppe, "or a possible tra""ic in"raction is in "act ,etaine,- gi.ing hi( the right (i.e.- stan,ing) to challenge the legality o" the tra""ic stop. ( rend"in $# Ca"i'ornia (2002) $$1 4.S. 23& 615# 7.8,.2n, 1329.) +he o0ner o" a .ehicle- but 0ho taFes steps to ,isassociate hi(sel" "ro( the .ehicle by ha.ing so(eone else pay cash "or the car an, then putting the car an, other ,ocu(entation in the other person s na(e (,one because the ,e"en,ant Fne0 the car 0oul, be use, to transport controlle, substances)- ,oes not ha.e stan,ing to challenge an illegal entry into the car "or the purpose o" installing a LPS to tracF the .ehicle. ()eop"e $# To""i$er et a"# (200#) 150 Cal.App.3th 1231- 1235%1231.) Geing *the e?clusi.e ,ri.er/ o" ,e"en,ant s 0i"e s car gi.es the ,e"en,ant stan,ing to challenge the legality o" the installation o" a LPS (i.e.- a search) on that .ehicle. (United States $# *ones (Jan. 23- 2012) $5$ 4.S. >>- >>- "n. 2 6132 S.Ct. &3$: 1#1 7.8,.2n, &119.) Residential Visitors) An o!ernight guest in a resi,ence does ha.e stan,ing to contest an unla0"ul search. (%innesota $# O"son (1&&0) 3&$ 4.S. &1 610& 7.8,.2n, #$9: )eop"e $# 0ami"ton (1&#$) 15# Cal.App.3r, 10$#: Espinosa $# Cit& and Count& o' San Francisco (&th Cir. 2010) $&# B.3r, $2#- $33%$33.) As an *occasional/ guest at his girl"rien, s apart(ent- ,e"en,ant ha, stan,ing to challenge the entry o" his girl"rien, s be,roo( 0here the t0o o" the( staye, together- along 0ith the search o" his gy( bag he Fept un,er the be,. (United States $# Da$is (&th Cir. 2003) 332 B.3r, 1153- 1152%115#.) +he estranged husband- 0hen he regularly .isite, o.ernight 0ith his chil,ren- ha, a Fey an, unrestricte, access- Fept personal papers an, clothing in a be,roo(- an, 0as present at the ti(e o" the search- has stan,ing. ()eop"e $# /our& (1&#&) 213 Cal.App.3r, 525- 5##.) * $abysitter ,uring the ti(e he or she is engage, in babysitting acti.ities has stan,ing. ()eop"e $# %oreno (1&&2) 2 Cal.App.3th $22- $2&- $#2.) 2$&
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Si(ple- casual !isitors in a place being searche, do not nor(ally ha.e stan,ing. ()eop"e $# Ne"son (1&#$) 155 Cal.App.3r, 120&: )eop"e $# Oo"e& (1&#$) 15& Cal.App.3r, 1&2: )eop"e $# Co,an (1&&$) 31 Cal.App.3th 2&$- 2&#- #00: )eop"e $# Dimitro! (1&&$) 33 Cal.App.3th 1#: )eop"e $# Rios (2011) 1&3 Cal.App.3th $#3- $&1%$&2.) Geing a "a(ily (e(ber but not li.ing there ,oes not change the result. ()eop"e $# Rios- supra- at $&2- "n. 3: citing In re Rud& F# (2003) 112 Cal.App.3th 1123- 113$.) +he temporary occupant o" a house ,oes not ha.e stan,ing to challenge the search o" a be,roo( he ,i, not occupyne.er entere,- an, ha, no per(ission to enter. ()eop"e $# 0ernande5 (1&##) 1&& Cal.App.3r, 11#2- 11##.) Gut see )eop"e $# Ste,art (2003) 113 Cal.App.3th 232) A person 0ho ,oes not stay o.ernight- but 0ho has a Fey an, "ree reign o" the house- co(ing an, going as he pleases,oing his laun,ry- cooFing- an, 0atching the +.U. in the house- an, taFing sho0ers- etc.- 0as hel, to ha.e stan,ing. An o!ernight guest in a resi,ence does ha.e stan,ing to contest an unla0"ul search (%innesota $# O"son (1&&0) 3&$ 4.S. &1 610& 7.8,.2n, #$9.)- e.en i" the guest is a ,rug s(uggler. (United States $# Game53Orduno (&th Cir. 2000) 23$ B.3r, 3$3.) Howe!er- a .isitor 0ho is there "or a li(ite, ti(e (e.g.- 2H hours)- "or an unla0"ul purpose (e.g.- to pacFage contraban,)- 0ithout any prior relationship 0ith the la0"ul occupant- ,oes not ha.e stan,ing. (%innesota $# Carter (1&&#) $2$ 4.S. #3 6132 7.8,.2n, 3239.) De"en,ant s parents- 0here ,e"en,ant con,ucte, his (ariCuana ,ealings "ro( his o0n roo(- (aintaine, stan,ing to challenge the search o" ,e"en,ant s be,roo( 0here they (aintaine, the rights o" access- possession- an, e?clusion o" others. (United States $# H67,CGG in United States Currenc& (&th Cir. 200&) $$3 B.3r, 2$2- 2$5%2$2.) Io0e.er- the ,aughter (,e"en,ant s sisterM)- 0ho no longer li.e, in the house- ,i, not ha.e stan,ing 250
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,espite the "act that she ha, a Fey to the house an, store, ite(s there. (Id.- at pp. 2$2%2$#.) Oerely clai(ing to be an o.ernight guest- or to other0ise ha.ing stan,ing to contest the entry an,Nor search o" a resi,ence- is insu""icient. +here (ust be so(e e.i,ence to the e""ect that the person ,i, in "act ha.e a reasonable e?pectation o" pri.acy in the resi,ence. (United States $# Re&es3 os:ue (&th Cir. 2010) $&5 B.3r, 1012- 1025%102&.) Ehether or not a .isitor has stan,ing to challenge la0 en"orce(ent s 0arrantless entrance into a resi,ence ,epen,s upon that .isitor s purpose "or being there. Bor instance- i" .isiting the legal resi,ents- at least 0hen the .isitor ,oes so on a regular basis an, is "ree to co(e an, go as he 0ishes 0ithout FnocFing- he liFely has stan,ing. Gut 0hen that sa(e person enters the resi,ence "or the purpose o" ,estroying e.i,ence 0hile being chase, by police- he ,oes not. ()eop"e $# %a1ee (2011) 1&3 Cal.App.3th 12#.) +he Bourth A(en,(ent rights o" ho(eo0ners are i(plicate, by the use o" a surreptitiously plante, listening ,e.ice to (onitor thir,%party con.ersations that occurre, 0ithin their ho(e. (A"derman $# United States (1&5&) 3&3 4.S. 15$ 622 7.8,.2n, 1259.) Personal Property) Jo e?pectation o" pri.acy in a gun gi.en to another person ()eop"e $# %c)eters (1&&2) 2 Cal.3th 113#- 1121.)- or an opa@ue bag le"t- unseale,- in another person s car ()eop"e $# Root (1&#$) 122 Cal.App.3r, 223- 22#.)- or a purse le"t in another s .ehicle. ()eop"e $ Shepherd (1&&3) 23 Cal.App.3th #2$- #22- #2&.) +here is no e?pectation o" pri.acy in a stolen co(puter (United States $# -on1 (&th Cir. 2003) 333 B.3r, #31) or one that 0as obtaine, by "rau,. (United States $# Ca&men (&th Cir. 200$) 303 B.3r, 11&5- 1200.) +here is no e?pectation o" pri.acy in a ,u""le bag le"t in an apart(ent laun,ry roo( open to anyone- e.en though place, out o" the 0ay on a high shel". (United States $# Fa& (&th Cir. 200$) 310 B.3r, $#&.)

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Gut the o0ner o" a gy( bag the ,e"en,ant Fept un,er his girl"rien, s be, in her apart(ent ha, stan,ing to challenge the search o" that gy( bag. (United States $# Da$is (&th Cir. 2003) 332 B.3r, 1153- 1152%115#.) De"en,ant ha, stan,ing to challenge a 0iretap or,er on his cellular telephone purchase, by the ,e"en,ant 0hile using a "ictitious na(e in that there is nothing illegal in the atte(pt to re(ain anony(ous. ()eop"e $# 2eon (200$) 131 Cal.App.3th &55- &23%&22.) A business that o0ns the co(pany s co(puters (ay consent to the search o" a co(puter use, by an e(ployeeat least 0hen the e(ployee is on notice that he has no reasonable e?pectation o" pri.acy in the contents o" the co(puter he is using. (United States $# 4ie1"er (&th Cir. 2005) 3$5 B.3r, 113#.) 7ea.ing a cell phone at the scene o" a cri(e negates the suspect s e?pectation o" pri.acy in the contents o" that phone- an, is there"ore aban,one, property ,espite the suspect s subCecti.e 0ish to retrie.e it- 0hich he "ails to act on. *Aban,on(ent . . . is not (eant in the strict property% right sense- but rests instea, on 0hether the person so relin@uishe, his interest in the property that he no longer retaine, a reasonable e?pectation o" pri.acy in it at the ti(e o" the search./ ()eop"e $# Da11s (200$) 133 Cal.App.3th 351.) Denying possession or o0nership in a brie"case "oun, in a .ehicle ,e"en,ant 0as ,ri.ing 0ill ,epri.e that ,e"en,ant o" the right to later challenge the legality o" the 0arrantless search o" that brie"case. (United States $# Decoud (2005) 3$5 B.3r, &&5.) +here is no e?pectation o" pri.acy in the outsi,e o" a piece o" (ail sent to the ,e"en,ant. *(G)ecause the in"or(ation is "oreseeably .isible to countless people in the course o" a letter reaching its ,estination- Aan a,,ressee or a,,ressor generally has no e?pectation o" pri.acy as to the outsi,e o" (ail. / ()eop"e $# Re&es (200&) 12# Cal.App.3th 11#311#&%11&2: @uoting United States $# Osune1.u (1&#2 $th Cir.) #22 B.2n, 322- 3#0- "n. 3.)

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1n Re&es- an e(ployee o" a pri.ate postbo? co(pany spontaneously han,e, o""icers ,e"en,ant s (ail 0hen the o""icers in@uire, as to 0hether ,e"en,ant ha, rente, a bo? at that "acility e.en though the e(ployees ,i,n t *nor(ally/ han, o.er a clients (ail absent a court or,er. De"en,ant 0as ne.er tol, that his (ail 0oul, be Fept pri.ate. A Cail in(ate talFing o.er a Cail telephone- 0here he is 0arne, that his con.ersations 0ere subCect to (onitoringasFing a "rien, to retrie.e 0hat o""icers un,erstoo, to be a gun (although ,e"en,ant only re"erre, to it as *the thing/) "ro( a container (also ,escribe, in .ague- generic ter(s) in the closet o" his girl"rien, s ho(e- ,oes not 0ai.e any e?pectation o" pri.acy ,e"en,ant ha, in the container that 0as later retrie.e, by la0 en"orce(ent an, illegally searche, 0ithout a search 0arrant. (United States $# %on1hur (200&) $## B.3r, &2$- &2#%&#1.) %on1hur ,i""erentiate, these "acts "ro( a si(ilar circu(stance 0here ,e"en,ant tol, la0 en"orce(ent o""icers- clearly an, une@ui.ocally- that a particular container containe, contraban,. +he Court in the case "oun, that such a concession 0ai.e, any e?pectation o" pri.acy ,e"en,ant (ight ha.e ha, in the container- thus allo0ing "or a 0arrantless search o" that container. (United States $# Cardona3 Ri$era (2th Cir. 1&&0) &03 B.2n, 113&.) Aban,oning a cigarette butt onto a public street constitutes a loss o" one s right to pri.acy in that butt- (aFing it a.ailable to la0 en"orce(ent to reco.er an, test "or DJA 0ithout a search 0arrant. ()eop"e $# Ga""e1o (2010) 1&0 Cal.App.3th 3##- 3&3%3&#.) An 1nternet subscriber has no e?pectation o" pri.acy in the subscriber in"or(ation he supplies to his 1nternet pro.i,er. ()eop"e $# Stipo (2011) 1&$ Cal.App.3th 553- 55#%55&.) Allo0ing another person unrestricte, access to a (utually o0ne, co(puter negates any e?pectation o" pri.acy the "irst person (ight ha.e ha,. A co%o0ner has actual authority to gi.e consent to the police to search. An, i" it turns out that the person is not actually a co%o0ner- the ,octrine o" apparent authority (ay Custi"y the search. 253
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(United States $# Stan"e& (&th Cir. 2011) 5$3 B.3r, &35&$0%&$2.) +here is no pri.acy right in the (outhpiece o" the PAS ,e.ice- 0hich 0as pro.i,e, by the police an, 0here ,e"en,ant aban,one, any e?pectation o" pri.acy in the sali.a he ,eposite, on the ,e.ice 0hen he "aile, to 0ipe it o"". Ehether ,e"en,ant subCecti.ely e?pecte, that the genetic (aterial containe, in his sali.a 0oul, beco(e Fno0n to the police 0as irrele.ant because he ,eposite, it on a police ,e.ice an, thus (a,e it accessible to the police. +he o""icer 0ho a,(inistere, the PAS test testi"ie, that use, (outhpieces 0ere nor(ally ,iscar,e, in the trash. +hus- any subCecti.e e?pectation ,e"en,ant (ay ha.e ha, that his right to pri.acy 0oul, be preser.e, 0as unreasonable. ()eop"e $# Thomas (2011) 200 Cal.App.3th 33#.) ;utside &ommon *reas) De"en,ant- obser.e, by police o""icers retrie.ing contraban, "ro( a hole in the groun, in the co((on area behin, an apart(ent co(ple?- ,i, not ha.e any reasonable e?pectation o" pri.acy in that hole. ()eop"e $# Sha, (2002) &2 Cal.App.3th #33.) $usinesses) 1n e.aluating a business- the Supre(e Court has hel, that) *Property use, "or co((ercial purposes is treate, ,i""erently "or Bourth A(en,(ent purposes "ro( resi,ential property./ (%innesota $# Carter (1&&#) $2$ 4.S. #3- &0 6132 7.8,.2n, 3239.) *1n the e(ploy(ent conte?t- 0e ha.e "oun, a reasonable e?pectation o" pri.acy to e?ist in an area Agi.en o.er to 6an e(ployee s9 e?clusi.e use. (Scho,en1erdt $# Genera" D&namics (&th Cir. 1&#2) #23 B.2n, 132#- 133$.) ! Grien s o""ice 0as gi.en o.er to !DGrien s e?clusi.e use an, containe, his personal ,esF an, "iles: . . ./ (United States $# Ta(eta (&th Cir. 1&&1) &23 B.2n, 55$- 521.) Io0e.er: *An e?pectation o" pri.acy in co((ercial pre(ises . . . is ,i""erent "ro(- an, in,ee, less than- a si(ilar e?pectation in an in,i.i,ual s ho(e./ (United States $# SDI Future 0ea"th, Inc# (&th Cir. 200&) $5# B.3r, 5#3- 5&$: citing Ne, Yor( $# ur1er (1&#2) 3#2 4.S. 5&1200 6&5 7.8,.2n, 5019.) 253
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+he e(ployee o" a li@uor store ha, no stan,ing to challenge the search o" the counter area 0here she ha, no e?pectation o" pri.acy. ()eop"e $# Thompson (1&##) 20$ Cal.App.3r, 1$03.) Jo e?pectation o" pri.acy in ,ocu(ents sei;e, "ro( another s business pre(ises 0here the ,e"en,ant ha, no control o.er the business an, no possessory interest in the ,ocu(ents at the ti(e o" sei;ure. ()eop"e $# -or(man (1&#&) 20& Cal.App.3r, 5#2- 5&5.) Jo stan,ing to challenge the search o" containers le"t by ,e"en,ant at an auto bo,y shop 0here ,e"en,ant 0as a *(ere guest or in.itee./ ()eop"e $# A&a"a (2000) 23 Cal.3th 22$- 2$3.) A hospital e(ployee has no reasonable e?pectation o" pri.acy in the hospital s (ailroo(. (United States $# Gon5a"e5 (&th Cir. 2003) 32# B.3r, $33.) A business that o0ns the co(pany s co(puters (ay consent to the search o" a co(puter use, by an e(ployeeat least 0hen the e(ployee is on notice that he has no reasonable e?pectation o" pri.acy in the contents o" the co(puter he is using. (United States $# 4ie1"er (&th Cir. 2005) 3$5 B.3r, 113#.) Contrary to a s(all- "a(ily%o0ne, business o.er 0hich an in,i.i,ual e?ercises ,aily (anage(ent an, control (8.g.see United States $# Gon5a"e5 (&th Cir. 200$) 312 B.3r, 1102.)- challenging the legality o" a search in a large business is (uch (ore co(plicate,. Geing the o0ner or (anager o" a business- alone- is not enough. +he ,e"en,ant (ust generally sho0 so(e personal connection to the places being searche, an, the (aterials sei;e,. Bactors to consi,er in e.aluating this personal connection inclu,e- but are not necessarily li(ite, to) Ehether the ite( sei;e, is personal property or other0ise Fept in a pri.ate place separate "ro( other 0orF%relate, (aterial. Ehether the ,e"en,ant ha, custo,y or i((e,iate control o" the ite( 0hen o""icers sei;e, it.

25$
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Ehether the ,e"en,ant tooF precautions on his o0n behal" to secure the place searche, or things sei;e, "ro( any inter"erence 0ithout authori;ation. (United States $# SDI Future 0ea"th, Inc# (&th Cir. 200&) $5# B.3r, 5#3- 5&#.)

Renters with a tolen &redit &ard) !ne 0ho rents a hotel roo( 0ith a stolen cre,it car, ,oes not ha.e stan,ing to challenge an unla0"ul entry o" the roo( by la0 en"orce(ent. ()eop"e $# Sat5 (1&&#) 51 Cal.App.3th 322.) +he Jinth Circuit has ,e.elope, the rule that use o" a stolen cre,it car, alone is insu""icient to negate the person s e?pectation o" pri.acy in his roo(. +here has to be e.i,ence that the (anage(ent has- or is at least inten,ing- to e.ict the tenant "or that reason be"ore the tenant s e?pectation o" pri.acy in is roo( beco(es unreasonable. (See United States $# Dorais (&th Cir. 2001) 231 B.3r, 1123- 1122%112#.) Despite renting a (otel roo( 0ith a stolen cre,it car,- the ,e"en,ant ,i, not lose his stan,ing to challenge an unla0"ul entry until the (otel s (anager tooF so(e a""ir(ati.e steps to repossess the roo(. (United States $# autista (&th Cir. 2003) 352 B.3r, $#3.) Also- a ,e"en,ant has not lost his e?pectation o" pri.acy in his hotel roo( (0hich 0as later- a"ter the "act- ,isco.ere, to ha.e been rente, 0ith a stolen cre,it car,) by the hotel locFing hi( out 0hen he 0as locFe, out pursuant to a policy to ,o so a"ter a ,angerous 0eapon (a "irear() is "oun, in the roo( by hotel e(ployees. 7ocFing hi( out- in this case- 0as not ,one 0ith the intent to e.ict hi(. +he "act that he 0as arreste, be"ore his roo( 0as searche, also ,oes not ,i(inish his e?pectation o" pri.acy in the roo(. 7astly- use o" the stolen cre,it car, ,oes not negate the ,e"en,ant s e?pectation o" pri.acy 0hen its use is not Fno0n at the ti(e- an, there"ore ,oes not cause an inten, to e.ict hi( because o" its use. (United States $# Youn1 (&th Cir. 200&) $23 B.3r, 211- 21$%220.) Another panel o" the Jinth Circuit Court o" Appeal reache, the opposite result un,er si(ilar circu(stances- "in,ing that a person does not ha.e stan,ing in a hotel roo( rente, 0ith 255
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a "rau,ulent cre,it car, an, other "rau,ulent ,ocu(ents. (United States $# Cuna1 (&th Cir. 2003) 3#5 B.3r, ###.) +hese cases (ay perhaps be ,i""erentiate, "ro( autista an, Youn1 because in autista- the hotel (anager 0as still trying to 0orF out so(e (etho, o" pay(ent. An, in Youn1- there 0as no atte(pt by the hotel (anager- 0ho at the ti(e 0as una0are that the cre,it car, use, to rent the roo( 0as stolento e.ict ,e"en,ant. Also- using counter"eit (oney to rent a (otel roo( ,oes not ,epri.e the ,e"en,ant o" stan,ing to challenge the 0arrantless entry o" her (otel roo( unless there is so(e proo" that the ,e"en,ant Fne0 that the (oney she use, 0as counter"eit (i.e.- no intent to ,e"rau,) an, that the (otel (anager has alrea,y atte(pte, to e.ict the ,e"en,ant or seeF the help o" la0 en"orce(ent in such an e.iction. ()eop"e $# %uno5 (200#) 152 Cal.App.3th 125.) Exposure to Public View) !bser.ation o" ,e"en,ant s gro0ing (ariCuana plants "ro( a neighbor s property- 0ithout the neighbor s Fno0le,ge or per(ission- looFing into ,e"en,ant s a,Cacent bacFyar, hel, to be la0"ul. De"en,ant ,i, not ha.e stan,ing to challenge the trespass into the neighbor s yar,- an, ,i, not ha.e a reasonable e?pectation o" pri.acy in 0hat 0as gro0ing in his o0n yar, in that his (ariCuana plants 0ere plainly .isible. ()eop"e $# C"ae&s (2002) &2 Cal.App.3th $$.) *bandoned Property) 7ea.ing all his belongings in a (otel roo(- ,isappearing in the (i,,le o" the night an, 0ithout (aFing arrange(ents to e?ten, his stay- it 0as hel, that ,e"en,ant aban,one, the (otel roo(- his personal belongings in the roo(- an, his .ehicle in the parFing lot. +here being no reasonable e?pectation o" pri.acy in these ite(s ,ue to this aban,on(ent- ,e"en,ant lost his stan,ing to challenge the 0arrantless entry. ()eop"e $# )arson (200#) 33 Cal.3th 332332%33#.) 7ea.ing a cell phone at the scene o" a cri(e negates the suspect s e?pectation o" pri.acy in the contents o" that phone- an, is there"ore aban,one, property ,espite the suspect s subCecti.e 0ish to retrie.e it- 0hich he "ails to act on. *Aban,on(ent . . . is not (eant in the strict property% 252
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right sense- but rests instea, on 0hether the person so relin@uishe, his interest in the property that he no longer retaine, a reasonable e?pectation o" pri.acy in it at the ti(e o" the search./ ()eop"e $# Da11s (200$) 133 Cal.App.3th 351.) Aban,oning a cigarette butt onto a public street constitutes a loss o" one s right to pri.acy in that butt- (aFing it a.ailable to la0 en"orce(ent to reco.er an, test "or DJA 0ithout a search 0arrant. ()eop"e $# Ga""e1o (2010) 1&0 Cal.App.3th 3##- 3&3%3&#.) +ricFing a suspect out o" an ite( o" personal property an, then testing it "or DJA is another issue. Gut- as note, in Ga""e1o- at p. 3&5- se.eral courts "ro( other Curis,ictions ha.e "oun, such a tactic to be la0"ul. (See Common,ea"th $# )er(ins (Oass. 200#) ##3 J.8.2n, 230: an, Common,ea"th $# "& (Oass. 2002) #52 J.8.2n, 331: testing cigarette butts an, a so,a can le"t behin, a"ter an inter.ie0 0ith police. Common,ea"th $# E,in1 (Oass 2005) 52 Oass.App.Ct. $31 6#$3 J.8.2n, &&3- 1001: o""ering ,e"en,ant cigarettes an, a stra0 ,uring an interrogation. )eop"e $# 2aGuerre (2005) 2& A.D.3r, #22 6#1$ J.K.S.2n, 2119: obtaining a DJA sa(ple "ro( a piece o" che0ing gu( ,e"en,ant .oluntarily ,iscar,e, ,uring a contri.e, so,a tasting test. State $# Athan (Eash. 2002) 1$# P.3r, 22: DJA obtaine, "ro( ,e"en,ant s sali.a "ro( licFing an en.elope he (aile, to ,etecti.es in a police ruse.) +here is no pri.acy right in the (outhpiece o" the PAS ,e.ice- 0hich 0as pro.i,e, by the police an, 0here ,e"en,ant aban,one, any e?pectation o" pri.acy in the sali.a he ,eposite, on the ,e.ice 0hen he "aile, to 0ipe it o"". Ehether ,e"en,ant subCecti.ely e?pecte, that the genetic (aterial containe, in his sali.a 0oul, beco(e Fno0n to the police 0as irrele.ant because he ,eposite, it on a police ,e.ice an, thus (a,e it accessible to the police. +he o""icer 0ho a,(inistere, the PAS test testi"ie, that use, (outhpieces 0ere nor(ally ,iscar,e, in the trash. +hus- any subCecti.e e?pectation ,e"en,ant (ay ha.e ha, that his right to pri.acy 0oul, be preser.e, 0as unreasonable. ()eop"e $# Thomas (2011) 200 Cal.App.3th 33#.) 25#
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+he Thomas court "urther hel, that using ,e"en,ant s DJA taFen "ro( the PAS ,e.ice (outhpiece to legiti(ately test ,e"en,ant s bloo,Nalcohol le.el- 0ith his consent- 0as not a coerci.e ruse- an, there"ore la0"ul. (Id.- at p. 333.) +he *Threatened 'llegal Detention)/ Ehat happens 0hen the property is aban,one, as a ,irect result o" a police o""icer s atte(pt to illegally stop an, ,etain a suspectM +he 4nite, States Supre(e Court resol.e, a pre.ious three%0ay split o" authority) +here is no constitutional .iolation in a *threatened unlawful detention./ +he Fourth Amendment ,oes not apply to such a situation until the person is actually illegal ,etaine,: i.e.- 0hen the o""icer actually catches the ,e"en,ant or the ,e"en,ant other0ise sub(its to the o""icer s authority (i.e.: he gi.es up). (Ca"i'ornia $# 0odari D# (1&&1) 3&& 4.S. 521 6113 7.8,.2n, 5&09.) Result) Any e.i,ence aban,one, (e.g.- tosse, or ,roppe,) during a "oot pursuit o" a "leeing suspecte.en 0ithout any reasonable suspicion Custi"ying a ,etention (i.e.- a *threatened unlawful detention/)is a,(issible as aban,one, property (as 0ell as supplying the necessary *reasonable suspicion/ to Custi"y the suspect s ,etention upon being caught). Gut- i" the suspect ,oes not aban,on the contraban, until after he has been caught- an, thus illegally ,etaine,- then it is subCect to suppression as *fruit of the poisonous tree:/ i.e.- the unla0"ul ,etention. Disclaiming tanding) Lenerally- anyone 0ho ,isclai(s o0nership o" the place or ite( being searche, 0ill not nor(ally be hel, to ha.e stan,ing. ()eop"e $# %endo5a (1&#5) 125 Cal.App.3r, 1122: an, )eop"e $# Dasi"$a (1&#&) 202 Cal.App.3r, 33: )eop"e $# Scott (1&&3) 12 Cal.App.3th 30$.) Gut note )eop"e $# A""en (1&&3) 12 Cal.App.3r, 1213: ,isclai(er but one "actor to consi,er 0hen ,eter(ining 0hether ,e"en,ant ha, stan,ing. An, see United States $# Stephens (&th Cir. 2000) 205 B.3r, &130here the Jinth Circuit Court o" Appeal has hel, that e.en ,enial o" stan,ing (i.e.: *That ain)t mine./) concerning sei;e, property 25&
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,uring an illegal ,etention 0ill not Feep that property "ro( being suppresse, as the pro,uct o" the unla0"ul ,etention. *lso- ,enial by a ,e"en,ant that he possesse, a gun- allege,ly reco.ere, by police "ro( his 0aistban,- ,oes not ,e"eat the ,e"en,ant s clai( o" stan,ing 0hen he later challenges the search o" his person. ()eop"e $# Dachino (2003) 111 Cal.App.3th 132&.) Reasona."eness: E!aluating for Purposes of earch > eizure) *+he touchstone o" the Fourth Amendment is reasonableness. 6Citation9 +he Fourth Amendment ,oes not proscribe all state%initiate, searches an, sei;ures: it (erely proscribes those 0hich are unreasonable./ (F"orida $# *imeno (1&&1) $00 4.S. 23#- 2$0 6113 7.8,.2n, 2&29: see also ri1ham Cit& $# Stuart (2005) $32 4.S. 3&#- 303 6153 7.8,.2n, 5$09: %ichi1an $# Fisher (200&) $$# 4.S. 3$- >> 6130 S.Ct. $35- $3#: 12$ 7.8,.2n, 3109: )eop"e $# Ro.inson (2010) 32 Cal.3th 1103111&%1120: )eop"e $# Ro.inson (2012) 20# Cal.App.3th 232- 235.) Determining Reasonableness) +he reasonableness o" a search is ,eter(ine, by assessing- on the one han,- the ,egree to 0hich it intru,es upon an in,i.i,ual s pri.acy an,- on the other- the ,egree to 0hich it is nee,e, "or the pro(otion o" legiti(ate go.ern(ental interests. (United States $# /ni1hts (2001) $33 4.S. 112- 11#%11& 61$1 7.8,.2n, 3&2- $0$9: )eop"e $# Ro.inson, 'bid.) See )eop"e $# Smith (200&) 122 Cal.App.3th 13$3- 0here it 0as hel, that a public strip search o" a probationer or parolee (ay in "act be unreasonable. Gut lo0ering a parolee s pants an, pulling bacF the elastic ban o" his un,er0ear only to the e?tent necessary to see the crotch area- 0hile shiel,ing the suspect "ro( public .ie0- is neither a strip search nor unreasonable. +aFing bloo, sa(ples "ro( a con.icte, person in the (istaFen belie" that the $%A and Forensic Identification $ata &ase and $ata &an' Act of 1""# authori;es it- 0hen the ,e"en,ant is in "act a prisoner 0ith a re,uce, e?pectation o" pri.acy- is not unreasonable an, ,oes not re@uire suppression o" the result. ()eop"e $# Ro.inson (2010) 32 Cal.3th 1103- 111&%1120.) ;ld Rule) 8.aluating any Fourth Amendment search an, sei;ure issue in.ol.e, analy;ing the la0 en"orce(ent o""icer s actions both "ro( a *sub%ecti!e/ (i.e.- in the o""icer s o0n (in,) an, *ob%ecti!e/ (as .ie0e, by a reasonable person) .ie0point. 1" a conteste, search or sei;ure 0as not both sub%ecti!ely hel, an, ob%ecti!ely reasonable- the search or sei;ure 0oul, be "oun, to be illegal. (See /at5 $# United States (1&52) 3#& 4.S. 332- 3512 61& 7.8,.2n, $25- $##9.) 220
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+ew Rule) ub%ecti!e ,oti!ations are 'rrele!ant) A police o""icer s sub%ecti!e (oti.ations (or e.en his ignorance o" the legality o" the reasons) "or con,ucting a search or sei;ure are irrele.ant. +he only issue is 0hether the Fourth Amendment 0as in "act .iolate,. 1n other 0or,s0as a search or arrest la0"ul accor,ing to so(e statute or constitutional principle- e.en though the o""icer 0as not a0are o" it- or e.en thought- in his o0n (in,- he belie.e, he 0as in .iolation o" the applicable la0 or principleM 1" the ans0er is *yes-/ then (0ith li(ite, e?ceptions- see belo0)- the search or arrest is la0"ul. (-hren $# United States (1&&5) $12 4.S. #05 613$ 7.8,.2n, #&9.) *AReasonableness ` is (easure, in obCecti.e ter(s by e?a(ining the totality o" the circu(stances 6citation9- an, A0hether a particular search (eets the reasonableness stan,ar, A*Ais Cu,ge, by balancing its intrusion on the in,i.i,ualDs Fourth Amendment interests against its pro(otion o" legiti(ate go.ern(ental interests. / 6Citations.9/ ()eop"e $# Ro.inson (2010) 32 Cal.3th 1103- 1120 6103 Cal. Rptr. 3, 222- 223 P.3, $$9: see e"" $# -o"'ish (1&2&)- 331 4.S. $20 at p. $$& 6*Courts (ust consi,er the scope o" the particular intrusion- the (anner in 0hich it is con,ucte,- the Custi"ication "or initiating it- an, the place in 0hich it is con,ucte,./9 .)/ ()eop"e $# ou"ter (2011) 1&& Cal.App.3th 251.) -hren $# United States- supra- in.ol.e, the use o" a *pretext/ to (aFe a tra""ic stop (i.e.- using a tra""ic in"raction 0hen the o""icers real (oti.ation in.ol.e, an issue not supporte, by the necessary reasonable suspicion)- the 4.S. Supre(e Court ,eci,ing such a tactic 0as la0"ul so long as there 0as so(e la0"ul reason Custi"ying the stop. (See *Pretext tops-/ abo.e.) The Rule of -hren) Per -hren- so long as there is so(e la0"ul Custi"ication "or (aFing the stop- the o""icers sub%ecti!e moti!ations are irrele.ant. (I.id: see also United States $# %iranda3 Guerena (&th Cir. 2005) 33$ B.3r, 1233.) Arguably- the sa(e theory applies to a search or sei;ure. So long as the search or sei;ure is la0"ul- it shoul, (atter not 0hether the o""icer- in his or her o0n (in,- belie.e, it to be la0"ul. +he *pretext stop/ theory o" -hren $# United States applies to ci.il parFing .iolations as 0ell as any cri(inal 221
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.iolation. (United States $# Choudhr& (&th Cir. 2005) 351 B.3r, 10&2.) Also- a la0 en"orce(ent o""icer s actions- so long as ob%ecti!ely reasonable- (ight still result in the a,(issibility o" illegally sei;e, e.i,ence because o" the *good faith/ e?ception. (United States $# 2eon (1&#3) 35# 4.S. #&2 6#2 7.8,.2n, 5229: see also )eop"e $# 0u"" (1&&$) 33 Cal.App.3th 133#.) (See *<ood (aith-/ belo0.) An, see Ar(ansas $# Su""i$an (2001) $32 4.S. 25& 613& 7.8,.2n, &339) Gecause -hren in.ol.es an interpretation o" the Fourth Amendment- in,i.i,ual states are not entitle, to i(pose a stricter interpretation upon la0 en"orce(ent unless they choose to use their o0n state constitution (i.e.- *'ndependent tate <rounds/) as their authority. +ote) Cali"ornia Courts ability to use *'ndependent tate <rounds/ as a basis "or i(posing stricter rules on la0 en"orce(ent 0as eli(inate, 0ith passage o" (ro-osition # in June- 1&#2- an, its *Truth in E!idence/ pro.isions. (In re 2ance -# (1&#$) 32 Cal.3r, #23.) "imitations) -hren is not 0ithout e?ceptions) Ehen the prete?t use, "or (aFing a stop is to con,uct an *administrati!e search-/ such as inspecting the licensing o" a ta?icab- per local or,inance- or an in.entory .ehicle search- (aFing a tra""ic stop is unla0"ul- an, any pro,ucts o" that stop are subCect to suppression. ()eop"e $# 9a"en5ue"a (1&&&) 23 Cal.App.3th 1202: -hren $# United States, supra, at pp. #11%#12- 13$ 7.8,.2n, at p. &29.) Ehen a stop or search is not a *run6of6the6mine/ case- such as *cases 0here Asearches or sei;ures 60ere9 con,ucte, in an e?traor,inary (anner- usually har("ul to an in,i.i,ual s pri.acy or e.en physical interestsPsuch as- "or e?a(plesei;ure by (eans o" ,ea,ly "orce- unannounce, entry into a ho(e- entry into a ho(e 0ithout a 0arrant- or physical penetration o" the bo,y. (Citing -hren $# United Statessupra- at p. #1#.)/ (United States $# I.arra (&th Cir. 2003) 33$ B.3r, 211- 21$.) +he theory o" -hren is li(ite, to those circu(stances 0here a police o""icer is a0are o" "acts that 0oul, support 222
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an arrest. *(A)lthough -hren stan,s "or the proposition that a prete?tual sei;ure base, on the illegiti(ate subCecti.e intentions o" an o""icer (ay be per(issible- it ,oes not alter the "act that the prete?t itsel" (ust be a constitutionally su""icient basis "or the sei;ure an, the "acts supporting it (ust be Fno0n at the ti(e it is con,ucte,./ (%oreno $# aca (&th Cir. 200$) 331 B.3r, 533- 530: "in,ing that a belate,ly ,isco.ere, arrest 0arrant an, parole search con,itions ,i, not Custi"y a ,etention an, search.) Contrary to the general rule- an o""icer s (oti.ations "or con,ucting a search do (atter in t0o li(ite, situations: i.e.in *special needs/ an, *administrati!e search/ cases. (United States $# %cCart& (&th Cir. !ct. 13- 2011) >> B.3r, >>- >> 62011 4.S. App. 78T1S 1##239: chil, pornography obser.e, ,uring a la0"ul +SA a,(inistrati.e search (ay la0"ully be use, to establish probable cause to arrest.) An, Euery) Eoul, -hren .ali,ate a tra""ic stop 0hen the o""icer s real (oti.ation is base, upon prohibite, *racial profilingM/ +oM Galancing the constitutional principles in.ol.e, (e.g.Fourteenth Amendment an, Calif! Const! Art I, 1, 1)- e@ual protection an, due process)- an, the state an, "e,eral statutes the o""icer 0oul, be .iolating (1# !S! C! 241, 242E 42 !S!C! 1"#3E (!C! 422!2+a,, 13)1"!4E an, CC )2!1)- a court 0ill not uphol, such a stop. (See also a"u&ut $# Superior Court (1&&5) 12 Cal.3th #25: E@ual Protection: an, Shapiro $# Thompson (1&5&) 3&3 4.S. 51# 622 7.8,.2n, 5009: Discri(ination (ay be so arbitrary an, inCurious as to be ,ee(e, a Due Process .iolation. +he Supre(e Court itsel"- in -hren- speci"ically note, that: *Ee o" course agree 0ith petitioners that the Constitution prohibits selecti.e en"orce(ent o" the la0 base, on consi,erations such as race./ (-hren $# United States, supra- at p. #13 613$ 7.8,.2n, at p. &#9.) Discri(ination by la0 en"orce(ent o""icers base, upon a person s race in the pro.i,ing o" both protecti.e an, non% protecti.e ser.ices is a constitutional e@ual protection .iolation. (Ae *a E""iot3)ar( $# %an1"ona (&th Cir. 2010) $&2 B.3r, 1003.) 223
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Such *racial profiling/ 0oul, be a Fourteenth Amendment *due process/ .iolation. (I.id.: United States $# I.arra (&th Cir. 2003) 33$ B.3r, 211- 213.) Fourth Amendment !s2 Fi'th Amendment 'ssues) See )eop"e $# )i"ster (2005) 13# Cal.App.3th 13&$- 130$- noting that Fourth Amendment custo,y issues in.ol.e an analysis o" the reasonableness o" an o""icer s actions- as oppose, to a Fifth Amendment custo,y issues 0hen ,iscussing the nee, "or an a,(onish(ent o" one s sel"%incri(ination rights pursuant to %iranda $# Ari5ona (1&55) 3#3 4.S. 335 615 7.8,.2n, 5&390here the issue is 0hat a reasonable person in the suspect s position 0oul, ha.e belie.e,. G)osse ComitatusEH Use o' the %i"itar& .& Ci$i"ian 2a, En'orcement: The *ct) +he so%calle, *Posse &omitatus *ct/ pro.i,es- in part: *609hoe.er- e?cept in cases an, un,er circu(stances e?pressly authori;e, by the Constitution or Act o" Congress- 0ill"ully uses any part o" the Ar(y or the Air Borce as a posse co(itatus or other0ise to e?ecute the la0s shall be "ine, un,er this title or i(prisone, not (ore than t0o yearsor both./ (1# !S!C! 13#)) *Posse/ (eans *to be able-/ or *to ha!e power./ *&omitatus/ (eans *county./ At co((on la0- *Posse &omitatus/ re"erre, to the po0er o" the sheri"" to su((on ai, "ro( e.ery (ale in the county o.er 1$ years o" age an, not in"ir( to assist in preser.ing the peace. (See )eop"e $# autista (2003) 11$ Cal.App.3th 22&233- "n. 2.) So(e states- inclu,ing Cali"ornia- still retain one "or( or another o" this po0er. (See (!C! 1)3: (aFing it an in"raction "or any able%bo,ie, person o.er the age o" 1# to "ail to assist a la0 en"orce(ent o""icer re@uesting such assistance.) Purpose) +he "e,eral Act 0as enacte, to pre.ent the use o" (ilitary personnel to help en"orce ci.ilian la0- thus pre.enting the 4.S. Lo.ern(ent "ro( beco(ing *a go!ernment of force-/ i.e.- run by the (ilitary. ()eop"e $# autista- supra- at p. 233- "n. 2.) 1n 1&#1- Congress a(en,e, the Posse &omitatus *ct to allo0 "or certain (ilitary assistance in "ighting the 0ar on ,rugs. (See 1# !S!C! 311<31#) Io0e.er- these statutes 0ere speci"ically *not 6to9 inclu,e or per(it ,irect participation by a (e(ber o" the Ar(y- Ja.y- Air Borce- or Oarine Corps in a search- sei;urearrest- or other si(ilar acti.ity unless participation in such acti.ity 223
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by such (e(ber is other0ise authori;e, by la0./ (1# !S!C! 31)) *6R9egular an, syste(atic assistance by (ilitary in.estigati.e agents to ci.ilian la0 en"orce(ent in the in.estigation o" local ,rug tra""ic/ raises issues as to 0hether the *Posse &omitatus *ct/ has been .iolate,. ()eop"e $# "end (1&#1) 121 Cal.App.3r, 21$- 22#.) &ase "aw) 1n )eop"e $# "end (1&#1) 121 Cal.App.3r, 21$- 22$%22#- it 0as hel, that the Posse &omitatus *ct 0as not .iolate, 0hen an acti.e ,uty EAU8 assiste, local la0 en"orce(ent 0ith arranging the purchase o" cocaine "ro( the ,e"en,ant- ,espite the cooperation o" the Ja.al 1n.estigati.e Ser.ice (J1S) 0hich per(itte, the in.estigation to procee, on the base- pro.i,e, the in.estigator 0ith passes- an, assiste, in appellantDs arrest. Per the Court- the EAU8 acte, on her o0n initiati.e as a pri.ate citi;en. Ooreo.er- she 0as not regularly in.ol.e, in la0 en"orce(ent acti.ities 0ith the (ilitary- an, her use"ulness to ci.il la0 en"orce(ent 0as unrelate, to the "act that she 0as a EAU8. +he court also "oun, that the cooperation by the J1S in per(itting the in.estigation o" appellant to continue on the base ,i, not ,e(onstrate a .iolation o" the act- an, there 0as no e.i,ence that the J1S arrange, or participate, in a progra( to ,etect .iolation o" the ci.il narcotics la0s. 1n )eop"e $# autista (2003) 11$ Cal.App.3th 22&- 232%232)- use o" an Ar(y sergeant an, his ,rug%sni""ing ,og that alerte, on the ,e"en,ant s storage locFer in 0hich 100 poun,s o" (ariCuana 0as later "oun,- ,i, not constitute a .iolation o" the *Posse &omitatus *ct/ because the sergeant ,i, not participate in any stage o" the in.estigation an, search other than to point out the location o" the ,e"en,ant s hi,,en ,rugs by s(elling o,ors in a public place. anctions for Violations) 1t is @uestionable 0hether the use o" the Exclusionary Rule is a proper sanction "or a .iolation o" the *Posse &omitatus *ct)/ +he Bourth Circuit in United States $# -a"den (3th Cir. 1&23) 3&0 B.2n, 322- 325%322- "oun, no in,ication o" 0i,esprea, .iolation o" the Act or its policy an, ,ecline, to a,opt an e?clusionary rule. 22$
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+he court state, that the statute 0as pre.iously little Fno0n- that there 0as no e.i,ence that the .iolation in this case 0as ,eliberate or intentional- that the policy e?presse, in the Posse &omitatus *ct is "or the bene"it o" the nation as a 0hole- an, not ,esigne, to protect the personal rights o" ,e"en,ants. Joting that a rationale "or a,opting an e?clusionary rule "or Fourth Amendment .iolations is that a.ailable alternati.e re(e,ies ha.e pro.e, ine""ectual- the court e?presse, con"i,ence that the (ilitary 0oul, taFe steps to ensure en"orce(ent o" the act. Io0e.er- the Court note, at page 322: *Shoul, there be e.i,ence o" 0i,esprea, or repeate, .iolations in any "uture case- or ine""ecti.eness o" en"orce(ent by the (ilitary- 0e 0ill consi,er oursel.es "ree to consi,er 0hether a,option o" an e?clusionary rule is re@uire, as a "uture ,eterrent./ (See also United States $# -o"''s ($th Cir. 1&2&) $&3 B.2n, 22#3%#$.)

225
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Chapter D
Searches -ith a Search -arrant) De'ined) A *search warrant/ is *an or,er in 0riting- in the na(e o" the peoplesigne, by a (agistrate- ,irecte, to a peace o""icer- co((an,ing hi( or her to search "or a person or persons- a thing or things- or personal property- an, bring it be"ore the (agistrate./ ((!C! 1)23) )re'erence 'or Search -arrants) Jo ,oubt because 0arrants are co((an,e, by the Fourth Amendment- the courts ha.e long sho0n a pre"erence "or using a search 0arrant 0hene.er possible) *1n *ones $# United States 6(1&50)9 352 4.S. 2$2- 220 63 7.8,.2n, 5&220#9 this Court- strongly supporting the pre"erence to be accor,e, searches un,er a 0arrant- in,icate, that in a ,oubt"ul or (arginal case a search un,er a 0arrant (ay be sustainable 0here 0ithout one it 0oul, "all./ (United States $# 9entresca (1&5$) 3#0 4.S. 102- 105 613 7.8,.2n, 5#3- 5#29.) -h& Search -arrants are )re'erred) +here are a nu(ber o" reasons 0hy use o" a search 0arrant to con,uct any search is pre"erable e.en in those instances 0hen one (ight not be legally re@uire,. Bor instance) 1. Presumption of "awfulness) 4se o" a search 0arrant raises a presu(ption in a later (otion to suppress e.i,ence (per (!C! 1)3#!)) that the search 0as lawful. +he ,e"ense has the bur,en o" proo" in atte(pting to rebut this presu(ption. (Theodor $# Superior Court (1&22) # Cal.3r, 22- 101: )eop"e $# /ur"and (1&#0) 2# Cal.3r, 325.) +his (ust be ,one by "iling) ,otion to Euash) Ootion attacFing the su""iciency o" the probable cause in the 0arrant a""i,a.it as it is 0ritten. ((!C! 1)3#!)+a,+1,+&,) Jor(ally- only the 0arrant an, a""i,a.it the(sel.es (ay be consi,ere, by the trial court in ruling on a (otion to @uash. An e?ception (ight be 0hen a la0 en"orce(ent o""icer s testi(ony is necessary to interpret so(e o" the language in the a""i,a.it. (See )eop"e $# Christian (1&22) 22 Cal.App.3r, $$3.) ,otion to Tra!erse) Ootion attacFing the truth o" the in"or(ation containe, in the 0arrant a""i,a.it. Io0e.er- the ,e"en,ant is entitle, to an e.i,entiary hearing (i.e.- re"erre, to as a *Fran(s 222
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hearing:/ Fran(s $# De"a,are (1&2#) 33# 4.S. 1$3 6$2 7.8,.2n, 5529.) on this issue only a"ter (aFing a *substantial showing/ that) +he a""i,a.it contains state(ents (or (aFes (aterial o(issions) that are deliberately "alse or 0ere (a,e 0ith a rec?less ,isregar, "or the truth (E,in1 $# Cit& o' Stoc(ton (&th Cir. 200&) $## B.3r, 121#- 1223%122#: ra$o $# Cit& o' Santa %aria (&th Cir. 2011) 55$ B.3r, 1025- 10#2%10##.)(or o(itte, in"or(ation 0hich the (agistrate 0oul, ha.e 0ante, to Fno0): and +he a""i,a.it s re(aining contents are ree.aluate, a"ter the "alse state(ents are e?cise, (or o(itte, (aterial in"or(ation is consi,ere,) to see i"- as correcte,- there is still su""icient e.i,ence to Custi"y a "in,ing o" probable cause. (Fran(s $# De"a,are (1&2#) 33# 4.S. 1$3- 1$$%1$5 6$2 7.8,.2n, 552- 5229: preclu,ing the cross%e?a(ination o" the a""iant until the necessary sho0ing is (a,e. See also )eop"e $# -i"son (1&#5) 1#2 Cal.App.3r, 232- 232: Theodor $# Superior Court (1&22) # Cal.3r, 22- 103: )eop"e $# Coo( (1&2#) 22 Cal.3r, 52- 2#: an, )eop"e $# rad'ord (1&&2) 1$ Cal.3th 122&- 12&2: )eop"e $# 2e,is et a"# (2005) 3& Cal.3th &20- &#&: United States $# Crai1head (&th Cir. 200#) $3& B.3r, 1023- 10#0%10#2: E,in1 $# Cit& o' Stoc(ton (&th Cir. 200&) $## B.3r, 121#- 1223%122#): United States $# )a&ton (&th Cir. 200&) $23 B.3r, #$&- #51: )eop"e $# Scott (2011) $2 Cal.3th 3$2- 32$%325.)- or +he a""i,a.it contains in"or(ation that is the ,irect pro,uct o" a Fourth Amendment .iolation. (See )eop"e $# -eiss (1&&&) 20 Cal.3th 1023.) +ote) Gut re(e(ber- the ,e"en,ant (ust ha.e *standing/ to challenge the collection o" the illegal in"or(ation in or,er to contest its inclusion in the 0arrant a""i,a.it. See * tanding-/ abo.e.) See *'ndependent ource Doctrine-/ belo0 A ,e"en,ant 0ho challenges a search 0arrant base, upon an a""i,a.it containing omissions bears the bur,en o" sho0ing that the o(issions 0oul, ha.e been (aterial to the (agistrates ,eter(ination o" probable cause. ()eop"e $# rad'ord (1&&2) 1$ Cal.3th 122&- 12&2.) 22#
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Jeglecting to inclu,e an in"or(ant s cri(inal history coul, in.ali,ate a 0arrant- in that the (agistrate s ,ecision 0ill usually re@uire a ,eter(ination o" the in"or(ant s cre,ibility. (United States $# Ree$es (&th Cir. 2000) 210 B.3r, 1031.) !(itting "acts 0hich 0oul, ha.e supported a "in,ing o" probable cause ha, it been inclu,e, is not groun,s to tra.erse a 0arrant. ()eop"e $# 2im (2001) #$ Cal.App.3th 12#&.) 1ntentional or recFless (isstate(ents an,Nor o(issions in a search 0arrant a""i,a.it are (aterial errors 0hene.er a (agistrate 0oul, not ha.e "oun, probable cause absent those errors- an, (ay result in potential ci.il liability "or the a""iant. (Chism $# -ashin1ton State (&th Cir. 2011) 551 B.3r, 3#0: 0here ha, the in"or(ation been reporte, to the (agistrate correctly- it 0oul, ha.e been apparent that other parties ha, use, the plainti""s pre.iously stolen cre,it car, to purchase chil, pornography.) Bor a plainti"" in a ci.il la0suit to sur.i.e a su((ary Cu,g(ent (otion 0here it is allege, that there 0ere (aterial (isstate(ents or o(ission in a search 0arrant- he (ust (aFe a substantial showing that there 0ere (isstate(ents an,Nor o(issions in the 0arrant a""i,a.it 0ere either deliberately or rec?lessly inclu,e, (or- "or an o(ission- e?clu,e,)- an, that but "or the (isstate(ents or o(issionsthe 0arrant not 0oul, ha.e been appro.e, by the (agistrate. Purely negligent or unintentional (istaFes in a search 0arrant a""i,a.it are irrele.ant to the .ali,ity o" the 0arrant. 1n this case- the Court ha, no ,i""iculty "in,ing that the a""iant s (isstate(ents an, o(issions 0ere at the .ery least recFless. (I.id.) +he a""iant s "ailure to ,isclose that the plainti"" s son 0as in Cail at the ti(e o" the issuance o" the 0arrant- an, "or o.er si? (onths prior- an, there"ore not only 0as not present in the ho(e- but 22&
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(oreo.er coul, not ha.e been in.ol.e, in a ,escribe, shooting or the storage o" 0eapons use, in it. Plainti""s presente, su""icient e.i,ence to establish a genuine issue as to 0hether a ,etecti.e s o(ission o" this (aterial "act 0as intentional or recFless- as oppose, to (erely negligent. Ia, the o(itte, "acts o" the son s t0o%year sentence an, custo,y status been inclu,e,- it 0as e?tre(ely ,oubt"ul that an issuing Cu,ge 0oul, si(ply ha.e issue, the 0arrant or authori;e, nightti(e ser.ice 0ithout (ore in"or(ation. ( ra$o $# Cit& o' Santa %aria (&th Cir. 2011) 55$ B.3r, 1025- 10#3%10##.) &ourts gi!e the Prosecution the $enefit of the Doubt) Eith the bur,en o" attacFing a search 0arrant upon the ,e"en,ant- an, the necessity o" (aFing a *substantial showing-/ e.en be"ore being allo0e, to hol, an e.i,entiary hearing- it is e?tre(ely ,i""icult "or a ,e"en,ant to success"ully challenge a search con,ucte, pursuant to a search 0arrant. (See )eop"e $# -i"son (1&#5) 1#2 Cal.App.3r, 232.) *(E)here (the) circu(stances are ,etaile,- 0here reason "or cre,iting the source o" the in"or(ation is gi.en- an, 0hen a (agistrate has "oun, probable cause- the courts shoul, not in.ali,ate the 0arrant by interpreting the a""i,a.it in a hypertechnical- rather than a co((on sense- (anner. . . . (R)esolution o" ,oubt"ul or (arginal cases in this area shoul, be largely ,eter(ine, by the pre"erence to be accor,e, to 0arrants./ (United States $# 9entresca (1&5$) 3#0 4.S 102- 10& 613 7.8,.2n, 5#3- 5#&9.) +his Cu,icially (an,ate, pre"erence "or 0arrants has speci"ically been a,opte, by the Cali"ornia Supre(e Court. ()eop"e $# Superior Court 6*ohnson7 (1&22) 5 Cal.3r, 203211: )eop"e $# %esa (1&2$) 13 Cal.3r, 355- 35&.) 1n a *,otion to tra!erse/ a search 0arrant a""i,a.it- only intentional or rec?less inaccuracies are groun,s "or sanctions- an, in those cases the sanction is li(ite, to striFing the inaccurate in"or(ation- retesting the 0arrant a""i,a.it "or probable cause a"ter striFing that in"or(ation. 4nintentional or negligent (isstate(ents are le"t in the a""i,a.it. (Fran(s $# De"a,are (1&2#) 33# 4.S. 1$3 6$2 2#0
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7.8,.2n, 5529: )eop"e $# -i"son (1&#5) 1#2 Cal.App.3r, 232.) *!(issions or (isstate(ents resulting "ro( negligence or goo, "aith (istaFes 0ill not in.ali,ate an a""i,a.it 0hich on its "ace establishes probable cause./ (E,in1 $# Cit& o' Stoc(ton (&th Cir. 200&) $## B.3r, 121#- 1223.) Oinor- technical errors 0ill not liFely result in any sanction. (See ()eop"e $# Stipo (2011) 1&$ Cal.App.3th 553- 520: listing the 0rong ti(e "or an occurrence- (issing the actual ti(e by 20 (inutes.) !(itting an in"or(ant s entire cri(inal history "ro( a 0arrant a""i,a.it (ay be groun,s to in.ali,ate the 0arrant. Io0e.er- the 0arrant is still .ali, so long as that in"or(ation 0asn t intentionally or recFlessly le"t out- or i" it 0oul,n t ha.e (a,e a ,i""erence to the (agistrate e.en i" he , Fno0n. (Garcia $# Count& o' %erced (&th Cir. 2011) 53& B.3r, 1205- 1211%1212.) 2. Presumption of #nlawfulness) +he absence o" a search 0arrant raises a presu(ption that the search 0as unlawful- 0hich the prosecution is re@uire, to rebut. (%ince& $# Ari5ona (1&2#) 332 4.S. 3#$- 3&0 6$2 7.8,.2n, 2&0- 2&#%2&&9: In re T&re"" *# (1&&3) # Cal.3th 5#- 25- o.errule, on other groun,s.) +he prosecution bears the bur,en o" pro.i,ing proo" o" a recogni;e, e?ception to the 0arrant re@uire(ent- Custi"ying a 0arrantless search. (-e"sh $# -isconsin (1&#3) 355 4.S. 23023&%2$0 6#0 7.8,.2n, 232- 232%2339: )eop"e $# *ames (1&22) 1& Cal.3r, &&- 105.) 3. <ood (aith) 8.i,ence sei;e, pursuant to a search 0arrant 0ill not be suppresse, e.en i" the 0arrant 0as ,e"ecti.e so long as the o""icers acte, in reasonable an, obCecti.e goo, "aith in relying upon the 0arrant an, ser.ing it. (United States $# 2eon (1&#3) 35# 4.S. #&2 6#2 7.8,.2n, 5229: %assachusetts $# Sheppard (1&#3) 35# 4.S. &#1 6#2 7.8,.2n, 2329: )eop"e $# Rodri1ues3Fernande5 (1&#5) 1#2 Cal.App.3r, 232: United States $# Cre,s (&th Cir. 2002) $02 B.3r, 1130: %esserschmidt et a"# $# %i""ender (Beb. 22- 2012) >> 4.S. >> 6132 S!Ct! 123)E 1#2 7.8,.2n, 329.) +he *Exclusionary Rule/ is *restricte, to those situations in 0hich its re(e,ial purpose is e""ecti.ely a,.ance,./ (I""inois $# /ru"" (1&#2) 3#0 4.S. 330- 332 6&3 7.8,.2n, 353- 3239.) 2#1
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+he goo, "aith reliance upon a state statute allo0ing "or a 0arrantless a,(inistrati.e search 0as Custi"ie, 0here the statute 0as not ob.iously unconstitutional. (I""inois $# /ru""- supra: see also %ichi1an $# DeFi""ippo (1&2&) 333 4.S. 31- 32%3# 651 7.8,.2n, 333- 33&%3$09: goo, "aith reliance on an or,inance that 0as later ,eclare, to be unconstitutional.) Application o" the 8?clusionary Rule is unwarranted 0here it 0oul, not result in appreciable ,eterrence to unla0"ul police con,uct. (Ari5ona $# E$ans (1&&$) $13 4.S. 1 6131 7.8,.2n, 339: An arrest base, upon erroneous court recor,s.) +he 8?clusionary Rule shoul, not be applie, to e.i,ence obtaine, by a police o""icer 0hose reliance on a search 0arrant issue, by a neutral (agistrate 0as obCecti.ely reasonable- e.en though the 0arrant 0as ulti(ately "oun, to be ,e"ecti.e. (United States $# 2eon- supra: see also %assachusetts $# Sheppard- supra.) Si(ilarly- the allege, unconstitutionality o" a statute- the .iolation "or 0hich ser.es as the basis "or a search 0arrantis irrele.ant so long as o""icers reasonably relie, upon the statute s .ali,ity at the ti(e o" the obtaining o" the search 0arrant. (United States $# %ee( (&th Cir. 2003) 355 B.3r, 20$- 213.) An o""icer s reasonable reliance upon the a,.ice o" a prosecutor- although not conclusi.e- is so(e e.i,ence o" goo, "aith. (Di!on $# -a""o,a Count& (&th Cir- 2003) 335 B.3r, 1013- 101&: see also Ste$ens $# Rose (&th Cir. 2002) 2&# B.3r, ##0- ##3.) See also *ohnston $# /oppes (&th Cir. 1&##) #$0 B.2n, $&3- $&5- listing "our rele.ant "actors in e.aluating the o""icer s goo, "aith reliance on a,.ice o" a la0yer) o Ehether the attorney 0as in,epen,ent: o Ehether the a,.ice a,,resse, the constitutionality o" the propose, action: o Ehether the attorney ha, all the rele.ant "acts: and 2#2
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o Ehether the a,.ice 0as sought be"ore or a"ter the o""icer s actions. A ,e"ecti.e search 0arrant ,escription (i.e.- lacF o" particularity) (ay be cure, 0here the a""i,a.it supplies the necessary particularity. Io0e.er- the go.ern(ent has the bur,en o" pro.ing that the o""icers 0ho e?ecute, the 0arrant rea, an, 0ere gui,e, by the contents o" the a""i,a.it. (United States $# SDI Future 0ea"th, Inc# (&th Cir. 200&) $5# B.3r, 5#3- 205: citing United States $# 2u( (&th Cir. 1&##) #$& B.2n, 552- 522.) *A(A) 0arrant issue, by a (agistrate nor(ally su""ices to establish that a la0 en"orce(ent o""icer has Aacte, in goo, "aith in con,ucting the search. / *(8).i,ence sei;e, 0ill not be e?clu,e, 0here o""icers rely on 0arrants that are later rule, to be in.ali, i" their reliance 0as obCecti.ely reasonable./ (Citations o(itte,: )eop"e $# Stipo (2011) 1&$ Cal.App.3th 553- 523.) A search 0arrant a""i,a.it hel, to be insu""icient ,ue to a lacF o" ,etail in the a""i,a.it- using in"or(ation "ro( three in"or(ants 0hat 0as conclusory only- an, that corroborate, each other only as to *pe,estrian "acts/ that coul, ha.e been Fno0n to anyone- 0as sa.e, by the *goo, "aith/ rule because a reasonable o""icer coul, ha.e been let to belie.e the 0arrant 0as goo, ,ue to prior cases hol,ing that in"or(ation "ro( unconnecte, in"or(ants (ay be enough to establish probable cause. ()eop"e $# French (2011) 201 Cal.App.3th 1302- 1323%132$.) Exceptions) Io0e.er: *A police o""icer (ay not shi"t all o" the responsibility "or the protection o" an accuse, s Fourth Amendment rights to the (agistrate by e?ecuting a 0arrant no (atter ho0 ,e"icient it (ay be in ,escribing the places to be searche, an, the ite(s to be sei;e,. An o""icer applying "or a 0arrant is re@uire, to e?ercise reasonable pro"essional Cu,g(ent. 6Citations9/ ()eop"e $# rad'ord (1&&2) 1$ Cal.3th 122&- 12&2.) Pursuant to United States $# 2eon- supra- at pp. &22%&23 6#2 7.8,.2n, at pp. 5&#%5&&9- an, other cases (see belo0)- the *<ood (aith/ e?ception does not apply 0hen) +he (agistrate issuing the search 0arrant 0as misled by in"or(ation in the a""i,a.it that the a""iant Fne0 0as "alse or 0oul, ha.e Fno0n 0as "alse e?cept "or a recFless 2#3
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,isregar, "or the truth. (See United States $# Cre,s (&th Cir. 2002) $02 B.3r, 1130- 113#%113&.) +his probably applies to (aterial o(issions in the 0arrant a""i,a.it as 0ell. (United States $# F"ores (&th Cir. 1&#2) 52& B.2n, 123: United States $# 2e'(o,it5 (&th Cir. 1&#0) 51# B.2n, 1313.) +he issuing (agistrate has *wholly abandoned his %udicial role . . . / to the e?tent that no reasonably 0ell%traine, o""icer 0oul, rely upon the 0arrant. Bor e?a(ple) 1ssuing a 0arrant base, upon a *bare bones/ a""i,a.it: i.e.- one 0ritten in *conclusory-/ as oppose, to *factual-/ language. (See United States $# 0arper ($th Cir. 1&#5) #02 B.2n, 11$: an, United States $# %a11itt ($th Cir.1&#$) 22# B.2n, 102&1035.) Ehere the Cu,ge beco(es a part o" the searching party- personally authori;ing sei;ures ,uring the search. (2o3*i Sa"es, Inc# $# Ne, Yor( (1&2&) 332 4.S. 31& 6502 7.8,.2n, &209.) A Cu,ge 0ho (erely acts as a *rubber stamp/ signer o" 0arrants- appro.ing anything sub(itte, "or issuance. (See United States $# ro,n (2th Cir. 1&#2) #32 B.2n, &&1: an, Rodri1ue5 $# Superior Court (1&##) 1&& Cal.App.3r, 13$3.) A search 0arrant a""i,a.it that is so lac?ing in the indicia of probable cause that o""icial belie" in the e?istence o" probable cause is entirely unreasonable. (See United States $# Cre,s (&th Cir. 2002) $02 B.3r, 1130- 113$%113#: %esserschmidt et a"# $# %i""ender (Beb. 22- 2012) >> 4.S. >> 6132 S!Ct! 123)E 1#2 7.8,.2n, 329.) Howe!er- *the threshol, "or establishing this e?ception is a high one- an, it shoul, be./ (%esserschmidt et a"# $# %i""ender- supra.- at p. >>.) 8.g.) +he *bare bones/ 0arrant- 0ritten in *wholly conclusory statements/ as oppose, to factual allegations. (United States $# %a11itt- supra.: 2#3
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United States $# arrin1ton ($th Cir. 1&#5) #05 B.2n, $2&- $32.) Delay o" $2 ,ays bet0een a controlle, buy o" al(ost a poun, o" (ariCuana an, the e?ecution o" a search 0arrant- ,espite the o""icer s e?pert opinion an, goo, "aith belie" that the seller 0oul, still ha.e contraban, in his resi,ence (the sale taFing place in a parFing lot in another city)- 0as hel, to be stale. +he o""icer s belie" 0as not obCecti.ely reasonableun,er the circu(stances. ()eop"e $# 0u""and (2003) 110 Cal.App.3th 1535.) A 0arrant that "aile, to i,enti"y a particular suspect as an allege, *che(ist/ arri.ing "ro( a "oreign country- to pro.i,e any basis "or the tip that a che(ist 0as co(ing to the 4nite, States- or to ,escribe any acti.ity by the suspect that 0as in,icati.e o" setting up a (eth lab- "aile, to (aFe e.en a *colorable argu(ent "or probable cause./ (United States $# 2uon1 (&th Cir. 2005) 320 B.3r, #&#.)
!""icers obtaine, a 0arrant an, searche, ,e"en,ant s ho(e "or a "irear( that 0as use, in a ho(ici,e that ha, occurre, nine (onths earlier. De"en,ant hi(sel" 0as not a suspect in the ho(ici,e. Gut it 0as belie.e, that t0o o" his sons ha, so(e connection to it. +he o""icers ,i, not "in, the "irear( "ro( the ho(ici,e: ho0e.er- they ,i, "in, t0o other "irear(s an, a((unition- 0hich Lrant unla0"ully possesse, because he 0as a con.icte, "elon. Disagreeing 0ith the trial court- the Jinth Circuit hel, that the search 0arrant a""i,a.it ,i, not establish probable cause that the "irear( use, in the ho(ici,e (ight be locate, in ,e"en,ant s ho(e. !ther than a single con.ersation bet0een ,e"en,ant an, one o" his sons- nothing in the a""i,a.it suggeste, any connection bet0een the sought%"or gun an, ,e"en,ant s ho(e. +he Court "urther hel, that the goo,%"aith e?ception ,i, not apply because the o""icers reliance on the 0arrant 0as unreasonable. (United States $# Grant (&th Cir. 2012) 5#2 B.3r, #22- #32%#31.)

+he 0arrant itsel"- as oppose, to the a""i,a.it- is so lac?ing in those specifics re@uired of warrants that it cannot in 2#$

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goo, "aith be presu(e, .ali,. (See %assachusetts $# Shepard (1&#3) 35# 4.S. &#1 6#2 7.8,.2n, 2329.) 8.g.) +he o""icer s reliance on the (agistrate s probable cause ,eter(ination is not obCecti.ely reasonable. 1.e.) Shoul, a reasonably 0ell%traine, o""icer ha.e Fno0n that the search 0arrant 0as ,e"ecti.e ,espite the (agistrate s authori;ationM (See )eop"e $# 2im (2001) #$ Cal.App.3th 12#&12&5%12&2.) 1n this regar,- it a,,s to the o""icer s goo, "aith to ha.e his 0arrants re.ie0e, an, appro.e, by a ,eputy ,istrict attorney prior to taFing it to a (agistrate. (See )eop"e $# Camare""a (1&&1) $3 Cal.3r, $&2- 502%502.) Also- *<ood (aith/ is not applicable 0hen the information upon 0hich the 0arrant is base, was gathered in an earlier illegal search. (United States $# 9ase& (&th Cir. 1&#2) #33 B.2n, 2#2: )eop"e $# a(er (1&#5) 1#2 Cal.App.3r, $52: )eop"e $# ro,n (1&#&) 210 Cal.App.3r, #3&.) Io0e.er- it (ust be the ,e"en,ant s o0n Fourth Amendment rights that 0ere .iolate,. ()eop"e $# -eiss (1&&&) 20 Cal.3th 1023- 10#1.) 1n"or(ation gathere, in .iolation o" so(eone else s Fourth Amendment rights- "or 0hich this ,e"en,ant has no stan,ing to challenge- may be use, in a search 0arrant a""i,a.it. ()eop"e $# %adrid (1&&2) 2 Cal.App.3th 1###- 1#&5.) An o""icer s *good faith/ is not groun,s "or ,enying a ,e"en,ant s (otion to suppress base, on a .iolation o" the wiretap statutes (see belo0). ()eop"e $# *ac(son (200$) 12& Cal.App.3th 12&- 1$3%150.)

Exigent &ircumstances) +he Jinth Circuit Court o" Appeal has in,icate, that it (ight be appropriate to "actor in e?igent circu(stancessuch as necessary ti(e restraints- in ,eter(ining 0hether the *goo, "aith/ e?ception applies. (United States $# -e.er (&th Cir. 1&&0) &23 B.2n, 133#- 1335: United States 2#5
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$# Ramos (&th Cir. 1&&1) &23 B.2n, 1335- 13$$- "n. 1#o.errule, on other groun,s.) Gut clai(ing an e?igency as an e?cuse "or applying a goo, "aith e?ception 0ill not be uphel, 0here the o""icers ,on t treat the situation accor,ingly. (United States $# 2uon1 (&th Cir. 2005) 320 B.3r, #&#- &03: clai(ing that the ,angerousness o" a possible (eth lab in a resi,ential area Custi"ie, application o" the goo, "aith e?ception 0as reCecte, 0hen the o""icers 0aite, se.en hours to obtain the 0arrant an, then three (ore hours be"ore e?ecuting it. Examples) *<ood (aith/ applie, to a 0arrant 0here the ,escription o" the property to be sei;e, 0as erroneously le"t out o" the 0arrant a""i,a.it. ()eop"e $# Rodri1ue53Fernande5 (1&&1) 23$ Cal.App.3r, $33: )eop"e $# A"$are5 (1&#&) 20& Cal.App.3r, 550.) Bailure to restrict the ,escription o" the place to be searche, to the ,e"en,ant s roo(- (aFing the 0arrant *o!er6broad-/ 0here that roo( 0as all that 0as in "act searche,- 0as e?cuse, un,er the *good faith/ rule. ()eop"e $# %acA$o& (1&#$) 152 Cal.App.3r, 235- 2$&%253.) A 0arrant that "aile, to i,enti"y a particular suspect as an allege, *che(ist/ arri.ing "ro( a "oreign country- to pro.i,e any basis "or the tip that a che(ist 0as co(ing to the 4nite, States- or to ,escribe any acti.ity by the suspect that 0as in,icati.e o" setting up a (eth lab- "aile, to (aFe e.en a *colorable argu(ent "or probable cause./ (United States $# 2uon1 (&th Cir. 2005) 320 B.3r, #&#.) 3. Rame& 'napplicable) Arrests 0ithin a resi,ence (See )eop"e $# Rame& (1&25) 15 Cal.3r, 253: abo.e.) ,uring the ser.ice o" a search 0arrant (ay be (a,e 0ithout an arrest 0arrant. ()eop"e $# %cCarter (1&#1) 112 Cal.App.3r, #&3- &0#.) $. &onsensual searches (ay al0ays be stoppe, by the subCect 0ith,ra0ing his or her consent: i.e.- the suspect is in control o" the e?tent an, ,uration o" the search. (See )eop"e $# %artine5 (1&5#) 2$& Cal.App.2n, Supp. &33.) 8?ecution o" a 0arrant- ob.iously- ,oes not re@uire the cooperation o" the occupant.

2#2
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5. 'nformants 0ho ,o no (ore than pro.i,e probable cause in an a""i,a.it "or a search 0arrant (ay nor(ally be Fept con"i,ential. (?!C! 1342+4,) 2. An o""icer ser.ing a search 0arrant- e.en i" later "oun, to be lacFing in probable cause- is *acting in the performance of his Lor her0 duties/ shoul, a cri(inal o""ense in 0hich this is an ele(ent (e.g.- (!C! 14# (Resisting Arrest), 243+4, (Gattery on a Peace !""icer) occur ,uring the ser.ice o" the 0arrant. ()eop"e $# Gon5a"es (1&&0) $1 Cal.3r, 112&- 1222.) )ro."em: %enta" )atients Detained per -II B G1G7: Sei5ure o' -eapons: Although /&I #132+a, authori;es the *confiscation/ o" "irear(s or other ,ea,ly 0eapons o0ne,- possesse,- or un,er the control o" a ,etaine, or apprehen,e, (ental patient- a search 0arrant (ust be use, in or,er to la0"ully enter the house an,Nor to search "or 0eapons in those cases 0here there are no e?igent circu(stances an, the ,e"en,ant has not gi.en consent. ()eop"e $# S,ei1 (200#) 152 Cal.App.3th 113$ (petition grante,see belo0): reCecting the People s argu(ent that a 0arrantless entry to search "or an, sei;e the ,etainee s "irear(s 0as Custi"ie, un,er la0 en"orce(ent s *co((unity caretaFing/ "unction.) )#C# B 1G86@aA@17A) Search Earrants "or Birear(s an, other Dea,ly Eeapons) +he S,ei1 Court also "oun,- ho0e.er- that a search 0arrant is not per(itte, un,er (!C! 1)24 (see * tatutory <rounds for 'ssuance ((!C! 1)24+a,+1, through +#,)-/ belo0) 0hen the ,e"en,ant is ,etaine, pursuant to /&I )1)3 only. +he Court suggeste, that the 7egislature shoul, "i? the proble( 0ith a legislati.e a(en,(ent to Section 1)24. As a result- the 7egislature a(en,e, (!C! 1)24 e""ecti.e 1N1N10 to a,, ne0 su4di:ision +a,+13,- 0hich no0 lists as a legal groun, "or the issuance o" a search 0arrant the "ollo0ing) *Ehen the property or things to be sei;e, inclu,e a "irear( or any other ,ea,ly 0eapon that is o0ne, by- or in possession o"- or in the custo,y or control o"- a person ,escribe, in /&I #132+a,./ +he petition to the Cali"ornia Supre(e Court on )eop"e $# S,ei1 0as grante,- (aFing this case no longer a.ailable "or citation- an, then ,is(isse, re.ie0 on 10N11N0& 0hen the abo.e a(en,(ent to (!C! 1)24 0as enacte,. Exigent &ircumstances) See also Rup' $# Yan (2000) #$ Cal.App.3th 311at pages 321%322- 0here a 0arrantless sei;ure o" a (ental patient s 2##
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"irear(s "ro( his ho(e 0as not challenge,- the Court perhaps in"erre, an *exigent circumstance/ 0hen it note, that) *+he e?ercise o" the police po0er to regulate "irear(s is clearly relate, to the public health- sa"ety an, 0el"are. (Citations.) Respon,ent i,enti"ies the obCect o" the statute as pro.i,ing a (eans 0hereby authorities can con"iscate "irear(s in an e(ergency situation an, (ay Feep "irear(s "ro( (entally unstable persons. +he legislati.e history o" the statute e?pressly recogni;es the urgency an, i(portance o" such an obCecti.e . . . ./ (I.id.) Independent Source Doctrine: Ehere in"or(ation later use, in a search 0arrant has been ,isco.ere, .ia an illegal search or sei;ure- the in,epen,ent source ,octrine allo0s "or the a,(ission o" the e.i,ence reco.ere, ,uring the e?ecution o" that 0arrant that has been ,isco.ere, by (eans 0holly in,epen,ent o" any constitutional .iolation. ()eop"e $# -eiss (1&&&) 20 Cal.3th 1023.) *61t9 teaches us that the interest o" society in ,eterring unla0"ul police con,uct an, the public interest in ha.ing Curies recei.e all probati.e e.i,ence o" a cri(e are properly balance, by putting the police in the sa(e- not a 0orse- position tha6n9 they 0oul, ha.e been in i" no police error or (iscon,uct ha, occurre,. 6Citations.9 Ehen the challenge, e.i,ence has an in,epen,ent sourcee?clusion o" such e.i,ence 0oul, put the police in a 0orse position than they 0oul, ha.e been in absent any error or .iolation. 6Citation.9/ Id.- at pp. 1022%102#.) Ehere a search 0arrant a""i,a.it supporting a search 0arrant contains both in"or(ation obtaine, by unla0"ul con,uct as 0ell as untainte, in"or(ation- a t0o%prong test applies to Custi"y application o" the in,epen,ent source ,octrine. (Id! at pp. 102#%102&- 10#2.) +he a""i,a.it- excised of any illegally obtained information- (ust be su""icient to establish probable cause. +he e.i,ence (ust support a "in,ing that *the police subCecti.ely 0oul, ha.e sought the 0arrant e.en 0ithout the illegal con,uct./

1" the application contains probable cause apart "ro( the i(proper in"or(ation- then the 0arrant is la0"ul an, the in,epen,ent source ,octrine applies- pro.i,e, that the o""icers 0ere not pro(pte, to obtain the 0arrant by 0hat they obser.e, ,uring the initial entry. (See also )eop"e 2#&
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$# Ro.inson (2012) 20# Cal.App.3th 232- 231.)

Non3Standard T&pes o' -arrants: Telephonic earch =arrants: +elephonic search 0arrants- 0ith an oral a""i,a.it taFen un,er oath an, recor,e, an, later transcribe,- is statutorily pro.i,e, "or. ((!C! 1)22) Lenerally use, ,uring those hours 0hen the courts are close, an, a (agistrate is other0ise not personally present- although there is no legal i(pe,i(ent to using this proce,ure ,uring court hours. +ypically- in.ol.es a "our%0ay telephone con"erence call set up bet0een the a""iant- the (agistrate- a ,eputy ,istrict attorney- an, a tape recor,er. Such a 0arrant (ay also be obtaine, through the use o" a telephone an, either a "acsi(ile (*"a?/) (achine- a co(puter e% (ail syste(- or a co(puter ser.er- using proce,ures ,escribe, in (!C! 1)22+4,+2,) *nticipatory earch =arrants) 1ssuance o" a 0arrant- con,itione, upon the happening o" a particular e.ent (e.g.- the ,eli.ery o" illegal substances or articles to a particular a,,ress: i.e.- a *triggering condition/)- is legal. (United States $# Gru..s (2005) $32 4.S. &0- &3%&2 6153 7.8,.2n, 1&$9: United States $# Garcia (2n, Cir. 1&#&) ##2 B.2n, 5&&: an, see United States $# 2o& (3r, Cir. 1&&&) 1&1 B.3r, 350- 353: listing cases uphol,ing the concept.) *(+)he "act that the contraban, is not Apresently locate, at the place ,escribe, in the 0arrant is i((aterial- so long as Athere is probable cause to belie.e that it 0ill be there 0hen the search 0arrant is e?ecute,. United States $# 2o,e- $2$ B.2, 11&3- 11&3 (5th Cir. 1&2#)- . . . see United States $# 2&0
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Dornho'er- #$& B.2, 11&$- 11&# (3th Cir. 1&##)- . . . ./ (United States $# Garcia- supra.- at p. 202.) +o be constitutional un,er the Fourth Amendment.s re@uire(ent that there be probable cause- two prere@uisites o" probability (ust be satis"ie,) +hat there is a *fair probability/ that contraban, or e.i,ence o" a cri(e 0ill be "oun, in a particular place: and +hat there is probable cause to belie.e the triggering con,ition 0ill in "act occur. (United States $# Gru..s- supra- see also United States $# Rudde"" (&th Cir. 1&&$) 21 B.3r, 331- 333: an, United States $# 0endric(s (&th Cir. 1&#3) 233 B.2n, 5$3- 5$3%5$2: United States $# Go'' (&th Cir. 1&#2) 5#1 B.2n, 123#- an, United States $# -&"ie ($th Cir 1&&0) &1& B.2n, &5&- &23%&2$: * . . . 0hen it is Fno0n that contraban, is on a sure course to its ,estination . . . ./) Cali"ornia authority- @uestionable since the 4nite, States Supre(e Court s ,ecision in United States $# Gru..s- supra- has hel, that: *(A)n anticipatory 0arrant (ay issue on clear showing that the police s right to search at a certain location "or particular e.i,ence o" a cri(e 0ill e?ist 0ithin a reasonable ti(e in the "uture. (Citations)/ )eop"e $# Sousa (1&&3) 1# Cal.App.3th $3&- $$#.) Preparation an, appro.al by a (agistrate o" an anticipatory search 0arrant has the tactical a,.antage o" (aFing the 0arrant e""ecti.e i((e,iately upon the happening o" a *triggering e!ent-/ thus eli(inating the ,elay bet0een such an e.ent an, the e.entual obtaining o" a 0arrant. Tip) State the contingency on the face of the warrant itsel") 8.g.: *+I1S EARRAJ+ 1S 78LA77K 8BB8C+1U8 AJD CAJ G8 S8RU8D ;+"F '( A SA78 !B JARC!+1CS +AZ8S P7AC8 A+ +I8 PR8O1S8S +! G8 S8ARCI8D. (1nitials o" the (agistrate)/ Bailure o" the 0arrant itsel" to clearly speci"y on its "ace the anticipatory nature o" the 0arrant (i.e.- that it is not to be ser.e, until the happening o" a speci"ic e.ent- such as abo.e) may in.ali,ate the 0arrant. (United States $# 0ota" (&th Cir. 1&&#) 133 2&1
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B.3r, 1223: United States $# 9esi(uru (&th Cir. 2002) 313 B.3r, 1115- 1123%1130: United States $# Gru..s (2005) $32 4.S. &0- &&%102 6153 7.8,.2n, 1&$9: concurring opinion.) +he Be,eral Jinth Circuit Court o" Appeal has in,icate, that i" the 0arrant speci"ically incorporates an attache, a""i,a.it 0hich ,escribes the anticipatory nature o" the 0arrant- this (ight su""ice. Io0e.er- the a""i,a.it (ust then acco(pany the 0arrant to the scene o" the search to be .ali,. (United States $# 0ota"- supra.: United States $# %cGre, (&th Cir. 1&&2) 122 B.3r, #32- #3&% #$0.) !ther "e,eral circuits ha.e uphel, the .ali,ity o" an anticipatory 0arrant 0ithout the con,itions speci"ie, on the 0arrant itsel" i") (1) Clear- e?plicitan, narro0ly ,ra0n con,itions "or the e?ecution o" the 0arrant are containe, in the a""i,a.it: an, (2) +hose con,itions are actually satis"ie, be"ore the 0arrant is e?ecute,. (See United States $# %oetamedi (2n, Cir. 1&&$) 35 B.3r, 22$- 22&: United States $# Re& (5th Cir. 1&&1) &23 B.2n, 12121221: United States $# Dennis (2th Cir. 1&&2) 11$ B.3r, $23- $2&: United States $# Ta1.erin1 (#th Cir. 1&&3) &#$ B.2n, &35- &$0: United States $# 0o1o.oom (10th Cir. 1&2&) 112 B.3r, 10#1- 10#5% 10#2.) #nder &alifornia law- 0hile "ailure to ,escribe the con,itions prece,ent on the "ace o" the 0arrant itsel"- or incorporate the( by re"erence to the a""i,a.it- is not necessarily "atal to the .ali,ity o" the 0arrant- it is better practice to ,o so any0ay. ()eop"e $# Sousa- supra- at p. $51.) +ote) 1" only to eli(inate the issue- an, because Cali"ornia cases (ay en, up in the Jinth Circuit at so(e point- the better proce,ure is to ,escribe the anticipatory nature o" the 0arrant on the "ace o" the 0arrant itsel". (ederal Rules) Accor,ing to the Jinth Circuit Court o" Appeal- a copy o" the ,ocu(ent that ,escribes the triggering con,itions (i.e.2&2
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the 0arrant itsel"- the a""i,a.it- or any other attach(ents) (ust be presente, to the la0"ul occupants (along 0ith a copy o" the 0arrant) upon the e?ecution o" the 0arrant. Bailing to ,o so 0ill in.ali,ate the anticipatory search 0arrant as a Fourth Amendment .iolation. (United States $# Gru..s (&th Cir. 2003) 322 B.3r, 1022- as a(en,e, at 3#& B.3r, 1305.) See also United States $# 9esi(uru (&th Cir. 2002) 313 B.3r, 1115- 1123%1123- hol,ing that an *anticipatory warrant-/ the con,itions prece,ent "or 0hich being containe, in the a""i,a.it an, incorporate, into the 0arrant by re"erencere@uires the presence o" both the 0arrant an, a""i,a.it at the scene. 1n that Cali"ornia interprets the Fourth Amendment ,i""erently- the general rule being that it is not re@uire, that a copy o" the 0arrant be sho0n to- or le"t 0ith- the occupants o" the place being searche, (see )eop"e $# Ca"a.rese (2002) 101 Cal.App.3th 2&.)- it is liFely that there also is no re@uire(ent that the con,itions triggering an anticipatory search 0arrant be ,escribe, in any ,ocu(ents gi.en to the occupants. nea? and Pee? =arrants) A *snea? and pee?/ 0arrant is one 0hich authori;es surreptitious entry o" a pre(ises- 0ithout notice- o"ten ,uring the nightti(e- an, pro.i,es that obCects o" the search are not to be sei;e, but (ay only be note,- photographe,- copie, or other0ise recor,e,. +ote) Jo Cali"ornia case has rule, upon the legality o" such a proce,ure. So(e courts- particularly the Be,eral Jinth Circuit Court o" Appeal- are critical o" such 0arrants "or "ailure to re@uire notice to the occupants- but ha.e reluctantly uphel, the(. (See United States $# Freitas (&th Cir. 1&#5) #00 B.2n, 13$1: United States $# *ohns (&th Cir. 1&&#) #$1 B.2n, 1131- 1133%113$.) +he "e,eral courts are concerne, that a *snea? and pea?/ 0arrant .iolates Federal 8ules of Criminal (rocedure, 8ule 41. 8ule 41 re@uires that the o""icer e?ecuting the 0arrant either gi.e to the o0ner o" the searche, pre(ises a copy o" the 0arrant an, a receipt "or the property taFen- or lea.e the copy an, receipt on the pre(ises. 1t also re@uires that the in.entory be (a,e in the presence o" the o0ner o" 2&3
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the pre(ises *or in the presence o" at least one cre,ible person other than the applicant "or the 0arrant./ Io0e.er- *a .iolation o" 8ule 41 . . . ,oes not lea, to suppression o" e.i,ence unless) (1) it is a A"un,a(ental .iolationPthat is- a .iolation that Ain e""ect- ren,ers the search unconstitutional un,er tra,itional fourth amendment stan,ar,s 6Citation9- (2) Athe search (ight not ha.e occurre, or 0oul, not ha.e been so abrasi.e i" the Rule ha, been "ollo0e, 6Citation9 or (3) Athere is e.i,ence o" intentional an, ,eliberate ,isregar, o" a pro.ision o" the Rule. 6Citation9/ (United States $# *ohns- supra.- at p. 1133.) !ther courts ha.e appro.e, sneaF an, peaF 0arrants so long as delayed notice is gi.en- a"ter appro.al by the (agistrate that there is goo, cause "or the ,elay. (United States $# 9i""e1as (2n, Cir. 1&&0) #&& B.2n, 1323- 1322.) +he Supre(e Court- ho0e.er- although ne.er ,irectly ,iscussing the issue- has inti(ate, that notice (ay be ,elaye, i" to ,o other0ise (ight ,e"eat the purpose o" the 0arrant. (/at5 $# United States (1&52) 3#& 4.S. 332- 3$$- "n. 15 61& 7.8,.2n, $25- $#39: ,iscussing the lacF o" nee, "or *prior notice/ in a 0iretap case.) (!C! 1)24!1) *'D Testing) A search 0arrant re@uiring a cri(inal suspect to sub(it to a bloo, test "or the I1U .irus (ay be issue, by the court a"ter a re@uest by a .icti( an, a hearing sho0ing probable cause to belie.e that the accuse, co((itte, a charge, o""ense- an, probable cause to belie.e that bloo,- se(en- or any other bo,ily "lui, capable o" trans(itting I1U has been trans"erre, "ro( the accuse, to the .icti(. +his pro.ision is "or the bene"it o" the .icti(- an,- per the re@uire(ents o" the section- is not inten,e, to ser.e as an ai, in the prosecution o" any cri(inal suspect. ((!C! 1)24!1+a,) A Cu,ge (ay appro.e a search 0arrant upon "in,ing probable cause to belie.e the ,e"en,ant co((itte, a cri(e an, that the A1DS .irus has been trans"erre, "ro( the accuse, to the .icti( (Su4d! +4,+1,)- or the ,e"en,ant is charge, 0ith one or (ore o" a speci"ie, list o" se? o""enses an, there e?ists a police report alleging an as o" yet uncharge, liste, se? o""ense. (Su4d! +4,+2,) A ,eclaration by the .icti( s (other *on information and belief-/ e.en though not being base, on her personal Fno0le,ge- 0as "oun, to be legally su""icient to support a search 0arrant pursuant 2&3
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to this section. Hearsay (ay be use, to support the a""i,a.it re@uire, by this section. (0umphre& $# Appe""ate Di$ision o' the Superior Court (2002) 2& Cal.3th $5&.) Gecause such a 0arrant is concerne, 0ith the public sa"etysuch a 0arrant co(es 0ithin the less stringent re@uire(ent o" a * pecial +eeds/ search. (Id.- a pp. $23%$2$.) (See belo0.) (!C! 1)24!2+4,) Records of (oreign &orporations Pro!iding Electronic &ommunications or Remote &omputing er!ices) Boreign corporations ,oing business in Cali"ornia- pro.i,ing electronic communications or remote computing ser!ices to the general public- (ust respon, to a search 0arrant issue, by a Cali"ornia court an, properly ser.e,- 0hen asFe, "or recor,s re.ealing the identity of customers using the ser.ices- data store, by- or on behal" o"- the custo(er- the customer)s usage o" those ser.icesthe recipient or destination o" co((unications sent to or "ro( those custo(ers- or the content o" those co((unications. *Electronic communications ser!ices/ an, *remote computing ser!ices/ is to be construe, in accor,ance 0ith the "e,eral ?lectronic Communications (ri:acA Act- 1# !S!C! 2131 et se*! 1# !S!C! 2131 re"ers to 1# !S!C! 2)31- sub,i.ision +1), o" 0hich ,e"ines *electronic communication ser!ice/ as a *ser.ice 0hich pro.i,es to users thereo" the ability to sen, or recei.e 0ire or electronic co((unications./ 1# !S!C! 2)31+1,, +1#,: *=ire communication/ inclu,es *any aural trans"er (i.e.- one containing the hu(an .oice) (a,e in 0hole or in part through the use o" "acilities "or the trans(ission o" co((unications by the ai, o" 0ire- cableor other liFe connection bet0een the point o" origin an, the point o" reception (inclu,ing the use o" such connection in a s0itching station) . . . ./ +his inclu,es telephone con.ersations. ( ri11s $# American Air Fi"ter Co#, Inc# ($th Cir. 1&#0) 530 B.2n, 313: United States $# 0arpe" (10th Cir. 1&23) 3&3 B.2n, 335.) A *foreign corporation/ is one that is @uali"ie, to ,o business in Cali"ornia pursuant to Cor-! Code 213)- although base, in another state. 2&$
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Per Cor-! Code 213)- "oreign corporations (ust consent to ser.ice o" process as a con,ition o" ,oing business in Cali"ornia. *Properly ser!ed (eans that a search 0arrant has been ,eli.ere, by han,- or in a (anner reasonably allo0ing "or proo" o" ,eli.ery i" ,eli.ere, by 4nite, States (ail- o.ernight ,eli.ery ser.ice- or "acsi(ile to a person or entity liste, in Section 2113 o" the Cor-orations Code./ ((!C! 1)24!2+a,+2,) Cor-! Code 2113 re@uires that an agent- in Cali"orniai,enti"ie, by the corporation as the person responsible "or accepting ser.ice o" process- inclu,ing search 0arrants- be ser.e,. +he "oreign corporation is re@uire, to pro.i,e the in"or(ation re@ueste, 0ithin "i.e ($) business ,ays- 0hich (ay be shortene, or e?ten,e, upon a sho0ing o" goo, cause- an, to authenticate such recor,s- thus (aFing the( a,(issible in court per ?:id! Code 1)21- 1)22. ((!C! 1)24!2+4,) +he section "urther re@uires Cali"ornia corporations to honor out% o"%state search 0arrants as i" issue, 0ithin this state. ((!C! 1)24!2+c,) (!C! 1)24!3+a,) Records of (oreign &orporations Pro!iding Electronic &ommunications or Remote &omputing er!ices) Boreign corporations pro.i,ing electronic communications or remote computing ser!ices (ust ,isclose to a go.ern(ental prosecuting or in.estigating agency- 0hen ser.e, 0ith a search 0arrant issue, by a Cali"ornia court pursuant to (!C! 1)24+a,+1, (i.e.- in (is,e(eanor cases)- recor,s re.ealing the nameaddress- local an, long ,istance telephone toll billing records- telephone number or other subscriber number or identity- an, length of ser!ice o" a subscriber to or custo(er o" that ser.ice- an, the types of ser!ices the subscriber or custo(er utili;e,. (!C! 1)24!3+4,) +he go.ern(ental entity recei.ing subscriber recor,s or in"or(ation un,er this section is not re@uire, to pro.i,e notice to a subscriber or custo(er. (!C! 1)24!3+d,) 4pon a re@uest o" a peace o""icer- the pro.i,er shall taFe all necessary steps to preser.e recor,s an, other e.i,ence in its possession pen,ing the issuance o" a search 0arrant or a re@uest in 0riting an, an a""i,a.it ,eclaring an intent to ser.e the pro.i,er 0ith a search 0arrant. Recor,s shall be retaine, "or 2&5
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&0 ,ays upon such re@uest- an, (ay be e?ten,e, "or an a,,itional &0 ,ays upon a rene0e, re@uest by the peace o""icer. Re:uirement o' a JNeutra" and DetachedK %a1istrate: Rule) +he la0"ul issuance o" a search 0arrant re@uires a *neutral and detached/ (agistrate- as re@uire, by the Fourth Amendment. (Coo"id1e $# Ne, 0ampshire (1&21) 303 4.S. 333 62& 7.8,.2n, $539.) !nly bench o""icers 0ho are ,esignate, *(agistrates/ an, authori;e, to issue 0arrants are Cu,ges o" the superior courtsCustices o" the state appellate courts- an, Custices o" the state Supre(e Court. ((!C! #3#) +his necessarily e?clu,es court co((issioners- Cu,ges pro te(- re"erees- an, "e,eral Cu,ges. +ote) +he i,ea behin, this theory is to insure that there is an i(partial arbitrator bet0een an o.er%;ealous la0 en"orce(ent o""icer- seeFing to intru,e upon a person s pri.acy rights- an, the person 0hose pri.acy rights are about to be intru,e, upon- 0ho (ay "airly ,eter(ine 0hether probable cause e?ists su""icient to Custi"y the inten,e, go.ern(ent intrusion. Violations o" this rule ha.e occurre, 0hen) +he state attorney general in charge o" the in.estigation issue, the 0arrant in his capacity as a Custice o" the peace. (Coo"id1e $# Ne, 0ampshire, supra.) +he (agistrate personally participate, in the search. (2o3*i Sa"es, Inc# $# Ne, Yor( (1&2&) 332 4.S. 31& 650 7.8,.2n, 2&09.) +he (agistrate 0as pai, a "ee "or each 0arrant issue,- 0ith no co(pensation "or 0arrants 0hich 0ere not appro.e,. (Conna""& $# Geor1ia (1&22) 32& 4.S. 23$ 6$0 7.8,.2n, 3339.) +he in.estigating ,eputy sheri"" ha, the 0arrant issue, by his "ather- a Cu,ge. (O?Connor $# Superior Court (1&&#) 5$ Cal.App.3th 113) Io0e.er- this 0arrant 0as sa.e, by application o" the *good faith/ rule.) Composition o' a Search -arrant: A search warrant co(es in three parts) The =arrant itsel". 2&2
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The *ffida!it to the Search Earrant. The Receipt and 'n!entory (or *Return/). (irst) The warrant itself- signe, by a (agistrate- ,irecting a peace o""icer to search a *particular/ person- place or .ehicle- "or a *particular/ personthing- or list o" property. (!C! 1)23- 1)2") &ontents) +he search warrant (ust inclu,e the "ollo0ing) +he na(e o" e.ery person 0hose a""i,a.it has been taFen. +he statutory groun,s "or issuance. (See (!C! 1)241)24!2 an,Nor 1)24!3.) A ,escription 0ith reasonable particularity o" the personsplaces an, .ehicles to be searche,. A ,escription 0ith reasonable particularity o" the personsthings or property to be sei;e,. A 0arrant that "ails to inclu,e a list o" the things to be sei;e,- at least 0here the list is not in an a""i,a.it or other attach(ent that is incorporate, by re"erence an, 0hich then acco(panies the 0arrant to the scene o" the search- is *facially deficient-/ an, in .iolation o" the Fourth Amendment. (Groh $# Ramire5 (2003) $30 4.S. $$1 61$2 7.8,.2n, 105#9.) Bailure to list the property to be sei;e,- or at the least a re"erence to- an, incorporation o"- a list o" the property- is a Fourth Amendment .iolationan, constitutes a ,e"ect the o""icers 0riting the 0arrant- an,Nor super.ising the search- shoul, ha.e been a0are o". (Ramire5 $# utte3Si"$er o, Count& (&th Cir. 2002) 2&# B.3r, 1022: "in,ing that the a""iant an, super.ising A+B agent did not ha.e @uali"ie, i((unity "ro( ci.il liability in a ci.il suit "or "ailing to list the property to be sei;e, on the "ace o" the 0arrant.) *nd see United States $# Ce"estine (&th Cir. 2003) 323 B.3r, 10&$- ,escribing *the policies that un,erlie the 0arrant re@uire(ent: pro.i,ing the property o0ner assurance o" the la0"ul authority o" 2&#

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the e?ecuting o""icer- his nee, to search- an, the li(its o" his po0er to search./ Authori;ation "or a nighttime search (i" necessary: see (!C 1)33). +he signature o" the (agistrate. +he date issue,.

tatutory <rounds for 'ssuance ((!C! 1)24+a,+1, through +11,)) +1,) Ehen the property to be sei;e, 0as stolen or e(be;;le,. (+ote) 1nclu,es (is,e(eanors.) +2,) Ehen the property or things to be sei;e, 0ere use, as the (eans o" co((itting a "elony. +3,) Ehen the property or things to be sei;e, are in the possession o" any person 0ith the intent to use it as a (eans o" co((itting a public o""ense- or in the possession o" another to 0ho( he (ay ha.e ,eli.ere, it "or the purpose o" concealing it or pre.enting the( "ro( being ,isco.ere,. +he ter( *public o""ense/ inclu,es (is,e(eanors. ()eop"e $# Garcia (1&5&) 223 Cal.App.2n, 100103.) +4,) Ehen the property or things to be sei;e, consist o" any ite( or constitute any e.i,ence that ten,s to sho0 a "elony has been co((itte,- or ten,s to sho0 that a particular person has co((itte, a "elony. +),) Ehen the property or things to be sei;e, consists o" e.i,ence 0hich ten,s to sho0 that se?ual e?ploitation o" a chil, (per (!C! 311!3)- or possession o" (atter ,epicting se?ual con,uct o" a person un,er the age o" 1# years (per (!C! 311!11)- has occurre, or is occurring. (See In re Duncan (1&#2) 1#& Cal.App.3r, 133#.) +2,) Ehen there is a 0arrant to arrest a person. +1,) Ehen a pro.i,er o" an electronic co((unication ser.ice or re(ote co(puting ser.ice has recor,s or 2&&
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e.i,ence- as speci"ie, in (!C! 1)24!3- sho0ing that property 0as stolen or e(be;;le, constituting a (is,e(eanor- or that property or things are in the possession o" any person 0ith the intent to use the( as a (eans o" co((itting a (is,e(eanor public o""ense- or in the possession o" another to 0ho( he or she (ay ha.e ,eli.ere, the( "or the purpose o" concealing the( or pre.enting their ,isco.ery. +#,) Ehen the property or things to be sei;e, inclu,e an ite( or any e.i,ence that ten,s to sho0 a .iolation o" =a4or Code 3133!)- or ten,s to sho0 that a particular person has .iolate, =!C! 3133!). =!C! 3133!) ,eals 0ith the "ailure to secure the pay(ent o" co(pensation- 0hich is ,e"ine, as *e.ery bene"it or pay(ent con"erre, by this ,i.ision upon an inCure, e(ployee- or in the e.ent o" his or her ,eath- upon his or her ,epen,ents- 0ithout regar, to negligence.3 (L.C. 32 !) +",) Ehen the property or things to be sei;e, inclu,e a "irear( or any other ,ea,ly 0eapon at the scene o"- or at the pre(ises occupie, or un,er the control o" the person arreste, in connection 0ith- a ,o(estic .iolence inci,ent in.ol.ing a threat to hu(an li"e or a physical assault as pro.i,e, in (!C! 1#2)3. +his section ,oes not a""ect 0arrantless sei;ures alrea,y authori;e, un,er the statute. +13,) Ehen the property or things to be sei;e, inclu,e a "irear( or any other ,ea,ly 0eapon that is o0ne, by- or in possession o"- or in the custo,y or control o"- a person ,escribe, in /&I #132+a,. /&I #132+a, lists any person 0ho) Ias been ,etaine, or apprehen,e, "or e?a(ination o" his or her (ental con,ition (e.g.- per /&I )1)3): or 1s a person ,escribe, in /&I #133 (+a, (ental patients recei.ing inpatient treat(ent- or +4, (ental patients a"ter ha.ing co((unicate, a threat to a psychotherapist.) 300
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1s a person ,escribe, in /&I #133 (+a, persons a,Cu,icate, to be a ,anger to others or as a (entally ,isor,ere, se? o""en,er- or +4, persons "oun, to be not guilty by reason o" insanity in serious cases- or +c, persons "oun, to be not guilty by reason o" insanity in other cases- or +d, persons "oun, (entally inco(petent to stan, trial- or +e, persons place, un,er conser.atorship- or +f, persons taFen into custo,y as a ,anger to the(sel.es or others- or +5, persons certi"ie, "or intensi.e treat(ent.

+11,) Ehen the property or things to be sei;e, inclu,e a "irear( that is o0ne, by- or in possession o"- or in the custo,y or control o"- a person 0ho is subCect to the prohibitions regar,ing "irear(s pursuant to Fam! Code 23#"- i" a prohibite, "irear( is possesse,- o0ne,- in the custo,y o"- or controlle, by a person against 0ho( a protecti.e or,er has been issue, pursuant to Fam! Code 221#- the person has been la0"ully ser.e, 0ith that or,eran, the person has "aile, to relin@uish the "irear( as re@uire, by la0. +12,) $ search %arrant may be issued for the use of a tracking device %hen the information to be received from the tracking device constitutes evidence that tends to sho% that a felony has been committed or is being committed, or a misdemeanor violation of the FAB CodeC or a misdemeanor violation of the Pub. #e'. Code has been committed or is being committed, or tends to sho% that a particular person has committed or is committing any of these crimes, or %ill assist in locating a person %ho has committed or is committing any of these crimes' Note" )his subdivision is in response to the *'+' +upreme ,ourts determination that the installation and use of a tracking device on a suspects motor vehicle is a search, under the Fou%!h (/end/en!' (+ee United States $# *ones (Jan. 23- 2012) $5$ 4.S. >>- >> 6132 S.Ct. &3$- &$3: 1#1 7.8,.2n, &119.) $ tracking device search %arrant shall be e-ecuted pursuant to the provisions of P.C. 1534(b)' 301
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P.C. 1534(b)" )racking .evice (rocedures" +1,) A tracFing ,e.ice search 0arrant issue, pursuant to (en! Code 1)24+a,+12, (see abo.e) shall i,enti"y the person or property to be tracFe, an, shall speci"y a reasonable length o" ti(e- not to e?cee, 30 ,ays "ro( the ,ate the 0arrant is issue,- that the ,e.ice (ay be use,. +he court (ay- "or goo, cause- grant one or (ore e?tensions "or the ti(e that the ,e.ice (ay be use,- 0ith each e?tension lasting "or a reasonable length o" ti(e- not to e?cee, 30 ,ays. +he search 0arrant shall co((an, the o""icer to e?ecute the 0arrant by installing a tracFing ,e.ice or ser.ing a 0arrant on a thir,%party possessor o" the tracFing ,ata. +he o""icer shall per"or( any installation authori;e, by the 0arrant ,uring the ,ayti(e unless the (agistrate- "or goo, cause- e?pressly authori;es installation at another ti(e. 8?ecution o" the 0arrant shall be co(plete, no later than 10 ,ays i((e,iately a"ter the ,ate o" issuance. A 0arrant e?ecute, 0ithin this 10%,ay perio, shall be ,ee(e, to ha.e been ti(ely e?ecute, an, no "urther sho0ing o" ti(eliness nee, be (a,e. A"ter the e?piration o" 10 ,ays- the 0arrant shall be .oi,unless it has been e?ecute,. +2, An o""icer e?ecuting a tracFing ,e.ice search 0arrant shall not be re@uire, to FnocF an, announce his or her presence be"ore e?ecuting the 0arrant. 302
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+3, Jo later than 10 calen,ar ,ays a"ter the use o" the tracFing ,e.ice has en,e,- the o""icer e?ecuting the 0arrant shall "ile a return to the 0arrant. +4, Jo later than 10 calen,ar ,ays a"ter the use o" the tracFing ,e.ice has en,e,- the o""icer 0ho e?ecute, the tracFing ,e.ice 0arrant shall ser.e a copy o" the 0arrant on the person 0ho 0as tracFe, or 0hose property 0as tracFe,. 4pon the re@uest o" a go.ern(ent agency- the (agistrate (ay- "or goo, cause- ,elay ser.ice o" a copy o" the 0arrant. +), An o""icer installing a ,e.ice authori;e, by a tracFing ,e.ice search 0arrant (ay install an, use the ,e.ice only 0ithin Cali"ornia. +2, As use, in this section- *trac?ing de!ice/ (eans any electronic or (echanical ,e.ice that per(its the tracFing o" the (o.e(ent o" a person or obCect. +1, As use, in this section- *,ayti(e/ (eans the hours bet0een 5 a.(. an, 10 p.(. accor,ing to local ti(e. (!C! 1)34+c,) 1" a ,uplicate original search 0arrant has been e?ecute,- the peace o""icer 0ho e?ecute, the 0arrant shall enter the e?act ti(e o" its e?ecution on its "ace. (!C! 1)34+d,) A search 0arrant (ay be (a,e returnable be"ore the issuing (agistrate or his or her court. See also (!C! 1)24!2+4, an, 1)24!3+a,- re) Records of (oreign &orporations Pro!iding Electronic &ommunications or Remote &omputing er!ices. Case 7a0) 1t is irrele.ant that a peace o""icer lists an incorrect charge, o""ense- Custi"ying the issuance o" the 0arrant- so long as 303
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there is so(e legal groun,s "or the issuance o" the 0arrant un,er so(e statute. (United States $# %ee( (&th Cir. 2003) 355 B.3r, 20$- 213%213: A *statutory .ariance in the a""i,a.it is not "atal to the 0arrant s .ali,ity./) +he "ailure o" the 0arrant to inclu,e a copy o" the court s o""icial seal- i" a .iolation at all (2# !S!C! 12"1)- is (erely a technical .iolation an, 0ill not result in a "in,ing that the 0arrant is legally insu""icient. (United States $# Smith (&th Cir. 200$) 323 B.3r, &&2- 100#.)

econd) The affida!it to the search warrant) Defined) A s0orn state(ent- s0orn to by the a""iant- ,escribing the *probable cause/ to search a particular person- place- or .ehicle "or a particular person- thing- or list o" property. ((!C! 1)2)- 1)21) Re"erre, to as the * tatement of Probable &ause/ in Curis,ictions 0here a co(bine, search 0arrant an, a""i,a.it "or( is use,. (See ()eop"e $# 0a"e (200$) 133 Cal.App.3th &32.) *Probable &ause)/ 1n e.aluating the su""iciency o" a 0arrant a""i,a.it: *+he tasF o" the issuing (agistrate is si(ply to (aFe a practical common6sense ,ecision 0hether- gi.en all the circu(stances set "orth in the a""i,a.it be"ore hi(- inclu,ing the A.eracity an, Abasis o" Fno0le,ge o" the persons supplying hearsay in"or(ation- there is a fair probability that contraban, or e.i,ence o" a cri(e 0ill be "oun, in a particular place./ (8(phasis a,,e,: I""inois $# Gates (1&#3) 352 4.S. 213 625 7.8,.2n, $229 see also United States $# 9entresca (1&5$) 3#0 4.S. 102- 10# 613 7.8,.2n, 5#3- 5#&9: United States $# Ad;ani (&th Cir. 2005) 3$2 B.3r, 1130- 113$.) Cali"ornia "ollo0s the Gates *totality of the circumstances/ test. ()eop"e $# Spears (1&&1) 22# Cal.App.3r, 1- 12.) *A1n ,eter(ining 0hether an a""i,a.it is supporte, by probable cause- the (agistrate (ust (aFe a *practical- co((on%sense ,ecision 0hether- gi.en all the circu(stances set "orth in the a""i,a.it . . . there is a "air probability that contraban, or 303
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e.i,ence o" a cri(e 0ill be "oun, in a particular place./ 6Citation9 +he su""iciency o" the a""i,a.it (ust be e.aluate, in light o" the totality o" the circu(stances. 6Citation9. / ()eop"e $# Garcia (2003) 111 Cal.App.3th 21$- 221: @uoting Fen,ic( I -est $# Superior Court (1&&5) 33 Cal.App.3th 1222- 122#: )eop"e $# 2ien1 (2010) 1&0 Cal.App.3th 1213- 122#%122&.) *+he purpose o" the e?clusionary rule is . . . to ,eter illegal police con,uct- not ,e"icient police ,ra"ts(anship./ ()eop"e $# Superior Court 6Nasmeh7 (2002) 1$1 Cal.App.3th #$- &2.) Jote that Gates also ,escribes the stan,ar, "or probable cause in a search 0arrant a""i,a.it as a *fair probability/ (pg. 23#) or a *substantial chance/ (pg. 233- "n. 13) that contraban, or e.i,ence o" a cri(e 0ill be "oun, in a particular place- 0hich is arguably a lesser stan,ar, than as ,escribe, in ol,er Cali"ornia cases re@uiring a *substantial probability./ (8.g.: see )eop"e $# Coo( (1&2#) 22 Cal.3r, 52- #3- "n. 5.) *A search 0arrant (ust be supporte, by probable cause. ( !S! Const!, Fourth Amend!E 1)2).) 1n ,eter(ining 0hether probable cause e?ists- the (agistrate consi,ers the totality o" the circu(stances. (I""inois $# Gates (1&#3) 352 4.S. 213- 23#- 103 S.Ct. 2312- 25 7.8,.2, $22.) AProbable cause- unliFe the "act itsel"- (ay be sho0n by e.i,ence that 0oul, not be co(petent at trial. 6Citation.9 Accor,inglyin"or(ation an, belie" alone (ay support the issuance o" search 0arrants- 0hich re@uire probable cause. 6Citations.9 (0umphre& $# Appe""ate Di$ision (2002) 2& Cal.3th $5&$23- 122 Cal.Rptr.2, 53$- $# P.3, 325.)/ ()eop"e $# 9ar1hese (200#) 152 Cal.App.3th 10#3- 1103.) Probable cause (ust be sho0n "or each o" the ite(s liste, in the 0arrant as property to be sei;e,- Custi"ying its sei;ure. ()eop"e $# Fran( (1&#$) 3# Cal.3r, 211- 225%22#.) Probable cause sho0ing a su""icient *nexus/ bet0een the e.i,ence to be sei;e, an, the place to be searche, (ust also be establishe,. ()eop"e $# Garcia (2003) 111 Cal.App.3th 21$- 221.)

30$
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Io0e.er- the Jinth Circuit Court o" Appeal has sho0n a reluctance to "in, probable cause 0hen it is base, upon *a lengthy chain of inferences./ (United States $# Gourde (&th Cir. 2003) 3#2 B.3r, 1003: no probable cause to support the issuance o" a search 0arrant 0hen base, upon the ,e"en,ant s Fno0n subscription to a chil, pornography 0ebsite- unli(ite, access to the chil, pornography on the 0ebsite- ,e"en,ant s "ailure to unsubscribe a"ter t0o (onths- an, an e?pert s opinion that the abo.e necessarily (eans that ,e"en,ant 0oul, liFely be in personal possession o" chil, pornography.) +he "act that the person 0hose property (i.e.- a co(puter in this case) is sei;e, an, searche, is not at that ti(e subCect to arrest (i.e.- no probable cause) ,oes not (ean that the sei;ure an, search o" that property is not la0"ul. (United States $# Ad;ani (&th Cir. 2005) 3$2 B.3r, 1130- 1135%1132.) A 0arrant that establishes probable cause to search a .ehicle "or ite(s (issing "ro( a possible ho(ici,e .icti( s resi,ence 0ill necessarily also allo0 "or the sei;ure o" that .ehicle "or later e?a(ination at a police lab- an, to search the .ehicle "or trace e.i,ence relate, to the (issing ite(se.en i" the sei;ure o" the car an, the search "or trace e.i,ence is not speci"ically (entione, in the 0arrant. ()eop"e $# Superior Court 6Nasmeh7 (2002) 1$1 Cal.App.3th #$- &3%&#.) A ,escription o" the a""iant s training an, e?perience- the "act that persons in.ol.e, in ,rug tra""icFing co((only conceal caches o" ,rugs in their resi,ences an, businessesthe "act that one o" the co%conspirator s telephone 0as liste, as being to that resi,ence- an, a ,escription o" coconspirators use o" the ,e"en,ant s resi,ence each ti(e a sale o" ,rugs 0as or,ere,- 0as su""icient to establish probable cause "or a search 0arrant "or that resi,ence. (United States $# Garcia39i""a".a (&th Cir. 200&) $#$ B.3r, 1223- 1232%1233.) A 0arrant a""i,a.it nee, not inclu,e all o" the in"or(ation a.ailable to the police- so long as the o(itte, "acts are not (aterial- nor (ust a police o""icer or,inarily continue the in.estigation seeFing "urther corroboration once the o""icer has probable cause. (E,in1 $# Cit& o' Stoc(ton (&th Cir. 200&) $## B.3r, 121#- 1225%1222.) 305
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A signal photograph o" a nu,e (inor ("e(ale chil, 0ho is bet0een # an, 10 years ol,)- by itsel"- is insu""icient to establish probably cause "or a search 0arrant. Gut a secon, such photo- un,er the *totality o" the circu(stances-/ is enough. (United States $# attershe"" (&th Cir. 2005) 3$2 B.3r, 103#.) Howe!er- a single photograph o" a nu,e (inor ("e(ale o" about 1$ to 12 years o" age)- 0hen co(bine, 0ith other suspicious circu(stances (e.g.- 1$ co(puters in house "oun, in co(plete ,isarray- 0ith t0o (inors not belonging to the ,e"en,ant- 0here the ,e"en,ant a ci.ilian- is staying in (ilitary housing)- may enough to Custi"y the issuance o" a search 0arrant. (United States $# /rupa (&th Cir. 2011) 5$# B.3r, 1123- 1122%112&: but see ,issent- pp. 11#0%11#$.) 8.i,ence o" a person s abnor(al se?ual interest in si?th gra,e girls- inclu,ing inappropriate touching- ,oes not establish probable cause to belie.e that the person (ight also ha.e chil, pornography at ho(e. (Dou1hert& $# Cit& o' Co$ina (&th Cir. 2011) 5$3 B.3r, #&2.) 1t is irrele.ant that a the"t .icti( is not i,enti"ie, by na(e in a search 0arrant a""i,a.it so long as the the"t o" the .icti( s property is other0ise su""iciently ,escribe,. ()eop"e $# Scott (2011) $2 Cal.3th 3$2- 3#$%3#5.) Ehere e.i,ence o" illegal guns an, a((unition 0as reco.ere, in the e?ecution o" a search 0arrant- the Court "oun, that the (agistrate ha, a substantial basis "or conclu,ing there 0as a "air probability that e.i,ence o" a cri(e 0oul, be "oun, in ,e"en,ant s ho(e. +here 0as probable cause to belie.e ,e"en,ant 0as the presi,ent o" a local chapter o" a (otorcycle gang e.en though he 0as apparently the treasurer only. +he search 0arrant sought club ,ocu(ents not "or their in,ication o" (e(bership in the gang- but because those ,ocu(ents ,etaile, illegal acti.ity. +he 0arrant 0as not an unconstitutional general 0arrant. Any "alsity about his status as the presi,ent 0as i((aterial in that he 0as apparently still an o""icer. (United States $# 9as:ue5 (&th Cir. 2011) 5$3 B.3r, ##0##3%##$.) A search 0arrant a""i,a.it 0as "oun, to be legally insu""icient to establish probable cause 0hen in"or(ation "ro( three separate in"or(ants 0as "oun, to be conclusory 302
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only- corroborating each other only as to *pe,estrian "acts/ that coul, ha.e been Fno0n to anyone. 1n"or(ation "or an arrestee 0as base, upon hearsay only. 1n"or(ation "ro( t0o other in"or(ants ,i, not ,escribe "irst%han, in"or(ation- "ailing to ,escribe the "acts an, circu(stances un,erlying the in"or(ants conclusions that ,e"en,ant an, his girl"rien, 0ere ,ealing ,rugs. 1n"or(ation that the girl"rien, ha, a prior cri(inal history ,i, not speci"y the ,etails o" that history. Also- the "act that one o" the in"or(ants ha, supplie, in"or(ation to la0 en"orce(ent be"ore 0as lacFing in ,etail as to the nature o" the prior reports an, ho0 long ago. ()eop"e $# French (2011) 201 Cal.App.3th 1302: 0arrant sa.e, by the o""icer s reasonable goo, "aith.) +he "act that the target o" a resi,ential search 0arrant 0as actually in prison at the ti(e o" the allege, cri(e an, coul, not ha.e participate, in either the co((ission o" the cri(e or in hi,ing the 0eapons use, is a "act that the (agistrate shoul, ha.e Fno0n in ,eter(ining 0hether probable cause e?iste,. ( ra$o $# Cit& o' Santa %aria (&th Cir. 2011) 55$ B.3r, 1025- 10#2%10##.) 4pon a (otion to suppress e.i,ence reco.ere, pursuant to a search 0arrant- the issue is 0hether there 0as a "air probability that e.i,ence relate, to the suspecte, o""ense(s) (ight be "oun, in the place to be searche,. +he "act that that e.i,ence is instea, use, to prosecute a separate o""ense is irrele.ant. (United States $# N1u&en (&th Cir. 2012) 523 B.3r, 12$&: e.i,ence collecte, in a state in.estigation o" ?lection Code .iolations (?lect! Code 1#)43: threats to in"luence .oters) but later use, to prosecute ,e"en,ant on "e,eral charges (1# !S!C! 1)12+4,+3,: obstruction o" Custice "or "ailing to ,isclose the "ull e?tent o" his Fno0le,ge regar,ing the creation an, (ailing o" the letter at issue.) A search 0arrant "or ,e"en,ant s ho(e 0as base, upon the belie" that ,e"en,ant s t0o sons ha, so(e connection 0ith a ho(ici,e an, that the "irear( use, 0oul, be "oun, in ,e"en,ant s ho(e. +he Court "oun, that the 0arrant a""i,a.it "aile, to establish su""icient probable causes to belie.e that either son (ight ha.e taFen the "irear( to ,e"en,ant s ho(e- or e.en that the sons (ight ha.e possesse, the "irear( the(sel.es. +he court "urther hel, that the goo,%"aith e?ception ,i, not apply in this case 30#
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because the o""icers reliance on the 0arrant 0as unreasonable. (United States $# Grant (2012) 5#2 B.3r, #22#32%#31.) A search 0arrant- supporte, by probable cause- authori;e, the police to search ,e"en,antDs house an, sei;e gang in,icia o" any sort. Such in,icia coul, logically be "oun, in ,e"en,antDs cell phone- 0hich ha, the capacity to store people s na(es- telephone nu(bers an, other contact in"or(ation- as 0ell as (usic- photographs- art0orF- an, co((unications in the "or( o" e(ails an, (essages. De"en,antDs phone 0as the liFely container o" (any ite(s that 0ere the "unctional e@ui.alent o" those speci"ically liste, in the 0arrant. +he te?t (essages sei;e, ,uring the search o" ,e"en,antDs phone 0ere relate, to a gang%relate, assault that he 0as suspecte, o" co((itting- an, their suppression 0as thus not re@uire, un,er the e?clusionary rule. ()eop"e $# Ran1e" (2012) 205 Cal.App.3th 1310131$%1312.) ,inimum &ontents) At a (ini(u(- a 0arrant a""i,a.it shoul, inclu,e the "ollo0ing) +he na(e or na(es o" the a""iant(s). 1t is not necessary that the a""iant be a s0orn peace o""icer. *(+)here see(s no reason 0hy seeFing one (i.e.- a search 0arrant) shoul, be con"ine, to peace o""icers instea, o" uns0orn (e(bers o" la0 en"orce(ent./ ()eop"e $# e"" (1&&5) 3$ Cal.App.3th 1030- 10$3%10$$.) A 0arrant (ay also be supporte, by a""i,a.its "ro( (ore than one person. (See S(e"ton $# Superior Court (1&5&) 1 Cal.3r, 133.) +he statutory groun,s "or issuance. (See (!C! 1)241)24!2 an, 1)24!3.) 1t is irrele.ant that a peace o""icer lists an incorrect charge, o""ense Custi"ying the issuance o" a 0arrantso long as there is so(e legal groun,s "or the issuance o" the 0arrant un,er so(e statute. (United States $# %ee( (&th Cir. 2003) 355 B.3r, 20$- 213% 30&
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213: a *statutory .ariance in the a""i,a.it is not "atal to the 0arrant s .ali,ity./) A physical ,escription- 0ith *reasonable particularity-/ o" the persons- places- things an, .ehicles to be searche,. A 0arrant s ,escription o" the property to be searche, 0ill be re.ie0e, by the appellate courts in a common sense an, realistic "ashion. ()eop"e $# %inder (1&&5) 35 Cal.App.3th 12#3: United States $# 9entresca (1&5$) 3#0 4.S 102- 10& 613 7.8,.2n, 5#3- 5#&9.) See *+he AReasonable Particularity Re@uire(ent-/ belo0. A physical ,escription- 0ith *reasonable particularity-/ o" the persons- things or property to be sei;e,. See *+he AReasonable Particularity Re@uire(ent-/ belo0. A ,etaile, state(ent o" the expertise (i.e.- training an, e?perience) o" the a""iant. A chronological narrati.e an, factual (as oppose, to conclusory) description o" the circu(stances substantiating the o""icer s conclusion that probable cause "or a search e?ists. +his 0oul, inclu,e) o Bacts sho0ing the co((ission o" a cri(e (or cri(es): o Bacts connecting the liste, suspect(s) to the cri(e(s): o Bacts connecting the suspect(s) to the location(s).ehicle(s)- an,Nor person(s) to be searche,: o Bacts connecting the property to be sei;e, to the location(s)- .ehicle(s)- an,Nor person(s) to be searche,: o Bacts ,escribing ho0 the ,escriptions 0ere obtaine,. 310
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+he "acts as ,escribe, in the search 0arrant a""i,a.it (aFing up the *probable cause/ "or issuance o" a 0arrant (ust be atteste, to by the a""iant as the truth. Bailing to ,o so may in.ali,ate the 0arrant. See) )eop"e $# 0a"e (200$) 133 Cal.App.3th &32: not a "atal error- being one o" *form/ o.er *substance./ )eop"e $# 2eonard (1&&5) $0 Cal.App.3th #2#: "in,ing it to be one o" *substance/ o.er *form-/ an, "atal to the .ali,ity o" the 0arrant. Police reports- charts- maps- etc.- (ay be use, as e?hibitsattache, an, *incorporate, by re"erence-/ but shoul, not be use, as a substitute "or a state(ent o" probable cause. +he ter( *incorporate by reference/ is a ter( o" art that is not al0ays necessary to use. So long as the 0arrant a""i,a.it (aFes re"erence to any attach(ents- it can be assu(e, that the (agistrate consi,ere, it. (An 1nternet subscriber has no e?pectation o" pri.acy in the subscriber in"or(ation he supplies to his 1nternet pro.i,er. ()eop"e $# Stipo (2011) 1&$ Cal.App.3th 553- 55&%520.) The affiant)s conclusion (i.e.- hisNher opinion) base, upon his or her training an, e?perience- that) Probable cause e?ists "or the search: an, +he ite((s) sought 0ill be "oun, at the location(s) to be searche,. A @uali"ie, o""icerNa""iant can attach special signi"icance to his obser.ations an, set "orth e?pert opinion in an a""i,a.it. ()eop"e $# Car$a;a" (1&##) 202 Cal.App.3r, 3#2- 3&5% 3&#.) *(7)a0 en"orce(ent o""icers (ay ,ra0 upon their e?pertise to interpret the "acts in a 311
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search 0arrant application- an, such e?pertise (ay be consi,ere, by the (agistrate as a "actor supporting probable cause./ ()eop"e $# Nicho""s (200#) 1$& Cal.App.3th 203- 211: chil, (olest case.) Justi"ication "or a nighttime search- i" necessary.

+he *Reasonable Particularity/ Re@uire(ent ((!C! 1)2), 1)2"): The persons, places, things and !ehicles to be searched) +he persons- places- things an, .ehicles to be searche, (ust be ,escribe, 0ith su""icient ,etail so that an o""icer e?ecuting the 0arrant (ay- 0ith reasonable e""ort- ascertain an, i,enti"y the person- place- thing or .ehicle- inten,e,. ()eop"e $# Grossman (1&21) 1& Cal.App.3r, #- 11.) *1t is enough i" the ,escription is such that the o""icer 0ith a search 0arrant can- 0ith reasonable e""ort- ascertain an, i,enti"y the place inten,e,./ (Stee"e $# United States (1&2$) 252 4.S. 3&#- $03 65& 7.8,. 2$29.) *+he test "or ,eter(ining the .ali,ity o" a 0arrant is 6(1)9 0hether the 0arrant ,escribes the place to be searche, 0ith Asu""icient particularity to enable la0 en"orce(ent o""icers to locate an, i,enti"y the pre(ises 0ith reasonable e""ortan, 6(2)9 0hether any reasonable probability e?ists that the o""icers (ay (istaFenly search another pre(ises./ (United States $# ro.st (&th Cir. 200&) $$# B.3r, &#2- &&1%&&3@uoting United States $# %ann (&th Cir. 2003) 3#& B.3r, #5&- #25.) 1n ro.st- the a""iant ha, the 0rong street nu(ber an, the physical ,escription (atche, other resi,ences in the area as 0ell. Io0e.er- the o""icers tooF steps to .eri"y that they ha, the right house (e.g.- checFing a ta?Nproperty (ap an, asFing neighbors) be"ore e?ecuting the 0arrant. Also- the resi,ence ha, ,e"en,ant s na(e poste, on it. +he search 0as uphel,. A 0arrant s ,escription o" the property to be searche, 0ill be re.ie0e, by the appellate courts in a common sense an, realistic "ashion. ()eop"e $# %inder (1&&5) 35 Cal.App.3th 12#3: United States $# 9entresca (1&5$) 3#0 4.S 102- 10& 613 7.8,.2n, 5#3- 5#&9.) 312
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+he "ollo0ing "actors 0ill be consi,ere, by the court) Ehether probable cause e?ists to sei;e all ite(s o" a particular type ,escribe, in the 0arrant: Ehether the 0arrant sets out obCecti.e stan,ar,s by 0hich e?ecuting o""icers can ,i""erentiate ite(s subCect to sei;ure "ro( those 0hich are not: and Ehether the go.ern(ent 0as able to ,escribe the ite(s (ore particularly in light o" the in"or(ation a.ailable to it at the ti(e the 0arrant 0as issue,. (United States $# Ad;ani (&th Cir. 2005) 3$2 B.3r, 1130- 113#.) Suggeste, Proce,ures) +he a""iant shoul, personally .ie0 the place- etc.- to be searche, in or,er to guarantee the accurateness o" the ,escription in the 0arrant. +oo (uch ,etail- so long as it is accurate- is better than not enough. 4se o" photographs an,Nor ,iagra(s- attache, as e?hibits- (ay be a,.isable. Oore than one person- place or .ehicle (ay be liste, in a single 0arrant so long as there is probable cause ,escribe, in the a""i,a.it "or each. A later Cu,icial "in,ing that the search o" one o" the liste, locations is not supporte, by probable cause 0ill not necessarily a""ect the search o" any o" the other locations 0here the probable cause supporting the search o" the other locations is in itsel" su""icient. ()eop"e $# *ou.ert (1&#3) 130 Cal.App.3r, &35.) *<ood faith/ (ay sa.e a 0arrant 0ith a ,e"ecti.e ,escription. (See )eop"e $# %acA$o& (1&#3) 152 Cal.App.3r, 235- 253%25$.) 313
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+he "act that the a""iant hi(sel" is personally "a(iliar 0ith the place to be searche,- an, there"ore coul, reasonably be e?pecte, to "in, it- has been hel,- at least in one case- to be a "actor 0hich 0ill help to o.erco(e errors in the ,escription. ()eop"e $# Amador (2000) 23 Cal.3th 3#2: 0rong street nu(ber an, "aulty physical ,escription not "atal 0hen no other houses in the area coul, liFely be (istaFen "or the place to be searche,- an, the a""iant- 0ho e?ecute, the 0arrant- 0as "a(iliar 0ith the place.) An incorrect a,,ress 0as not "atal to the 0arrant 0hen t0o agents e?ecuting the 0arrant personally Fne0 0hich pre(ises 0ere inten,e, to searche, an, other circu(stances helpe, to i,enti"y the correct house. (United States $# Turner (&th Cir. 1&#$) 220 B.3r, 1$0#1$11.) +he *curtilage/ o" the ho(e is inclu,e, as a part o" the ho(e- 0hether or not speci"ically (entione, in the 0arrant. (United States $# Gorman (&th Cir. 1&&5) 103 B.3r, 222.) Gut- 0hat constitutes a part o" the curtilage (ay be an issue. (See United States $# Cannon (&th Cir. 2001) 253 B.3r, #2$: the ,e"en,ant s storage areas attache, to a secon, resi,ence- rente, to a thir, party- to the rear o" the (ain resi,ence- properly searche, as 0ithin the curtilage o" the (ain resi,ence.) +ote) +he better practice is to speci"ically inclu,e in the ,escription o" the place to be searche, all places aroun, the resi,ence one (ight e?pect to "in, the ite(s being searche, "or- thus eli(inating the issue. Gecause *(a) (agistrate is entitle, to ,ra0 reasonable in"erences about 0here e.i,ence is liFely to be Fept- base, on the nature o" the e.i,ence an, the type o" o""ense (United States $# An1u"o32ope5 (&th Cir. 1&#5) 2&1 B.2n, 13&3- 13&&.)-/ a search o" a narcotics suspect s .ehiclebase, upon no (ore than the a""iant s Fno0le,ge- gaine, through training an, e?perience- that persons 0ho tra""ic in ,rugs o"ten secret (ore narcotics an, other e.i,ence in their .ehicles- (ay be authori;e,. (United States $# Spearman (&th Cir. 1&25) $32 B.2n, 132- 133.) 313
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+he sa(e argu(ent can be (a,e "or authori;ing the search o" a narcotics suspect s person- e.en though a0ay "ro( his ho(e. (United States $# E""iott (&th Cir. 2003) 322 B.3r, 210.) +he co(puter o" a roo((ate- the roo((ate hi(sel" not being targete,- 0here there is probable cause to belie.e that the suspect has access to the roo((ate s co(puter- 0as properly liste, in the 0arrant a""i,a.it as an ite( to be searche,. +he critical ele(ent in a search is not 0hether the o0ner o" property to be searche, is a suspect- but rather 0hether there is reasonable cause to belie.e that it contains sei;able e.i,ence. (United States $# Ad;ani (&th Cir. 2005) 3$2 B.3r, 1130.) Letting a search 0arrant "or a resi,ence 0here it is belie.e, that the suspect is at least staying part ti(e- recogni;ing the a person (ay ha.e one ,o(icile but se.eral resi,ences- is proper. (United States $# Cre,s (&th Cir. 2002) $02 B.3r, 1130- 113&: citing %artine5 $# &num (1&#3) 351 4.S. 321- 33& 62$ 7.8,.2n, #2&9.) +he 0rong a,,ress liste, in the 0arrant- cause, by an a,,ress change e""ecte, by local authorities "ro( one to0n to another- ,i, not a""ect the .ali,ity o" the search 0arrant 0hen the o""icers coul, still reasonably ascertain the correct house to be searche,. (United States $# ro.st (&th Cir. 200&) $$# B.3r, &#2- &&1%&&3: steps taFen by the o""icers at the scene to .eri"y that they 0ere about to search the right house.) +he *Reasonable Particularity/ Re@uire(ent ((!C! 1)2), 1)2"): The property to be seized) The property to be seized (ust be ,escribe, 0ith su""icient particularity so that an o""icer 0ith no Fno0le,ge o" the "acts un,erlying the 0arrant an, looFing only at the ,escription o" the property on the "ace o" the 0arrant 0oul, be able to recogni;e an, select the ite(s ,escribe, 0hile con,ucting the search. (See )eop"e $# Superior Court 6-i""iams7 (1&2#) 22 Cal.App.3r, 5&- 22: pro.i,ing a co(plete ,iscussion o" cases appro.ing an, ,isappro.ing certain ,escriptions.)

31$
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1n ,eter(ining 0hether a 0arrant s ,escription o" the ite(s to be sei;e, is su""iciently speci"ic to be constitutional un,er the Fourth Amendment- a court (ust consi,er three issues) Ehether probable cause e?ists to sei;e all ite(s o" a particular type ,escribe, in the 0arrant: Ehether the 0arrants sets out obCecti.e stan,ar,s by 0hich e?ecuting o""icers can ,i""erentiate ite(s subCect to sei;ure "ro( those 0hich are not: and Ehether the go.ern(ent 0as able to ,escribe the ite(s (ore particularly in light o" the in"or(ation a.ailable to it at the ti(e the 0arrant 0as issue,. (%i""ender $# Count& o' 2os An1e"es (&th Cir. 2010) 520 B.3r, 1015- 1023.) +he 4nite, States Supre(e Court- ho0e.erre.erse, the Jinth Circuit s %i""ender $# Count& o' 2os An1e"es ,ecision in %esserschmidt et a"# $# %i""ender (Beb. 222012) >> 4.S. >> 6132 S!Ct! 123)E 1#2 7.8,.2n, 329- hol,ing that o""icers 0ere entitle, to @uali"ie, i((unity "ro( ci.il liability 0hen their con,uct- e.en i" illegal,i, not .iolate clearly establishe, statutory or constitutional rights o" 0hich a reasonable person 0oul, ha.e Fno0n. 1n this case- the Court hel, that base, upon a suspect s Fno0n gang a""iliation- his use o" "irear(s- an, his ten,ency to0ar,s .iolencethat it 0as not unreasonable to assu(e that (ore than Cust the gun use, in his cri(e- an, rele.ant gang paraphernalia- (ight be "oun, in the ,e"en,ant s resi,ence 0here the suspect 0as Fno0n to li.e. See also) United States $# Spi"otro (&th Cir. 1&#5) #00 B.2n, &$&- &53: United States $# -on1 (&th Cir. 2003) 333 B.3r, #31.) Io0e.er- *a search 0arrant nee, only be reasonably speci"ic- rather than elaborately ,etaile,. . . . (+)he speci"icity re@uire, ,epen,s on the circu(stances o" the 315
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case an, the type o" ite(s in.ol.e,./ (E,in1 $# Cit& o' Stoc(ton (&th Cir. 200&) $## B.3r, 121#- 122#: citing United States $# ro.st (&th Cir. 200&) $$# B.3r, &#2- &&3.) *1n ,eter(ining 0hether sei;ure o" particular ite(s e?cee,s the scope o" the 0arrant- courts (are to) e?a(ine 0hether the ite(s are si(ilar to- or the A"unctional e@ui.alent o"ite(s enu(erate, in the 0arrant- as 0ell as containers in 0hich they are reasonably liFely to be "oun,./ ()eop"e $# Ran1e" (2012) 205 Cal.App.3th 1310- 1315: uphol,ing the sei;ure an, search o" ,e"en,ant s cellphone (i.e.*s(artphone/) although not (entione, in the 0arrant- but 0here the o""icers 0ere authori;e, to sei;e *gang in,icia./ *Particularity/ re"ers to the re@uire(ent that the 0arrant (ust clearly state 0hat is sought. *$readth/ ,eals 0ith the re@uire(ent that the scope o" the 0arrant be li(ite, by the probable cause on 0hich the 0arrant is base,. (United States $# ro.st (&th Cir. 200&) $$# B.3r, &#2- &&3%&&$: citing United States $# To,ne (&th Cir. 1&&3) &&2 B.2n, $32$$3: United States $# SDI Future 0ea"th, Inc# (&th Cir. 200&) $5# B.3r, 5#3- 202: %i""ender $# Count& o' 2os An1e"es (&th Cir. 2010) 520 B.3r, 1015- 1023: certiorari grante,.) +he 4nite, States Supre(e Court- ho0e.erre.erse, the Jinth Circuit s %i""ender $# Count& o' 2os An1e"es ,ecision in %esserschmidt et a"# $# %i""ender (Beb. 22- 2012) >> 4.S. >> 6132 S!Ct! 123)E 1#2 7.8,.2n, 329- hol,ing that o""icers 0ere entitle, to @uali"ie, i((unity "ro( ci.il liability 0hen their con,uct- e.en i" illegal- ,i, not .iolate clearly establishe, statutory or constitutional rights o" 0hich a reasonable person 0oul, ha.e Fno0n. 1n this case- the Court hel, that base, upon a suspect s Fno0n gang a""iliation- his use o" "irear(s- an, his ten,ency to0ar,s .iolence- that it 0as not unreasonable to assu(e that (ore than Cust the gun use, in his cri(e- an, rele.ant gang paraphernalia- (ight be "oun, in the ,e"en,ant s resi,ence 0here the suspect 0as Fno0n to li.e. +he ,escription (ust *place a meaningful restriction on the obCects to be sei;e, . . ./ ()eop"e $# %urra& (1&2#) #& Cal.App.3r, #0&- #32.) 312
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Docu(ents or other e.i,ence sho0ing *dominion and control/ (i.e.- *D and & papers/) o.er the place being searche, shoul, be liste, a(ong the ite(s "or 0hich the a""iant 0ishes to search. ()eop"e $# -i""iams (1&&2) 3 Cal.App.3th 1$3$: )eop"e $# Rushin1 (1&#&) 20& Cal.App.3r, 51#: )eop"e $# Nico"aus (1&&1) $3 Cal.3r, $$1- $2$.) *1n,icia ten,ing to establish the i,entity o" persons in control o" the pre(ises-/ has been hel, to be speci"ic enough to (eet the *particularly/ re@uire(ents "or a search 0arrant. (E,in1 $# Cit& o' Stoc(ton (&th Cir. 200&) $## B.3r, 121#- 122&.) 1n an 1nternet se?ual solicitation o" a chil, case- the "ollo0ing ite(s 0ere hel, to be appropriate in a search 0arrant "or the suspect s house an, .ehicle) *(S)e?ually e?plicit (aterial or paraphernalia use, to lo0er the inhibition o" chil,ren- se? toysphotography e@uip(ent- chil, pornography- as 0ell as (aterial relate, to past (olestation such as photographs- a,,ress le,gers inclu,ing na(es o" other pe,ophiles- an, Cournals recor,ing se?ual encounters 0ith chil,ren-/ as 0ell as the ,e"en,ant s co(puter syste(- inclu,ing *co(puter e@uip(ent- in"or(ation on ,igital an, (agnetic storage ,e.ices- co(puter printouts- co(puter so"t0are an, (anuals- an, ,ocu(entation regar,ing co(puter use./ (United States $# %ee( (&th Cir. 2003) 355 B.3r, 20$- 213%215.) So long as su""iciently ,escribe,- it is not necessary that a 0arrant a""i,a.it contain the actual photographs o" 0hat is allege, to be chil, pornography. (United States $# attershe"" (&th Cir. 2005) 3$2 B.3r, 103#.) Gut 0hat is- an, 0hat is not- *child pornography/ (ight be an issue. As a *starting point/ "or ,eter(ining the e?istence o" *lasci!iousness/ in a photo or photos- a court (ay use the "ollo0ing non% e?clusi.e si? "actor test) 31#
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Ehether the "ocal point o" the .isual ,epiction is on the chil, s genitalia or pubic area: Ehether the setting o" the .isual ,epiction is se?ually suggesti.e- i.e.in a place or pose generally associate, 0ith se?ual acti.ity: Ehether the chil, is ,epicte, in an unnatural pose- or in inappropriate attire- consi,ering the age o" the chil,: Ehether the chil, is "ully or partially clothe,- or nu,e: Ehether the .isual ,epiction suggests se?ual coyness or a 0illingness to engage in se?ual acti.ity: Ehether the .isual ,epiction is inten,e, or ,esigne, to elicit a se?ual response in the .ie0er. (United States $# 0i"" (&th Cir. 2005) 3$& B.3r, &55- &20%&23- citing United States $# Dost (S.D. Cal. 1&#5) 535 B.Supp. #2#- #32.)

+hings the a""iant *hopes to find-/ but "or 0hich there is no articulable reason to belie.e 0ill be "oun,- shoul, not be liste,. Io0e.er- property that there is a *fair probability/ 0oul, be "oun,- gi.en the nature o" the o""ense- (ay be liste, ,espite the lacF o" any speci"ic e.i,ence that such an ite( is in "act in the place to be searche,. (See )eop"e $# U""oa (2002) 101 Cal.App.3th 1000: co(puter containing 1nternet correspon,ence in a chil, (olest case.) See %i""ender $# Count& o' 2os An1e"es (&th Cir. 2010) 520 B.3r, 1015- 1023%1033certiorari grante,: o""icers- 0ith probable cause to search "or an, sei;e a speci"ic "irear( inclu,e, in the 0arrant a re@uest to search "or an, sei;e all types o" "irear(sa((unition- an, gang relate, paraphernalianone o" 0hich- in the Jinth Circuit s 31&
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opinion- 0as Custi"ie, by the in"or(ation a.ailable to the o""icers at the ti(e. +he 4nite, States Supre(e Court- ho0e.erre.erse, the Jinth Circuit s %i""ender $# Count& o' 2os An1e"es ,ecision in %esserschmidt et a"# $# %i""ender (Beb. 222012) >> 4.S. >> 6132 S!Ct! 123)E 1#2 7.8,.2n, 329- hol,ing that o""icers 0ere entitle, to @uali"ie, i((unity "ro( ci.il liability 0hen their con,uct- e.en i" illegal,i, not .iolate clearly establishe, statutory or constitutional rights o" 0hich a reasonable person 0oul, ha.e Fno0n. 1n this case- the Court hel, that base, upon a suspect s Fno0n gang a""iliation- his use o" "irear(s- an, his ten,ency to0ar,s .iolencethat it 0as not unreasonable to assu(e that (ore than Cust the gun use, in his cri(e- an, rele.ant gang paraphernalia- (ight be "oun, in the ,e"en,ant s resi,ence 0here the suspect 0as Fno0n to li.e. *Telephone calls/ (i.e.- authori;ation to intercept the( 0hile e?ecuting the 0arrant) shoul, be liste, 0here there is probable cause to belie.e the telephone is being use, "or illegal purposes. ()eop"e $# -arner (1&5&) 220 Cal.App.2n, &00&02- booF(aFing case: )eop"e $# Nea"& (1&&1) 22# Cal.App.3r, 332- 3$2- narcotics case.) +he contents o" a telephone call to a narcotics ,ealer s ho(e asFing to buy narcotics- ans0ere, by the police e?ecuting a search 0arrant- are a,(issible as a Cu,icially create, e?ception to the Iearsay Rule. ()eop"e $# %or1an et a"# (200$) 12$ Cal.App.3th &3$.) +he %or1an Court "urther ,eter(ine, that the telephone call 0as *non6testimonial-/ as ,escribe, in Cra,'ord $# -ashin1ton (2003) $31 4.S. 35 61$# 7.8,.2n, 1229- an, thus a,(issible o.er a Si@th Amendment*right to confrontation/ obCection. ()eop"e $# %or1an- supra- at pp. &35%&32.) 320
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!ther courts ha.e hel, that the contents o" a telephone call are a,(issible as non%hearsay circu(stantial e.i,ence o" the ,e"en,ants ,ope ,ealing. ()eop"e $# Nea"& (1&&1) 22# Cal.App.3r, 332: an, )eop"e $# 9entura (1&&1) 1 Cal.App.3th 1$1$.) Tip) AsFing "or authori;ation to ans0er the telephone "or the purpose o" establishing *dominion and control/ o.er the place being searche, (8.g.: *Hello, is Doper :ohn homeM/) is also a goo, practice. &omputers- inclu,ing ,isFs- etc.- base, upon the a""iant s Fno0le,ge that cri(inals 0ill o"ten chronicle their cri(inal acti.ities on their co(puters- (ay o"ten be inclu,e,. Eith su""icient probable cause connecting a co(puter to cri(inal acti.ity- the co(puter an, all its attach(ents- ,isFsetc.- are subCect to sei;ure an, re(o.al to a lab 0here it (ay be properly an, care"ully inspecte, by e?perts. (United States $# 0a& (&th Cir. 2000) 231 B.3r, 530: see also )eop"e $# U""oa (2002) 101 Cal.App.3th 1000.) See also Guest $# 2eis (5th Cir. 2001) 2$$ B.3r, 32$- 333%332: sei;ure o" the 0hole co(puter syste( 0as not unreasonable so long as there 0as probable cause to conclu,e that e.i,ence o" a cri(e 0oul, be "oun, on the co(puter. An, %ah".er1 $# %ent5er (#th Cir. 1&&2) &5# B.2n, 222: sei;ure o" co(puter e@uip(ent- progra(s an, ,isFs not liste, in the 0arrant uphel,. Sei;ure o" co(puters in a ho(ici,e in.estigation Custi"ie, by probable cause to belie.e that speci"ic ,ocu(entary e.i,ence 0oul, reasonably be "oun, in the ,e"en,ant s co(puter. (United States $# -on1 (&th Cir. 2003) 333 B.3r, #31.) A laptop co(puter- open an, runningproperly sei;e, as potential e.i,ence o" 321
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,o(inion an, control o.er the searche, pre(ises- e.en though not speci"ically liste, in the 0arrant. ()eop"e $# a"int (2005) 13# Cal.App.3th 200: see also )eop"e $# 9ar1hese (200#) 152 Cal.App.3th 10#31100%1103.) +he co(puter o" a roo((ate- the roo((ate hi(sel" not being targete,- 0here there is probable cause to belie.e that the suspect has access to the roo((ate s co(puter- 0as properly liste, in the 0arrant a""i,a.it as an ite( to be searche,. +he critical ele(ent in a search is not 0hether the o0ner o" property to be searche, is a suspect- but rather 0hether there is reasonable cause to belie.e that it contains sei;able e.i,ence. (United States $# Ad;ani (&th Cir. 2005) 3$2 B.3r, 1130.) +he sei;ure o" ,e"en,ant s co(puter an, all co(puter relate, ite(s (e.g.- co(pact ,isFs"loppy ,isFs- har, ,ri.es- (e(ory car,sDUDs- .i,eotapes- an, other portable ,igital ,e.ices)- base, upon no (ore than the ,isco.ery o" one printe,%out photo o" chil, pornography- 0as la0"ul in that it 0as reasonable to conclu,e that the picture ha, co(e "ro( his co(puter an, that si(ilar pictures 0ere liFely to be store, in it. (United States $# ro.st (&th Cir. 200&) $$# B.3r, &#2- &&3.) Bailure o" the (agistrate s or,er to inclu,e an authori;ation to search ,e"en,ant s co(puter- e.en though in the state(ent o" probable cause the a""iant in,icate, a ,esire to search any possible co(puters "oun, in ,e"en,ant s house- 0as a "atal o(ission. Searching ,e"en,ant s co(puter- there"ore0ent beyon, the scope o" the 0arrant s authori;ation. (United States $# )a&ton (&th Cir. 200&) $23 B.3r, #$&- #51%#53.) +he "act that the issuing (agistrate testi"ie, to an intent to allo0 "or the 322
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search o" ,e"en,ant s co(puters- an, that the 0arrant inclu,e, authori;ation to search "or certain liste, recor,s 0hich (ight be "oun, in a co(puter- 0as hel, to be irrele.ant. (Id. at pp. #52%#53.) Gut see United States $# Gi.erson (&th Cir. 200#) $22 B.3r, ##2- 0here it 0as hel, that so(e circu(stances (ight lea, searching o""icers to a reasonable conclusion that ,ocu(entary e.i,ence they are seeFing 0oul, be containe, in co(puters "oun, at the locationauthori;ing the search o" those containers ,espite the "ailure o" the 0arrant to list co(puters as things that (ay be searche,. 1t 0as reco((en,e,- ho0e.er- that the co(puter be sei;e, an, a secon, 0arrant be obtaine, authori;ing its search. See )eop"e $# Ran1e" (2012) 205 Cal.App.3th 1310- 1315- liFening ,e"en,ant s *s(artphone/ to a co(putergi.en its capability to store photographs- e% (ail a,,resses- an, other personal in"or(ation. See *&omputer earches-/ un,er *Probable &ause 'ssues-/ belo0- an, * earches of &ell Phones, Dis?s, &omputers and ;ther High Tech A&ontainers / un,er * earches of &ontainers-/ belo0. 'nad!ertent changes to the language o" a 0arrant an, a""i,a.it a"ter it is signe, by the Cu,ge create issues that coul, result in suppression o" all- or (aybe a part o"- the e.i,ence sei;e,- ,epen,ing upon the "lagrancy o" the .iolation. (United States $# Sears (&th Cir. 200$) 311 B.3r, 1123: se.erance an, partial suppression hel, to be su""icient sanction 0here the o""icer use, the 0rong attach(ent ,escribing the places to be searche, an, 323
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property to be sei;e, 0hich 0as ,i""erent in only a "e0(inor 0ays.) *<eneral =arrants)/ Earrants 0ithout su""icient particularity (i.e.- *general warrants/) are legally insu""icient an, in.ali,. ( urro,s $# Superior Court (1&23) 13 Cal.3r, 23#- 23&%2$0.) *+he purpose o" the Aparticularity re@uire(ent o" the Fourth Amendment is to a.oi, general an, e?ploratory searches by re@uiring a particular ,escription o" the ite(s to be sei;e,. 6Citation9/ ()eop"e $# rad'ord (1&&2) 1$ Cal.3th 122&- 12&5: citing Co""id1e $# Ne, 0ampshire (1&21) 303 4.S 333- 352 62& 7.8,.2n, $53- $#39: an, Stan'ord $# Te!as (1&5$) 32& 4.S. 325- 3#$ 613 7.8,.2n, 3323329.) *Particularity/ is the re@uire(ent that the 0arrant (ust clearly state 0hat is sought. *$readth/ ,eals 0ith the re@uire(ent that the scope o" the 0arrant be li(ite, by the probable cause on 0hich the 0arrant is base,. (United States $# SDI Future 0ea"th, Inc# (&th Cir. 200&) $5# B.3r, 5#3202.) +his *particularity/ re@uire(ent ser.es t0o i(portant purposes. 1t) 7i(its the ,iscretion o" the o""icers e?ecuting the 0arrant: and 1n"or(s the property o0ner or resi,ent o" the proper scope o" the search.

(United States $# 9esi(uru (&th Cir. 2002) 313 B.3r, 1115- 1123%1123: (United States $# SDI Future 0ea"th, Inc#- supra- at pp. 201% 20$.) A search 0arrant an, a""i,a.it that "ails to *particularly describe/ an, place *meaningful restrictions/ on the property to be sei;e,- .iolates 323
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the Fourth Amendment. (United States $# rid1es (&th Cir. 2003) 333 B.3r, 1010.) Describing in the 0arrant itsel" (as oppose, to the a""i,a.it) the suspecte, cri(inal o""ense(s) might be enough to o.erco(e an other0ise *o!erly broad/ ,escription o" the property to be sei;e,- in that it at least puts the searching o""icers on so(e notice as to the li(its o" their ,iscretion. (Id.- at p. 101#.) An e?ception to this rule (i.e.- *o!erly broad/) (ight be 0hen the place being searche, is a business- an, it is allege, an, substantiate, in the a""i,a.it that the business s *entire operation was permeated with fraud./ (Id.- at pp. 101#%101&: United States $# SDI Future 0ea"th, Inc# (&th Cir. 200&) $5# B.3r, 5#3- 203- an, "n. 13.) United States $# Smith (&th Cir. 200$) 323 B.3r, &&2- 1003%1005.) 1n Smith- an *extraordinarily broad/ search 0arrant 0as hel, to be Custi"ie, 0here it 0as ,eter(ine, that *the entirety o" the businesses operate, by (,e"en,ants) are cri(inal in nature./ (Id.- at p. 1005.) *(+)he (ore speci"icity the 0arrant ,escribes the ite(s sought- the (ore li(ite, the scope o" the search. Con.ersely- the (ore generic the ,escription- the greater the risF o" a prohibite, general search. (Citation)/ ()eop"e $# a"int (2005) 13# Cal.App.3th 200- 205.) Sei;ure o" *all computer media/ is not too broa,gi.en the ,i""iculty in ,eter(ining 0hat (ight be on such (e,ia prior to a "orensic e?a(ination by e?perts- at least so long as there is an e?planation in the a""i,a.it e?plaining 0hy a 0holesale sei;ure is necessary un,er the circu(stances. (United States $# 0i"" (&th Cir. 2005) 3$& B.3r, &55- &23%&22.) 32$
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4se o" language such as: * . . . including, but not limited to . . ./ shoul, not be use,- in that such a ,escription is too general- an, legally insu""icient to Custi"y sei;ure o" any property inten,e, to be inclu,e, un,er the *not limited to/ phrase. (See United States $# Ree$es (&th Cir. 2000) 210 B.3r, 1031- 1035%1032: United States $# rid1es- supraat pp. 1012%101#.) *1n,icia ten,ing to establish the i,entity o" persons in control o" the pre(ises-/ has been hel, to be speci"ic enough. (E,in1 $# Cit& o' Stoc(ton (&th Cir. 200&) $## B.3r, 121#- 122&.) 1te(s liste, in a search 0arrant to be sei;e, that are "oun, to be *o!erbroad/ (ay be se.ere, 0ithout a""ecting the other0ise .ali, portions o" the 0arrant. +his is true 0hether the issue arises in a cri(inal (United States $# SDI Future 0ea"th, Inc! (&th Cir. 200&) $5# B.3r, 5#3- 202.) or a ci.il case. (E,in1 $# Cit& o' Stoc(ton (&th Cir. 200&) $## B.3r, 121#- 122#%122&.) upplementing the *ffida!it) +o be legally e""ecti.e- the a""i,a.it (ay be supple(ente, by an e?a(ination- un,er oath- o" the a""iant by the (agistrate. ((!C! 1)22) +he oral e?a(ination- ho0e.er- 0ill not be consi,ere, part o" the probable cause unless re,uce, to 0riting an, signe, by the a""iant. (Charne& $# Superior Court (1&22) 22 Cal.App.3r, ###- #&1.) 1n"or(ation not containe, *0ithin the "our corners o" a 0ritten a""i,a.it gi.en un,er oath/ 0ill not be consi,ere, an, cannot be use, to help establish probable cause. (United States $# 2uon1 (&th Cir. 2005) 320 B.3r, #&#- &03&0$.) Jote that there is so(e "e,eral case authority to the contrary- "ro( other circuits- allo0ing in"or(ation Fno0n to the a""iant an, tol, to the (agistrate to be consi,ere,. (See United States $# Fra5ier (5th Cir. 200$) 323 B.3r, $25- $3$%$35: United States $# 2e11 (3th Cir. 1&&3) 1# B.3r, 230- 233.233: an, see ,issenting opinion in United States $# 2uon1supra.- at pp. &0$%&02.) 325
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&ombined *ffida!it with =arrant) So(e authorities a,.ocate the use o" a co(bine, search 0arrant an, a""i,a.it "or( 0ith an attache, ,eclaration o" probable cause. (See )eop"e $# %acA$o& (1&#3) 152 Cal.App.3r, 235: an, the "os *ngeles &ounty earch =arrant ,anual- 12th 8,ition- Chapter 1 an, Appen,i? A.) Io0e.er- care (ust be taFen to insure that the attache, ,eclaration o" probable cause is *incorporated by reference-/ signe,- an, s0orn to by the o""icer- "or the 0arrant to be legally su""icient. ()eop"e $# 2eonard (1&&5) $0 Cal.App.3th #2#: ,e"ecti.e 0arrant sa.e, un,er *<ood (aith/ e?ception. See also (United States $# SDI Future 0ea"th, Inc# (&th Cir. 200&) $5# B.3r, 5#3- 5&&%200.) 1ncorporation (ay be (a,e si(ply by using *suitable words of reference./ (Id.- at pp. 5&&%200: citing United States $# To,ne (&th Cir. 1&&3) &&2 B.2n, $32- $3$.) Ehile no speci"ic language is necessary- the Jinth Circuit has uphel, such 0or,ing as: *#pon the sworn complaint made before me there is probable cause to belie!e that the 6gi!en9 crime . . . has been committed./ (United States $# 9esi(uru (&th Cir. 2002) 313 B.3r, 1115- 1120: see also United States $# SDI Future 0ea"th, Inc#- supra- at pp. 5&&%200.) +he Jinth Circuit also re@uires that the incorporate, a""i,a.it is either attache, physically to the 0arrant or a least acco(panies the 0arrant 0hile agents e?ecute the search. (United States $# SDI Future 0ea"th, Inc#- supra- at p. 5&&.) Also- such a "or(at potentially raises issues concerning the nee, to pro.i,e a copy o" the a""i,a.it to the suspect- along 0ith the 0arrant. (See United States $# Gantt (&th Cir. 1&&&) 1&3 B.3r, &#2- 1001- an, "n. 2: a""i,a.it nee,e, to cure a ,e"iciency in the ,escription o" the property to be sei;e,: an, United States $# Smith (&th Cir. 200$) 323 B.3r, &&21005%100#.) ,ultiple *ffiantsJ*ffida!its) +here (ay be (ore than one a""iant an,Nor (ore than one a""i,a.it in support o" a search 0arrant. (S(e"ton $# Superior Court (1&5&) 1 Cal.3r, 133: (!C! 1)21.)

322
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taleness) +he in"or(ation containe, in the 0arrant a""i,a.it (ust not be *stale./ ()eop"e $# %esa (1&2$) 13 Cal.3r, 355- 320.) 1n"or(ation that is re(ote in ti(e (ay be ,ee(e, to be too stale an, there"ore unreliable. (A"e!ander $# Superior Court (1&23) & Cal. 3r, 3#2- 3&3.) Delays o" (ore than four wee?s- at least in a narcotics sales case an, absent so(e ne0 e.i,ence ten,ing to sho0 the continue, presence o" the controlle, substances in @uestionare generally consi,ere, insu""icient to ,e(onstrate present probable cause. Bor instance) See 0em"er $# Superior Court (1&2$) 33 Cal.App.3r, 330- 333%333: ,elay o" 33 ,ays bet0een controlle, sale o" heroin an, the o""icer s a""i,a.it "or the search 0arrant is stale.) Delay o" $2 ,ays bet0een a controlle, buy o" al(ost a poun, o" (ariCuana an, the e?ecution o" a search 0arrant- ,espite the o""icer s e?pert opinion that the seller 0oul, still ha.e contraban, in his resi,ence (the sale taFing place in a parFing lot in another city)- 0as hel, to be stale. ()eop"e $# 0u""and (2003) 110 Cal.App.3th 1535.) A ,elay o" t0o (onths an, three 0eeFs (#2 ,ays) bet0een the purchase o" (etha(pheta(ine an, the obtaining o" a search 0arrant "or ,e"en,ant s house 0as too long. Eith the in"or(ation being stale- the 0arrant 0as in.ali, as to hi(. 1t is irrele.ant that ,e"en,ant s purchase o" ,rugs 0as part o" a nine% (onth in.estigation into a ,rug%tra""icFing conspiracy in.ol.ing (ultiple suspects 0hen there 0as no sho0ing that ,e"en,ant hi(sel" 0as in.ol.e, at all ,uring the t0o (onths an, three 0eeFs in @uestion. ()eop"e $# 0irata (200&) 12$ Cal.App.3th 13&&.) Ehile *stale information/ by itsel" 0ill not generally support a "in,ing o" probable cause- 0hen co(bine, 0ith so(e e.i,ence o" a present cri(inal .iolation- an ongoing pattern o" cri(inal acti.ity (ay a,, up to su""icient probable cause. ()eop"e $# %i(ese"" (1&&5) 35 Cal.App.3th 1211: so(eti(es calle, an *historical warrant:/ see also )eop"e $# %edina (1&#$) 15$ Cal.App.3r, 11- 20%21.) 32#
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A continuing cri(inal enterprise- 0ith no reason to belie.e the ,e"en,ant has (o.e, "ro( her ho(e 0here she 0as Fno0n to ha.e li.e, so(e si? (onths earlier- negate, any staleness issue. ()eop"e $# Gi.son (2001) &0 Cal.App.3th 321- 3#0%3#1.) 8?pert opinion that- un,er the circu(stances- the sought% "or property is liFely still to be "oun, on the pre(ises to be searche, 0ill nor(ally o.erco(e an issue o" staleness. (See United States $# 2ac& (&th Cir. 1&&2) 11& B.3r, 232: 10% (onth ol, in"or(ation concerning the recei.ing o" chil, pornography.) Gut see )eop"e $# 0u""and- supra- 0here the o""icer s e?pert opinion 0as hel, to be insu""icient to o.erco(e a staleness ($2 ,ays) issue in a narcotics sales case. *1" circu(stances 0oul, Custi"y a person o" or,inary pru,ence to conclu,e that an acti.ity ha, continue, to the present ti(e- then the passage o" ti(e 0ill not ren,er the in"or(ation stale./ ()eop"e $# Carrin1ton (200&) 32 Cal.3th 13$- 153: @uoting )eop"e $# 0u""and- supra- at p. 15$2.) 1n Carrin1ton- the Cali"ornia Supre(e Court hel, that it there 0as a *fair probability/ that ,e"en,ant 0oul, still ha.e stolen checFs in her ho(e e.en a"ter t0o (onths 0hen so(e o" the checFs re(aine, outstan,ing- as 0ell as a Fey to the business that she , burglari;e,. ()eop"e $# Carrin1ton- supra.- at pp. 153%153.) 8.i,ence that the ,e"en,ant s cri(inal acti.ities are a continuing o""ense- 0ith no reason to belie.e that the ,e"en,ant Fno0 he 0as being in.estigate,- an, e.ery reason to belie.e that ,e"en,ant 0oul, retain incri(inating e.i,ence- a search 0arrant 0ill not be hel, to be base, upon stale in"or(ation. ()eop"e $# Stipo (2011) 1&$ Cal.App.3th 553- 522%523: a co(puter%hacFing enterprise.) (ingerprints) Jote 0a&es $# F"orida (1&#$) 320 4.S. #11 6#3 7.8,.2n, 20$9- "or the proposition that a 0arrant (ay authori;e the te(porary ,etention- 0ithout probable cause- o" a person "or the purpose o" taFing "ingerprints if)

32&
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+here is at least a *reasonable suspicion/ that the suspect co((itte, a cri(inal act: +here is a reasonable basis "or belie.ing that "ingerprints 0ill establish or negate the suspect s connection 0ith that cri(e: and +he proce,ure use, is carrie, out 0ith ,ispatch. *+here is thus support in our cases "or the .ie0 that the Fourth Amendment 0oul, per(it sei;ures "or purposes o" "ingerprinting- i" there is reasonable suspicion that the suspect has co((itte, a cri(inal act- i" there is a reasonable basis "or belie.ing that "ingerprinting 0ill establish or negate the suspect s connection 0ith that cri(e- an, i" the proce,ure is carrie, out 0ith ,ispatch./ (Id!- at p. #12.) +ote) +he Court in 0a&es speci"ically ,ecline, to ,eci,e 0hether this 0oul, inclu,e transporting the subCect to the station "or "ingerprinting. Gecause a non%consensual transportation is generally consi,ere, to be an arrestre@uiring "ull%blo0n *probable cause/ (See *Detentions-/ abo.e)- it is strongly suggeste, that the proce,ure be con,ucte, in the "iel,. See also Da$is $# %ississippi (1&5&) 3&3 4.S. 221- 222%22# 622 7.8,.2n, 525- 5#1%5#29: noting that the taFing o" "ingerprints o" a person 0ho is (erely subCect to a te(porary ,etention is la0"ul. *nd +ote 9ir1"e $# Superior Court (2002) 100 Cal.App.3th $22- $23: 0here the Court re"erre, to 0a&es 0ith appro.al. Although the abo.e hol,ing in 0a&es is ,icta- it is *care"ully consi,ere, language/ that shoul, be accor,e, 0eight. (United States $# Dorce"& (D.C. Cir. 2005) 3$3 B.3r, 355- 32$.)

Description of the facts an, circu(stances that co(prise the probable cause) *&onclusory-/ as oppose, to *factual-/ allegations by the a""iant are legally insu""icient. ( arnes $# Te!as (1&5$) 3#0 4.S. 2$3 613 7.8,.2n, #1#9.)

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+ote) +he a""iant (ust ,escribe the facts and circumstances 0hich co(prise the probable cause- so that a (agistrate (ay in,epen,ently e.aluate the e?istence or none?istence o" su""icient "acts to Custi"y issuance o" the 0arrant. Oerely listing the a""iant s conclusions- 0ithout ,escribing the "acts an, circu(stances that lea, to the a""iant s conclusions- is legally insu""icient. 4sing ter(s such as *pornography/ an, *harmful matter/ 0ithout ,escribing 0hat it is the a""iant belie.es is pornographic- is a conclusory state(ent that (ay in.ali,ate a 0arrant. ()eop"e $# 0a"e (200$) 133 Cal.App.3th &32: 0arrant sa.e, by other language in the a""i,a.it "ro( 0hich the (agistrate coul, in"er the pornographic nature o" the pictures.) *<ood (aith)/ !""icers obtaining a search 0arrant in *good faith/ an, acting in reasonable reliance on an other0ise "acially .ali, 0arrant- issue, by a neutral an, ,etache, (agistrate- 0ill not re@uire suppression o" e.i,ence e.en 0hen the 0arrant is later "oun, to be lacFing in probable cause. (United States $# 2eon (1&#3) 35# 4.S. #&2 6#2 7.8,.2n, 5229.) See *<ood (aith-/ abo.e. #se of Hearsay) 4se o" hearsay in an a""i,a.it- or e.en *double (i.e.- (ultiple le.el) hearsay-/ is oFay *so long as there 6is9 a substantial basis "or cre,iting the hearsay./ (United States $# 9entresca (1&5$) 3#0 4.S 102- 10# 612 7.8,.2n, 5#3- 5##%5#&9@uoting *ones $# United States (1&50) 352 4.S. 2$2- 222 63 7.8,.2n, 5&2- 20#9: )eop"e $# Superior Court 6 in1ham7 (1&2&) &1 Cal.App.3r, 353- 35&.) an,- in "act- is usually una.oi,able. ()eop"e $# %a1ana (1&2&) &$ Cal.App.3r, 3$3- 350- 352.) See also Cit& o' Santa Cru5 $# %unicipa" Court (1&#&) 3& Cal.3r, 23- #2%##: )eop"e $# Smith (1&25) 12 Cal.3r, #3$#$0.) 8ach le.el o" hearsay- ho0e.er- (ust be sho0n in the a""i,a.it to be reliable. (See )eop"e $# Superior Court 6 in1ham7- supra: Ca"i1ari $# Superior Court (1&2&) &# Cal.App.3r, 22$: )eop"e $# 2o$e (1&#$) 15# Cal.App.3r, 103.) %iranda) State(ents taFen in .iolation o" the ,e"en,ant s %iranda rights (%iranda $# Ari5ona (1&55) 3#3 4.S. 335 615 331
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7.8,.2n, 5&39.)- so long as not coerce, or in.oluntary- (ay be use, in an a""i,a.it a,,ing to the probable cause. (United States $# )atterson (&th Cir. 1&#2) #12 B.2n, 11##- 11&3: )eop"e $# re,er (2000) #1 Cal.App.3th 332.) Third )art&?s Fourth Amendment 9io"ation) 8.i,ence obtaine, in .iolation o" so(eone else s (i.e.- so(eone other than the present ,e"en,ant s) Fourth Amendment (search and seizure) rights (ay be use, as part o" the probable cause in a search 0arrant a""i,a.itunless the ,e"en,ant can sho0 that he has *standing/ (i.e.- it 0as his reasonable e?pectation o" pri.acy that 0as .iolate,) to challenge the use o" the e.i,ence. ()eop"e $# %adrid (1&&2) 2 Cal.App.3th 1###- 1#&5.) * tanding/ ,epen,s upon a sho0ing that it 0as the ,e"en,ant s o0n constitutional rights 0hich 0ere .iolate,. ()eop"e $# Shepherd (1&&3) 23 Cal.App.3th #2$- #2#.) See * tanding-/ abo.e. 1n"or(ation in a search 0arrant a""i,a.it that is the pro,uct o" a .iolation o" the ,e"en,ant s o0n Fourth Amendment rights 0ill be e?cise, "ro( the a""i,a.it. +he re,acte, a""i,a.it 0ill then be reteste, to ,eter(ine 0hether probable cause still e?ists. ()eop"e $# -eiss (1&&&) 20 Cal.3th 1023- 10#1.) Pri!ileged 'nformation) 1n"or(ation that co(es into the han,s o" la0 en"orce(ent that (ay be *pri!ileged information-/ obtaine, 0ithout any *complicity/ on the part o" la0 en"orce(ent- (ay be use, as a part o" the probable cause Custi"ying the issuance o" the search 0arrant. ()eop"e $# Na$arro (2005) 13# Cal.App.3th 135: Attorney%Client in"or(ation supplie, by the attorney in .iolation o" ?!C! ")3 et se*!: see also United States $# -hite (2th Cir. 1&&2) &20 B.2n, 32#.) +he issue is one o" a Fifth +an, Fourteenth) Amendment *due process/ .iolation. ()eop"e $# Na$arro- supra.) Geing a *passi!e recipient of pri!ileged information/ sho0s a lacF o" *complicity./ (Id.- at pp. 1$#%152.) 332
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+o sho0 that la0 en"orce(ent 0as not Cust a passi.e recipient o" pri.ilege, in"or(ation- the ,e"en,ant (ust pro.e that) +he go.ern(ent (i.e.- la0 en"orce(ent) Fne0 a la0yer%client relationship e?iste, bet0een the ,e"en,ant an, its in"or(ant: +he go.ern(ent ,eliberately intru,e, into that relationship: and +he ,e"en,ant 0as preCu,ice, as a result. (I.id- citing United States $# /enned& (10th Cir. 2000) 22$ B.3r, 11&2- 11&3%11&$.) 7a0 en"orce(ent o""icers gaining access to- an, rea,ingpri.ilege, (aterial (,e"en,ant s notes to his attorney)- a Si@th Amendment .iolation- ,i, not re@uire ,is(issal o" the case or any other sanctions absent e.i,ence that ,e"en,ant 0as so(eho0 ,isa,.antage, by the .iolation. 1n this case- Cail sheri"" s ,eputies looFe, at notes ,e"en,ant ha, 0ritten to his attorney. Io0e.er- there 0as no e.i,ence that any o" the in"or(ation ,isco.ere, by this .iolation 0as passe, onto the prosecutors. Jone o" the ,eputies 0ere 0itnesses in the case. +here being no preCu,ice- ,e"en,ant s (otion to ,is(iss 0as properly ,enie,. ()eop"e $# Er$ine (200&) 32 Cal.3th 23$- 253%222.) Ehen a prosecutor instructs her in.estigator to ea.es,rop on an attorney%client con.ersation in a courtroo( hol,ing cell- such an act is so egregious to 0arrant ,is(issal o" the case. (%orro, $# Superior Court (1&&3) 30 Cal.App.3th 12$2.) Howe!er- la0 en"orce(ent o""icers intentionally ea.es,ropping on an attorney%client con.ersation that taFes place at the o""ices o" the la0 en"orce(ent agency- 0ithout the co(plicity o" a prosecutor- is not so egregious as to re@uire ,is(issal. 8?clusion o" the ,isco.ere, in"or(ationan, any pro,ucts o" that in"or(ation- is su""icient a re(e,y un,er the circu(stances. ()eop"e $# Shrier et a"# (2010) 1&0 Cal.App.3th 300.) +ighttime earches) Justi"ication "or a nightti(e search (ust be establishe, in the 0arrant a""i,a.it by establishing *good cause-/ 333
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risFing the possible suppression o" e.i,ence i" it is not. ((!C! 1)33: Tutt"e $# Superior Court (1&#1) 120 Cal.App.3r, 320- 32#.) ee Rodri1ue5 $ Superior Court (1&##) 1&& Cal.App.3r, 13$3- 1320: suggesting that because a night search ,oes not .iolate any constitutional principles- e.i,ence ,isco.ere, ,uring a nightti(e search 0ithout Cu,icial authori;ation shoul, not result in suppression o" any e.i,ence. Gut see ra$o $# Cit& o' Santa %aria (&th Cir. 2011) 55$ B.3r, 1025- 10#$%10#5- 0here the Court "oun, the "ailure to Custi"y the nee, "or a nightti(e search to be the intrusi.e e@ui.alent o" "ailing to co(ply 0ith the *FnocF an, notice/ re@uire(ents. *+ighttime/ "or purposes o" e?ecuting a search 0arrant is between /.I.. p2m2 and 1I.. a2m2 ((!C! 1)33) +he search nee, only be co((ence, be"ore 10)00 p.(. 1t is irrele.ant ho0 long a"ter 10)00 p.(. it taFes to "inish the search. ()eop"e $# 4epeda (1&#0) 102 Cal.App.3r, 1- 2%#.) The test "or ,eter(ining *good cause/ is as "ollo0s) *(+)he a""i,a.it "urnishe, the (agistrate (ust set "orth speci"ic "acts 0hich sho0 a necessity "or ser.ice o" the 0arrant at night rather than bet0een the hours o" 2 a.(. an, 10 p.(. +his (eans that the (agistrate (ust be in"or(e, o" "acts "ro( 0hich it reasonably (ay be conclu,e, that the contraban, to be sei;e, 0ill not be in the place to be searche, ,uring the hours o" 2 a.(. to 10 p.(./ ()eop"e $# -atson (1&22) 2$ Cal.App.3r, $&2- $&#.) +he nee, "or a nightti(e search (ay be sho0n by a ,escription o" *so(e "actual basis "or a pru,ent conclusion that the greater intrusi.eness o" a nightti(e search is Custi"ie, by the e?igencies o" the situation./ ()eop"e $# /im."e (1&##) 33 Cal.3r, 3#0- 3&3.) +ote) Ehile typically this is an issue in the searches o" residences- the statute ((!C! 1)33) is not so restricte,. +here"ore- a search 0arrant authori;ing the search o" a person- .ehicle- or other container may also re@uire a *nighttime endorsement/ i" e?ecute, at night. "ea!ing a &opy at the cene) 1t is not legally re@uire, that a copy o" the a""i,a.it be le"t at the scene (United States $# Ce"estine (&th Cir. 2003) 323 B.3r, 10&$- 1102.)- at least 0hen the place to be 333
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searche, an, the property to be sei;e, is su""iciently ,escribe, in the search 0arrant itsel". (United States $# %cGre, (&th Cir. 1&&2) 122 B.3r, #32.) See *"ea!ing a &opy of the =arrant, *ffida!it andJor Receipt and 'n!entory-/ belo0. )#C# B CD6: Victim and =itness &onfidential 'nformation) (!C! "24 re@uires the establish(ent o" proce,ures to protect the con"i,entiality o" *confidential personal information/ o" .icti(s an, 0itnesses. +he section is ,irecte, pri(arily at prosecutors an, the courts- but also contains a pro.ision "or ,ocu(ents "ile, by la0 en"orce(ent 0ith a court in support o" search an, arrest 0arrants: i.e.- an affida!it. *&onfidential personal information/ inclu,es- but is not limited to- a,,resses- telephone nu(bers- ,ri.er s license an, Cali"ornia i,enti"ication car, nu(bers- social security nu(bers- ,ate o" birth- place o" e(ploy(ent- e(ployee i,enti"ication nu(bers- (other s (ai,en na(e- ,e(an, ,eposit account nu(bers- sa.ings or checFing account nu(bers- an, cre,it car, nu(bers. (Su4d! +4,) Third) +he *Receipt and 'n!entory/ (or *Return/)) +his ,ocu(ent is sel"% ,escripti.e. 1t is use, to list the property sei;e, as a result o" the ser.ice o" the search 0arrant. ((!C! 1)3)) +he original is returne, to the Court 0ith the original 0arrant an, a""i,a.it. A copy is le"t 0ith the person "ro( 0ho( property is taFen- or le"t at the place searche,- as a receipt o" "or those ite(s taFen by the searching o""icers. (!C! 1)3) is not to be interprete, as a re@uire(ent to sho0 to the suspect- or to lea.e a copy o" at the scene- the search 0arrant itsel". ()eop"e $# Ca"a.rese (2002) 101 Cal.App.3th 2&.) Sources o' In'ormation Esta."ishin1 )ro.a."e Cause) ;ther Police ;fficers) Suspect in"or(ation or other cri(inal acti.ity in"or(ation recei.e, "ro( other peace o""icers- either .erbally- at pre%shi"t brie"ings- "ro( ,epart(ent%originate, notices- etc.- or 0hen co((unicate, .ia ra,io through the police ,ispatcher- is consi,ere, reliable an, generally establishes probable cause to arrest or search by 33$
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itsel". ()eop"e $# 0i"" (1&23) 12 Cal.3r, 231- 251: )eop"e $# Ramire5 (1&&2) $& Cal.App.3th 1$3#.) +his is so(eti(es re"erre, to as ha.ing recei.e, in"or(ation through *official channels-/ 0hich re"ers to 0hen it co(es "ro( any la0 en"orce(ent source. ()eop"e $# 2ara (1&52) 52 Cal.2n, 35$- 321.) 8?a(ples) Police ra,io broa,casts. Pre%shi"t brie"ings. *A.P.G.s/ (i.e.- an **ll6Points $ulletin/) an, si(ilar la0 en"orce(ent generate, (e(os.

$ut) 8.entually- la0 en"orce(ent (ay be re@uire, in court to trace the in"or(ation bacF to its source in or,er to ,ispro.e an accusation that the in"or(ation establishing probable cause 0as *manufactured in the police station:/ i.e.- that it 0as the result o" speculation or other unreliable source. ()eop"e $# Oro5co (1&#1) 113 Cal.App.3r, 33$.) +his is so(eti(es re"erre, to as the *0ar$e&E%adden rule-/ base, upon authority in )eop"e $# 0ar$e& (1&$#) 1$5 Cal.App.2n, $15- an, )eop"e $# %adden (1&20) 2 Cal.3r, 1012- or an *O;eda motion-/ base, upon O;eda $# Superior Court (1&20) 12 Cal.App.3r, &0&.) Io0e.er- an e?ception to the *0ar$e&E%adden rule/ is generally "oun, 0hen the respon,ing o""icers "in, the situation at the scene to be consistent 0ith the substance o" the ra,io call. Ehen the source o" the in"or(ation is corroborate, by 0hat is "oun, at the scene- there is no longer any purpose in "urther corroboration by calling as a 0itness the source o" that in"or(ation. (In re Richard G# (200&) 123 Cal.App.3th 12$2- 12$#%1250: ,isagreeing 0ith In re Es(ie" S# (1&&3) 1$ Cal.App.3th 153#- 0hich re@uire, strict co(pliance 0ith 0ar$e&E%adden.) *Ehen the reason "or a rule ceases- so shoul, the rule itsel"./ (Ci:! Code 3)13, &itizen 'nformants) Pri.ate persons (oti.ate, to pro.i,e la0 en"orce(ent 0ith in"or(ation o" cri(inal 0rong,oing purely through a sense o" goo, citi;enship- 0ithout e?pecting any bene"it or re0ar, in return.

335
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1n"or(ation "ro( a *citizen informant/ establishes probable cause by itsel"- at least as to "acts 0ithin the in"or(ant s personal Fno0le,ge- absent Fno0n or suspecte, "acts or circu(stances that cast ,oubt upon the reliability o" the in"or(ation pro.i,e,. ()eop"e $# Rame& (1&25) 15 Cal.3r, 253- 25&.) +ote) +his assu(es that the 0itness has the e?pertise necessary to interpret 0hat it is he sees. 8.g.- a 0itness telling la0 en"orce(ent that he has obser.e, a person using a controlle, substances 0oul, ha.e to be able to establish that he has the training or e?perience to recogni;e 0hat the controlle, substance looFs liFe. *1t (ay . . . be state, as a general proposition that pri.ate citi;ens 0ho are 0itnesses to or .icti(s o" a cri(inal act- absent so(e circu(stances that 0oul, cast ,oubt upon their in"or(ation- shoul, be consi,ere, reliable./ ()eop"e $# Rame&- supra- at pp. 25#%25&: see also )eop"e $# Duncan (1&23) & Cal.3r, 21#: an, )eop"e $# 0o1an (1&5&) 21 Cal.2n, ###- #&0.) +he .icti( o" a cri(e 0ill usually @uali"y. ()eop"e $# Gri''in (1&52) 2$0 Cal.App.2n, $3$- $$0.) *Ee ha.e ,istinguishe, bet0een those in"or(ants 0ho Aare o"ten cri(inally ,ispose, or i(plicate,- an, supply their *tips/ . . . in secret- an, "or pecuniary or other personal gain an, .icti(s or chance 0itnesses o" cri(e 0ho A.olunteer their in"or(ation "ortuitously- openly- an, through (oti.es o" goo, citi;enship. 6Citation.9 !. an, J. (Cu.enile .icti(s in this case) neither conceale, their i,entity to shiel, the(sel.es "ro( liability "or "alse state(ents nor o""ere, in"or(ation "or any ulterior or pecuniary (oti.e. . . . +he trial court correctly ,ee(e, the chil,ren presu(pti.ely reliable./ (0umphre& $# Appe""ate Di$ision o' the Superior Court (2002) 2& Cal.3th $5&$25.) Gut see Gi""an $s# Cit& o' San %arino (2002) 132 Cal.App.3th 1033- 103$: 0here the allege, .icti( o" a cri(e 0as hel, to be not cre,ible- but then cites the general rule) *+ypically- in"or(ation "ro( a .icti( or a 0itness to a cri(e- *absent so(e circu(stance that 0oul, cast ,oubt upon their in"or(ation-/ is enough to establish probable cause. Such a .icti( or 0itness is generally consi,ere, to be reliable. *1n"or(ation pro.i,e, by a cri(e .icti( or chance 0itness alone can establish probable cause i" the 332
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in"or(ation is su""iciently speci"ic to cause a reasonable person to belie.e that a cri(e 0as co((itte, an, that the na(e, suspect 0as the perpetrator. 6Citation.9 AJeither a pre.ious ,e(onstration o" reliability nor subse@uent corroboration is or,inarily necessary 0hen 0itnesses to or .icti(s o" cri(inal acti.ities report their obser.ations in ,etail to the authorities. 6Citation9/ +he Jinth Circuit Court o" Appeal ,isagrees) *1n establishing probable cause- o""icers (ay not solely rely on the clai( o" a citi;en 0itness that 6s9he 0as a .icti( o" a cri(e- but (ust in,epen,ently in.estigate the basis o" the 0itness s Fno0le,ge or inter.ie0 other 0itnesses./ (&itations omitted: 0op(ins $# on$icino (&th Cir. 200&) $23 B.3r, 2$2- 252.) +he i,entity o" the citi;en in"or(ant nee, not al0ays be ,isclose,but su""icient "acts "or the (agistrate to conclu,e that the in"or(ant ,oes so @uali"y as a citi;en in"or(ant (ust be (a,e a.ailable. ()eop"e $# 2om.era (1&#&) 210 Cal.App.3r, 2&- 32.) So(e in.ol.e(ent 0ith cri(inal acti.ity ,oes not preclu,e one "ro( being classi"ie, as a *citizen informant./ ()eop"e $# Schu""e (1&2$) $1 Cal.App.3r, #0&.) Gut the in"or(ant s moti!ation "or pro.i,ing the in"or(ation (ust be e?a(ine,. 1n"or(ation that initially ca(e to police "ro( an anony(ous in"or(ant 0as ,ee(e, to be reliable 0hen the in"or(ant 0as contacte, an, rea,ily a,(itte, being the source o" the anony(ous in"or(ation. !nce contacte, by la0 en"orce(ent- he pro.i,e, in"or(ation 0ithout hesitation- e?pecting nothing in return. As such- he 0as a *citizen informant/ e.en a"ter changing his story about ho0 he ca(e to Fno0 so(e o" the in"or(ation. 1n"or(ation "ro( a citi;en in"or(ant- as oppose, to an in"or(ant 0ho is looFing "or so(e re0ar, o" bene"it "or hi(sel"- an, 0hich is pro.i,e, out o" apparent goo, citi;enship- is presu(e, to be reliable. ()eop"e $# Scott (2011) $2 Cal.3th 3$2- 32$%325.) Reliable (*Tested/) 'nformants) 1n"or(ants 0ho pro.i,e in"or(ation 0ith the e?pectation o" so(e "a.or or personal gain "ro( la0 en"orce(ent in return- 0hen heNshe is Fno0n to ha.e pro.i,e, la0 en"orce(ent 0ith truth"ul in"or(ation concerning cri(inal acti.ity in the past. +he presu(ption is- absent so(e reason to ,isbelie.e hi(- that such an in"or(ant is reliable. (See )eop"e $# )re,itt (1&$&) $2 Cal.2n, 330- 333%332: )eop"e $# %et51er (1&21) 22 Cal.App.3r, 33#
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33#- 33$: )eop"e $# Dumas (1&23) & Cal.3r, #21: )eop"e $# %cFadin (1&#2) 122 Cal.App.3r, 2$1.) Such an in"or(ant co((only has a cri(inal recor,- pen,ing cri(inal case- an,Nor so(e present in.ol.e(ent in cri(inal acti.ity. +he e?pecte, "a.or or personal gain is so(eti(es re"erre, to as a *benefit./ A *benefit/ is ,e"ine, as *any consi,eration or a,.antage the in"or(ant 0as o""ere,- pro(ise,- or recei.e, in e?change "or the in"or(ation pro.i,e,./ Such a bene"it inclu,esbut is not necessarily li(ite, to) Oonetary pay(ents o" any Fin,- inclu,ing- but not li(ite, to- (oney- roo( an, boar,- or use o" an auto(obile. 7eniency sho0n in arrest or booFing- re@uesting appropriate bail- or contesting the source o" the bail per (!C! 121). 7eniency sho0n in "iling appropriate charges or enhance(ents. Delay in arraign(ent or other court ,ates. Re,uction o" charges- perio, o" custo,y or other con,ition o" probation or sentence- inclu,ing "a.orable input by a prosecutor or la0 en"orce(ent o""icer. Relocation o" the in"or(ant or the in"or(ant s "a(ily. 4se i((unity or transactional i((unity- "or(al or in"or(al. Ba.orable action 0ith other go.ern(ental agencies- ci.il courts- or pri.ate interests (such as e(ployers). ( ource) San Diego District Attorney *&ooperating 'ndi!idual and 'mmunity/ Oanual- 1&&2- Chapter 1- p. 3.) Such a person has a pro.en tracF recor, o" gi.ing reliable in"or(ation in the past. A single prior inci,ent (ay establish reliability (See )eop"e $# Gra& (1&25) 53 Cal.App.3r, 2#2- 2##.)although in such a case- so(e corroboration o" the in"or(ant s in"or(ation (ay be necessary. 33&
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Ia.ing gi.en so(e ba, in"or(ation in the past ,oes not necessarily ,is@uali"y an in"or(ant "ro( being labele, *reliable./ ()eop"e $# ar1er (1&23) 30 Cal.App.3r, 552: )eop"e $# %urph& (1&23) 32 Cal.App.3r, #1.) Io0e.er- "acts sho0ing 0hy in this case the in"or(ant is to be belie.e, (ay be necessary- or other corroboration o" hisNher in"or(ation. +ote) 'n practice- la0 en"orce(ent (ost o"ten seeFs to corroborate e.en a reliable in"or(ant s in"or(ation Cust becausebeing (oti.ate, by personal gain- such a person s cre,ibility is al(ost al0ays so(ething that shoul, be substantiate, be"ore acting upon his or her in"or(ation. #nreliable (*#ntested/) 'nformants) A person 0ho pro.i,es in"or(ation 0ith the e?pectation o" recei.ing so(e "a.or or personal gain in return (i.e.- a *benefit/)- but either 0ithout the prior tracF recor, o" ha.ing gi.en truth"ul in"or(ation- has pro.i,e, untruth"ul in"or(ation in the past- or as o" yet- has not been use, be"ore as an in"or(ant. 1n"or(ation "ro( an unteste, or unreliable in"or(ant is not presu(e, to be cre,ible in the absence o" corroborating in"or(ation. Such an in,i.i,ual (ust be corroborate, be"ore heNshe can be use, to establish probable cause. ()eop"e $# Superior Court 6*ohnson7 (1&22) 5 Cal.3r, 203- 212: )eop"e $# 2o$e (1&#$) 15# Cal.App.3r, 103.) Io0e.er- it has been hel, that t0o unteste, in"or(ants- acting in,epen,ently- (ay be su""icient to corroborate each other. ()eop"e $# a"ass& (1&23) 30 Cal.App.3r, 513- 521.) Howe!er- a search 0arrant a""i,a.it 0as hel, to be insu""icient to establish probable cause e.en though the a""iant ,epen,e, on three in"or(ants. 1n"or(ation "ro( each o" the in"or(ants 0as "oun, to be conclusory only- an, corroborate, each other only as to *pe,estrian "acts/ regar,ing ,e"en,ant s resi,ence an, .ehicle. ()eop"e $# French (2011) 201 Cal.App.3th 1302- 1321%1323.) See *&orroboration-/ belo0- un,er **nonymous 'nformants./ 4se o" an in"or(ant as a prosecution 0itness 0ho Fno0ingly pro.i,es perCure, testi(ony (ay- i" (aterial- be a Fifth an, Fourteenth Amendment *,ue process/ .iolation an, result in a re.ersal o" a ,e"en,ant s con.iction. (%a!,e"" $# Roe (&th Cir. 2010) 52# B.3r, 3#5.) 330
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*nonymous 'nformants) !ne 0ho pro.i,es in"or(ation to la0 en"orce(ent (o"ten .ia a telephone call) 0hile re"using to i,enti"y hi( or hersel". Gecause it is i(possible to ,eter(ine the (oti.ations or cre,ibility o" an anony(ous in"or(ant- such in"or(ation is not consi,ere, reliable by itsel". (-i"son $# Superior Court (1&$5) 35 Cal.2n, 2&1- 2&3.) Anony(ous in"or(ation ,oes not e.en establish a *reasonable suspicion/ o" cri(inal acti.ity (A"a.ama $# -hite (1&&0) 3&5 4.S. 32$- 331 6110 7.8,.2n, 301- 30&: F"orida $# *#2# (2000) $2& 4.S. 255 6135 7.8,.2n, 2$39: United States $# %ora"es (&th Cir. 2001) 2$2 B.3r, 1020.) unless corroborate, by the circu(stances. ()eop"e $# Ramire5 (1&&5) 31 Cal.App.3th 150#.) Anony(ous in"or(ation "ro( at least t0o separate sources (ight,epen,ing upon the circu(stances- establish probable cause. ()eop"e $# Cou"om.e (2001) #5 Cal.App.3th $2.) &orroboration) *Gecause un.eri"ie, in"or(ation "ro( an unteste, or unreliable in"or(ant is or,inarily unreliable- it ,oes not establish probable cause unless it is Acorroborate, in essential respects by other "acts- sources or circu(stances. 6Citations.9 Bor corroboration to be a,e@uate- it (ust pertain to the allege, cri(inal acti.ity: accuracy o" in"or(ation regar,ing the suspect generally is insu""icient. 6Citation.9 Courts taFe a ,i( .ie0 o" the signi"icance o" Ape,estrian "acts such as a suspect s physical ,escription- his resi,ence an, his .ehicles. 6Citation.9 Io0e.er- the corroboration is su""icient i" police in.estigation has unco.ere, probati.e in,ications o" cri(inal acti.ity along the lines suggeste, by the in"or(ant. 6Citation.9 8.en obser.ations o" see(ingly innocent acti.ity pro.i,e su""icient corroboration i" the anony(ous tip casts the acti.ity in a suspicious light. 6Citations.9/ ()eop"e $# *ohnson (1&&0) 220 Cal.App.3r, 232- 23&: )eop"e $# Got'ried (2003) 102 Cal.App.3th 2$3.) Corroboration co(es in (any "or(s. Bor e?a(ple) 1n a narcotics case- using the in"or(ant- a ,i""erent in"or(ant- or an un,erco.er la0 en"orce(ent o""icer- to atte(pt to (aFe a purchase o" narcotics 0hile un,er strict sur.eillance (i.e.- a *controlled buy/)- is a co((on (etho, o" corroborating the in"or(ant s in"or(ation. 331
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Sur.eillance- recor,s checFs- an, other "or(s o" (ore tra,itional in.estigati.e 0orF help to corroborate an in"or(ant s in"or(ation. State(ents "ro( an in"or(ant 0hich are *against the in"or(ant s o0n Apenal interest (i.e.- potentially subCecting the in"or(ant to cri(inal liability)/ (ay be su""icient corroboration. ()eop"e $# %ardian (1&2$) 32 Cal.App.3r, 15- 33: %in1 $# Superior Court (1&20) 13 Cal.App.3r, 205213: United States $# Todhunter (&th Cir. 2002) 2&2 B.3r, ##5- #&0.) Anony(ous in"or(ation corroborate, by accurately pre,icting a suspect s "uture beha.ior (ay itsel" also establish probable cause. (See I""inois $# Gates (1&#3) 352 4.S. 213 625 7.8,.2n, $229.) ee also: **nonymous 'nformation-/ un,er *Detentions-/ abo.e. &onfidential 'nformants) Problem) Ehether classi"ie, as a *&itizen 'nformant-/ a *Tested 'nformant-/ or an *#ntested 'nformant-/ la0 en"orce(ent (ay seeF to Feep the in"or(ant s i,entity con"i,ential. +his is typically necessitate, by the ,anger inherent in the practice o" in"or(ing on cri(inal suspects. Rule) An in"or(ant s i,entity- i" the in"or(ant is use, properly an, 0hen the case is charge, appropriately (i.e.- charging o""enses to 0hich the in"or(ant is not a percipient 0itness- only)- (ay o"ten be Fept con"i,ential. (See ?!C! 1341- 1342+4,- +c, an, +d,) *1t is 0ell settle, that Cali"ornia ,oes not re@uire ,isclosure o" the i,entity o" an in"or(ant 0ho has supplie, probable cause "or the issuance o" a search 0arrant 0here ,isclosure is sought (erely to ai, in attacFing probable cause./ (Theodore $# Superior Court (1&22) # Cal.3r, 22- ##.) Restrictions) 1t is only 0hen the court ,eter(ines that there is a *reasonable possibility/ that the in"or(ant can gi.e e.i,ence on the issue o" guilt 0hich (ight result in ,e"en,ant s e?onerationthat the in"or(ant s i,entity 0ill ha.e to be re.eale,. (0onore $# Superior Court (1&5&) 20 Cal.2n, 152- 15#.) Re!ealing the 'nformant)s 'dentity) 1n practice- an in"or(ant s i,entity 0ill ha.e to be re.eale, only) 332
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Ehen he or she 0as an eye0itness to (i.e.- a *percipient witness/)- or an actual participant in- the cri(e or cri(es charge,: or Ehen he or she (ight other0ise be able to pro.i,e e.i,ence "a.orable to the ,e"en,ant. ()eop"e $# Go"ida& (1&53) # Cal.3r, 221- 22#%22&.) Oerely because an in"or(ant 0as a percipient 0itness ,oes not (ean that his i,entity (ust be re.eale,. Gut an in ca(era hearing (ust be hel, in or,er to ,eter(ine 0hether the in"or(ant is a (aterial to ,e"en,ant s innocence. (Da$is $# Superior Court 6)eop"e7 (2010) 1#5 Cal.App.3th 1222- 1225%122#.) Procedure) 1n or,er to a.oi, ha.ing to re.eal an in"or(ant s i,entity- 0e use his or her in"or(ation only to establish probable cause. A search 0arrant is issue, base, upon that probable cause. +hen- the suspect is charge, only 0ith the o""enses re.eale, upon the search an,Nor arrest o" the suspect: (atters to 0hich the in"or(ant is not a 0itness. ,otions to Re!eal the 'dentity of an 'nformant) 1t is the bur,en on the ,e"en,ant to (aFe a su""icient sho0ing that the unna(e, in"or(er ,oes in "act ha.e in"or(ation 0hich 0oul, be (aterial to the ,e"en,ant s innocence. ()rice $# Superior Court (1&20) 1 Cal.3r, #35- #33: Da$is $# Superior Court 6)eop"e7 (2010) 1#5 Cal.App.3th 1222- 1225.) 1n or,er to ,ischarge his bur,en o" pro.ing the in"or(ant is a (aterial 0itness- the ,e"en,ant nee, not sho0 0hat the in"or(ant 0oul, testi"y to- nor e.en that the in"or(er coul, gi.e testi(ony "a.orable to hi(. ()rice $# Superior Court- supra.) Io0e.er- bare speculation or unsupporte, conclusions that the in"or(ant is a *material witness/ are insu""icient to ,ischarge a ,e"en,ant s bur,en. +he ,e"en,ant (ust pro,uce e.i,ence or a 333

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,eclaration articulating the theory o" his ,e"ense or ,e(onstrating in 0hat (anner he 0oul, be bene"ite, by ,isclosure o" the in"or(ant s na(e. ()eop"e $# %cCo& (1&20) 13 Cal.App.3r, 5- 12%13: )eop"e $# Thomas (1&20) 12 Cal.App.3r, 11021112%1113.) A ,e"ense attorney s a""i,a.it *on information and belief/ is- as a (atter o" la0- an insu""icient "actual sho0ing- an, is there"ore not su""icient Custi"ication "or ,i.ulging an in"or(ant s i,entity. ()eop"e $# Oppe" (1&&0) 222 Cal.App.3r, 113511$3.) Ehen the in"or(ant *(erely pointe, the "inger o" suspicion at the ,e"en,ant-/ ,isclosure o" the in"or(ant s i,entity is not re@uire,. ()eop"e $# -i"(s (1&2#) 21 Cal.3r, 350- 35&: )eop"e $# %cCo&supra- at p. 13.) *2utten.er1er/ ,otions) 4pon a *substantial preliminary showing/ o" the nee, "or ,isco.ery (a,e by the ,e"ense- the court (ay or,er that the prosecution pro.i,e recor,s an, other bacFgroun, in"or(ation concerning a con"i,ential in"or(ant. ()eop"e $# 2utten.er1er (1&&0) $0 Cal.3r, 1.) Io0e.er- in or,er to Custi"y an in ca(era hearing on this issue- at 0hich the court (ust re.ie0 the in"or(ant s history an, other rele.ant in"or(ation relate, to cre,ibility- the ,e"en,ant nee, only raise a *reasonable doubt/ concerning the in"or(ant s .eracity. ()eop"e $# Estrada (2003) 10$ Cal.App.3th 2#3.) 1"- a"ter such an in ca(era re.ie0- the court "in,s the necessary *substantial preliminary showing/ o" in"or(ation that ten,s to contra,ict (aterial representations (a,e in the a""i,a.it- or constitutes (aterial o(issions "ro( it- the court shoul, then or,er the ,isclosure o" the ,ocu(ents to the ,e"en,ant. Gase, upon this in"or(ation- a *Fran(s hearing- per Fran(s $# De"a,are (1&2#) 33# 4.S. 333
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1$3 6$2 7.8,.2n, 5529- (ay be appropriate. (See abo.e.) +ote) +he purpose is to challenge the reliability o" the in"or(ation obtaine, "ro( a con"i,ential in"or(ant0ithout necessarily re.ealing the in"or(ant s i,entity. 1" the ,e"ense can (eet its bur,en o" sho0ing so(e nee, "or the in"or(ation an, so(e proo" that there is so(ething o" so(e substance in e?istence (beyon, (erely speculating that so(e a,.erse in"or(ation e?ists)- the court shoul, inspect the ,ocu(ents in ca(era- ,eleting any re"erence to the in"or(ant s i,entity be"ore pro.i,ing the in"or(ation to the ,e"ense. ()eop"e $# 2utten.er1er- supra.) +he ,anger is in insuring that the court ,oes not ina,.ertently gi.e a0ay too (uch in"or(ationa""or,ing the ,e"ense the opportunity to "igure out 0ho the in"or(ant is. *n 'nformant worn $efore a ,agistrate9 a *S(e"ton =arrant)/ 1" an in"or(ant can gi.e a *factual/ (as oppose, to a *conclusory/) ,escription o" so(e on%going cri(inal acti.ity- but ,oes not "it 0ithin any o" the prece,ing categories o" reliable in"or(ants- an, his in"or(ation cannot be corroborate,- he (ay ne.ertheless be ,ee(e, reliable i" he personally testi"ies an, s0ears to the truth o" his in"or(ation be"ore the issuing (agistrate. (S(e"ton $# Superior Court (1&5&) 1 Cal.3r, 133.) So(eti(es re"erre, to as a *S(e"ton warrant,/ 0here the (agistrate is allo0e, to obser.e the in"or(ant s ,e(eanor an, appearance- the (agistrate can e.aluate his cre,ibility Cust as 0ith any other 0itness. +he in"or(ant s transcribe, testi(ony (an, the tape o" that testi(ony) be"ore the (agistrate beco(es the search 0arrant a""i,a.it. )#C# B 1111#GE In3Custod& In'ormants: Jeither a Cury nor or a Cu,ge (ay con.ict a ,e"en,ant- "in, a special circu(stance true- nor use a "act in aggra.ation- base, on the uncorroborate, testi(ony o" an in6custody informant. )ro.a."e Cause Issues: 33$
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*nonymous information- 0here su""iciently corroborate, by accurately pre,icting a suspect s "uture beha.ior- (ay establish probable cause su""icient to obtain a search 0arrant. (I""inois $# Gates (1&#3) 352 4.S. 213 625 7.8,.2n, $229.) See **nonymous 'nformation-/ un,er *Detentions-/ abo.e. earches of a Residence) tolen Property) Ehen property has been stolen by a ,e"en,ant an, has not yet been reco.ere,- a "air probability e?ists that the property 0ill be "oun, at the ,e"en,ant s ho(e. A (agistrate can reasonably conclu,e that a suspect s resi,ence is a logical place to looF "or speci"ic incri(inating ite(s 0here there e?ists probable cause to belie.e that the ,e"en,ant stole the(. ()eop"e $# Carrin1ton (200&) 32 Cal.3th 13$- 151%153.) The C"e"and =arrant9 +arcotics) Arrest o" a person "or selling narcotics- or in the possession o" narcotics "or purposes o" saleplus an e?perience, narcotics o""icer s e?pert opinion- has been hel, to be probable cause to belie.e he has e.i,ence o" this illegal acti.ity in his home. ()eop"e $# C"e"and (1&&0) 22$ Cal.App.3r, 3##- 3&2%3&3: )eop"e $# Aho (1&#$) 155 Cal.App.3r, &#3- &&1%&&3: )eop"e $# *ohnson (1&21) 21 Cal.App.3r, 23$- 232%235: United States $# )itts (&th Cir. 1&&3) 5 B.3r, 1355- 135&: United States $# Terr& (&th Cir. 1&&0) &11 B.2n, 222.) Probable cause 0as "oun, to belie.e ,e"en,ant 0as a narcotics seller s source o" supply an, that he 0oul, ha.e e.i,ence o" his cri(es in his apart(ent 0here the ,e"en,ant 0as at the scene ,uring- or shortly be"ore- three separate narcotics transactions an, he 0as "ollo0e, to his apart(ent as he use, *countersur!eillance (,ri.ing) techni@ues/ on one occasion. (United States $# Cha$e53 %iranda (&th Cir. 2002) 305 B.3r, &23.) $ut) Ehile such circu(stances pro.i,e the necessary probable cause to satis"y the Fourth Amendment search purposes- they ,o not pro.i,e an e?igent circu(stance e?cusing the lacF o" a search 0arrant. ()eop"e $# /och (1&#&) 20& Cal.App.3r, 220- 22#% 2#1.)

335
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Also- simple possession o" a controlle, substance0ithout in,ications that the ,e"en,ant is a ,rug ,ealer- 0ill not liFely be su""icient to Custi"y a search 0arrant "or the ,e"en,ant s ho(e- ,espite an e?pert o""icer s opinion to the contrary. ()eop"e $# )resse& (2002) 102 Cal.App.3th 112#.) *nd- Fno0ing that a person is selling contraban, from a business- 0hen the seller is not an e(ployee or o0ner o" the business- does not- by itsel"establish probable cause to belie.e that (ore contraban, 0ill be "oun, in the business. ()eop"e $# Garcia (2003) 111 Cal.App.3th 21$.) Trashcan earches) Bresh (ariCuana ste( an, lea" cuttings "oun, in a trashcan in "ront o" a resi,ence establishes probable cause Custi"ying the issuance o" a search 0arrant "or the resi,ence. ()eop"e $# Thuss (2003) 102 Cal.App.3th 221.) &omputer earches) Probable cause supporting the issuance o" a search 0arrant (ay be base, entirely upon circu(stantial e.i,ence together 0ith reasonable in"erences there "ro(. Receipt o" chil, pornography in nu(erous (e.g.- nine) e%(ails "ro( .arious sources (e.g.- t0o) to .arious screen na(es (e.g.- t0o) supports an in"erence o" Fno0ing possession o" that pornography. (United States $# /e""e& (&th Cir. 2002) 3#2 B.3r, 1032.) A properly @uali"ie, e?pert o""icer s opinion- connecting co((on characteristics o" a chil, (olester 0ith Fno0n "acts relate, to a chil, (olest an, the (olester s act o" hi,ing his co(puterestablishes probable cause supporting a search 0arrant "or that co(puter. ()eop"e $# Nicho""s (200#) 1$& Cal.App.3th 203.) Ehere a search 0arrant speci"ies certain ,ocu(ents to be sei;e,an, a co(puter is "oun, un,er circu(stances 0here it is reasonable to belie.e that the co(puter has been use, to generate those ,ocu(ents or other0ise contain the in"or(ation "ro( 0hich the ,ocu(ents ca(e- then the co(puter (ay be sei;e, (an, probably searche,) e.en though not (entione, in the search 0arrant. (United States $# Gi.erson (&th Cir. 200#) $22 B.3r, ##2##5%##&.) +rouble, by the 0holesale sei;ure o" co(puteri;e, in"or(ation o" a pri.ate business Feeping (e,ical in"or(ation- 0here the 332
< 2013 Robert C. Phillips. All rights reser.e,

go.ern(ent case agent peruse, the sei;e, co(puter "iles an, "oun, incri(inating in"or(ation relate, to (any other in,i.i,uals "or 0ho( there 0as no probable cause- "i.e Custices o" an en banc panel o" the Jinth Circuit Court o" Appeal has propose, 0ai.ing the *plain .ie0/ ,octrine in such cases as a con,ition o" issuing such a search 0arrant. (United States $# Comprehensi$e Dru1 Testin1, Inc# (9th Cir. 2010) (&th Cir. 200&) 521 B.3r, 1152- 11785
11802 incor(oratin. the facts as described at %1/ 1./rd 108%.)

A signal photograph o" a nu,e (inor ("e(ale chil, 0ho is bet0een # an, 10 years ol,)- by itsel"- is insu""icient to establish probable cause "or a search 0arrant. Gut a secon, such photo- un,er the *totality o" the circu(stances-/ is enough. (United States $# attershe"" (&th Cir. 2005) 3$2 B.3r, 103#.) Howe!er- a single photograph o" a nu,e (inor ("e(ale o" about 1$ to 12 years o" age)- 0hen co(bine, 0ith other suspicious circu(stances (e.g.- 1$ co(puters in house "oun, in co(plete ,isarray- 0ith t0o (inors not belonging to the ,e"en,ant- 0here the ,e"en,ant a ci.ilian- is staying in (ilitary housing)- may enough to Custi"y the issuance o" a search 0arrant. (United States $# /rupa (&th Cir. 2011) 5$# B.3r, 1123- 1122%112&: but see ,issentpp. 11#0%11#$.) An 1nternet subscriber has no e?pectation o" pri.acy in the subscriber in"or(ation he supplies to his 1nternet pro.i,er. ()eop"e $# Stipo (2011) 1&$ Cal.App.3th 553- 55#%55&.) See )eop"e $# Ran1e" (2012) 205 Cal.App.3th 1310- 1315- liFening ,e"en,ant s *s(artphone/ to a co(puter- gi.en its capability to store photographs- e%(ail a,,resses- an, other personal in"or(ation. See * earches of &ontainers-/ belo0. Use o' a Search -arrant: Rule) +he use o" a search warrant as a prere@uisite to a la0"ul search is a constitutional re@uire(ent- pursuant to the Fourth Amendment. +he Fourth Amendment prohibits all unreasonable searches and seizures- an, it is a car,inal principle that *searches con,ucte, outsi,e the Cu,icial process- 0ithout prior appro.al by Cu,ge or (agistrate- are per se unreasonable un,er the Fourth Amendment PsubCect only to a "e0 speci"ically establishe, an, 0ell%,elineate, 33#
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e?ceptions./ (/at5 $# United States (1&52) 3#& 4.S. 332- 3$2 61& 7.8,.2n, $25- $#$9.) *8.i,ence 0hich is obtaine, as a ,irect result o" an illegal search an, sei;ure (ay not be use, to establish probable cause "or a subse@uent search./ (United States $# -an"ess (&th Cir. 1&#&) ##2 B.2n, 12$&- 135$.) +his inclu,es *!erbal e!idence-/ (i.e.- a suspect s a,(issions or con"ession)- as 0ell as physical e.i,ence- 0hen obtaine, as a ,irect pro,uct o" an illegal ,etention- arrest or search. (See United States $# Cre,s (&th Cir. 2002) $02 B.3r, 1130- 113$.) Exceptions) +here are a li(ite, nu(ber o" such *well6delineated exceptions/ to the general rule- ho0e.er. Bor instance) *Exigent &ircumstances/ e?cuse the absence o" a search 0arrantat least up until 0hen the *exigency/ no longer e?ists. ()eop"e $# aci1a"upo (1&&1) 1 Cal.3th 103- 122%123.) *Exigent &ircumstances)/ Any instance 0here the o""icers ha.e no opportunity to obtain a 0arrant 0ithout risFing the loss or ,estruction o" e.i,ence- the "leeing o" suspects- or the ar(ing o" a suspect. (See )eop"e $# Seaton (2001) 25 Cal.3th $&#.) See *Exigent &ircumstances-/ abo.e. *&onsent)/ A *consent/ to search e?cuses the absence o" a search 0arrant- or e.en probable cause. (F"orida $# ostic( (1&&1) $01 4.S. 32& 611$ 7.8,.2n, 3#&9.) Such consent- ho0e.er- (ust be "reely an, .oluntarily obtaine,. ( umper $# North Caro"ina (1&5#) 3&1 4.S. $33- $3# 620 7.8,.2n, 2&2- #029.) See *&onsent-/ belo0. *'ne!itable Disco!ery)/ +he e""ects o" an other0ise illegal 0arrantless search (i.e.suppression o" the resulting e.i,ence) (ay be o""set in those instances 0here the e.i,ence 0oul, ha.e *ine!itably/ been "oun, any0ay through so(e source in,epen,ent o" the illegal search. (Ni! $# -i""iams (1&#3) 352 4.S. 33133&
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333 6#1 7.8,.2n, 322- 3#29: )eop"e $# o&er (2005) 3# Cal.3th 312- 332%3$3.) Io0e.er- the *ine!itable disco!ery/ ,octrine ,oes not apply Cust because a search 0arrant coul, ha.e been obtaine, ha, the searching o""icers asFe, "or one. +his argu(ent 0oul, negate the nee, to e.er seeF a 0arrante""ecti.ely repealing the Fourth Amendment. ()eop"e $# Ro."es (1&&#) 53 Cal.App.3th 12#5.) +he "act that the e.i,ence 0oul, ha.e ine.itably been ,isco.ere, any0ay (ust be establishe, by the People by *a prepon,erance o" the e.i,ence./ (United States $# Youn1 (&th Cir. 200&) $23 B.3r, 211- 221%223: 0here it 0as not sho0n that the hotel 0here its e(ployees ,isco.ere, the ,e"en,ant s "irear( 0oul, not ha.e (erely store, the 0eapon an, return it to ,e"en,ant- as accor,ing to its policy. 6See also the ,issent- pp. 223%22&- arguing that the ine.itable ,isco.ery rule applie,9.) 8.i,ence lying un,er the ,ecease, 0oul, ha.e ine.itably been "oun, an, gi.en to the police 0hen the Coroner s in.estigator tooF charge o" the bo,y an, (o.e, it. (()eop"e $# Superior Court 6Chapman7 (2012) 203 Cal.App.3th 1003- 1021%1022: +he Coroner (ay ,eli.er any property or e.i,ence relate, to the in.estigation or prosecution o" a cri(e to the la0 en"orce(ent agency or ,istrict attorney. (9o:t! Code 214"1!3+4,) * earches of Vehicles)/ Probable cause to belie.e that a la0"ully stoppe, .ehicle contains contraban, Custi"ies a 0arrantless search o" the .ehicle- inclu,ing the trunF- ,espite the absence o" a,,itional e?igent circu(stances. ()eop"e $# Cha$ers (1&#3) 33 Cal.3r, 352: )eop"e $# Superior Court 69a"de57 (1&#3) 3$ Cal.3r, 11: )eop"e $# 9are"a (1&#$) 122 Cal.App.3r, 2$2.) +he search (ay be as broa, as coul, ha.e been authori;e, by a search 0arrant- inclu,ing any close, containers 0ithin the .ehicle. (United States $# Ross (1&#2) 3$5 4.S. 2&# 622 7.8,.2n, $229: Ca"i'ornia $# Ace$edo (1&&1) $00 4.S. $5$ 6113 7.8,.2n, 51&9: )eop"e $# Cha$ers- supra.) See * earches of Vehicles-/ belo0. 3$0
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* earches of Persons with Probable &ause)/ A person (ay be searche, 0ithout a 0arrant any ti(e the o""icer has *probable cause/ to belie.e the person (ay ha.e contraban, or other sei;able property on hi(. ()eop"e $# Co"eman (1&&1) 22& Cal.App.3r, 321.) See * earches of Persons-/ belo0.

* earches 'ncident to *rrest)/ An arrestee- an, the area 0ithin his i((e,iate reach 0hen arreste, (i.e.- the *lunging area/)- is subCect to a 0arrantless search- so long as ,one conte(poraneously in ti(e an, place 0ith the arrest. (Chime" $# Ca"i'ornia (1&5&) 3&$ 4.S. 2$2 623 7.8,.2n, 5#$9: United States $# Ro.inson (1&23) 313 4.S. 21# 63# 7.8,.2n, 3229: )eop"e $# Sanche5 (1&#$) 123 Cal.App.3r, 333: )eop"e $# Dennis (1&#$) 122 Cal.App.3r, 2#2: )eop"e $# Summers (1&&&) 23 Cal.App.3th 2##.) Ehen arreste, in or at a .ehicle (Ne, Yor( $# e"ton (1&#1) 3$3 4.S. 3$3 65& 7.8,.2n, 25#9: )eop"e $# Sto''"e (1&&2) 1 Cal.App.3th 1521.)- or as a *recent occupant/ o" a .ehicle (Thornton $# United States (2003) $31 4.S. 51$ 61$# 7.8,.2n, &0$9: United States $# Osi'e (&th Cir. 200$) 3&# B.3r, 1133)- the entire passenger area o" the .ehicle (ay nor(ally be searche, 0ithout a 0arrant. Io0e.er- see Ari5ona $# Gant (200&) $$5 4.S. 332 6123 7.8,.2n, 3#$9- se.erely li(iting the ability to con,uct a search inci,ent to arrest in a .ehicle"in,ing e"ton to be inapplicable in the situation 0here the arrestee has alrea,y been re(o.e, "ro( the .ehicle an, secure,- thus negating any reasonable possibility that the arrestee coul, reach "or a 0eapon or ,estroy e.i,ence in the .ehicle. See * earches 'ncident to *rrest-/ un,er * earches of Persons-/ belo0.

**dministrati!eJRegulatory earches)/ *Per!asi!ely/ or H&losely Regulated $usinesses)/ +he courts ha.e in,icate, that a 0arrant is not necessary in 3$1

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those cases 0here the place to be searche, is co((ercial property- an, the in,ustry in.ol.e, is one that is so *per!asi!ely regulated/ or *closely regulated/ that 0arrantless inspections are necessary to insure proper- or legal- business practices. (Dono$an $# De,e& (1&#1) 3$2 4S. $&3- $&#%$&& 65& 7.8,.2n, 252- 25#%15&9: Ne, Yor( $# ur1er (1&#2) 3#2 4.S. 5&1- 200 6&5 7.8,.2n, 501- 512% 5139: )eop"e $# )au"son (1&&0) 215 Cal.App.3r, 13#013#3%13#3.) See **dministrati!eJRegulatory earches-/ belo0. &rime cene earches) Lenerally- once any e?igencies no longer Custi"y an i((e,iate entry- entering or re%entering a buil,ing to in.estigate a cri(inal o""ense- or e.en to continue a search alrea,y begun ,ue to e?igent circu(stances that e?iste, upon the initial entry- re@uires a search 0arrant. Bor e?a(ple) Our,er Scene) %ince& $# Ari5ona (1&2#) 332 4.S. 3#$ 6$2 7.8,.2n, 2&09: F"ippo $# -est 9ir1inia (1&&&) $2# 4.S. 11 613$ 7.8,.2n, 159.) Arson Scene) %ichi1an $# T&"er (1&2#) 335 4.S. 3&& 6$5 7.8,.2n, 3#59.) $an? Records) Pursuant to Cali"ornia s Right to Pri.acy Act (9o:.t! Code 1423<14"3)- there are si? (5) la0"ul (etho,s o" obtaining a cri(inal suspect s banF recor,s) Custo(er Authori;ation) (9o:.t! Code 1413)) +he authori;ation (ust be in 0riting. Recor,s sought (ust be .ery speci"ically i,enti"ie,. Oust inclu,e a phrase in"or(ing the custo(er that heNshe has a right to 0ith,ra0 consent. A,(inistrati.e Subpoena or Su((ons (9o:.t! Code 1414)) Re@uires notice to the custo(er an, the banF. Custo(er has ten ,ays to (o.e to @uash the subpoena. Search Earrant (9o:.t! Code 141)))

3$2
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+he custo(er 0ill be noti"ie, by the banF unless the search 0arrant contains an or,er that notice be ,elaye,. +he re@uest to ,e"er notice to the custo(er (ust be Custi"ie, in the a""i,a.it on the groun,s that noti"ication 0oul, i(pe,e the in.estigation- an, the court "in,s this to be *good cause./ +he nor(al ten%,ay perio, "or ser.ice an, return o" the 0arrant (ay be e?ten,e, i" the banF cannot reasonably (aFe the recor,s a.ailable 0ithin ten ,ays. A search 0arrant "or banF recor,s 0as hel, to be .ali, in )eop"e $# %e&er (1&#5) 1#3 Cal.App.3r, 11$0.) Ju,icial Subpoena or Subpoena Duces +ecu( (9o:.t! Code 1412)) Jotice (ust be gi.en to the custo(er in (ost situations. Oay be use, in JSB (i.e.- *non6sufficient funds/ cases). (See 9o:.t! Code 1412+c,) Police Re@uest (9o:.t! Code 14#3)) Oay obtain certain types o" "inancial in"or(ation (e.g.,ishonore, checFs an, o.er,ra"ts) upon certi"ication to the "inancial institution- in 0riting- that the checFs 0ere use, "rau,ulently. (9o:.t! Code 14#3+4,) +he section pro.i,es "or a state(ent o" account an, other recor,s "or 30 ,ays be"ore an, a"ter the allege, illegal act.) Such in"or(ation (ay also be pro.i,e, by the banF to a county a,ult protecti.e ser.ices o""ice or to a long%ter( care o(bu,s(an. Oay also recei.e- upon re@uest- in"or(ation as to 0hether a person has an account an, the account nu(ber. (9o:.t! Code 14#3+c,) Uicti(i;e, Binancial 1nstitution turns o.er Recor,s (9o:.t! Code 1413+d,)) Ehen the banF is the .icti( o" a cri(e co((itte, by a custo(er- it (ay la0"ully turn o.er the custo(er s banF recor,s 0ithout the nee, o" a court or,er. ()eop"e $# 3$3
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Nos"er (1&#3) 1$1 Cal.App.3r, 12$: )eop"e $# Nece (1&#3) 150 Cal.App.3r, 2#$.) +ote) +he abo.e liste, re@uire(ents an, pro.isions are not e?clusi.e. +he re"erence, 9o:ernment Code sections (ust be consulte,. (See also urro,s $# Superior Court (1&23) 13 Cal.3r, 23#: an, )eop"e $# "air (1&2&) 2$ Cal.3r, 530- regar,ing constitutional li(itations upon the sei;ure o" "inancial recor,s.) ,ortgage (raud Records) (!C! )32f+a,) ,ortgage (raud) 1ntentionally using a (isrepresentation- (isstate(ent- or o(ission- in the (ortgage len,ing process- or "acilitating it s use- 0ith the intent that it be relie, upon by the len,er- or recei.ing the "un,s as a result o" the abo.e- or "iling 0ith the county recor,er any ,ocu(ent in connection 0ith a (ortgage loan transaction Fno0ing it contains a (isrepresentation- (isstate(ent- or o(ission- 0ith a loss o" o.er [300- is a "elony (0obbler). Su4d! +c, contains pro.isions "or a peace o""icer in.estigating (ortgage "rau, to obtain rele.ant real estate recor,s .ia a court or,er- obtaine, upon the o""icer sub(itting an e? parte court application (a,e un,er penalty o" perCury- alleging that there is reasonable cause to belie.e that the recor,s sought are (aterial to an on%going in.estigation. Pro.isions are (a,e "or the sealing o" such application an, other proce,ures "or obtaining the necessary recor,s. Su4d! +5, pro.i,es "or an a""i,a.it "ro( the custo,ian o" recor,s authenticating the recor,s- laying the "oun,ation to (eet any hearsay obCections to a,(ission o" the recor,s into e.i,ence. &redit &ard 'nformation) Charges (a,e by a cre,it car, hol,er cannot be obtaine, e?cept by search 0arrant or other Cu,icial or,er. ()eop"e $# "air (1&2&) 2$ Cal.3r, 530- 5$2.) Exception) Ehen the cre,it car, co(pany is the .icti(. ()eop"e $# Nos"er (1&#3) 1$1 Cal.App.3r, 12$: )eop"e $# Nece (1&#3) 150 Cal.App.3r, 2#$.) Telephone Records) 3$3
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#nlisted +umbers) A search 0arrant is necessary in or,er to obtain the na(e an, a,,ress o" the hol,er o" an unlisted telephone number "ro( the telephone co(pany. ()eop"e $# Chapman (1&#3) 35 Cal.3r, &#.) +ote) 4n,er "e,eral constitutional stan,ar,s- obtaining phone recor,s without a 0arrant is not illegal. (Smith $# %ar&"and (1&2&) 332 4.S. 23$ 651 7.8,.2n, 2209.) +here"ore- although sei;ing such recor,s 0ithout a 0arrant is in .iolation o" Cali"ornia la0- ,oing so 0ill not result in the suppression o" the recor,s. ()eop"e $# encomo (1&#$) 121 Cal.App.3r, 100$- 101$: )eop"e $# %artino (1&#$) 155 Cal.App.3r, 222- 2#5- "n. 3.) Telephone &alls ,ade) +elephone co(pany recor,s relating to telephone calls made are also protecte, an, re@uire a 0arrant. ()eop"e $# %c/unes (1&2$) $1 Cal.App.3r, 3#2.) +ote) +elephone toll recor,s are (aintaine, in *billing rounds-/ co.ering appro?i(ately 30 ,ays- but not necessarily correspon,ing 0ith a calen,ar (onth. An a""i,a.it shoul, contain "acts- in"or(ation- an, opinion Custi"ying the ti(e perio, "or 0hich toll call recor,s are sought. &ertification for +on6Disclosure) Pursuant to California (u4lic tilities Commission decision num4er "3321- ,ate, July 211&#1- the telephone co(pany (ust noti"y the custo(er o" a search 0arrant issue, "or his telephone recor,s unless there is a *certification for non6disclosure/ containe, on the "ace o" the search 0arrant. Pro.i,es "or a &0%,ay ,elay in notice- 0hich can be e?ten,e, another &0 ,ays. +he *certification of non6disclosure/ is a state(ent that noti"ication 0ill i(pe,e the in.estigation o" the o""ense being in.estigate,. Justi"ication "or the ,elaye, notice (ust be inclu,e, in the 0arrant a""i,a.it. Pen Registers and Trap and Trace) 1nstallation o" a *pen register/ an,Nor a *trap and trace de!ice/ (ay be acco(plishe, by use o" a 3$$
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search 0arrant- at least un,er state rules. ()eop"e $# 2ar(in (1&#2) 1&3 Cal.App.3r, 5$0- 5$3.) A *pen register/ is a ,e.ice that recor,s or ,eco,es electronic or other i(pulses that i,enti"y the nu(bers ,iale, or trans(itte, on the telephone line to 0hich such ,e.ice is attache,. A *trap and trace/ ,e.ice is a ,e.ice that captures the inco(ing electronic or other i(pulses that i,enti"y the originating nu(ber o" an instru(ent or ,e.ice "ro( 0hich a 0ire or electronic co((unication 0as trans(itte,. 1# !S!C! 3121 0as a(en,e, as a part o" the *)atriot Act-/ (u4! =! %o! 131<)2- to e?pan, these ,e"initions to inclu,e processes that capture routinga,,ressing- or signaling in"or(ation trans(itte, by an electronic co((unication "acility- thus per(itting the interception o" in"or(ation "ro( co(puters an, cells phones- as 0ell as "ro( lan,% line telephones. A search 0arrant- or an or,er "or the installation o" a pen register or trap an, tracF ,e.ice- (ust be obtaine, "ro( a court o" *general %urisdiction:/ i.e.- "ro( a Superior Court Cu,ge. (ederally- use o" a pen register is not consi,ere, to be a search- an, there"ore ,oes not re@uire a search 0arrant. (Smith $# %ar&"and (1&2&) 332 4.S. 23$- 23$%235 651 7.8,.2n, 220- 22&%2309.) +he sa(e rule is applicable a *mirror port-/ 0hich is si(ilar to a pen register- but 0hich allo0s the go.ern(ent to collect the *to/ an, *"ro(/ a,,resses o" a person s e%(ail (essages- the 1P a,,resses o" the 0ebsites the person .isits- an, notes the total .olu(e o" in"or(ation sent to or "ro( the person s account. (United States $# Forrester (&th Cir. 200#) $12 B.3r, $00.) The Federa" E"ectronic Communication )ri$ac& Act (1# !S!C! 3121<3121) e?pressly authori;es a state in!estigati!e or law enforcement officer to apply "or *an order-/ as oppose, to a search 0arrant- or an e?tension o" an or,er- authori;ing the installation an, use o" either a pen 3$5
< 2013 Robert C. Phillips. All rights reser.e,

register or a *trap6and6trace/ ,e.ice- 0hen a re@uest is (a,e in 0riting- un,er oath- to a court o" *co(petent Curis,iction/ o" the state- an, is other0ise not prohibite, by state la0. 1# !S!C! 2123 re@uires the applicant to state that the in"or(ation liFely to be obtaine, is rele.ant to an ongoing cri(inal in.estigation (as oppose, to the probable cause re@uire, "or a 0arrant). An or,er is goo, "or no (ore than 50 ,ays. 8?tensions- "or up to 50 ,ays- (ay be obtaine, upon (aFing a separate application. +he or,er shall ,irect that it be seale, pen,ing "urther or,er o" the court. 8.en i" the proce,ures ,escribe, in these statutes are .iolate,- suppression o" e.i,ence is not an appropriate re(e,y. (United States $# Forrester (&th Cir. 2002) 3&$ B.3r, 1031- 10$1.) Howe!er- citing pre%(ro-osition # authority ()eop"e $# "air (1&2&) 2$ Cal.3r, 530.)- 0hich reCecte, the rationale o" Smith $# %ar&"and- supra- the Cali"ornia Attorney Leneral is o" the opinion that ,espite the lacF o" legal authority to suppress the resulting e.i,ence (,ue to passage o" (ro-osition # in June- 1&#2)- obtaining pen register or trap an, trace in"or(ation base, upon an e? parte court or,er (as oppose, to a search 0arrant)- being in .iolation o" the Cali"ornia Constitution (Art! I- 13- as 0ell as Art! I- 1)- is *prohibited by state law./ +he "e,eral authori;ing statutes- there"ore- 0hich allo0 "or a court or,er obtaine, by state la0 en"orce(ent o""icers *(u)nless prohibited by tate law/ (1# !S!C! 3122+a,+2,)- ,o not apply to Cali"ornia because such a proce,ure is prohibite, by state la0. (#5 Opinion o' Attorne& Genera" i"" 2oc(&er 1&# (2003).) +he Cali"ornia Attorney Leneral- in this sa(e opinion- also note, that 9o:.t! Code 111#3 si(ilarly ,oes not allo0 "or an **dministrati!e ubpoena/ ,ue to the lacF o" a prior Cu,icial re.ie0 as re@uire, by the Cali"ornia Constitution.

3$2
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See also- 5& Ops# Ca"# Att&# Gen# $$ (1&#5)) A Cali"ornia (agistrate (ay authori;e the installation o" a pen register by the issuance o" a search 0arrant. Gecause a search 0arrant- i" use,- is only goo, "or 10 ,ays ((!C! 1)34)- a ne0 0arrant (ust be obtaine, "or each succee,ing 10%,ay perio,. 1n"or(ation recei.e, "ro( a pen register an,Nor a trap an, trace ,e.ice- recor,ing *call ,ata content/ (i.e.- *CDC-/ ,ata about call origination- length- an, ti(e o" call)- are not protecte, by the 0iretap statutes. +here is no e?pectation o" pri.acy in such in"or(ation- per Smith $# %ar&"and (1&2&) 332 4.S. 23$ 651 7.8,.2n, 2209. (United States $# Reed (&th Cir. 200&) $2$ B.3r, &00- &13%&12.) 4se o" a pen register an, trap an, trace ,e.ice- e?cept (aybe 0hen co(bine, 0ith other "or(s o" electronic sur.eillance- is not enough alone to establish the re@uire, *necessity/ to Custi"y the issuance o" a 0iretap 0arrant. (United States $# (&th Cir. 200&) $#$ B.3r, 1223- 122#- citing United States $# Gon5a"e5, Inc!, (&th Cir. 200$) 312 B.3r, 1102- 1113.) (!C! 1)24!2) ;ut6of6 tate Electronic &ommunications 'nformation) +his section authori;es the ser.ice o" a search 0arrant "or in"or(ation relate, to the identity of customers- data store, by- or on behal" o"- the custo(er- the customer)s usage o" those ser.ices- the recipient or destination o" co((unications sent to or "ro( those custo(ers- or the content of those communications- upon a *foreign corporation/ 0hich pro.i,es *electronic communications ser!ices or remote computing ser!ices to the general public./ *Electronic communications ser!ices/ an, *remote computing ser!ices/ is to be construe, in accor,ance 0ith the "e,eral ?lectronic Stored Communications (ri:acA Act- 1# !S!C! 2131 et se*! 1# !S!C! 2131 re"ers to 1# !S!C! 2)31- su4d! +1), o" 0hich ,e"ines *electronic communication ser!ice/ as a *ser.ice 0hich pro.i,es to users thereo" the ability to sen, or recei.e 0ire or electronic co((unications./

3$#
< 2013 Robert C. Phillips. All rights reser.e,

1# !S!C! 2)31+1,, +1#,) *=ire communication/ inclu,es *any aural transfer (i.e.- one containing the hu(an .oice) (a,e in 0hole or in part through the use o" "acilities "or the trans(ission o" co((unications by the ai, o" 0ire- cable- or other liFe connection bet0een the point o" origin an, the point o" reception (inclu,ing the use o" such connection in a s0itching station) . . . ./ +his inclu,es telephone con.ersations. ( ri11s $# American Air Fi"ter Co#, Inc# ($th Cir. 1&#0) 530 B.2n, 313: United States $# 0arpe" (10th Cir. 1&23) 3&3 B.2n, 335.) 8%(ail recor,s o" a business (ay only be obtaine, "ro( an 1nternet Ser.ice Pro.i,er (1SP) .ia a search 0arrant. +he ,e"en,ant enCoye, a reasonable e?pectation o" pri.acy in his e(ails .is%a%.is his 1SP. +hus- go.ern(ent agents .iolate, his Fourth Amendment rights by co(pelling the 1SP to turn o.er the e(ails 0ithout "irst obtaining a 0arrant base, on probable cause. Io0e.er- because the agents relie, in goo, "aith on pro.isions o" the Stored Communications Act- the 8?clusionary Rule ,i, not apply. (United States $# -arsha( (5th 2010) 531 B.3r, 255.) A *foreign corporation/ is one that is @uali"ie, to ,o business in Cali"ornia pursuant to Cor-! Code 213)e.en though base, in another state. *Properly ser!ed-/ as re@uire, by the statute- necessitates *(,)eli.ery by han, o" a copy o" any process against a "oreign corporation2 +a, to an* officer of the cor(oration or its .eneral
mana.er in this state! or if the cor(oration is a ban; to a cashier or an assistant cashier!

+4, to an* natural (erson desi.nated b* it as a.ent


for the ser)ice of (rocess! or

+c, if the cor(oration has desi.nated a cor(orate

a.ent! to an* (erson named in the latest certificate of the cor(orate a.ent filed (ursuant to Section 1" " . . .3 (#.C. 1"24.2$a%$&%! referencin. Cor'. Code 211 )

3$&
< 2013 Robert C. Phillips. All rights reser.e,

Per Cor-! Code 213)- "oreign corporations (ust consent to ser.ice o" process as a con,ition o" ,oing business in Cali"ornia. +he "oreign corporation is re@uire, to pro.i,e the in"or(ation re@ueste, 0ithin "i.e ($) business ,ays- 0hich (ay be shortene, or e?ten,e, upon a sho0ing o" goo, cause- an, to authenticate such recor,s- thus (aFing the( a,(issible in court per ?:id! Code 1)21- 1)22. ((!C! 1)24!2+4,) +he section "urther re@uires Cali"ornia corporations to honor out%o"%state search 0arrants as i" issue, 0ithin this state. ((!C! 1)24!2+c,) +hese are proce,ural re@uire(ents "or intro,ucing the resulting recor,s into e.i,ence at trial- an, irrele.ant to the use o" the sa(e recor,s "or probable cause purposes "or a "ollo0%up search 0arrant. ()eop"e $# Stipo (2011) 1&$ Cal.App.3th 553- 520%522.) (!C! 1)24!3+a,) Records of (oreign &orporations Pro!iding Electronic &ommunications or Remote &omputing er!ices) Boreign corporations pro.i,ing electronic communications or remote computing ser!ices (ust ,isclose to a go.ern(ental prosecuting or in.estigating agency- 0hen ser.e, 0ith a search 0arrant issue, by a Cali"ornia court pursuant to (!C! 1)24+a,+1, (i.e.- in misdemeanor cases)- recor,s re.ealing the name- addresslocal and long distance telephone toll billing records- telephone number or other subscriber number or identity- an, length of ser!ice o" a subscriber to or custo(er o" that ser.ice- an, the types of ser!ices the subscriber or custo(er utili;e,. (!C! 1)24!3+4,) +he go.ern(ental entity recei.ing subscriber recor,s or in"or(ation un,er this section is not re@uire, to pro.i,e notice to a subscriber or custo(er. (!C! 1)24!3+d,) 4pon a re@uest o" a peace o""icer- the pro.i,er shall taFe all necessary steps to preser.e recor,s an, other e.i,ence in its possession pen,ing the issuance o" a search 0arrant or a re@uest in 0riting an, an a""i,a.it ,eclaring an intent to ser.e the pro.i,er 0ith a search 0arrant. Recor,s shall be retaine, "or &0 ,ays upon such re@uest- an, (ay be e?ten,e, "or an a,,itional &0 ,ays upon a rene0e, re@uest by the peace o""icer. 350
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=iretaps and Ea!esdropping) Goth the "e,eral Congress an, Cali"ornia s 7egislature- e?pressing concern o.er the potential "or .iolating pri.acy rights (see A"derman $# United States (1&5&) 3&3 4.S. 15$ 622 7.8,.2n, 1259.)- ha.e enacte, statutes controlling the use o" 0iretaps by la0 en"orce(ent. Be,eral rules are containe, in the Omni.us Crime Contro" and Sa'e Streets Act o' 1CDF (Title III, 1# !S!C! 2)13 et se*.). Io0e.er- in that Cali"ornia s state statutes are (ore restricti.e (see )eop"e $# *ones (1&23) 30 Cal.App.3r, #$2.)- it is generally accepte, that i" a police o""icer acts in co(pliance 0ith (!C! 22"!)3 et se*!- he or she 0ill also be in co(pliance 0ith the "e,eral re@uire(ents. A"derman $# United States- supra) +he Fourth Amendment rights o" ho(eo0ners are i(plicate, by the use o" a surreptitiously plante, listening ,e.ice to (onitor thir,%party con.ersations that occurre, 0ithin their ho(e. +he Omni.us Crime Contro" and Sa'e Streets Act o' 1CDF authori;es the states to enact their o0n 0iretap la0s only i" the pro.isions o" those la0s are at least as restricti.e as the "e,eral re@uire(ents "or a 0iretap set out in Title III. ()eop"e $# *ac(son (200$) 12& Cal.App.3th 12&- 135%132: )eop"e $# Otto (1&&2) 2 Cal.3th 10##- 10&#.) +he "e,eral District Court ,enie, ,e"en,ant s (otion to suppress e.i,ence obtaine, "ro( a series o" sur.eillance or,ers that authori;e, the interception o" co((unications o.er cellular phones pursuant to the Imni4us Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1"2#- associate, 0ith ,e"en,ant an, his co%conspirators. De"en,ant clai(e, that the sur.eillance or,ers authori;e, the go.ern(ent to trans"or( the cellular phones into ro.ing electronic bugs by using sophisticate, ea.es,ropping technology. +he Jinth Circuit ,isagree,- sustaining the ,istrict court s rulingnoting that i" the go.ern(ent seeFs authori;ation "or the use o" ne0 technology to con.ert cellular phones into ro.ing bugs- it (ust speci"ically re@uest that authority. 1n this case- ho0e.er- the sur.eillance or,ers 0ere inten,e, only to authori;e stan,ar, interception techni@ues an, the go.ern(ent only utili;e, stan,ar, interception techni@ues. (United States $# O"i$a (&th Cir. 2012) 5#5 B.3r, 1105- as a(en,e, at 2012 4.S. App. 78T1S 2$##& 6Dec. 1220129.) 351
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(!C! 233) tatement of "egislati!e Purpose) Recogni;ing the a,.ances in science an, technology that ha.e le, to the ,e.elop(ent o" ne0 ,e.ices an, techni@ues "or the purpose o" ea.es,ropping upon pri.ate co((unications an, the resulting in.asion o" pri.acy in.ol.e,- the 7egislature enacte, the "ollo0ing statutes "or the purpose o" protecting the right of pri!acy o" the people o" this state. 1t is not the intent o" the 7egislature- ho0e.er- to place greater restraints on the use o" listening ,e.ices an, techni@ues by la0 en"orce(ent agencies than e?iste, prior to the e""ecti.e ,ate (i.e.- January 2- 1&5#) o" this Chapter. +his section pertaining to 0iretapping an, other electronic ,e.ices is a general pro.ision ,eclaring a broa, legislati.e purpose: section &33 is the s(ecific section dealin. +ith
the classes exem(ted from the t+o (recedin. sections (rohibitin. +ireta((in. and it is onl* the officers named in the latter section +ho are exem(t from the sanctions im(osed b* &31 and &32. (%% -(."al.Atty.Gen. 1%1 (1972))

Goth the California In(asion of #ri(ac) Act and the

*mni+us Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 19&8 (18 U.S.C. 2"1 ,2"22.% (roscribe onl* intentional! as o((osed to inad)ertent! o)erhearin. or interce(tin. of communications. ('eo(le v. *uchanan (1972) 26 Cal.4((./rd 274.)

+he restrictions on ea.es,ropping apply "or the bene"it o" a person outsi,e the state as 0ell- so long as one party to a telephone con.ersation is in Cali"ornia. (.earney v.
Salo)on S)ith *arney/ &nc. (2006) /9 Cal.4th 9%.)

+he Recor,ing o" prisoner telephone con!ersations- e.en to the outsi,e 0orl,- 0oul, "all 0ithin the restrictions o" both the "e,eral an, state 0iretap statutes unless the in(ate is put on notice that his con.ersations (ay be (onitore, an,Nor recor,e,. 4n,er Title III: *(1)t shall not be unla0"ul . . . "or a person acting un,er color o" la0 to intercept a 0ire- oral- or electronic co((unication 0here . . . one of the parties to the co((unication has gi.en prior consent to such interception./ (1talics a,,e,: 1# !S!C! 2)11+2,+c,) Gase, upon this- it has been hel, that 0here a sign has been poste, in,icating that *telephone calls 352
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may be monitored and recorded-/ in(ates are on notice- an, his or her *,ecision to engage in con.ersations o.er those phones constitutes i(plie, consent to that (onitoring an, taFes any 0iretap outsi,e the prohibitions o" Title III./ ()eop"e $# /e""& 103 Cal.App.3th #$3- #$#: 0arrantless recor,ing o" ,e"en,ant s telephone con.ersations to parties on the outsi,e appro.e,.) Such 0arning signs also taFe such telephone calls outsi,e the search 0arrant pro.isions o" Cali"ornia s 0iretap statutes ((!C! 22"!)3 et se*!) as 0ell. (Id.- at pp. #$&%#50.) (!C! 231) Eiretapping) +he prohibitions on 0iretaps (aFe illegal the "ollo0ing) +he use o" any (achine- instru(ent- or contri.anceor in any other (anner- to intentionally tap- or (aFe an unauthori;e, connection- 0hether physicallyelectrically- acoustically- in,ucti.ely- or other0ise0ith any telegraph or telephone 0ire- line- cable- or instru(ent- inclu,ing the 0ire- line- cable- or instru(ent o" any internal telephonic co((unication syste(- or Eithout the consent o" all the parties to a co((unication- or in any unauthori;e, (anner- to rea,- atte(pt to rea,- or to learn the contents or (eaning o" any (essage- report- or co((unication 0hile the sa(e is in transit or passing o.er any 0ire- line- or cable- or is being sent "ro(- or recei.e, at any place 0ithin this state: or +he use or atte(pt to use in any (anner or "or any purpose- or to co((unicate in any 0ay- any in"or(ation so obtaine,: or +o ai,- agree 0ith- e(ploy- or conspire 0ith anyone to ,o any o" the abo.e.

Punishment) Uiolation is punishable by a "ine o" [2-$00an,Nor one year in county Cail or 15 (onths- t0o or three years in prison- or by both such "ine an, i(prison(ent. 353
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+he "ine increases to [10-000 0ith a prior con.iction "or any o" the o""enses liste, in this Chapter. Uiolation o" 0iretapping statutes (ay also be a Fourth Amendment .iolation i" the illegal 0iretap also .iolates a person s legiti(ate e?pectation o" pri.acy. (United States $# Shr&"oc( (&th Cir. 2003) 332 B.3r, &3#- &2#.) Su4d! +4,) Exceptions) +he section does not apply to) Any public utility engage, in the business o" pro.i,ing co((unications ser.ices an, "acilities0hen "or the purpose o" construction- (aintenancecon,uct or operation o" the ser.ices an, "acilities o" the public utility: or +he use o" any instru(ent- e@uip(ent- "acility- or ser.ice "urnishe, an, use, pursuant to the tari""s o" a public utility: or Any telephonic co((unication syste( use, "or co((unication e?clusi.ely 0ithin a state- countycity an, county- or city correctional "acility.

Prisoner Visitors) A phone use, ,uring a physical .isitation by a prisoner an, his or her .isitor ,oes not (eet the re@uire(ents o" a *wire communication-/ not using a line in interstate or "oreign co((erce. 1t is there"ore not subCect to the 0iretap restrictions o" (!C! 231. ()eop"e $# Santos (1&22) 25 Cal.App.3r, 3&2- 302.) Su4d! +c,) +on6*dmissibility) +he section also pro.i,es "or the non%a,(issibility o" any e.i,ence ,eri.e, through a .iolation o" this section- e?cept as proo" o" such .iolation. imilar restrictions are containe, in) (!C! 232) 8lectronic ea.es,ropping- in general. (!C! 232!)) Cellular ra,io telephone co((unications. (!C! 232!2) Cor,less telephone co((unications. 353
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(!C! 232!1) Recor,ing co((unications bet0een cellular ra,io telephones an, cor,less telephones- or bet0een these an, a lan,line telephone. +ote) A *controlled telephone call/ (a,e by a .icti( or 0itness to a suspect "or the purpose o" obtaining incri(inating state(ents "ro( the suspect- at la0 en"orce(ent s re@uest (See (!C! 232233)- is not a pri.acy .iolation or an illegal Fourth Amendment search. (See United States $# -hite (1&21) 301 4.S. 23$ 62# 7.8,.2n, 3$39.) See also )eop"e $# Na(ai (2010) 1#3 Cal. App. 3th 3&&$12%$1#) 1ncri(inating online chat 0ith a (inor is not con"i,ential co((unication per (!C! ! 232 that re@uires suppression. (!C! 233!#) Ea!esdropping in Hostage or $arricading ituations) A peace o""icer (ay use an electronic a(pli"ying or recor,ing ,e.ice to ea.es,rop on an,Nor recor,- any oral co((unication 0ithin a particular location in response to the taFing o" a hostage or the barrica,ing o" a location i") 4+1, +he o""icer reasonably ,eter(ines that an e(ergency situation e?ists in.ol.ing the i((e,iate ,anger o" ,eath or serious physical inCury to any person: 4+2, +he o""icer reasonably ,eter(ines that the e(ergency situation re@uires that ea.es,ropping occur i((e,iately: and 4+3, +here are groun,s upon 0hich an or,er coul, be obtaine, pursuant to 1# !S!C! 2)12+2, "or the o""enses speci"ie, in it. +ote) 1# !S!C! 2)12+2, per(its the interception o" 0ire- oral- or electronic co((unications 0hen the interception (ay pro.i,e e.i,ence o" the co((ission o" (ur,er- Fi,napping- ga(bling- robberybribery- e?tortion- or ,ealing in narcotic ,rugs- (ariCuana or other ,angerous ,rugsor other cri(es ,angerous to li"e- li(b- or property- an, is punishable by i(prison(ent "or (ore than one year. 35$
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!nly a peace o""icer 0ho has been ,esignate, by either a ,istrict attorney or by the Attorney Leneral (ay (aFe the three ,eter(inations liste, abo.e. A peace o""icer is not re@uire, to FnocF or announce his or her presence be"ore entering or be"ore installing or using any electronic a(pli"ying or recor,ing ,e.ices. An application "or an or,er appro.ing ea.es,ropping (ust be (a,e 0ithin 3# hours after the ea.es,ropping has begun. Co(pliance 0ith (!C! 22"!)3 (setting "orth the re@uire(ents o" a 0iretap application) is re@uire,. A Cu,ge is prohibite, "ro( granting an ea.es,ropping application in anticipation o" an e(ergency situation. A Cu,ge is re@uire, to grant the application in a barrica,e or hostage situation 0here there is probable cause to belie.e that an in,i.i,ual is co((itting- has co((itte,- or is about to co((it an o""ense liste, in 1# !S!C! 2)12+2, (see +ote abo.e) an, only i" the peace o""icer has "ully co(plie, 0ith the re@uire(ents o" this section. Any oral co((unications o.erhear, (ust be recor,e,- an, in such a (anner as to protect the recor,ing "ro( alterations. A *barricading/ occurs 0hen a person re"uses to co(e out "ro( a co.ere, or enclose, position- or 0hen a person is hel, against his or her 0ill an, the captor has not (a,e a ,e(an,. A *hostage situation/ occurs 0hen a person is hel, against his or her 0ill an, the captor has (a,e a ,e(an,. A peace o""icer 0ho (aFes the ,ecision to use an ea.es,ropping ,e.ice is not re@uire, to un,ergo 0iretap training pursuant to (!C! 22"!"4. A peace o""icer is re@uire, to stop using an ea.es,ropping ,e.ice 0hen the barrica,e or hostage situation en,s- or upon the ,enial by a Cu,ge "or an or,er appro.ing ea.es,ropping- 0hiche.er occurs "irst. 355
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Jothing in this ne0 section is inten,e, to a""ect the a,(issibility o" e.i,ence. (!C! 22"!)3 through 22"!"# regulate the i(ple(entation o" *wiretaps/ an, the use o" in"or(ation obtaine, thereby- inclu,ing ,eri.ati.e e.i,ence- an, are liste, in ,etail belo0. (See )eop"e $# *ac(son (200$) 12& Cal.App.3th 12&- 133%1$&.) (!C! 22"!)3) Re@uirements for a =iretap ;rder) An application for a wiretap order authori;ing the interception o" a 0ire- electronic pager- or electronic cellular telephone co((unication shall) Ge (a,e in 0riting upon the personal oath or a""ir(ation o") +he Attorney LeneralChie" Deputy Attorney LeneralChie" Assistant Attorney Leneral- Cri(inal 7a0 Di.ision- or A District Attorney- or the person ,esignate, to act as District Attorney in the District Attorney s absence. Ge (a,e to) +he presi,ing Cu,ge o" the Superior Courtor Another Cu,ge ,esignate, by the presi,ing Cu,ge- or +he highest Cu,ge liste, on an *ordered list/ o" a,,itional Cu,ges- upon a ,eter(ination that none o" the abo.e Cu,ges are a.ailable. 1nclu,e all o" the "ollo0ing in"or(ation) +he i,entity o" the in.estigati.e or la0 en"orce(ent o""icer (aFing the application352
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+he i,entity o" the in.estigati.e or la0 en"orce(ent o""icer authori;ing the applicationBailure to i,enti"y the authori;ing o""icial shoul, not in.ali,ate the subse@uent 0iretap or,er. (See United States $# Ca""um (&th Cir. 200$) 310 B.3r, $21- ,iscussing the correspon,ing "e,eral statute: 1# !S!C! 2)1#+4,+d,.) Gut 0here the "ailure to inclu,e in"or(ation i,enti"ying the Depart(ent o" Justice as authori;ing a 0iretap application (aFes it i(possible "or a Cu,ge to conclu,e "ro( the "ace o" the application that it ha, been in "act so authori;e,. 0ill in.ali,ate the 0arrant. (United States $# Sta''e"dt (&th Cir. 2005) 3$1 B.3r, $2#: an attache, (e(oran,u( purporte,ly i,enti"ying the Depart(ent o" Justice as authori;ing the 0iretap application 0as- ,ue to hu(an error- the 0rong (e(oran,u(.) +he i,entity o" the la0 en"orce(ent agency that is to e?ecute the or,erA state(ent attesting to a re.ie0 o" the application an, the circu(stances in support thereo" by the chie" e?ecuti.e o""icer or his or her ,esignee (0ho (ust be i,enti"ie, by na(e) o" the la0 en"orce(ent agency (aFing the applicationA "ull an, co(plete state(ent o" the "acts an, circu(stances relie, upon by the applicant to Custi"y his or her belie" that an or,er shoul, be issue,- inclu,ing) Details as to the particular o""ense that has been- is being- or is about to be co((itte,35#
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+he "act that con.entional in.estigati.e techni@ues ha.e been trie, an, 0ere unsuccess"ul- or 0hy they reasonably appear to be unliFely to succee, or to be too ,angerousA particular ,escription o" the nature an, location o" the "acilities "ro( 0hich- or the place 0here the co((unication is to be intercepte,A particular ,escription o" the type o" co((unication sought to be intercepte,- and +he i,entity- i" Fno0n- o" the person co((itting the o""ense an, 0hose co((unications are to be intercepte,- or i" that person s i,entity is not Fno0n- then the in"or(ation relating to the person s i,entity that is Fno0n to the applicant. Eiretap authority is tie, to speci"ic co((unications "acilities or locations (inclu,ing a speci"ic telephone or cell phone)- an, not in,i.i,ual suspects. So 0hen a pre.iously unFno0n coconspirator is i,enti"ie,- it is not necessary to cease the ea.es,ropping nor (aFe application to the court "or a ne0 or,er. (United States $# Reed (&th Cir. 200&) $2$ B.3r, &00- &10%&12.) A state(ent o" the perio, o" ti(e "or 0hich the interception is re@uire, to be (aintaine,) An, i" the nature o" the interception is such that the authori;ation "or interception shoul, not auto(atically 35&
< 2013 Robert C. Phillips. All rights reser.e,

ter(inate 0hen the ,escribe, type o" co((unication has been "irst obtaine,- a particular ,escription o" the "acts establishing probable cause to belie.e that a,,itional co((unications o" the sa(e type 0ill occur therea"ter- and A "ull an, co(plete state(ent o" the "acts concerning all pre.ious applications Fno0n to the in,i.i,ual authori;ing an, to the in,i.i,ual (aFing the application- to ha.e been (a,e to any Cu,ge o" a state or "e,eral court "or authori;ation to intercept 0ireelectronic pager- or 0ire or electronic co((unication in.ol.ing any o" the sa(e persons- "acilities- or places speci"ie, in the application- an, the action taFen by the Cu,ge on each o" those applications. +his re@uire(ent (ay be satis"ie, by (aFing in@uiry o" the Cali"ornia Attorney Leneral an, the 4nite, States Depart(ent o" Justice an, reporting the results o" these in@uiries in the application. +ote) 4se o" a 0iretap to co(bat a large conspiracy- gi.en the greater threat to society- allo0s "or the use o" greater ,iscretion by the courts to allo0 the go.ern(ent to use 0iretaps. (United States $# %cGuire (&th Cir. 2002) 302 B.3r, 11&2- 11&#.) Bailure to sho0 that all tra,itional in.estigati.e (etho,s ha.e been trie, an, ,eter(ine, to be ina,e@uate 0ill result in a suppression o" any e.i,ence obtaine, "ro( the resulting 0iretaps. (United States $# Gon5a"e5, Inc# (&th Cir. 2005) 332 B.3r, #$3: see 1# !S!C! 2)1#.) Io0e.er- la0 en"orce(ent o""icials nee, not e?haust e.ery concei.able in.estigati.e techni@ue be"ore seeFing a 0iretap or,er. 320
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(United States $# 2ococo (&th Cir. 200#) $13 B.3r, #50: see also United States $# Ri$era (&th Cir. 200#) $22 B.3r, #&1: United States $# Reed (&th Cir. 200&) $2$ B.3r, &00- &0#% &10.) *+he necessity "or the 0iretap is e.aluate, in light o" the go.ern(ent s nee, not (erely to collect so(e e.i,ence- but to A,e.elop an e""ecti.e case against those in.ol.e, in the conspiracy. / (Id.- at p. &0&- @uoting United States $# Ri$era- supra- at p. &02- an, United States $# Decoud- infra- at pg. 1002.) +he "act that a pen register coul, ha.e been use,- 0ith its li(ite, .alue in collecting necessary in"or(ation- ,oes not (ean that the necessity "or a 0iretap ha, not been establishe,. *+he necessity "or the 0iretap is e.aluate, in light o" the go.ern(ent s nee, not (erely to collect so(e e.i,encebut to A,e.elop an e""ecti.e case against those in.ol.e, in the conspiracy./ (United States $# Decoud (&th Cir. 2005) 3$5 B.3r, &&5- 1005%1002: the "act that the in"or(ant ha, been sent to prison- an, that a sur.eillance ha, been ,etecte,- helpe, to establish the nee, "or a 0iretap.) 1" the application is "or the e?tension o" an or,er- a state(ent setting "orth the nu(ber o" co((unications intercepte, pursuant to the original or,er- an, the results thus "ar obtaine, "ro( the interception- or a reasonable e?planation o" the "ailure to obtain results. An application "or a (o,i"ication o" the original or,er (ay be (a,e 0hen there is *probable cause/ to belie.e that the target o" a 0iretap is using a "acility or ,e.ice that is not subCect to the original or,er.

321
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+he (o,i"ie, or,er is only goo, "or that perio, that applie, to the original or,er. +he application (ust pro.i,e all the in"or(ation re@uire, o" the original or,er an, a state(ent o" the results thus "ar obtaine, "ro( the interception- or a reasonable e?planation "or the "ailure to obtain results. +he Cu,ge (ay re@uire the applicant to "urnish a,,itional testi(ony or ,ocu(entary e.i,ence in support o" the application. +he "act that the application 0as (a,e to a *successor %udge/ ,esignate, by the presi,ing Cu,ge to hear applications i" the "irst%na(e, Cu,ge is una.ailable ,i, not .iolate the re@uire(ents un,er this section. ()eop"e $# %uno5 (2001) #2 Cal.App.3th 23&- 232.) A Cu,ge (ust accept a "acsi(ile copy o" the signature that is re@uire, on an application "or a 0iretap or,er. +he original signe, ,ocu(ent is to be seale, an, Fept 0ith the application. (!C! 22"!)1) Definitions) *=ire &ommunication)/ *(A)ny aural trans"er (a,e in 0hole or in part through the use o" "acilities "or the trans(ission o" co((unications by the ai, o" 0ire- cableor other liFe connection bet0een the point o" origin an, the point o" reception (inclu,ing the use o" a liFe connection in a s0itching station)- "urnishe, or operate, by any person engage, in pro.i,ing or operating these "acilities "or the trans(ission o" co((unications./ See also )eop"e $# 9on 9i""as (1&&2) 11 Cal.App.3th 12$- at p. 223- ,e"ining *wire communication/ as *any aural trans"er (a,e in 0hole or in part through the use o" "acilities "or the trans(ission o" co((unications by the ai, o" 0ire- cable- or other liFe connection bet0een the point o" origin an, the point o" reception (inclu,ing the use o" such 322
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connection in a s0itching station) "urnishe, or operate, by any person engage, in pro.i,ing or operating such "acilities "or the trans(ission o" interstate or "oreign co((erce . . . ./ A phone use, ,uring a physical .isitation by a prisoner an, his or her .isitor ,oes not (eet the re@uire(ents o" a *wire communication-/ not using a line in interstate or "oreign co((erce. 1t is there"ore not subCect to the 0iretap restrictions o" (!C! 231. ()eop"e $# Santos (1&22) 25 Cal.App.3r, 3&2- 302.) Gut clone, cell phones are inclu,e,. (United States $# Sta$es (2003) 3#3 B.3r, &22.) *Electronic pager communication)/ *(A)ny tone or ,igital ,isplay or tone an, .oice pager co((unication. *Electronic cellular telephone communication)/ *(A)ny cellular or cor,less ra,io telephone co((unication. **ural Transfer)/ *(A) trans"er containing the hu(an .oice at any point bet0een an, inclu,ing the point o" origin an, the point o" reception./ +he au,io portion o" a .i,eotape 0oul, see( to "all 0ithin this ,e"inition. (United States $# Shr&"oc( (&th Cir. 2003) 332 B.3r, &3#- &22: *+he .i,eotapes containe, both .i,eo an, au,io portions. +he au,io portions are go.erne, by the "e,eral 0iretap statute1# !S!C! 2)13 et se*!/) (!C! 22"!)2) *uthority to 'ssue a =iretap ;rder) 4pon application (a,e per (!C! 22"!)3 (see abo.e)- a Cu,ge (ay enter an e? parte or,er- as re@ueste, or (o,i"ie,- authori;ing the interception o": Eire8lectronic pager- or 8lectronic co((unication:

Ehen such co((unication is initially intercepte, 0ithin the territorial Curis,iction o" the court in 0hich the Cu,ge is 323
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sitting- if the Cu,ge ,eter(ines- on the basis o" the "acts sub(itte, by the applicant- all of the following) +here is probable cause to belie.e that an in,i.i,ual is co((itting- has co((itte,- or is about to co((it- one o" the "ollo0ing o""enses) 1. 1(portation- possession "or saletransportation- (anu"acture- or sale o" controlle, substances in .iolation o" F&S 113)1- 113)1!)- 113)2- 11313!2- 1131#1131#!)- 1131"- 1131"!)- or 1131"!2- 0hen) +he substance contains heroin cocaine- PCP- (etha(pheta(ine- or their analogs: and +he substance e?cee,s ten (10) gallons by li@ui, .olu(e or three (3) poun,s o" soli, substance by 0eight2. Our,er3. Solicitation to co((it (ur,er3. A "elony in.ol.ing a destructi!e de!iceper (!C! 1#113- 1#12)- 1#11)- 1#1431#133- 1#14)- 1#1)3- 1#1))- 1#123 ("or(erly- (!C! 12333- 12333!1- 12333!212333!3- 12333!2- 1233#- 1233"- 12313 or 12312- respecti.ely)$. Aggra.ate, Fi,napping- as speci"ie, in (!C! 23"5. Any "elony .iolation o" (!C! 1#2!22 (gang cri(es)2. A "elony .iolation o" the o""enses in.ol.ing weapons of mass destruction as ,escribe, in (!C! 1141#- relating to 0eapons o" (ass ,estruction- 1141#!)relating to threats to use 0eapons o" (ass ,estruction- or 1141"- relating to restricte, biological agents- or 323
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#. An atte(pt or conspiracy to co((it any o" the abo.e%(entione, cri(es: +here is probable cause to belie.e that particular co((unications concerning the illegal acti.ities 0ill be obtaine, through that interceptioninclu,ing- but not li(ite, to- co((unications that (ay be utili;e, "or locating or rescuing a Fi,nap .icti(: +here is probable cause to belie.e that the "acilities "ro( 0hich- or the place 0here the 0ire- electronic pager- or electronic co((unication are to be intercepte,) Are being use,- or are about to be use,- in connection 0ith the co((ission o" the o""ense- or Are lease, to- liste, in the na(e o"- or co((only use, by the person 0hose co((unications are to be intercepte,: and Jor(al in.estigati.e proce,ures ha.e been trie, an, ha.e "aile,- or reasonably appear to be unliFely to succee, i" trie,- or reasonably appear to be too ,angerous. *+he re@uire(ent o" necessity is ,esigne, to ensure that 0iretapping is neither Aroutinely e(ploye, as the initial step in cri(inal in.estigation (United States $# Giordano (1&23) 315 4.S. $0$- $1$- &3 S.Ct. 1#20- 30 7.8,.2, 331) nor Aresorte, to in situations 0here tra,itional in.estigati.e techni@ues 0oul, su""ice to e?pose the cri(e. (United States $# /ahn (1&23) 31$ 4.S. 133- 1$3- "n. 12.)/ ()eop"e $# 2eon (2002) 30 Cal.3th 325- 3#$.)
7(>)t is not necessar* that la+ enforcement officials exhaust e)er* concei)able alternati)e before see;in. a +ireta(.3 (&bid.)

+he necessity re@uire(ent o" 32$


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su4di:ision +d, o" this section (an, the si(ilar "e,eral re@uire(ent un,er 1# !S!C! 2)1#+1,+c, W +3,+c,) 0as (et base, upon the trial court s "in,ing that the e.i,ence against the ,e"en,ant 0as purely circu(stantial0itnesses against the ,e"en,ant 0ishe, to re(ain anony(ous@uestioning o" the ,e"en,ant 0as not liFely to pro,uce any a,,itional e.i,ence- an, that the ,e"en,ant 0as liFely to call "rien,s "ro( his Cail cell an, ha.e the( ,estroy e.i,ence i" he ,isco.ere, that he 0as the "ocus o" the ne0 (ur,er in.estigation. ()eop"e $# 4epeda (2001) #2 Cal.App.3th 11#3- 120$.) Si(ilarly- 0here a ,angerous conspiracy is being in.estigate, (e.g.- the *,ontana (reemen/)- 0here in"iltration 0oul, be ,angerous an, ,i""icult- an, in"or(ants 0ere generally uncooperati.e- this re@uire(ent is (et. (United States $# %cGuire (&th Cir. 2002) 302 B.3r, 11&2- 11&2.) Gut see United States $# "ac(mon (&th Cir 2001) 223 B.3r, 1203- citing United States $# Carneiro (1&##) #51 B.2n, 1121- 11#1- "or the proposition that a conspiracy does not loosen the stan,ar, o" proo" on this issue. An, e.en 0hen in"or(ants are use,- a "in,ing that such in"or(ants *coul, not possibly re.eal the "ull nature an, e?tent o" the enterprise an, it s countless- an, at ti(es ,isCointe,- cri(inal tentacles-/ satis"ie, this re@uire(ent. (United States $# Shr&"oc( (&th Cir. 2003) 332 B.3r, &3#- &2$%&25: see also United States $# Gome5 (&th Cir. 2003) 3$# B.3r, 1221.) 1t is not necessary that the go.ern(ent pro.e that it pursue, *to the bitter en, . . . e.ery 325
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non%electronic ,e.ice./ (Citation). *(+)he a,e@uacy o" the sho0ing concerning other in.estigati.e techni@ues is Ato be teste, in a practical an, co((on sense "ashion 6citation9 that ,oes not Aha(per un,uly the in.estigati.e po0ers o" la0 en"orce(ent agents. / ()eop"e $# 2eon (2007) 40 Cal.4th
/76! /92.)

1t 0as not necessary that in.estigators ha.e atte(pte, to pro.i,e clone, cell phones "or ,e"en,ant s use as a prere@uisite to applying "or a 0iretap 0arrant in that (onitoring clone, cell phones itsel" 0oul, re@uire a 0iretap or,er to be la0"ul. (United States $# Sta$es (2003) 3#3 B.3r, &22.) +he necessity "or a 0iretap is e.aluate, in light o" the go.ern(ent s nee, not (erely to collect so(e e.i,ence- but to ,e.elop an e""ecti.e case against the ,e"en,ants. An *effecti!e case/ (eans *proof beyond a reasonable doubt-/ not (erely to get an in,ict(ent. Ehere the in.estigation o" a ,rug%,istribution conspiracy 0as stalle, at in"or(ation obtaine, "ro( a pen register an, trap an, trace ,e.ice- obtaining a series (i.e.3) o" 0iretaps 0as hel, to be la0"ul. (United States $# Garcia39i""a".a (&th Cir. 200&) $#$ B.3r, 1223- 1222%1233: reCecting ,e"en,ant s argu(ent that by the ti(e a 0iretap "or a "ourth cell phone 0as obtaine,la0 en"orce(ent 0as relying upon an i(per(issible *cascading theory of necessity./) 8?a(ples o" "actors use, to establish a necessity "or a 0iretap (pp. 122#% 1230)) Pen register an, trap an, trace ,e.ice ,oes not re.eal the contents o" the ,e"en,ants con.ersations. Physical sur.eillance 0as i(possible ,ue to (ain ,e"en,ant li.ing in a rural location.

322
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De"en,ants use, counter% sur.eillance techni@ues. A trash search 0as i(possible ,ue to (ain ,e"en,ant li.ing in a rural location. Search 0arrants- subpoenasinter.ie0s an, arrests 0oul, ha.e ter(inate, the in.estigation be"ore all the coconspirators 0ere "oun,. Con"i,ential in"or(ants coul, not be ,e.elope,.

+ote) 4se o" pen registers an, trap an, trace ,e.ices- e?cept (aybe 0hen co(bine, 0ith other "or(s o" electronic sur.eillanceis not enough alone to establish necessity "or a 0iretap. (United States $# Garcia3 9i""a".a- supra.- at p. 122#- citing United States $# Gon5a"e5, Inc!, (&th Cir. 200$) 312 B.3r, 1102- 1113.) 1t is 0here the intercepte, co((unications 0ere "irst hear, by "e,eral go.ern(ent agents that ,eter(ines 0hich "e,eral court has Curis,iction "or purposes o" "iling the resulting cri(inal prosecution- at least un,er the "e,eral rules: i.e.1# !S!C! 2)1#+3,. (United States $# 2uon1 (&th Cir. 2005) 321 B.3r, 1102.) (!C! 22"!)3) :udicial <uidelines) +he Ju,icial Council (ay establish gui,elines "or Cu,ges to "ollo0 in granting an or,er authori;ing the interception o" any 0ire- electronic pager- or electronic co((unication. (!C! 22"!)4) &ontents of the =iretap ;rder) An or,er authori;ing the interception o" any 0ireelectronic ,igital pager- or electronic cellular telephone co((unication shall speci"y all of the following) +he i,entity- i" Fno0n- o" the person 0hose co((unications are to be intercepte,- or i" the i,entity is not Fno0n- then that in"or(ation relating to the person s i,entity Fno0n to the applicant-

32#
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+he nature an, location o" the co((unication "acilities as to 0hich- or the place 0here- authority to intercept is grante,A particular ,escription o" the type o" co((unication sought to be intercepte,- an, a state(ent o" the illegal acti.ities to 0hich it relates+he i,entity o" the agency authori;e, to intercept the co((unications an, o" the persons (aFing the application- and +he perio, o" ti(e ,uring 0hich the interception is authori;e, inclu,ing a state(ent as to 0hether or not the interception shall auto(atically ter(inate 0hen the ,escribe, co((unication has been "irst obtaine,.

(!C! 22"!)2) !ral Appro.al in 7ieu o" Court !r,er) 4pon the in"or(al application by the Attorney LeneralChie" Deputy Attorney Leneral- Chie" Assistant Attorney Leneral- Cri(inal Di.ision- or a District Attorney- or a person to act as District Attorney in the District Attorney s absence- the presi,ing Cu,ge o" the Superior Court- or the "irst a.ailable Cu,ge ,esignate, as pro.i,e, in (!C! 22"!)3- (ay grant oral appro.al "or an interception0ithout a court or,er- i" he or she ,eter(ines all of the following) +here are groun,s upon 0hich an or,er coul, be issue, un,er this chapter- and +here is probable cause to belie.e that an e(ergency situation e?ists 0ith respect to the in.estigation o" an o""ense enu(erate, in (!C! 22"!)2- and +here is probable cause to belie.e that a substantial danger to life or limb e?ists Custi"ying the authori;ation "or i((e,iate interception o" a pri.ate 0ire- electronic ,igital pager- or electronic cellular telephone co((unication be"ore an application "or an or,er coul, 0ith ,ue ,iligence be sub(itte, an, acte, upon. 32&
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Appro.al "or an interception un,er this section shall be con,itione, upon "iling 0ith the Cu,ge by (i,night o" the secon, "ull court ,ay a"ter the oral appro.al- a 0ritten application "or an or,er 0hich- i" grante, consistent 0ith this chapter- shall also recite the oral appro.al un,er this sub,i.ision an, be retroacti.e to the ti(e o" the oral appro.al. (!C! 22"!)#) Duration o" a Eiretap !r,er) Jo or,er entere, un,er this chapter shall authori;e the interception o" any 0ire- electronic pager- or electronic cellular telephone- or electronic co((unication "or a perio, longer than) Jecessary to achie.e the obCecti.e o" the authori;ation- nor in any e!ent+hirty (30) ,ays.

+he 30%,ay li(it on a 0iretap begins on the ,ay o" the initial interception- or 10 ,ays a"ter the issuance o" the 0iretap or,er- 0hiche.er co(es "irst. 8?tensions o" an or,er (ay be grante, in accor,ance 0ith (!C! 22"!)3 an, upon the court (aFing the "in,ings re@uire, by (!C! 22"!)2. +he perio, o" e?tension shall be no longer than the authori;ing Cu,ge ,ee(s necessary to achie.e the purposes "or 0hich it 0as grante, an, in no e.ent longer than thirty (30) ,ays. 8.ery or,er an, e?tension thereo" shall contain a pro.ision that the authori;ation to intercept shall) Ge e?ecute, as soon as practicableGe con,ucte, so as to (ini(i;e the interception o" co((unications not other0ise subCect to interception un,er this chapter- and

3#0
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+er(inate upon attain(ent o" the authori;e, obCecti.e- or in any e.ent at the ti(e e?piration o" the ter( ,esignate, in the or,er or any e?tensions. Ehere the target o" the 0iretap or,er is ,isco.ere, to be using an alias- an, changes his na(e ,uring the li"e o" the or,er- agents ,i, not "ail to *(ini(i;e/ the interception o" con.ersations not relate, to the in.estigation by continuing to ea.es,rop on the target 0hile he uses the ne0 na(e. (United States $# Fernande5 (&th Cir. 200#) $22 B.3r, 1232.)

1n the e.ent the intercepte, co((unication is in a foreign language- an interpreter o" that "oreign language (ay assist peace o""icers in e?ecuting the authori;ation pro.i,e, in this chapter- pro.i,e, that) +he interpreter has ha, the sa(e training as any other interceptor authori;e, un,er this chapter- and +he interception shall be con,ucte, so as to (ini(i;e the interception o" co((unications not other0ise subCect to interception un,er this chapter.

(!C! 22"!23) Progress Reports) Ehene.er an or,er authori;ing an interception is entere,the or,er shall re@uire reports in 0riting or other0ise to be (a,e to the Cu,ge 0ho issue, the or,er) Sho0ing the nu(ber o" co((unications intercepte, pursuant to the original or,er: and A state(ent setting "orth 0hat progress has been (a,e to0ar,s achie.e(ent o" the authori;e, obCecti.e- or A satis"actory e?planation "or its lacF o" progressan, the nee, "or continue, interception.

+he Cu,ge shall or,er that the interception i((e,iately ter(inate if he or she "in,s that)
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Progress has not been (a,e- and 3#1

+he e?planation "or its lacF o" progress is not satis"actory- or Jo nee, e?ists "or continue, interception.

+he reports shall) Ge "ile, 0ith the court at least e.ery ten (10) ,aysor (ore "re@uently i" or,ere, by the court: and Ge (a,e by any reasonable an, reliable (eans- as ,eter(ine, by the Cu,ge.

Ehen a ,e"en,ant (o.e, to suppress e.i,ence on the groun,s the reports re@uire, un,er (!C! 22"!23 0ere ina,e@uate or unti(ely- the State ha, the bur,en to sho0 there 0as no error. Io0e.er- the .iolation ,i, not contra.ene a central purpose o" CaliforniaJs (resleA< Felando<?a:es /ireta- Act of 1"##- (!C! 22"!)3 et se*!, or the purpose o" the pro.ision 0as achie.e, ,espite any error. 4n,er that "ra(e0orF- the trial court ,i, not err in ,enying ,e"en,antsD (otion to suppress 0iretap e.i,ence because the 0iretaps 0ere obtaine, legally an, (ini(i;e,. ()eop"e $# Ro.erts et a"# (2010) 1#3 Cal.App.3th 113&.) (!C! 22"!21) Report to Attorney Leneral) A court or,er authori;ing an interception shall re@uire a report in 0riting or other0ise to be (a,e to the Attorney Leneral- sho0ing) Ehat persons- "acilities- places or any co(bination o" these- are to be intercepte,: and +he action taFen by the Cu,ge on each application.

+he report shall be (a,e at the inter.al that the or,er (ay re@uire- but not less than ten (10) ,ays a"ter the or,er 0as issue,. +he report shall be (a,e by any reasonable an, reliable (eans- as ,eter(ine, by the Attorney Leneral.

3#2
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+he Attorney Leneral (ay issue regulations prescribing the collection an, ,isse(ination o" in"or(ation collecte,. +he Attorney Leneral shall- upon the re@uest o" an in,i.i,ual (aFing an application "or an interception or,erpro.i,e any in"or(ation Fno0n as a result o" these reporting re@uire(ents- as re@uire, by (!C! 22"!)3+a,+2,. (!C! 22"!22) Annual Report to the 7egislature- etc.) +he Attorney Leneral shall prepare an, sub(it an annual report to the 7egislature- the Ju,icial Council- an, the Director o" the A,(inistrati.e !""ice o" the 4nite, States Court on interceptions con,ucte, un,er the authority o" this chapter ,uring the prece,ing year. 1n"or(ation "or this report shall be pro.i,e, to the Attorney Leneral by any prosecutorial agency seeFing an or,er pursuant to this chapter. +he report shall inclu,e all o" the "ollo0ing ,ata) +he nu(ber o" or,ers or e?tensions applie, "or+he Fin,s o" or,ers or e?tension applie, "or+he "act that the or,er or e?tension 0as grante, as applie, "or- 0as (o,i"ie,- or 0as ,enie,+he nu(ber o" 0ire- electronic pager- an, electronic cellular telephone ,e.ices that are the subCect o" each or,er grante,+he perio, o" interceptions authori;e, by the or,eran, the nu(ber an, ,uration o" any e?tensions o" the or,er+he o""ense speci"ie, in the or,er or application- or e?tension o" any or,er+he i,entity o" the applying la0 en"orce(ent o""icer an, agency (aFing the application an, the person authori;ing the application-

3#3
< 2013 Robert C. Phillips. All rights reser.e,

+he nature o" the "acilities "ro( 0hich- or the place 0here co((unications 0ere to be intercepte,A general ,escription o" the interceptions (a,e un,er the or,er or e?tension- inclu,ing) +he nu(ber o" persons 0hose co((unications 0ere intercepte,. +he nu(ber o" co((unications intercepte,. +he percentage o" incri(inating co((unications intercepte,. +he percentage o" other co((unications intercepte,- and +he appro?i(ate nature- a(ount- an, costs o" the (anpo0er an, other resources use, in the interceptions-

+he nu(ber o" arrests resulting "ro( interceptions (a,e un,er the or,er or e?tension- an, the o""enses "or 0hich arrests 0ere (a,e+he nu(ber o" trials resulting "ro( the interceptions+he nu(ber o" (otions to suppress (a,e 0ith respect to the interceptions- an, the nu(ber grante, or ,enie,+he nu(ber o" con.ictions resulting "ro( the interceptions an, the o""enses "or 0hich the con.ictions 0ere obtaine,- an, a general assess(ent o" the i(portance o" the interceptions8?cept 0ith regar, to the initial report re@uire, by this section- the in"or(ation re@uire, by the prece,ing "i.e ($) paragraphs (e?clu,ing the i((e,iately prece,ing paragraph about the nu(ber o" con.ictions) 0ith respect to or,ers or e?tensions obtaine, in a prece,ing calen,ar year-

3#3
< 2013 Robert C. Phillips. All rights reser.e,

+he ,ate o" the or,er "or ser.ice o" in.entory (a,e pursuant to (!C! 22"!2#- con"ir(ation o" co(pliance 0ith the or,er- an, the nu(ber o" notices sent. !ther ,ata that the 7egislature- the Ju,icial Councilor the Director o" the A,(inistrati.e !""ice shall re@uire.

+he annual report shall inclu,e a su((ary analysis o" the abo.e. +he Attorney Leneral (ay issue regulations prescribing the content an, "or( o" the reports re@uire, to be "ile, by a prosecutorial agency. +he Attorney Leneral s annual report shall be "ile, no later than April o" each year. +he Attorney Leneral shall- upon the re@uest o" an in,i.i,ual (aFing an application "or an interception or,erpro.i,e any in"or(ation Fno0n as a result o" these reporting re@uire(ents that 0oul, enable the in,i.i,ual (aFing an application to co(ply 0ith the re@uire(ents o" (!C! 22"!)3+a,+2,. (!C! 22"!24) Recor,ing- Sealing an, Retaining 1ntercepte, Co((unications) +he contents o" any 0ire or electronic co((unication intercepte, by any (eans authori;e, by this chapter shalli" possible- be recor,e, on any recor,ing (e,ia. +he recor,ing o" the contents o" any 0ire or electronic cellular telephone co((unication shall be ,one in a 0ay that) Eill protect the recor,ing "ro( e,iting or other alterations- and Eill ensure that the au,iotape recor,ing can be i((e,iately .eri"ie, as to its authenticity an, originality- and Any alteration can be i((e,iately ,etecte,.

3#$
< 2013 Robert C. Phillips. All rights reser.e,

+he (onitoring or recor,ing ,e.ice use, shall be o" a typean, shall be installe,- to preclu,e any interruption or (onitoring o" the interception by any unauthori;e, (eans. 1((e,iately upon the e?piration o" the perio, o" the or,eror e?tensions thereo"- the recor,ings shall be (a,e a.ailable to the Cu,ge issuing the or,er. +he recor,ing shall be seale, un,er the ,irection o" the Cu,ge. +he presence o" the seal- or a satis"actory e?planation "or the absence o" the seal- shall be a prere@uisite "or the use or ,isclosure o" the contents o" any 0ire or electronic cellular telephone co((unication or e.i,ence ,eri.e, there"ro( un,er (!C! 22"!1#- belo0. See United States $# %cGuire (&th Cir. 2002) 302 B.3r, 11&2- 1201%120$- 0here the BG1 in a "e,eral 0iretap pro.i,e, satis"actory reasons "or ,elaying the sealing 0here they ha, the court s per(issionthe Cu,ge 0as in another ,istrict- an, they tooF steps to protect the recor,ings pen,ing the sealing. 1n"or(ation recei.e, "ro( a pen register an,Nor a trap an, trace ,e.ice- recor,ing *call ,ata content/ (i.e.- *CDC-/ ,ata about call origination- length- an, ti(e o" call)- are not protecte, by the 0iretap statutes. +here is no e?pectation o" pri.acy in such in"or(ation- per Smith $# %ar&"and (1&2&) 332 4.S. 23$ 651 7.8,.2n, 2209. (United States $# Reed (&th Cir. 200&) $2$ B.3r, &00- &13%&12.) Custo,y o" the recor,ings shall be 0here the Cu,ge or,ers. Recor,ings shall be retaine, "or a (ini(u( o" ten (10) years- an, shall be ,estroye, therea"ter only upon an or,er o" the issuing or ,enying Cu,ge. Duplicate recor,ings (ay be (a,e "or use or ,isclosure pursuant to (!C! 22"!14 an, 22"!12 (belo0) "or in.estigations. +he sealing or,er (ay be oral or 0ritten- an, the physical sealing o" the tapes nee, not be ,one in the Cu,ge s presence. ()eop"e $# Superior Court 6-est.roo(7 (1&&3) 1$ Cal.App.3th 31- 32%$1: ,iscussing "or(er (!C! 22"!14no0 22"!24.) 3#5
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(!C! 22"!22) Application an, !r,ers to be Seale,) +he application an, or,ers (a,e pursuant to this chapter shall be) Seale, by the Cu,ge. Zept 0here the Cu,ge or,ers. Disclose, only upon a sho0ing o" good cause be"ore a Cu,ge. (ay be (a,e to the ,e"en,ant an, at trial. Retaine, "or ten (10) years- an, therea"ter ,estroye, only upon or,er o" the issuing or ,enying Cu,ge.

(!C! 22"!2#) Jotice to Parties to 1ntercepte, Co((unications) Eithin a reasonable ti(e- but no later than ninety (&0) ,ays) A"ter ter(ination o" the perio, o" an or,er or e?tensions thereo": or A"ter "iling o" an application "or an or,er o" appro.al un,er (!C! 22"!)2 0hich has been ,enie,:

+he issuing Cu,ge shall issue an or,er that shall re@uire the re@uesting agency to ser.e) Persons na(e, in the or,er or application- and !ther Fno0n parties to intercepte, co((unications:

An in.entory 0hich shall inclu,e notice o" all o" the "ollo0ing) +he "act o" the entry o" the or,er- and +he ,ate o" the entry an, the perio, o" authori;e, interception- and +he "act that ,uring the perio, 0ire- electronic ,igital pager- or electronic co((unication- cellular 3#2
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telephone co((unications 0ere or 0ere not intercepte,. 4pon the "iling o" a (otion- the Cu,ge may- in his or her ,iscretion- (aFe a.ailable to the person or his or her counsel "or inspection the portions o" the intercepte, co((unications- applications an, or,ers that the Cu,ge ,eter(ines to be in the interest o" Custice. !n an e? parte sho0ing o" good cause to a Cu,ge- the ser.ing o" the in.entory re@uire, by this section (ay be postpone,. +he perio, o" postpone(ent shall be no longer than the authori;ing Cu,ge ,ee(s necessary to achie.e the purposes "or 0hich it 0as grante,. (!C! 22"!13) Disco.ery Prere@uisite to 4se in 8.i,ence) A cri(inal ,e"en,ant shall be noti"ie, that he or she 0as i,enti"ie, as the result o" an interception- such notice being be"ore a plea o" guilty or at least ten (10) ,ays be"ore trialhearing or procee,ing in the case other than an arraign(ent or gran, Cury procee,ing. +he ,e"en,ant is also entitle, to a copy o" all recor,e, interceptions- a copy o" the court or,er- an, acco(panying application an, (onitoring logs- at least ten (10) ,ays be"ore trial- hearing or procee,ing in the case other than a gran, Cury procee,ing. As a prere@uisite to a,(issibility into e.i,ence or other ,isclosure in any trial- hearing- or other procee,ing- e?cept a gran, Cury procee,ing- o" the contents o" any intercepte, 0ire- electronic pager- or electronic cellular telephone co((unication- or any e.i,ence ,eri.e, there "ro(- each party shall be "urnishe, not less than ten (10) ,ays be"ore such trial- hearing- or procee,ing- 0ith) A transcript o" the contents o" the interception- and A copy o" all recor,e, interceptions- and A copy o" the court or,er- acco(panying application- an, (onitoring logs. 3##
< 2013 Robert C. Phillips. All rights reser.e,

+he ten (10) ,ay perio, (ay be 0ai.e, by the Cu,ge i" he or she "in,s that it 0as not possible to "urnish the party 0ith the abo.e in"or(ation ten ,ays be"ore trial- hearing or procee,ing- an, that the party 0ill not be preCu,ice, by the ,elay in recei.ing that in"or(ation. +he court (ay issue an or,er li(iting ,isclosure to the parties upon a sho0ing o" goo, cause. +he trial court ,enie, ,isco.ery o" the unre,acte, supporting 0iretap a""i,a.its that 0ere seale, pursuant to )eop"e $# 0o..s (1&&3) 2 Cal.3th &3#an, then re"use, to suppress the 0iretap e.i,ence. +he Appellate Court "oun, that the pri.ileges an, proce,ures o" ?!C! 1343<1342 (!""icial 1n"or(ation Pri.ilege) applies to 0iretap a""i,a.its. De"en,ants "aile, to ,e(onstrate that the trial court abuse, its ,iscretion by ruling that ,e"en,ants rights 0ere a,e@uately protecte, 0ith respect to their re@uests "or ,isclosure o" pri.ilege, ,ocu(entation- an, to their challenges to the su""iciency o" the 0iretap authori;ation or,ers in this case. ()eop"e $# Ace$edo (2012) 20& Cal.App.3th 1030- 1032%10$0.) (!C! 22"!12) Ootions to Suppress) *ny person in any trial- hearing or procee,ing (ay (o.e to suppress) So(e or all o" the contents o" any intercepte, 0ireelectronic pager- or electronic co((unication- or Any e.i,ence ,eri.e, there "ro(:

!nly on the basis that the contents or e.i,ence 0ere obtaine, in .iolation o") +he Fourth Amendment- or +he ter(s o" this Chapter. +his Chapter ha.ing been enacte, subse@uent (1&&$%1&&5) to the passage o" 3#&
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(ro-osition # (1&#2)- an, by a t0oNthir,s .ote o" the 7egislature- (aFes e""ecti.e this statutory e?clusionary rule. ()eop"e $# 2eon (200$) 131 Cal.App.3th &55- &22%&2#.) A suppression (otion shall be (a,e- ,eter(ine,- an, subCect to re.ie0 in accor,ance 0ith the proce,ures set "orth in (!C! 1)3#!). As such- in or,er to 0arrant an e.i,entiary hearing an, the cross%e?a(ining o" the a""iant to a 0iretap search 0arrant- the ,e"en,ant (ust "irst (eet the re@uire(ents o" Fran(s $# De"a,are (1&2#) 33# 4.S. 1$3 6$2 7.8,.2n, 5529. 1.e.- ,e"en,ant (ust "irst (aFe a substantial preli(inary sho0ing that a "alse state(ent 0as ,eliberately or recFlessly inclu,e, in the a""i,a.it sub(itte, in support o" the 0iretap application- an, that such "alse state(ent 0as (aterial to the court s "in,ing o" necessity. (United States $# Shr&"oc( (&th Cir. 2003) 332 B.3r, &3#- &25%&22.) *8.i,ence obtaine, "ro( an unla0"ul 0iretap (ay only be suppresse, i" the 0iretap .iolate, the 4nite, States Constitution or a proce,ure inten,e, to play a central role in the legislati.e sche(e an, the purpose o" that proce,ure 0as not achie.e, in so(e other (anner./ ()eop"e $# *ac(son (200$) 12& Cal.App.3th 12&- 13#%1$3: "in,ing also that Cali"ornia s +ruth in 8.i,ence pro.isions (i.e.(ro-osition #) ,o not pre.ent the suppression o" e.i,ence obtaine, in .iolation o" the 0iretap statutes. Pp. 1$2%1$3.) Case la0) An o""icer s *good faith/ is not groun,s "or ,enying a ,e"en,ant s (otion to suppress base, on a .iolation o" the 0iretap statutes. ()eop"e $# *ac(son- supra- at pp. 1$3%150.) Bailure to raise a search issue or one ,ealing 0ith co(pliance 0ith the statutory re@uire(ents o" a 0iretap 0ai.e (i.e.- *"or"eit/) that issue "or purposes o" appeal. ()eop"e $# Da$is (200#) 15# Cal.App.3th 512- 52$%532.) (!C! 22"!14) Disclosure to !ther 7a0 8n"orce(ent Agencies) 3&0
< 2013 Robert C. Phillips. All rights reser.e,

+he Attorney Leneral- any Deputy Attorney LeneralDistrict Attorney- Deputy District Attorney- or any peace o""icer- 0ho by any (eans authori;e, by this Chapter has obtaine, Fno0le,ge o" the contents o" any 0ire- electronic ,igital pager- or electronic cellular telephone co((unication- or e.i,ence ,eri.e, there"ro(- may ,isclose the contents to) Anyone re"erre, to in this section (abo.e)Any in.estigati.e or la0 en"orce(ent o""icer ,e"ine, in 1# !S!C! 2)13+1,- or Any Cu,ge or (agistrate:

+o the e?tent ,isclosure is) Per(itte, per (!C! 22"!#2- and Appropriate to the proper per"or(ance o" the o""icial ,uties o" the in,i.i,ual (aFing or recei.ing the ,isclosure.

Jo other ,isclosure- e?cept to a gran, Cury- o" intercepte, in"or(ation is per(itte, prior to a public court hearing by any person regar,less o" ho0 the person (ay ha.e co(e into possession thereo". (!C! 21"!12) 4se o" 1ntercepte, 1n"or(ation) +he Attorney Leneral- any Deputy Attorney LeneralDistrict Attorney- Deputy District Attorney- or any peace o""icer or "e,eral la0 en"orce(ent o""icer: Eho- by (eans authori;e, by this Chapter- has obtaine, Fno0le,ge o" the contents o" any 0ire- electronic pager- or electronic cellular co((unication- or e.i,ence ,eri.e, there "ro(: Oay use the contents or e.i,ence to the e?tent the use) 1s appropriate to the proper per"or(ance o" his or her o""icial ,uties: and 3&1
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1s per(itte, by (!C! 22"!#2.

(!C! 22"!1#) Disclosure o" 1ntercepte, 1n"or(ation in +esti(ony) Any person 0ho has recei.e, by any (eans authori;e, by this Chapter any in"or(ation concerning a 0ire- electronic pager- or electronic cellular telephone co((unication- or e.i,ence ,eri.e, there"ro(- intercepte, in accor,ance 0ith the pro.isions o" this Chapter: ,ay- per (!C! 22"!#2- ,isclose the contents o" that co((unication or ,eri.ati.e e.i,ence: Ehile gi.ing testi(ony un,er oath or a""ir(ation in any cri(inal court procee,ing or in any gran, Cury procee,ing. (!C! 22"!#3) Pri.ilege, Co((unications) Jo other0ise pri.ilege, co((unication intercepte, in accor,ance 0ith this Chapter shall lose its pri.ilege, character. +ote) See ?:id! Code, "33 et se*! "or the statutory pri.ileges. Ehen a peace o""icer or "e,eral la0 en"orce(ent o""icer0hile engage, in the intercepting o" 0ire- electronic pageror electronic co((unication pursuant to this Chapterintercepts a pri.ilege, co((unication: Ie or she shall i((e,iately cease the interception "or at least t0o (2) (inutes. A"ter t0o (2) (inutes- interception (ay be resu(e, "or up to thirty (30) secon,s ,uring 0hich ti(e the o""icer shall ,eter(ine i" the nature o" the co((unication is still pri.ilege,. 1" still pri.ilege,- the o""icer shall again cease interception "or at least t0o (2) (inutes. A"ter t0o (2) (inutes- the o""icer (ay again resu(e interception "or up to thirty (30) secon,s to re,eter(ine the nature o" the co((unication. 3&2
< 2013 Robert C. Phillips. All rights reser.e,

+he o""icer shall continue to go online an, o""line in this (anner until the ti(e that the co((unication is no longer pri.ilege, or the co((unication en,s.

+he recor,ing ,e.ice shall be (etere, so as to authenticate upon re.ie0 that interruptions occurre, as set "or in this section. See )eop"e $# Re&es (200&) 122 Cal.App.3th 521- 5#1%5#2noting the (ini(i;ation re@uire(ents un,er 1# !S!C! 2)1#+), an, ,iscussing the *standing/ o" one o" the ,e"en,ants to raise the issue e.en though it 0as not her phone that 0as tappe,- an, United States $# %cGuire (&th Cir. 2002) 302 B.3r, 11&2- 11&&%1203- ,iscussing the *minimization/ o" intercepte, "a? co((unications un,er the "e,eral statutes. Ehat is re@uire, in the 0ay o" *(ini(i;ation/ ,epen,s upon the circu(stances. +he (ini(i;ation re@uire(ent is lessene, 0hen there is uncertainty as to the scope o" the conspiracy- or 0hen co% conspirators are talFing. ()eop"e $# Re&es- supra.) (!C! 22"!#2: 1nterception o" Co((unications Relating to Cri(es ;ther Than +hose Speci"ie, in the Authori;ation !r,er) Bor cri(es liste, in (!C! 22"!)2+a,- or liste, in (!C! 221!)+c, as a *!iolent felony)/ 1" a peace o""icer or "e,eral la0 en"orce(ent o""icer- 0hile engage, in the intercepting o" 0ireelectronic ,igital pager- or electronic co((unication pursuant to this Chapter: 1ntercepts 0ire- electronic pager- or electronic co((unication relating to cri(es other than those speci"ie, in the or,er o" authori;ation- but 0hich are liste, in (!C! 22"!)2+a,- or liste, in (!C! 221!)+c, as a *!iolent felony)/ +he contents thereo"- an, e.i,ence ,eri.e, there"ro(- (ay be ,isclose, or use, as pro.i,e, in (!C! 22"!14 an, 22"!12: and 3&3
< 2013 Robert C. Phillips. All rights reser.e,

+he contents thereo"- an, e.i,ence ,eri.e, there"ro(- (ay be use, un,er (!C! 22"!1# 0hen authori;e, by a Cu,ge i" the Cu,ge "in,s- upon subse@uent application- that the contents 0ere other0ise intercepte, in accor,ance 0ith the pro.isions o" this Chapter.

+he *subse@uent application/ shall be (a,e as soon as practicable. See 1# !S!C! 2)11+), "or "e,eral rules relati.e to the ,isclosure o" intercepte, co((unications in.ol.ing o""ense other than those speci"ie, in a "e,eral Cu,ge s authori;ation or appro.al. Bor other than (!C! 22"!)2+a, cri(es or (!C! 221!)+c, .iolent "elonies) 1" a peace o""icer or "e,eral la0 en"orce(ent o""icer- 0hile engage, in the intercepting o" 0ireelectronic pager- or electronic co((unication pursuant to this Chapter: 1ntercepts 0ire- electronic pager- or electronic co((unication relating to cri(es other than those speci"ie, in the or,er o" authori;ation and 0hich are not liste, in (!C! 22"!)2+a, or (!C! 221!)+c,) +he contents thereo"- an, e.i,ence ,eri.e, there"ro(- (ay not be ,isclose, or use, as pro.i,e, in (!C! 22"!14 an, 22"!12Except to pre.ent the co((ission o" a public o""ense. +he contents thereo"- an, e.i,ence ,eri.e, there"ro(- (ay not be use, un,er (!C! 22"!1#- except 0here) +he e.i,ence 0as obtaine, through an in,epen,ent source- or +he e.i,ence 0oul, ha.e been ine.itably ,isco.ere, any0ay- and 3&3
< 2013 Robert C. Phillips. All rights reser.e,

+he use is authori;e, by a Cu,ge 0ho "in,s that the contents 0ere intercepte, in accor,ance 0ith the pro.isions o" this Chapter. Right to +otice and &opy) +he use o" the contents o" an intercepte, 0ire- electronic pager- or electronic cellular telephone co((unication relating to cri(es other than those speci"ie, in the or,er o" authori;ation to obtain a search or arrest 0arrant entitles the person(s) na(e, in the 0arrant to) +otice o" the intercepte, 0ire- electronic ,igital pager- or electronic cellular telephone co((unication: and * copy o" the contents thereo" that 0ere use, to obtain the 0arrant.

Section 22"!#2+a, e?ten,s the *plain !iew/ ,octrine to in"or(ation co((unicate, by so(eone other than the person i,enti"ie, in the 0iretap or,er about a cri(e other than the one 0hich Custi"ie, the tap. ()eop"e $# *ac(son (200$) 12& Cal.App.3th 12&- 13$.) (!C! 22"!#4) Cri(inal Punish(ent "or Uiolations) Any .iolation o" this Chapter is punishable by) A "ine not e?cee,ing t0o thousan, "i.e hun,re, ,ollars ([2-$00.00)- or 1(prison(ent in the county Cail not e?cee,ing one year- or 1(prison(ent in the state prison "or 15 (onths- 2 or 3 years (see (!C! 1#)- or Goth the abo.e "ine and the county Cail or state prison i(prison(ent.

(!C! 22"!#2) Ci.il Re(e,ies "or 4nauthori;e, 1nterceptions) Any person 0hose 0ire- electronic pager- or electronic cellular telephone co((unication is intercepte,- ,isclose,3&$
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or use, in .iolation o" this Chapter shall ha.e the "ollo0ing ci.il re(e,ies) A ci.il cause o" action against any person 0ho intercepts- ,iscloses- or uses- or procures any other person to intercept- ,isclose- or use the co((unications. Ge entitle, to reco.er- in that action- all o" the "ollo0ing) o Actual ,a(ages- but not less than li@ui,ate, ,a(ages co(pute, at the rate o" one hun,re, ,ollars ([100.00) a ,ay "or each ,ay o" .iolation- or one thousan, ([1-000.00)0hiche.er is greater: and o Puniti.e ,a(ages: and o Reasonable attorney s "ees an, other litigation costs reasonably incurre,. A goo, "aith reliance on a court or,er is a co(plete ,e"ense to any ci.il or cri(inal action brought un,er this Chapteror un,er Chapter 1.$ ((!C! 233 et se*!: 8a.es,ropping)or any other la0. (!C! 22"!##) 8""ects o" !ther Statutes) Jothing in (!C! 231 (Eiretapping)- 232!) (1ntercepting or Recei.ing Cellular Ra,io +elephone Co((unications)232!2 (1ntercepting or recei.ing Cor,less +elephone Co((unications)- or 232!1 (Recor,ing Co((unications Uia Cellular Ra,io- Cor,less- or 7an,line +elephone Eithout Consent o" All Parties) shall be construe, as) Prohibiting any peace o""icer or "e,eral la0 en"orce(ent o""icer "ro( intercepting o" any 0ireelectronic ,igital pager- or electronic cellular telephone co((unication pursuant to an or,er issue, in accor,ance 0ith the pro.isions o" this Chapter- or Ren,ering ina,(issible in any cri(inal procee,ing in any court or be"ore any gran, Cury any e.i,ence 3&5
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obtaine, by (eans o" an or,er issue, in accor,ance 0ith the pro.isions o" this Chapter. Jothing in (!C! 231 (Erong"ul ,isclosure o" +elegraphic or +elephonic Co((unication) shall be construe, as prohibiting the ,isclosure o" the contents o" any 0ireelectronic pager- or electronic cellular telephone co((unication obtaine, by any (eans authori;e, by this Chapter. Jothing in this Chapter shall apply to any con,uct authori;e, by (!C! 233 (8?ceptions "or 7a0 8n"orce(ent: 8a.es,ropping). (!C! 22"!#") Co.ert Resi,ential 8ntries Prohibite,) Jo or,er issue, pursuant to this Chapter shall either ,irectly or in,irectly authori;e entry into or upon the pre(ises o" a resi,ential ,0elling- hotel roo(- or (otel roo(- "or installation or re(o.al o" any interception ,e.ice or "or any other purpose. Jot0ithstan,ing that this entry is other0ise prohibite, by any other section or co,e- this Chapter expressly prohibits co.ert entry o" a resi,ential ,0elling- hotel roo(- or (otel roo( to "acilitate an or,er to intercept a 0ire- electronic ,igital pager- or electronic co((unication. (!C! 22"!"3) !r,er "or Cooperation o" Public 4tilities7an,lor,s- Custo,ians an, !thers) An or,er authori;ing the interception o" 0ire- electronic pager- or electronic cellular telephone co((unication shall ,irect- upon re@uest o" the applicant- that) A public utility engage, in the business o" pro.i,ing co((unications ser.ices an, "acilitiesor A lan,lor,- or A custo,ian- or Any other person:

Burnish the applicant "orth0ith all in"or(ation- "acilitiesan, technical assistance necessary to acco(plish the interception unobtrusi.ely an, 0ith a (ini(u( o" 3&2
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inter"erence 0ith the ser.ices the person or entity is pro.i,ing the person 0hose co((unications are to be intercepte,. Any such person or entity "urnishing "acilities or technical assistance shall be "ully co(pensate, by the applicant "or the reasonable costs o" "urnishing the "acilities an, technical assistance. (!C! 22"!"1) Ci.il or Cri(inal 7iability: Reliance 4pon Court !r,er) A goo, "aith reliance on a court or,er issue, in accor,ance 0ith this Chapter by any public utility- lan,lor,- custo,ianor any other person "urnishing in"or(ation- "acilities- an, technical assistance as ,irecte, by the or,er: 1s a co(plete ,e"ense to any ci.il or cri(inal action brought un,er this Chapter- or Chapter 1.$ ((!C! 233 et se*!)- or any other la0. (!C! 22"!"2) Authority to Con"or( Procee,ings an, !r,er to Constitutional Re@uire(ents) Jot0ithstan,ing any other pro.ision o" la0- any court to 0hich an application is (a,e in accor,ance 0ith this Chapter may taFe any e.i,ence- (aFe any "in,ing- or issue any or,er re@uire, to con"or( the procee,ings or the issuance o" any or,er o" authori;ation or appro.al to the pro.isions o") +he Constitution o" the 4nite, States- or Any la0 o" the 4nite, States- or +his Chapter.

(!C! 22"!"4) +raining an, Certi"ication o" 7a0 8n"orce(ent !""icers) +he Co((ission on *Peace !""icer Stan,ar,s an, +raining/ (*P!S+/)- in consultation 0ith the Attorney Leneral- shall establish a course o" training in the legalpractical- an, technical aspects o" the interception o" pri.ate 0ire- electronic pager- or electronic co((unication an, relate, in.estigati.e techni@ues2 3&#
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+he Attorney Leneral shall set (ini(u( stan,ar,s "or certi"ication an, perio,ic recerti"icationa o" the "ollo0ing persons as eligible to apply "or or,ers authori;ing the interception o" pri.ate 0ire- electronic ,igital pagers- or electronic co((unication- to con,uct the interceptions- an, to use the co((unications or e.i,ence ,eri.e, "ro( the( in o""icial procee,ings) 1n.estigati.e or la0 en"orce(ent o""icers: and !ther persons- 0hen necessary- to pro.i,e linguistic interpretation 0ho are ,esignate, by the Attorney Leneral- Chie" Deputy Attorney Leneral- or Chie" Assistant Attorney Leneral- Cri(inal 7a0 Di.isionor the District Attorney or the ,istrict attorneyDs ,esignee- an, are super.ise, by an in.estigati.e or la0 en"orce(ent o""icer.

P!S+ (ay charge a reasonable enroll(ent "ee "or those stu,ents 0ho are e(ploye, by an agency not eligible "or rei(burse(ent by the Co((ission to o""set the costs o" the training. +he Attorney Leneral (ay charge a reasonable "ee to o""set the costs o" certi"ication. a+ote) Recerti"ication has been set "or e.ery "i.e ($) years. (!C! 22"!"2: Se.erability) 1" any pro.ision o" this Chapter- or the application thereo" to any person or circu(stances- is hel, in.ali,- the re(ain,er o" the Chapter- an, the application o" its pro.isions to other persons or circu(stances- shall not be a""ecte, thereby. (!C! 22"!"#: Auto(atic Repeal) +his Chapter shall re(ain in e""ect only until January 1201$- an, as o" that ,ate is repeale,.

(!C! 232: 8a.es,ropping- Co(pare,) 3&&


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Separate "ro(- an, in a,,ition to- the restrictions on 0iretapping- is the issue o" *ea!esdropping on the *confidential communications/ o" others (e""ecti.e 11N#N52). See 'eo(le v. !atekin (1989) 212 Cal.4((./rd 116%9
4lthou.h #.C. &31 and &32! +hich (rohibit +ireta((in. and ea)esdro((in.! res(ecti)el*! en)ision and describe the use of same or similar e=ui(ment to interce(t communications! the manner in +hich such e=ui(ment is used is clearl* distin.uished and mutuall* exclusi)e9 7Wiretapping3 is interce(tin. communications b* an unauthori@ed connection to the transmission line +hereas 7eavesdropping3 is interce(tion of communications b* the use of e=ui(ment +hich is not connected to an* transmission line.

2imitations on the Use o' Search -arrants: +ewsroom earches) (!C! 1)24+5, pro.i,es that: *Jo 0arrant shall issue "or any ite( ,escribe, in section 1313 o" the ?:idence Code./ ?:id! Code 1313 is the so%calle, *newsman)s pri!ilege/ section an, lists *unpublished information/ such as *notes- outtaFesphotographs- tapes or other ,ata o" 0hate.er sort not itsel" ,isse(inate, to the public/ as pri.ilege,. +here"ore- such ite(s (ay not be the subCect o" a search 0arrant. +his is not a "e,eral constitutional re@uire(ent. Such searches are legal e?cept as prohibite, by state la0. (4urcher $# The Stan'ord Dai"& (1&2#) 335 4.S. $32 6$5 7.8,.2n, $2$9.) +his ,oes not protect "ro( search 0arrants other e.i,entiary ite(s an, contraban,- as liste, in (!C! 1)24+a,+1, through +12,- 0here there is probable cause to belie.e the ite( sought is in a ne0sroo(.

earches of, and on, 'ndian Tribal Property) Search Earrants) 300
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+he Jinth Circuit Court o" Appeal initially rule, that use o" a search 0arrant to sei;e *uni@uely tribal property on tribal land/ is a .iolation o" 1n,ian so.ereignty- in a ci.il suit "ile, pursuant to 42 !S!C! 1"#3- an, there"ore illegal. ( ishop )aiute Tri.e $# Count& o' In&o (&th Cir. 2002) 22$ B.3r, #&3.) +he Court reasone, that sei;ure o" 1n,ian casino e(ployee recor,s in a 0el"are "rau, case 0as not authori;e, by (u4lic =a> 2#3 (1# !S!C! 1122+a,)- 0hich ga.e selecte, states (inclu,ing Cali"ornia) Curis,iction o.er cri(inal o""enses co((itte, by or against in,i.i,ual 1n,ians. Io0e.er- the 4nite, States Supre(e Court .acate, the ,ecision in this case "in,ing that an 1n,ian tribe is not a *person-/ as re@uire, by 42 !S!C! 1"#3- an, thus coul, not legally "ile a ci.il suit alleging a .iolation o" their ci.il rights un,er authority o" this section. +he case 0as re(an,e, it bacF "or a ,eter(ination 0hether there is so(e other legal basis "or 1n,ian tribes to challenge the e?ecution o" a search 0arrant on tribal property. (In&o Count& $# )aiute3Shone Indians (2003) $3# 4.S. 201 61$$ 7.8,.2n, &339.) Applicability o" the Fourth Amendment) As "or 1n,ian reser.ations outsi,e o" Cali"ornia (i.e.Ari;ona in this case)- it has been hel, that the Fourth Amendment does not ,irectly go.ern the con,uct o" tribal go.ern(ents. Rather- the *Indian Ci$i" Ri1hts Act/ (i.e.*ICRA/) applies instea,. Io0e.er- because the IC8A contains a pro.ision regulating tribal la0 en"orce(ent 0ith language i,entical to that containe, in the Fourth Amendment (see 2) !S!C! 1332+2,)- the sa(e legal reasoning as use, in en"orcing the Fourth Amendment applies to 1n,ian tribes as 0ell. (United States $# ecerra3 Garcia (&th Cir. 200$) 3&2 B.3r, 1152.) Cali"ornia 1n,ian la0- ho0e.er- in.ol.es the so% calle, *(u4lic =a> 2#3-/ 0hich calls "or ,i""erent stan,ar,s. Arguably- there"ore- Fourth Amendment stan,ar,s (in principle- i" not in the letter o" the la0) are applicable. Gut- see belo0. 301
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+his sa(e reasoning 0as use, to "in, a search by Cali"ornia 1n,ian tribal o""icers (A(a,or County) to be illegal an, subCect to an 8?clusionary Rule. Although the Fourth Amendment ,i, not apply to the 1n,ian la0 en"orce(ent o""icers- 2) !S!C! 1332+2, an, the Fourteenth Amendment.s ,ue process clause (an,ate, the suppression o" e.i,ence 0hich 0as the pro,uct o" an unla0"ul search o" a .ehicle on an 1n,ian reser.ation. ()eop"e $# Ramire5 (2002) 13# Cal.App.3th 1353.) Juris,ictional 1ssues) +he states ha.e e?clusi.e cri(inal Curis,iction o.er cri(es co((itte, on 1n,ian lan, bet0een non%1n,ians- as 0ell as .icti(less cri(es co((itte, by non%1n,ians. (See United States $# %c ratne& (1##2) 103 4.S. 521 625 7.8,. #5&9: O"iphant $# Su:uamish Indian Tri.e (1&2#) 33$ 4.S. 1&1 6$$ 7.8,.2n, 20&9: see also )eop"e $# Ramire5- supra.- at p. 132$- "n. &.) Cali"ornia has assu(e, e?clusi.e Curis,iction o.er other cri(es co((itte, by or against 1n,ians on 1n,ian lan,. ()eop"e $# Ramire5- supra.- at p. 132$- "n. &: 1# !S!C! 1122.) earch of #nauthorized &ell Phone Reco!ered at &D&R) (!C! 4)12: CDCR (Cali"ornia Depart(ent o" Corrections an, Rehabilitation) shall not access ,ata or co((unications that ha.e been capture, using a.ailable technology "ro( the unauthori;e, use o" a 0ireless co((unication ,e.ice e?cept a"ter obtaining a search 0arrant. Retention of the Documents) A seale, a""i,a.it (per )eop"e $# 0o..s (1&&3) 2 Cal.3th &3#.) (ay be retaine, by a la0 en"orce(ent agency only upon a "i.e%part sho0ing) (1) +he ,isclosure 0oul, i(pair "urther in.estigation o" cri(inal con,uct- or en,anger the sa"ety o" a con"i,ential in"or(ant or the in"or(ant s "a(ily: (2) Security proce,ures at the court clerF s o""ice are ina,e@uate to protect the a""i,a.it against ,isclosure: (3) +he security proce,ures at the la0 en"orce(ent agency are su""icient to protect the a""i,a.it against ,isclosure: 302
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(3) +he la0 en"orce(ent agency has proce,ures to ensure the a""i,a.it is retaine, "or 10 years (per(anently in capital cases) a"ter the "inal ,isposition o" the case- pen,ing "urther or,er o" the court (see 9o:.t! Code 2#1)2+K,): and ($) +he (agistrate has (a,e a su""icient recor, o" the ,ocu(ents re.ie0e,- inclu,ing the seale, (aterials- to per(it i,enti"ication o" the original seale, a""i,a.it or to per(it reconstruction o" the a""i,a.it. ()eop"e $# Ga""and (200#) 3$ Cal.3th 3$3: also "in,ing that the loss o" the a""i,a.it ,i, not in.ali,ate the 0arrant 0hen *other e.i,ence (ay be presente, to establish the "act that an a""i,a.it 0as presente,- as 0ell as its contents./) %echanics o' )reparation) #se a Deputy District *ttorney to at least re.ie0 an, appro.e the 0arrant an, a""i,a.it *for legal sufficiency-/ i" not to assist in the actual preparation. Asi,e "ro( the bene"its o" ha.ing so(eone else proo"rea, the 0arrant an, a""i,a.it- this also a,,s to the *good faith/ argu(ent shoul, the 0arrant later be "oun, to be lacFing in probable cause. (See )eop"e $# Camare""a (1&&1) $3 Cal.3r, $&2- 502%502.) &ollect all reports- necessary physical ,escriptions o" the place to be searche, an, the property to be sei;e,- e?hibits- etc.- prior to beginning the preparation. OaFe sure all exhibits are labeled and attached to the 0arrant a""i,a.itan, are *incorporated by reference/ in the a""i,a.it. Zeep the 0arrant an, a""i,a.it separate. +he suspect(s) shoul, later be allo0e, to rea, the 0arrant 0ith a copy being le"t at the place searche,- although this is not re@uire, by state la0. +he a""i,a.it is not sho0n to the suspect(s) nor le"t at the scene. ()eop"e $# Ca"a.rese (2002) 101 Cal.App.3th 2&.) Be,eral rules- as interprete, by the Jinth Circuit Court o" Appeal- are to the contrary- (an,ating that a copy o" the 0arrant be sho0n to- an, le"t 0ith- the subCect 0hose property is being searche, in all cases. (See Ramire5 $# utte Si"$er o, Count& (&th Cir. 2002) 2&# B.3r, 1022: an, Federal 8ules of Criminal (rocedure, 8ule 41+d,) 303
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(See *"ea!ing a &opy of the =arrant, *ffida!it, andJor Receipt and 'n!entory-/ belo0) 7ea.e a copy o" the *Receipt and 'n!entory/ at the scene. ((!C! 1)3)) +he (agistrate 0ill asF the a""iant(s) to s0ear to the truth o" the a""i,a.it. +he (agistrate 0ill sign the a""i,a.it and the 0arrant. Ser$ice and Return) A search 0arrant is ,irecte, to *any peace officer/ "or ser.ice. ((!C! 1)2") See *=ho ,ay er!e-/ belo0. +ecessity to er!e) A search 0arrant is not an in.itation that o""icers can choose to accept or reCect. 1t is an or,er o" the court base, on probable cause 0hich (ust be e?ecute,. ()eop"e $# Fisher (2002) &5 Cal.App.3th 1132: search 0arrant "or (ariCuana e?ecute, ,espite ,e"en,ant s presentation o" proo" at the scene that he 0as legally entitle, to possess (ariCuana pursuant to F&S 11322!)- Cali"ornia s *Compassionate Use Act:/ (ro-osition 21).) Io0e.er- it is e?pecte, that o""icers 0ill e?ercise so(e ,iscretion in a.oi,ing the taFing o" e?cessi.e- cu(ulati.e property- an, unnecessary ,estructi.e beha.ior- in e?ecuting a search 0arrant. (San *ose Charter o' the 0e""s An1e"s %otorc&c"e C"u. $# Cit& o' San *ose (&th Cir. 200$) 302 B.3r, &52.) +ight er!ice) Search 0arrants (ust be ser.e, bet0een 1I.. a2m2 and /.I.. p2m2- absent an en,orse(ent by the (agistrate "or night ser.ice. ((!C! 1)33) *+ight ser!ice/ (ust be supporte, by *good cause-/ i.e.- so(e articulable reason 0hy ser.ice cannot 0ait until (orning. (See *+ighttime earches-/ abo.e.) +ote) Although typically- night ser.ice beco(es an issue 0hen e?ecuting a search 0arrant at a resi,ence- the statute ,oes not li(it the necessity "or a night ser.ice en,orse(ent to resi,ences. Ehen a search 0arrant speci"ies a person- !ehicle or any other container to be searche,- e?ecution o" such a 0arrant at night probably also (ust be Custi"ie, in the a""i,a.it an, appro.e, by the (agistrate. 303
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8?ecuting a search 0arrant *at night/ 0ithout authori;ation- at least i" no one is ho(e- 0ill not result in the suppression o" any e.i,ence. (Tid,e"" $# Superior Court (1&21) 12 Cal.App.3r, 2#02#2.) 'n6&ounty er!ice) A Cu,ge can issue a 0arrant to be ser.e, any0here in the county in 0hich he or she is sitting. ()eop"e $# Smead (1&#$) 12$ Cal.App.3r, 1101.) ;ut6of6&ounty er!ice) Search 0arrants (ay be issue, "or- an, ser.e,out%o"%county so long as it relates to an o""ense that can be prosecute, in the issuing (agistrate s county. ()eop"e $# Ruster (1&25) 15 Cal.3r, 5&0: )eop"e $# F"emin1 (1&#1) 2& Cal.3r, 5&#- 202: )eop"e $# Ease"& (1&#3) 33 Cal.3r, #$#- #5&%#20: )eop"e $# Rui5 (1&&0) 212 Cal.App.3r, $23.) +he issuing (agistrate (ust (erely ha.e probable cause to belie.e that the case is triable in his or her county. ()eop"e $# Ease"&supra.) (!C! 1)24+K, pro.i,es statutory authority "or a (agistrate to issue a search 0arrant to be e?ecute, in a ,i""erent county 0here the allege, o""ense(s) inclu,e a .iolation o" (!C! )33!) (1,enti"y +he"t)- an, the .icti( resi,es in the issuing (agistrate s county. 8.en though the issuing (agistrate is later ,eter(ine, to not ha.e Curis,iction o.er a cri(e "or 0hich he issues a 0arrant (i.e.- it is later ,isco.ere, that the allege, cri(e is not triable in the (agistrate s county)- *good faith/ (ay sa.e the i(properly issue, out%o"%county 0arrant. ()eop"e $# Rui5, supra: )eop"e $# Ga"$an (1&&2) $ Cal.App.3th #55: )eop"e $# Dant5"er (1&##) 205 Cal.App.3r, 2#&.) ;ut6of6 tate &rimes) A Cali"ornia Cu,ge (ay issue a search 0arrant "or a location 0ithin his or her county to search "or e.i,ence locate, 0ithin the county rele.ant to a cri(e co((itte, in another state. ()eop"e $# /ra't (2000) 23 Cal.3th &2#.) 1t is not a legal re@uire(ent that la0 en"orce(ent authorities in the "oreign state ha.e re@ueste,- or e.en be a0are o"- the search 0arrant. (I.id.) =ho ,ay er!e) !nly a *peace officer/ (0ith e?ceptions as note, belo0)as liste, on the "ace o" the 0arrant (i.e.- *any peace officer/)- (ay la0"ully ser.e a search 0arrant- although the peace o""icer (ay be assiste, by others. ((!C! 1)2"- 1)33) 30$
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Ehile the a""iant nee, not necessarily be a s0orn peace o""icer ()eop"e $# e"" (1&&5) 3$ Cal.App.3th 1030- 10$3%10$$.)- the person e?ecuting the 0arrant (ust be. Exceptions) +here are so(e e?ceptions to the general rule that the person ser.ing a search 0arrant (ust be a peace o""icer) (!C! #33!13: Persons liste, belo0 0ho are not *peace officers/ (ay e?ercise the po0er to ser.e 0arrants as speci"ie, in (!C! 1)23 W 1)33- an, #33!11 ,uring the course an, 0ithin the scope o" their e(ploy(ent- i" they recei.e a course in the e?ercise o" that po0er pursuant to (!C! #32. Su4d! +a,+1,: Persons e(ploye, as in.estigators o" an au,itor%controller or ,irector o" "inance o" any county- or persons e(ploye, by a city an, county 0ho con,uct in.estigations un,er the super.ision o" the controller o" the city an, county- 0ho are regularly e(ploye, an, pai, in that capacitypro.i,e, that the pri(ary ,uty o" these persons shall be to engage in in.estigations relate, to the the"t o" "un,s or the (isappropriation o" "un,s or resources- or in.estigations relate, to the ,uties o" the au,itor%controller or "inance ,irector as set "orth in 9o:.t! Code 22##3 et se*!- 22"33 et se*!22"13 et se*!- an, 22"#3 et se*. Su4d! +a,+2,) Persons e(ploye, by the Depart(ent o" Justice as in.estigati.e au,itors- pro.i,e, that the pri(ary ,uty o" these persons shall be to in.estigate "inancial cri(es. 1n.estigati.e au,itors shall only ser.e 0arrants "or the pro,uction o" ,ocu(entary e.i,ence hel, by "inancial institutions- 1nternet ser.ice pro.i,ers- teleco((unications co(paniesan, thir, parties 0ho are not reasonably suspecte, o" engaging or ha.ing engage, in cri(inal acti.ity relate, to the ,ocu(entary e.i,ence "or 0hich the 0arrant is re@ueste,. 0!C! 21133!4+a,+1,) A *,esignate, local transportation o""icer-/ "or the purpose o" sei;ing an, causing the re(o.al o" a .ehicle operate, as a ta?icab or other passenger .ehicle "or hire upon establishing in an a""i,a.it reasonable cause to belie.e that sai, .ehicle is being operate, in .iolation o" 305
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licensing re@uire(ents a,opte, by a local authority un,er 0!C! 21133+4,. A *designated local transportation officer/ (eans any local public o""icer e(ploye, by a local authority to in.estigate an, en"orce local ta?icab an, .ehicle "or hire la0s an, regulations. Be,eral cri(inal in.estigator an, "e,eral la0 en"orce(ent o""icers are not Cali"ornia peace o""icers. (See (!C! #33!#+a,) 1t is per(issible "or a burglary .icti( to acco(pany the searching o""icers an, point out ite(s stolen "ro( hi(. ()eop"e $# Superior Court 6%e&ers7 (1&2&) 2$ Cal.3r, 52: )eop"e $# Superior Court 6%oore7 (1&#0) 103 Cal.App.3r, 1001.) 1t is also la0"ul to use a police ,og traine, to ,etect narcotics. (See )eop"e $# Russe"" (1&#2) 1&$ Cal.App.3r, 1#5.) Io0e.er- (e(bers o" the news media- or any other thir, party not necessary to the e?ecution o" the 0arrant- (ust not be allo0e, to enter a suspect s pri.ate resi,ence. +o allo0 such persons to acco(pany the searching o""icers is a Fourth Amendment .iolation. (-i"son $# 2a&ne (1&&&) $25 4.S. 503- 513 6133 7.8,.2n, #1#- #309: 0an"on $# er1er (1&&&) $25 4.S. #0# 6133 7.8,.2n, &2#9.) Gut e.en though (e(bers o" the ne0s (e,ia is presentsuppression is not calle, "or 0here they ,o not ,isco.er or ,e.elop any o" the e.i,ence later use, at trial. Ehere,espite being le, on tours through the cri(e scene- the (e,ia ,i, not e?pan, the scope o" the search beyon, a search 0arrant s ,ictates nor assist the police- or touch(o.e- han,le or taint the a,(itte, e.i,ence in any 0ay- the Fourth Amendment ,oes not re@uire the suppression o" any e.i,ence. (United States $# Duenas (&th Cir. 2012) 5&1 B.3r, 1020- 102&%10#3.) Anoc? and +otice) <eneral Rule) Any ti(e a police o""icer (aFes entry into the resi,ence o" another to arrest ((!C! #44)- 0ith or 0ithout an arrest 0arrant- or to ser!e a search warrant ((!C! 1)31)- he (ust "irst) ZnocF. 302
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1,enti"y hi(sel" as a police o""icer. State his purpose (e.g.- ser.ing an arrest 0arrant). De(an, 8ntry. ()eop"e $# Schad (1&21) 21 Cal.App.3r, 201- 202: )eop"e $# %urph& (200$) 32 Cal.3th 3&0- 3&$.) +ote) (!C! #44 is not li(ite, to la0 en"orce(ent o""icers- i(posing these re@uire(ents on a pri!ate person as 0ell- *if the offense is a felony./ ZnocF an, notice re@uire(ents apply to entries for *in!estigati!e purposes/ as 0ell- although not co(ing 0ithin the pro.isions o" (!C! #44 or 1)31. ()eop"e $# %i""er (1&&&) 5& Cal.App.3th 1&0- 201.) ZnocF an, notice re@uire(ents also apply to entries (a,e "or purposes o" con,ucting a Fourth Eai.er search. ()eop"e $# Constancio (1&23) 32 Cal.App.3r, $33- $32: )eop"e $# 2i"ientha" (1&2#) 22 Cal.3r, #&1- &00: )eop"e $# %a&s (1&&#) 52 Cal.App.3th &5&- &23- "n. 3: an, see )eop"e $# %urph& (200$) 32 Cal.3th 3&0.) +he "e,eral e@ui.alent- (ost o"ten re"erre, to as *?noc? and announce-/ is containe, in 1# !S!C! 313".

)#C# B 1G<1: *+he o""icer (ay breaF open any outer or inner ,oor or 0in,o0 o" a house- or any part o" a house or anything therein- to e?ecute the 0arrant- i"- a"ter notice o" his authority an, purpose- he is re"use, a,(ittance./ Purpose) +he primary purpose o" the rule is to a!oid !iolent confrontations by gi.ing the occupants the ti(e an, opportunity to peaceably open the ,oor an, a,(it the o""icers. ()eop"e $# )eterson (1&23) & Cal.3r, 212- 223: Du(e $# Superior Court (1&5&) 1 Cal.3r, 313- 321.) +here are other purposes- as 0ell) *+he purposes an, policies un,erlying section #44 are "our"ol,) (1) the protection o" the pri.acy o" the in,i.i,ual in his ho(e 6citations9: (2) the protection o" innocent persons 0ho (ay also be present on the pre(ises 0here an arrest is (a,e 6citation9: (3) the pre.ention o" situations 0hich are con,uci.e to .iolent con"rontations bet0een the occupant an, in,i.i,uals 0ho enter his ho(e 0ithout proper notice 6citations9: an, (3) the protection o" police 30#
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0ho (ight be inCure, by a startle, an, "ear"ul househol,er./ ()eop"e $# /in1 (1&21) $ Cal.3r, 3$#- 353"n. 3: )eop"e $# %urph& (200$) 32 Cal.3th 3&0- 3&5.) Ehen co(pliance ,oes not ser.e to satis"y the purposes behin, the FnocF an, notice re@uire(ents- "ailing to co(ply 0ith those re@uire(ents may not be a .iolation o" the Constitution. (%artin $# Cit& o' Oceanside (&th Cir. 2003) 350 B.3r, 102#- 10#3%10#3: noting that) *+he prophylactic purpose o" the rule is not ser.e, 0here the occupants o" the ho(e Fno0 that it is the police FnocFing at the ,oor an, si(ply lea.e the area an, choose not to ans0er./) Problem) Does this not also gi.e the occupants an opportunity to ,estroy e.i,ence- ar( the(sel.es- an,Nor escapeM FesX Gut- the 7egislature an, the courts- in balancing the interests- ha.e ,eter(ine, that 0arning the occupants that it is la0 en"orce(ent that is (aFing entry- an, allo0ing ti(e "or the( to open the ,oor peaceably- is the sa"er alternati.e in (ost cases. (Du(e $# Superior Court- supra.) Exceptions) $usinesses) +he rule ,oes not apply to the entry o" a business that is open to the public. ()eop"e $# 2o$ett (1&2#) #2 Cal.App.3r, $22- $32.) 1nner ,oors o" a business are also not protecte,- at least a"ter the o0ners ha.e been contacte, an, in"or(e, as to 0hat the o""icers are ,oing. ()eop"e $# )ompa (1&#&) 212 Cal.App.3r, 130#- 1312.) An e?ception (ight be so(eone s locFe, inner o""ice 0here a higher e?pectation o" pri.acy is being e?hibite,. ()eop"e $# 2ee (1&#5) 1#5 Cal.App.3r, 233- 2$0.) 'nner Doors of a Residence) +he (aCority rule is that the FnocF an, notice rules ,o not apply to inner doors o" a resi,ence- 0hether or not the inner ,oor is close,. ()eop"e $# 2i$ermore (1&23) 30 Cal.App.3r, 1023: )eop"e $# 0o,ard (1&&3) 1# Cal.App.3th 1$33: )eop"e $# A1ui"ar (1&&5) 3# Cal.App.3th 532: )eop"e $# %a&s (1&&#) 52 Cal.App.3th &5&.) 30&
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Gut see )eop"e $# -e.. (1&23) 35 Cal.App.3r, 350e?pressing the (inority opinion that- so long as close,- the rule does apply to inner ,oors. Refusal) 1" the occupants ,o not allo0 the o""icers to enter- the police (ay (aFe a forcible entry. 'mplied Refusal) *Refusal/ nee, not necessarily be express. Eaiting a reasonable ti(e 0ith no response 0ill Custi"y a "orce, entry. A"ter a reasonable ti(e- the o""icers (ay assu(e they are being ,enie, entry an, (aFe a "orcible entry. ()eop"e $# Ga""o (1&#1) 122 Cal.App.3r, #2#- #3#.) Jote that a re"use, entry is not one o" the liste, statutory prere@uisites un,er (!C! #44. +here"orea re"usal is not an ele(ent necessary to pro.e co(pliance 0ith a 0arrantless entry ,one "or the purpose o" a""ecting an arrest. ()eop"e $# Schme" (1&2$) $3 Cal.App.3r, 35- $0%$1.) 1n Schme"- ho0e.er- the o""icers an, the occupants 0ere staring at each other through a screen ,oor. Eaiting "or a re"usal- per the court- 0oul, ha.e been "ruitless. +he purpose o" FnocF an, notice ha, been (et 0hen the occupants Fne0 the o""icers 0ere there an, 0ere ,e(an,ing entry. Io0 long constitutes a *reasonable time/ to 0ait ,epen,s upon the circu(stances- ()eop"e $# Tru;i""o (1&&0) 212 Cal.App.3r, 121&- 1225.)- taFing into consi,eration the si;e o" the house- the ti(e o" ,ay- any percei.e, e?igencies- etc. Rule of Thumb) Bor (ost ho(es- (ost courts are satis"ie, 0ith appro?i(ately 30 secon,s. Bi.e secon,s is ,e"initely not long enough. (United States $# Gran$i""e (&th Cir. 2000) 222 B.3r, 1213.) Bi"teen to t0enty secon,s 0as not enough to satis"y the statute- un,er the circu(stances o" )eop"e $# 0oa1 (2000) #3 Cal.App.3th 11&#- but 0as not so aggra.ate, as to be a constitutional .iolation. (See belo0) 310
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Gut t0enty to thirty secon,s 0as "oun, to be enough 0hen entering a s(all apart(ent (#00 s@uare "eet) in the early e.ening- Fno0ing three persons 0ere ho(e an, ha.ing so(e reason to "ear that ,e"en,ant (ight be ,angerous. (United States $# Cha$e53%iranda (&th Cir. 2002) 305 B.3r, &23.) Oost recently- the 4.S. Supre(e Court uphel, a 1$ to 20 secon, 0ait- noting that the (ore i(portant "actor is the nature o" the e?igency- as oppose, to the si;e o" the resi,ence. Ehere the o""icers are concerne, 0ith the ,estruction o" a controlle, substance- 0hich can be acco(plishe, in a (atter o" secon,s- o""icers nee, not 0ait as long as they (ight ha.e to un,er circu(stances 0here physical property is the subCect o" the search- or the ti(e it taFes a person to co(e to the ,oor is o" (ore concern. (United States $# an(s (2003) $30 4.S. 31 61$2 7.8,.2n, 3339.) +he Court also hel, that the "act that property (ust be ,a(age, (e.g.- the ,oor) to gain entry ,oes not re@uire a correspon,ing heightene, e?igency to Custi"y a "orce, entry. (Id.- at p. 32 61$2 7.8,.2n, at p. 3$$9: citing United States $ Ramire5 (1&&#) $23 4.S. 5$- 20%21 6130 7.8,.2n, 1&19.) !""icers 0ere "oun, to ha.e 0aite, long enough 0hen 2$ to 3$ secon,s passe, be"ore entering the garage- an, another 30 secon, passe, be"ore entering the house- in a narcotics%relate, case- e.en though the entry 0as at 2)00 a.(. ()eop"e $# %artine5 (200$) 132 Cal.App.3th 233- 233%23$.) Exigent &ircumstances) 1" the o""icers hear noises or see (o.e(ent "ro( insi,e in,icating that suspects are escapinge.i,ence is being ,estroye,- or the occupants are ar(ing the(sel.es- or any other circu(stance 0hich reasonably in,icates to the o""icers that 0aiting "or an occupant to open the ,oor 0oul, be a "utile act- 0ill co(pro(ise the collection o" e.i,ence- or unnecessarily risF the sa"ety o" the o""icers or others- then an i((e,iate "orcible entry (ay be (a,e. ()eop"e $# %addo! (1&$5) 35 Cal.2n, 301- 305: hearing retreating "ootsteps insi,e.)

311
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See also )eop"e $# Tri.."e (1&21) 3 Cal.3r, #25- at p. #33) Bailing to co(ply 0ith the *FnocF an, notice/ rules is e?cuse,- *i" the speci"ic "acts Fno0n to the o""icer be"ore his entry are su""icient to support his goo, "aith belie" that co(pliance 0ill increase his peril- "rustrate the arrest- or per(it the ,estruction o" e.i,ence./ Exigent circumstances 0ill be "oun, un,er any one o" three types o" circu(stances) Ehen o""icers ha.e a *reasonable suspicion/ that FnocFing an, announcing their presenceun,er the particular circu(stances- it 0oul,) Ge ,angerous: Butile: or 1nhibit the e""ecti.e in.estigation o" the cri(e- such as by allo0ing the ,estruction o" e.i,ence. (United States $# )eterson (&th Cir. 2003) 3$3 B.3r, 103$- 103#: citing Richards $# -isconsin (1&&2) $20 4.S. 3#$- 3&3 6132 7.8,.2n, 513- 5239.) 1t nee, only be sho0n that the o""icer ha, an articulable *reasonable suspicion/ Custi"ying such an e?igent circu(stance to e?cuse co(pliance 0ith FnocF an, notice. (Richards $# -isconsin- supra: 0udson $# %ichi1an (2005) $32 4.S. $#5- $&$%$&5 615$ 7.8,.2n, $59.) See also United States $# an(s (2003) $30 4.S. 31- 33 61$2 7.8,.2n, 333- 3$59) *Gut in a case liFe this- 0here the o""icers FnocFe, an, announce, their presence- an, "orcibly entere, a"ter a reasonable suspicion o" e?igency ha, ripene,- their entry satis"ie, (1# !S!C! 313") as 0ell as the Fourth Amendment- e.en 0ithout re"usal o" a,(ittance./ (1talics a,,e,) Cali"ornia subscribes to the rule in an(s. ()eop"e $# %urph& (200$) 32 Cal.3th 3&0: !""icers (a,e entry 0ithout co(plying 0ith FnocF an, notice a"ter *loudly/ arresting so(eone outsi,e- causing the o""icers to belie.e that the occupants 0oul, liFely ,estroy narcotics Fno0n to be insi,e. See also )eop"e $# F"ores (1&#2) 12# Cal.App.3r, $12$21.) 312
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(or example) Iearing retreating "ootsteps insi,e. ()eop"e $# %addo! (1&$5) 35 Cal.2n, 301.) An occupant is hear, screa(ing. ()eop"e $# 0a"" (1&21) 3 Cal.3r, &22.) An occupant opene, the ,oor be"ore the o""icers 0ere prepare, to FnocF- note, the police uni"or(san, sla((e, the ,oor shut. (United States $# )eterson (&th Cir. 2003) 3$3 B.3r, 103$.) !ccupants see the o""icers approaching- a"ter 0hich one o" the occupants is seen atte(pting to Cu(p "ro( a 0in,o0 an, soun,s o" a toilet "lushing 0ere hear,. ()eop"e $# 2ope5 (1&5&) 25& Cal.App.2n, 351- 35&.) !""icers hear a ,oor sla((ing an, rapi, "ootsteps insi,e. ()eop"e $# -atson (1&2&) #& Cal.App.3r, 325- 3#0.) An o""icer s(elle, ether an, obser.e, occupants running. ()eop"e $# Ste1man (1&#$) 153 Cal.App.3r, &35- &35.) !""icers see one suspect atte(pting to ,ispose o" narcotics an, ,e"en,ant sla((e, the ,oor on the o""icers. ()eop"e $# Ne,e"" (1&5&) 222 Cal.App.2n, 53#- 533.) Ehen i((e,iate entry is necessary to checF the 0el"are o" an occupant. ()eop"e $# %i""er (1&&&) 5& Cal.App.3th 1&0.) Io0e.er- a *generalized fear/ that occupants o" a resi,ence (ay be ar(e,- that suspects (ay be "leeing- or that e.i,ence is being ,estroye,- absent articulable reasons "or so belie.ing- is probably insu""icient to Custi"y a "in,ing o" *exigent circumstances./ At the .ery least- it is not su""icient cause to Custi"y the issuance o" a *no ?noc?/ 0arrant. (Richards $# -isconsin- supra: see *+o Anoc? earch =arrants-/ belo0.) 313
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Although prior Fno0le,ge o" "irear(s being in the house- by itsel"- ,oes not e?cuse the "ailure to co(ply 0ith FnocF an, notice (United States $# %arts (#th Cir. 1&&3) &#5 B.2n, 1215.)- *the presence o" a "irear( couple, 0ith e.i,ence that a suspect is 0illing an, able to use the 0eapon 0ill o"ten Custi"y non%co(pliance 0ith the FnocF an, announce re@uire(ent./ (United States $# &num (&th Cir. 2003) 352 B.3r, $23- $#1%$#2: ,e"en,ant Fno0n to ans0er the ,oor 0ith a pistol in han,- an, acte, strangely 6in the nu,e9 0hen he ,i, so.) 4pon seeing an altercation taFing place through the Fitchen 0in,o0- an, being ignore, 0hen announcing their presence at the screen ,oor- the uni"or(e, o""icers 0ere Custi"ie, in (aFing an i((e,iate entry 0here a secon, announce(ent 0as (a,e- @uelling the ,isturbance! ri1ham Cit& $# Stuart (2005) $32 4.S. 3&# 6153 7.8,.2n, 5$09: it *ser.(ing) no purpose to re@uire the( to stan, ,u(bly at the ,oor a0aitin