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1. The nonsymbiotic bacteria which fix nitrogen live in the soil independently are A.Azotobacter B. Clostridium C.

considerably less important in comparison to the symbiotic bacteria D.all of the above Ans D 2. Nitrogen fixation by the microorganisms can be detected by adopting the approach of A.demonstrating growth in a nitrogen free medium B. cultivating the microorganisms in the presence of nitrogen labeled with isotropic nitrogen C. measuring15N2 by mass spectrometer D.all of the above Answer: Option D 3. Which of the following is not the biofertilisers producing bacteria? A.Nostoc B. Anabaena C. Both (a) and (b) Clostridium D. Ans D

4. Which of the following is capable of oxidizing sulfur to sulfates? A.Thiobacillus thiooxidans B. Desulfotomaculum C. Rhodospirillum Rhodomicrobium D. Ans A 5. Most soil protozoa are flagellates or amoebas, having their dominant mode of nitrogen as A. ingestion of bacteria B. ingestion of mold C. ingestion of fungi all of these D. ans A 6. Which of the following microorganism use H2S as the electron donor to reduce carbon dioxide? A.Chromaticum B. Chlorobium C. Both (a) and (b) D.Rhodomicrobium Answer: Option C

7. Nitrifying bacteria can not be isolated directly by the usual techniques employed to isolate hetrotrophic bacteria. The reasons may be due to A.slow growth B. medium growth C. fast growth D.none of these Answer: Option A 8. Bacteria, as a group, are responsible for A.nitrogen oxidation B. sulfur oxidation C. nitrogen fixation D.all of these Answer: Option D 9. The phenomenon of commensalism refers to a relationship between organisms in which A.one species of a pair benefits B. both the species of a pair benefit C. one species of a pair is more benefited D.none of the above

Answer: Option A 10. The population of algae in soil is __________ that of either bacteria or fungi. A.generally smaller than B. generally greater than C. equal to D.none of these Answer: Option A 11. The transformation of nitrates to gaseous nitrogen is accomplished by microorganisms in a series of biochemical reactions. The process is known as A.nitrification B. denitrification C. nitrogen fixation D.ammonification Answer: Option B 12. Nitrogen fixation refers to the direct conversion of atmospheric nitrogen gas into A.ammonia B. glucose C. ATP D.nitrate

Answer: Option A

13. The diagnostic enzyme for denitrification is A.nitrate reductase B. nitrate oxidase C. nitro oxidoreductase D.none of these Answer & Explanation Answer: Option A 14. A heterocyst is A.a type of spore B. a terminally differentiated cell that fixes nitrogen C. the progenitor of cyanobacterial vegetative cells D.a cell that carries out oxygenic photosynthesis Answer & Explanation Answer: Option B 15. The groups of symbiotic bacteria, which have the ability to fix nitrogen derive their food and minerals from the legume, and in turn they supply the legume with A. some or all of its nitrogen grow together for a mutual benefit is called symbiosis and so these bacteria are called B. symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria C. these bacteria are from the genus, Rhizobium D.all of the above Answer & Explanation Answer: Option D 6. Nitrogen oxidation (nitrification)refers to the A.conversion of ammonium ions into nitrates through the activities of certain bacteria. B. changing of atmospheric nitrogen (N2) to nitrogen compounds C. sulfur is oxidized to the sulfate form through Thiobacillus bacteria D.none of the above Answer & Explanation Answer: Option A 17. An example of a symbiotic nitrogen fixer is A.Azotobacter B. Beijerinckia C. Clostridium

D.Rhizobium Answer & Explanation Answer: Option D 18. Which of the following is correct? Mycorrhizae are fungi that form a mutually beneficial (symbiotic) relationship with plant A. roots B. The fungi aid in transmitting nutrients and water to the plant roots The increased nutrient availability from mycorrhizae is thought to be due to the additional C. absorbing surface provided by the fungi D.All of the above Answer & Explanation Answer: Option D 19. In the process of nitrogen fixation, which of the following microorganism is involved? A.Non symbiotic microorganisms only B. Symbiotic microorganisms only C. Non symbiotic and symbiotic microorganisms only D.None of the above Answer & Explanation Answer: Option C 20. Which of the following statement is not true about composition of biogas? A.It is composed almost exclusively of methane and carbon dioxide B. It also contains with traces of H2S, N2, H2and CO C. It also contains with traces of O2 and Cl2 D.Both (a) and (b) Answer & Explanation Answer: Option C 21. The physical structure of soil is improved by the accumulation of A.mold mycelium B. minerals C. water D.all of these Answer & Explanation Answer: Option A 22. __________ play a key role in the transformation of rock to soil. A.Cyanobacteia B. Pectin decomposing bacteria C. Nitrifying bacteria

D.De-nitrifying bacteria Answer & Explanation Answer: Option A 23. The groups of bacteria which have the ability to fix nitrogen from air to soil are A.symbiotic B. nonsymbiotic C. both (a) and (b) D.none of these Answer & Explanation Answer: Option C 24. The nitrogenase consists of A.dinitrogenase B. dinitrogenase reductase C. both (a) and (b) D.none of these Answer & Explanation Answer: Option C 25. The crops which are involved in nitrogen fixation are A.alfalfa and clover B. soybean C. bean and lupine D.all of these Answer & Explanation Answer: Option D 26. Denitrification may be distinguished as A.dissimilative B. assimilative C. both (a) and (b) D.blue baby syndrome Answer & Explanation Answer: Option C 27. The conversion of molecular nitrogen into ammonia is known as A.nitrification B. denitrification C. nitrogen fixation D.ammonification

Answer & Explanation Answer: Option C 28. The breakdown of cattle manure in biogas is accomplished by which of the following type of bacteria? A.Hydrolytic B. Transitional C. methanogenic D.All of these Answer: Option D 29. Which of the following species of different genera of bacteria are not capable of transforming nitrate to nitrogen? A.Achromobacter B. Agrobacterium C. Alcaligenes D.None of these Answer: Option D 30. Some microorganisms have the ability to increase the nitrogen content of soils, are called as A.nitrogen fixation B. denitrification C. nitrification D.all of these Answer: Option A 31. Nitrogen fixation A.changes the free nitrogen (N2) to a form usable by plants B. especially changes nitrogen compounds, mostly amines such as NH2 C. both (a) and (b) D.fix the free nitrogen (N2) by which it should not be usable by plants Answer: Option C 32. For rapid decomposition by microbes, the substrate should have a C/N ratio of A.10-20 B. 20-30 C. 30-40 D.60-80 Answer: Option C 33. Which are the main source of biofertilisers? A.Cyanobacteria B. Bacillus

C. Streptococcus D.None of these Answer: Option A 34. The organisms responsible for the characteristic musty or earth odor of a freshly plowed field is/are A.Nocardia B. Streptomyces C. Micromonospora D.all of these Answer: Option D 35. Denitrification is A.reduction of nitrate (NO3-) to nitrogen gas B. reduction of nitrate to organic nitrogen compounds C. both (a) and (b) D.changing of atmospheric nitrogen (N2) to nitrogen compounds Answer: Option C 36. Degree of compost maturity can be assesed by A.infrared technique B. germination test C. both (a) and (b) D.none of the above Answer: Option C

37. The energy value of biogas is typically A.400-700 BTU/ft3 B. 1,000 BTU/ft3 C. 1500 BTU/ft3 D.more than 5000 BTU/ft3

Answer: Option A 38. The microbial ecosystem of soil includes A.biotic components of soil B. abiotic components of soil

C. biotic and abiotic components of soil D.none of the above Answer: Option C 39. Denitrification is carried out A.usually by facultative anaerobes B. predominantly by Pseudomonas spp C. predominantly by Bacillus spp D.all of the above Answer: Option D 40. Which of the following soil microorganism is involved in the reduction of sulfates to H2S? A.Thiobacillus thiooxidans B. Desulfotomaculum C. Rhodospirillum D.Rhodomicrobium Answer: Option B 41. The diagnostic enzyme for nitrogen-fixing organisms is A.nitrogenase B. nitrate reductase C. nitrate oxidase D.none of these Answer: Option A 42. Which of the following fungi on infecting crop roots can improve their uptake of phosphorus and other nutrients? A.Saccharomyces cerevisiae B. VA Mycorrhiza C. Candida torulopsis D.Aspergillus niger Answer: Option B 43. Syntrophism involves

A.exchange of nutrients between two species B. exchange of nutrients among species C. no exchange of nutrients between two species D.no exchange of nutrients among species Answer: Option A

44. Assimilative denitrification is done by A.plants B. fungi C. prokaryotes D.all of these Answer: Option D

microbiology, study of microorganisms, or microbes, a diverse group of minute, simple life forms that include bacteria, archaea, algae, fungi, protozoa, and viruses. The field is concerned with the structure, function, and classification of such organisms and with ways of both exploiting and controlling their activities.

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The 17th-century discovery of living forms existing invisible to the naked eye was a significant milestone in the history of science, for from the 13th century onward it had been postulated that

invisible entities were responsible for decay and disease. The word microbe was coined in the last quarter of the 19th century to describe these organisms, all of which were thought to be related. As microbiology eventually developed into a specialized science, it was found that microbes are a very large group of extremely diverse organisms. Daily life is interwoven inextricably with microorganisms. In addition to populating both the inner and outer surfaces of the human body, microbes abound in the soil, in the seas, and in the air. Abundant, although usually unnoticed, microorganisms provide ample evidence of their presencesometimes unfavourably, as when they cause decay of materials or spread diseases, and sometimes favourably, as when they ferment sugar to wine and beer, cause bread to rise, flavour cheeses, and produce valued products such as antibiotics and insulin. Microorganisms are of incalculable value to the Earths ecology, disintegrating animal and plant remains and converting them to simpler substances that can be recycled in other organisms.

Historical background
Microbiology essentially began with the development of the microscope. Although others may have seen microbes before him, it was Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, a Dutch draper whose hobby was lens grinding and making microscopes, who was the first to provide proper documentation of his observations. His descriptions and drawings included protozoans from the guts of animals and bacteria from teeth scrapings. His records were excellent because he produced magnifying lenses of exceptional quality. Leeuwenhoek conveyed his findings in a series of letters to the British Royal Society during the mid-1670s. Although his observations stimulated much interest, no one made a serious attempt either to repeat or to extend them. Leeuwenhoeks animalcules, as he called them, thus remained mere oddities of nature to the scientists of his day, and enthusiasm for the study of microbes grew slowly. It was only later, during the 18th-century revival of a long-standing controversy about whether life could develop out of nonliving material, that the significance of microorganisms in the scheme of nature and in the health and welfare of humans became evident.

Spontaneous generation versus biotic generation of life


The early Greeks believed that living things could originate from nonliving matter (abiogenesis) and that the goddess Gea could create life from stones. Aristotle discarded this notion, but he still held that animals could arise spontaneously from dissimilar organisms or from soil. His influence regarding this concept of spontaneous generation was still felt as late as the 17th century, but toward the end of that century a chain of observations, experiments, and arguments began that eventually refuted the idea. This advance in understanding was hard fought, involving series of events, with forces of personality and individual will often obscuring the facts. Although Francesco Redi, an Italian physician, disproved in 1668 that higher forms of life could originate spontaneously, proponents of the concept claimed that microbes were different and did indeed arise in this way. Such illustrious names as John Needham and Lazzaro Spallanzani were adversaries in this debate during the mid-1700s. In the early half of the 1800s, Franz Schulze and Theodor Schwann were major figures in the attempt to disprove theories of abiogenesis until Louis Pasteur finally announced the results of his conclusive experiments in 1864. In a series of

masterful experiments, Pasteur proved that only preexisting microbes could give rise to other microbes (biogenesis). Modern and accurate knowledge of the forms of bacteria can be attributed to German botanist Ferdinand Cohn, whose chief results were published between 1853 and 1892. Cohns classification of bacteria, published in 1872 and extended in 1875, dominated the study of these organisms thereafter.

Microbes and disease


Girolamo Fracastoro, an Italian scholar, advanced the notion as early as the mid-1500s that contagion is an infection that passes from one thing to another. A description of precisely what is passed along eluded discovery until the late 1800s, when the work of many scientists, Pasteur foremost among them, determined the role of bacteria in fermentation and disease. Robert Koch, a German physician, defined the procedure (Kochs postulates) for proving that a specific organism causes a specific disease. The foundation of microbiology was securely laid during the period from about 1880 to 1900. Students of Pasteur, Koch, and others discovered in rapid succession a host of bacteria capable of causing specific diseases (pathogens). They also elaborated an extensive arsenal of techniques and laboratory procedures for revealing the ubiquity, diversity, and abilities of microbes.

Progress in the 20th century


All of these developments occurred in Europe. Not until the early 1900s did microbiology become established in America. Many microbiologists who worked in America at this time had studied either under Koch or at the Pasteur Institute in Paris. Once established in America, microbiology flourished, especially with regard to such related disciplines as biochemistry and genetics. In 1923 American bacteriologist David Bergey established that sciences primary reference, updated editions of which continue to be used today. Since the 1940s microbiology has experienced an extremely productive period during which many disease-causing microbes have been identified and methods to control them developed. Microorganisms have also been effectively utilized in industry; their activities have been channeled to the extent that valuable products are now both vital and commonplace. The study of microorganisms has also advanced the knowledge of all living things. Microbes are easy to work with and thus provide a simple vehicle for studying the complex processes of life; as such they have become a powerful tool for studies in genetics and metabolism at the molecular level. This intensive probing into the functions of microbes has resulted in numerous and often unexpected dividends. Knowledge of the basic metabolism and nutritional requirements of a pathogen, for example, often leads to a means of controlling disease or infection.

Types of microorganisms

The major groups of microorganismsnamely bacteria, archaea, fungi (yeasts and molds), algae, protozoa, and virusesare summarized below. Links to the more detailed articles on each of the major groups are provided.

Bacteria (eubacteria and archaea)


Microbiology came into being largely through studies of bacteria. The experiments of Louis Pasteur in France, Robert Koch in Germany, and others in the late 1800s established the importance of microbes to humans. As stated in the Historical background section, the research of these scientists provided proof for the germ theory of disease and the germ theory of fermentation. It was in their laboratories that techniques were devised for the microscopic examination of specimens, culturing (growing) microbes in the laboratory, isolating pure cultures from mixed-culture populations, and many other laboratory manipulations. These techniques, originally used for studying bacteria, have been modified for the study of all microorganisms hence the transition from bacteriology to microbiology.

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The organisms that constitute the microbial world are characterized as either prokaryotes or eukaryotes; all bacteria are prokaryoticthat is, single-celled organisms without a membranebound nucleus. Their DNA (the genetic material of the cell), instead of being contained in the nucleus, exists as a long, folded thread with no specific location within the cell. Until the late 1970s it was generally accepted that all bacteria are closely related in evolutionary development. This concept was challenged in 1977 by C.R. Woese and coinvestigators at the University of Illinois, whose research on ribosomal RNA from a broad spectrum of living organisms established that two groups of bacteria evolved by separate pathways from a common and ancient ancestral form. This discovery has resulted in the establishment of a new terminology to identify the major distinct groups of microbesnamely, the eubacteria (the traditional or true bacteria) and the archaea, bacteria that diverged from other bacteria at an early stage of evolution and are distinct from the eubacteria), and eukarya (the eukaryotes). The evolutionary relationships between various members of these three groups, however, have become uncertain, as comparisons between the DNA sequences of various microbes have revealed many puzzling similarities. As a result, the precise ancestry of todays microbes is very difficult to resolve. Even traits thought to be characteristic of distinct taxonomic groups have unexpectedly been observed in other microbes. For example, an anaerobic ammonia-oxidizer the missing link in the global nitrogen cyclewas isolated for the first time in 1999. This bacterium (an aberrant member of the order Planctomycetales) was found to have internal structures similar to eukaryotes, a cell wall with archaean traits, and a form of reproduction (budding) similar to that of yeast cells. Bacteria have a variety of shapes, including spheres, rods, and spirals. Individual cells generally range in width from 0.5 to 5 micrometres (m; millionths of a metre). Although unicellular, bacteria often appear in pairs, chains, tetrads (groups of four), or clusters. Some have flagella, external whiplike structures that propel the organism through liquid media; some have capsule, an external coating of the cell; some produce sporesreproductive bodies that function much as seeds do among plants. One of the major characteristics of bacteria is their reaction to the Gram

stain. Depending upon the chemical and structural composition of the cell wall, some bacteria are gram-positive, taking on the stains purple colour, whereas others are gram-negative. Through a microscope the archaea look much like eubacteria, but there are important differences in their chemical composition, biochemical activities, and environments. The cell walls of all eubacteria contain the chemical substance peptidoglycan, whereas the cell walls of archaeans lack this substance. Many archaeans are noted for their ability to survive unusually harsh surroundings, such as high levels of salt or acid or high temperatures. These microbes, called extremophiles, live in such places as salt flats, thermal pools, and deep-sea vents. Some are capable of a unique chemical activitythe production of methane gas from carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Methane-producing archaea live only in environments with no oxygen, such as swamp mud or the intestines of ruminants such as cattle and sheep. Collectively, this group of microorganisms exhibits tremendous diversity in the chemical changes that it brings to its environments.

Algae
The cells of eukaryotic microbes are similar to plant and animal cells in that their DNA is enclosed within a nuclear membrane, forming the nucleus. Eukaryotic microorganisms include algae, protozoa, and fungi. Collectively algae, protozoa, and some lower fungi are frequently referred to as protists (kingdom Protista, also called Protoctista); some are unicellular and others are multicellular. Unlike bacteria, algae are eukaryotes and, like plants, contain the green pigment chlorophyll, carry out photosynthesis, and have rigid cell walls. They normally occur in moist soil and aquatic environments. These eukaryotes may be unicellular and microscopic in size or multicellular and up to 120 metres (nearly 400 feet) in length. Algae as a group also exhibit a variety of shapes. Single-celled species may be spherical, rod-shaped, club-shaped, or spindle-shaped. Some are motile. Algae that are multicellular appear in a variety of forms and degrees of complexity. Some are organized as filaments of cells attached end to end; in some species these filaments intertwine into macroscopic, plantlike bodies. Algae also occur in colonies, some of which are simple aggregations of single cells, while others contain different cell types with special functions. fungus, plural fungi, any of about 80,000 known species of organisms of the kingdom Fungi, which includes the yeasts, rusts, smuts, mildews, molds, mushrooms, and toadstools. There are also many funguslike organisms, including slime molds and oomycetes, that do not belong to kingdom Fungi but are often called fungi. Many of these funguslike organisms are included in the kingdom Chromista. Fungi are among the most widely distributed organisms on Earth and are of great environmental and medical importance. Many fungi are free-living in soil or water; others form parasitic or symbiotic relationships with plants or animals.

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The fungi are eukaryotic organisms; i.e., their cells contain membrane-bound organelles and clearly defined nuclei. Historically, the fungi were included in the plant kingdom; however, because fungi lack chlorophyll and are distinguished by unique structural and physiological features (i.e., components of the cell wall and cell membrane), they have been separated from plants. In addition, the fungi are clearly distinguished from all other living organisms, including animals, by their principal modes of vegetative growth and nutrient intake. Fungi grow from the tips of filaments (hyphae) that make up the bodies of the organisms (mycelia), and they digest organic matter externally before absorbing it into their mycelia. While mushrooms and toadstools (poisonous mushrooms) are by no means the most numerous or economically significant fungi, they are the most easily recognized fungi. The Latin word for mushroom, fungus (plural fungi), has come to stand for the whole group. Similarly, the study of fungi is known as mycologya broad application of the Greek word for mushroom, myks. Fungi other than mushrooms are sometimes collectively called molds, although this term is better restricted to fungi of the sort represented by bread mold. (For information about slime molds, which exhibit features of both the animal and the fungal worlds, see protist.)

Importance of fungi
Humans have been indirectly aware of fungi since the first loaf of leavened bread was baked and the first tub of grape must was turned into wine. Ancient peoples were familiar with the ravages of fungi in agriculture but attributed these diseases to the wrath of the gods. The Romans designated a particular deity, Robigus, as the god of rust and, in an effort to appease him, organized an annual festival, the Robigalia, in his honour. Fungi are everywhere in very large numbersin the soil and the air, in lakes, rivers, and seas, on and within plants and animals, in food and clothing, and in the human body. Together with bacteria, fungi are responsible for breaking down organic matter and releasing carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus into the soil and the atmosphere. Fungi are essential to many household and industrial processes, notably the making of bread, wine, beer, and certain cheeses. Fungi are also used as food; for example, some mushrooms, morels, and truffles are epicurean delicacies, and mycoproteins (fungal proteins), derived from the mycelia of certain species of fungi, are used to make foods that are high in protein. Studies of fungi have greatly contributed to the accumulation of fundamental knowledge in biology. For example, studies of ordinary bakers or brewers yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) led to discoveries of basic cellular biochemistry and metabolism. Some of these pioneering discoveries were made at the end of the 19th century and continued during the first half of the 20th century. From 1920 through the 1940s, geneticists and biochemists who studied mutants of

the red bread mold, Neurospora, established the one-geneone-enzyme theory, thus contributing to the foundation of modern genetics. Fungi continue to be useful for studying cell and molecular biology, genetic engineering, and other basic disciplines of biology. The medical relevance of fungi was discovered in 1928, when Scottish bacteriologist Alexander Fleming noticed the green mold Penicillium notatum growing in a culture dish of Staphylococcus bacteria. Around the spot of mold was a clear ring in which no bacteria grew. Fleming successfully isolated the substance from the mold that inhibited the growth of bacteria. In 1929 he published a scientific report announcing the discovery of penicillin, the first of a series of antibioticsmany of them derived from fungithat have revolutionized medical practice. Another medically important fungus is Claviceps purpurea, which is commonly called ergot and causes a plant disease of the same name. The disease is characterized by a growth that develops on grasses, especially on rye. Ergot is a source of several chemicals used in drugs that induce labour in pregnant women and that control hemorrhage after birth. Ergot is also the source of lysergic acid, the active principle of the psychedelic drug lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Other species of fungi contain chemicals that are extracted and used to produce drugs known as statins, which control cholesterol levels and ward off coronary heart disease. Fungi are also used in the production of a number of organic acids, enzymes, and vitamins.

Form and function of fungi


Size range
The mushrooms, because of their size, are easily seen in fields and forests and consequently were the only fungi known before the invention of the microscope in the 17th century. The microscope made it possible to recognize and identify the great variety of fungal species living on dead or live organic matter. The part of a fungus that is generally visible is the fruiting body, or sporophore. Sporophores vary greatly in size, shape, colour, and longevity. Some are microscopic and completely invisible to the unaided eye; others are no larger than a pin head; still others are gigantic structures. Among the largest sporophores are those of mushrooms, bracket fungi, and puffballs. Some mushrooms reach a diameter of 20 to 25 cm (8 to 10 inches) and a height of 25 to 30 cm (10 to 12 inches). Bracket, or shelf, fungi can reach 40 cm (16 inches) or more in diameter. A specimen of the bracket fungus Fomitiporia ellipsoidea discovered in 2010 on Hainan Island in southern China had a fruiting body measuring 10.8 metres (35.4 feet) in length and 8288 cm (2.72.9 feet) in width. It may have held some 450 million spores and weighed an estimated 400500 kg (8821,102 pounds), at the time making it the largest fungal fruiting body ever documented. Puffballs also can grow to impressive sizes. The largest puffballs on record measured 150 cm (5 feet) in diameter. The number of spores within such giants reaches several trillion.