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A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
For several hundreds years, metals have been the preferred engineering materials for design and manufacture of components. Metals and alloys like Steel, Copper, Aluminium, Zinc, Brass, Bron e, etc. find use in all !alks of life. "he reasons for their !idespread use are many, their strength being the ma#or factor. "hey also have good stiffness, toughness, !ear resistance, temperature resistance etc. $o!ever, they do have certain disadvantages, !hich lead to search for ne!er engineering materials, the most prominent being their !eight !hich !as a matter of concern in the aircraft industry and corrosion !hich affected the shipping industry. "he emerging polymer industries of the %&'()s alternatives to metals in the form of plastics, but these materials lacked strength. Ceramics !ere developed having high strength and temperature resistance, but !ere brittle. "hen the composites came into e*istence, !hich !ere developed !ith an intention of overcoming the above mentioned dra!backs. +n designing composite materials, scientists and engineers have ingeniously combined various metals, ceramics and polymers to produce a ne! generation of e*traordinary materials. Composite materials, particularly fiber reinforced polymeric composites ,F-.Cs/ are an e*tremely broad and versatile class of material system for automotive and aerospace applications due to the possibility of high strength and modulus coupled !ith light !eight, design and fabrication fle*ibility, and improved mechanical performance. "he most common filled fiber reinforcements in polymer composites are glass, carbon ,graphite/, and aramid ,kevlar'&/. "hese composites made of such dissimilar materials, not only retain high strength, stiffness and thermal resistance, but also sho! enhanced impact strength fatigue resistance and dimensional stability. 0ne of the !ell kno!n composite that is commonly used is glass fiber reinforced polymeric ,1F-./ material. 23 glass fibers are created using a calcium alumina borosilicate formulation that produces beneficial mechanical properties at very reasonable cost !hen compared to carbons. "he purpose of the fiber reinforced polymer ,F-./ composite matri* material is to bind the fibers together.

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A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

By virtue of their cohesion and adhesion characteristics, the resin gives F-. materials the ability to transfer load to and bet!een fibers, and to protect them from environmental conditions and handling. "he most common matri* materials are epo*y, polyester, vinyl ester, .227 ,polyetheretherketone/ and ..S ,polypropylene sulfide/. Among these polyester and epo*ies posses e*cellent mechanical properties and good corrosion resistance. Also, these resins in moulded or cast form have e*cellent dimensional stability and lo! shrinkage. Further, easy process ability by merely adding a curing agent !ith or !ithout the application of heat places these materials above others. Automotive and aircraft components fabricated !ith F-.Cs have tight re8uirements in service and they can !ithstand mechanical damages during service. "he fiber damage could occur during the fabrication process, storage, service, transport and maintenance. "hey are susceptible to mechanical damages !hen they are sub#ected to effects of tension, compression and fle*ure, !hich can lead to interlayer delaminating increased !ith increase in filler. "he pro#ect is on the study of mechanical and tribological properties of glass polyester composites and the effect of fillers, namely silicon carbide and graphite on the composites. .olyester resins, either in the form of pure resin or in the compounded form of filler find !ide range of applications. "heir much application is in the construction industry, automotive industry industrial !ood and furniture finishing. "hey are also used in the manufacture of bathroom furniture)s, floor tiles, umbrella and knife handles, encapsulation of electronic assemblies. "he applications of 9.2 resins in a variety of areas such as transportation, electrical appliance, and building and construction is largely due to development of bulk and sheet molding compounds using glass fibers. +n the present study, mechanical properties, including tensile strength, tensile modulus, and elongation at break, fle*ural strength, impact strength and surface hardness !ere investigated in accordance !ith AS"M standards. :3Body !ear tests !ere performed to establish the tribological properties. +n order to determine the suitability of 1lass polyester filled and unfilled composites for marine applications, sea !ater ageing !as done for %; days and :(days and the properties of aged specimens !ere compared !ith those of unaged specimens.

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A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

1.1 HISTORY
"here !ere three principal driving forces that led to the interest and investment in the composite materials in the mid %&;()s and %&=()s> "he designers demand for lo!er !eight and higher rigidity for aero or space structures, electronics, sports e8uipment and other applications? the solid3state theory)s predictions of e*tremely high potential crystal strengths, more than one million psi tensile strengths, and elastic modulus of more than %(( million psi? and flourishing economy. +n the %&;()s there !as a fight for survival in defense and space, because of cold !ar bet!een 9S and Soviet, !hich led to the development of some metallic composites. Advanced composites had come of the age in the early %&=()s !ith the development of high3modulus !hiskers and filaments. @hile !hiskers !ere easily made, their composites !ere of poor 8uality, but the =( million modulus boron filaments reinforcing epo*y !ere very successful and !ere used in fighter aircraft and, later, in golf3club shafts, fly rods, and tennis rackets.

1.2 NATURE AND SCOPE OF STUDY


Composite materials have been utili ed to solve technological problems for a long time but only in the %&=(s these materials start capturing the attention of industries !ith the introduction of polymeric3based composites. Since then, composite materials have become common engineering materials and are designed and manufactured for various applications including automotive components, sporting goods, aerospace parts, consumer goods, and in the marine and oil industries. "he gro!th in composite usage also came about because of increased a!areness regarding product performance and increased competition in the global market for light!eight components. Among all materials, composite materials have the potential to replace !idely used steel and aluminum, and many times !ith better performance. -eplacing steel components !ith composite components can save =( to A(B in component !eight, and <( to ;(B !eight by replacing aluminum parts. "oday, it appears that composites are the materials of choice for many engineering applications. Composites e*hibit a higher strength to !eight ratio than steel or aluminum and can be engineered to provide a !ide range of tensile, fle*ural and impact strength properties. For e*ample, composites strength per unit density is roughly t!o times that of aluminum and four times that of steel. A designer has enormous scope to produce composite components of any si e and shape and !ith fe!er parts. +n effect, the designer has the opportunity to design the material to meet the re8uired performance.

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A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

Because of the visco3elastic character of polymers, composites are inherently better damping materials for noise or vibration addition, composites can retain their shape under mechanical stress and temperature e*tremes.

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF PROJECT


"o evaluate the mechanical and tribological properties of glass3fiber3 reinforced .olyester composites !ith Sic and !ith 1raphite particulate filler. Mechanical properties like tensile strength, fle*ural modulus, impact and $ardness !ill be evaluated and analy ed using graphical interpretation. "o improve the bonding strength of glass 3polyester composites. "o study the effect of incorporation of silicon carbide as filler ,varying content/ in glass polyester composite. "o study the effect of incorporation of 1raphite as filler ,varying content/ in glass polyester composite. "o analy e ho! the material behaves, !hen the different proportions of silicon carbide is mi*ed to glass polyester composite and also to analy e ho! the material behaves, !hen the different proportions of 1raphite is mi*ed to glass polyester composite "o kno! the optimum composition of the constituents of silicon carbide among the glass3 polyester composites. "o kno! the optimum composition of the constituents of 1raphite among the glass3 polyester composites. 2*amine selection criteria for 1lass3 .olyester composite system. 6. +. 2., Mysore

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A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

Scanning electron microscope ,S2M/ microphotographs of the fractured samples revealed various aspects of the fractured surfaces. Study the influence of ;B0*alic acid, ;B6A0$, Salt !ater, <" lubricating oil on mechanical behaviour of 1lass fiber3 polyester. "o investigate the friction and !ear properties of particulate filled 13. composites sliding against a hardened steel counter face. "he !ear rate of the composites !ill be studied !ith varying the different .arameters like load, speed and filler materials etc. "o find a suitable material having lo! coefficient of friction, so that it finds a suitable application in the bearings.

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A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

CHAPTER 2> OVERVIEW OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS


Composite is the ans!er for structural materials that have lo! densities, strong, impact resistant and non3easily corroded. +n designing composite materials, scientists and engineers have ingeniously combined various metals, ceramics and polymers to produce a ne! generation of e*traordinary materials. A composite is a material system consisting of t!o or more phase on macroscopic level, !hose mechanic performance is designed to be superior to that of the constituent material acting independently. 0ne of the phases is usually discontinuous, stiffer and stronger and is called as C-einforcement)? !hereas the stiffer and !eak phase is continuous and is called the CMatri*). Sometimes, due to some chemical interaction or other processing effects an additional phase called, C+nterphase) e*ists bet!een the reinforcement and the matri*. Composite is used to improve structural properties, electrical, thermal, tribological and environmental applications.

2.1 PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITES


"he follo!ing are some of the important properties of the composite materials Composition in a composite is physical rather than chemical. Constituents of a composite retain their identity. Composite is produced to obtain specific characteristics and properties.

2.2 CLASSIFICATION OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS

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A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

Fig 2.1: Cla i!i"a#i$% $! "$&'$ i#( &a#()ial "he composites classification is as sho!n above in fig.<.%. Fibrous composites > Fibers in a matri* .articulate composites > .articles in a matri* Combinations of the above > -einforced fiber3reinforced composites Daminated composites > Dayers of various materials,nano3composites/

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A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

2.3 MATRI*
"he matri* is the material that gives body and grips or holds the reinforcements of the composites together, and is usually of lo!er strength than the reinforcement. "he matri* must be capable of being forced around the reinforcement during some state in manufacture of composite. "ypically, composite material is formed by reinforcing fibers in a matri* resin is sho!n in fig <.<.-esin is organic polymer or prepolymer used as a matri* to contain fibrous reinforcement in composite material or as an adhesive.F:G

Fig 2.2: F$)&a#i$% $! "$&'$ i#( &a#()ial + i%g !i,() a%- )( i% "he purpose of matri* is to provide>3 Doad transfer to fibers 4imensional stability Fiber support .rotection 1ood surface finish 8uality

2.. CLASSIFICATION OF COMPOSITES BASED ON METHOD OF CREATIONS


a. 6atural composites 2g> @ood, bone, fibers of sisal, coir, #ute. ,. Man made composites 2g> Fiber reinforced composites ,F-./

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A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

2./ CLASSIFICATION BASED ON MATRI* SYSTEM


a. Metal matri* composites b. Ceramic matri* composites c. .olymer matri* composites

2./.1 M(#al Ma#)i0 C$&'$ i#(


Metal matri* composite is defined as a material in !hich a continuous metallic phase is combined !ith another phase to strengthen the metal and increase high3temperature stability. 2*amples of Metal matri* composites or MMC> @hite cast iron $ard metal Metal3intermetallic laminate

2./.2 C()a&i" Ma#)i0 &a#()ial


Ceramic materials are very hard and brittle. 1enerally, they consist of one or more metals combined !ith a non3metal such as o*ygen, carbon, or nitrogen. "hey have strong covalent and ionic bonds and very fe! slip systems available compared to metals. "hose characteristic, ceramics have lo! failure strains or lo! toughness and fracture energies. +n addition to being brittle, they lack uniformity in properties, have lo! thermal and mechanical shock resistance, and have lo! tensile strength. 0n the other hand, ceramic materials have very high elastic modulus, lo! densities, and can !ithstand high temperatures. 2*amples of Ceramic matri* composites or CMC> Bone Cermets ,ceramic and metal/ Concrete

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A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

2./.3 P$l1&() Ma#)i0 Ma#()ial


A polymer is a substance composed of molecules !ith large molecular mass composed of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. "he term is derived from the 1reek !ords> polys meaning many, and meros meaning parts. .olymers are structurally more comple* than metal or ceramics. "hey are cheap and can be easily processed and the other hand polymers have a lo!er strength, modulus and lo!er temperature. .rolonged e*posure to ultraviolet rays and some solvent can cause the degradation of polymer properties because of predominately covalent bonding, .olymers are generally poor conductors of heat and electricity. .olymers are generally more resistant to chemical then are metals. "he polymers are giant chain like molecules !ith covalent bonded carbon atoms forming the backbone of chain. "he process of forming large molecules from small ones is called polymeri ation. "he main categories are> Addition polymeri ation kno!n no! as chain3gro!th. Condensation polymeri ation kno!n no! as step gro!th.

2./.3.1 A--i#i$% '$l1&()i2a#i$%


+t involves linking together of molecules incorporating double or triple chemical bonds. "hese unsaturated monomers have e*tra internal bonds !hich are able to break and link up !ith other monomers to form the repeating chain. Addition polymeri ation is involved in the manufacture of polymers such as polyethylene, polypropylene and chloride. A special case of addition polymeri ation leads to living polymeri ation.

2./.3.2 C$%-(% a#i$% '$l1&()i2a#i$%


+t occurs !hen monomers bonds together through condensation reactions. "ypically these reactions can be achieved through reacting molecules incorporating alcohol, amine or carbo*ylic acid or other carbo*yl derivative groups. @hen an amine reacts !ith carbo*yl acid an amide or peptide bond is formed, !ith release of !ater and hence condensation polymeri ation. 2*amples of .olymer Matri* Material include> .olyester 6. +. 2., Mysore

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A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

2po*y Hinyl ester Bismaleimide .olyimide

.olymer matri* materials are most commonly used because> Most prevalent. Do!est cost compared to metals and ceramics.

2.3 POLYMER MATRI* CAN BE CLASSIFIED INTO TWO TYPES


"hermoplastics "hermosets A fundamental difference bet!een the t!o is that thermoplastics !ill melt and thermosets !ill not.

2.3.1 T4()&$'la #i"


Molecules are linear in structure !ith no cross3linking bet!een them? !eak bonds ,van der !aals/ hold them together as sho!n in fig <.:.

Fig 2.3: M$l("+l( a)( li%(a) i% #)+"#+)( Melt and reshape !hen heated Can be reprocessed +ndefinite shelf life $igh melting temperature Hery viscous 4elivered in fully polymeri ed form allo!ing the user to concentrate on heat transfer and flo!.

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A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

2*amples of thermoplastics> .olyethylene and .olypropylene .olyamides .olyketones

2.3.2 T4()&$ (#
.olymer molecules are #oined !ith strong covalent bonds as sho!n in fig <.'.

Fig 2..: P$l1&() &$l("+l( 5i#4 #)$%g "$6al(%# ,$%-

4ecompose !hen heated Cannot be reprocessed Do! fabrication temperature 4efinite shelf life Chemicals are combined in li8uid form and allo!ed to IcureJ ,polymeri ation reaction Ke*othermic/ Sometimes necessary to cure at higher temperatures Hariety of properties, depending upon chemical formulation and cure procedure. 2*amples of common thermosets> .olyesters 2po*ies Hinyl esters .henolics

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A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

2.7 UNSATURATED POLYESTER RESIN 8UPE9


9nsaturated polyesters ,9./ are linear poly condensation products based on unsaturated and saturated acidsLanhydrides and diols or o*ides. "hese resins are generally pale yello! colored oligomers !ith lo! degree of polymeri ation. 4epending on the chemical composition and molecular !eight ,%<((M:((( g mol %/ these oligomers may be viscous li8uids or brittle solids. "he unsaturation in the backbone provides sites for reaction !ith vinyl monomers using free radical initiators, thereby leading to the formation of a three dimensional net!ork. "he solutions of unsaturated polyesters and vinyl monomers ,reactive diluents/ are kno!n as unsaturated polyester resins ,9.2 resins/."he dilute 9.2 resin solution thus has a viscosity in the range of <((M<((( cps at room temperature. .olyester resins, because of their versatility and lo! cost, are used !idely throughout the !orld. "he commercial applications of these resins started in %&'%. 9.2 laminating resins !ere first introduced in the market in %&'= and at the beginning of the t!enty3first century they are the most !idely used themosets in polymeric composites. "hey can be processed over a !ide temperature range. 1lass fiber3reinforced 9.2 resins are used e*tensively in building and construction, transportation, electric, and electronic industries, and in sanitary and domestic applications. "he biggest use of these resins is in the construction industry follo!ed by transportation. "he possibility of curing at room temperature and under atmospheric conditions ,i.e., ambient conditions/ makes these resins very versatile materials for fabrication of large structures such as boat hulls, automobile bodies, aircraft radomes, storage tanks, etc. Appro*imately <.% million tonnes ,Seit , %&&A/ of 9.2 resins !ere used for structural applications alone in %&&E. 0ne of the ma#or problems !ith these resins is their high shrinkage during curing reaction ,NEB/. "his shrinkage results in the glass3fiber reinforcement to become raised from the surface of the molding leading to poor surface finish. By selection of different acidsLanhydrides and glycols and changes in the ratio of saturatedLunsaturated component and the reactive diluents, the nature of the final net!ork can be varied significantly to meet different performance re8uirements. Addition of lo! profile additives ,thermoplastics/ in the resin formulation compensates for the thermal and polymeri ation shrinkage of 9.2 resin, thereby leading to lo! shrink or ero3shrink resin systems. "he advent of lo! profile, lo! shrink technology has allo!ed molding compounds to compete successfully !ith steel in

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e*terior automotive applications. Considerable !ork has been reported on the synthesis, characteri ation, curing behavior, and properties of 9.2 resins in the past. 2.7.1 C4a)a"#()i2a#i$% $! UP R( i% .olyester has several characteristics !hich the user should be familiar !ith, some of !hich are as follo!s> "he polyester resin system !ill not cure properly if the appropriate 8uantity of catalyst is not added. "he catalyst is added to drive the reaction. 9sually, the catalyst is methyl ethyl ketone ,M27/ or ben oyl pero*ide. .olyester resin re8uires the addition of M27 .ero*ide ,&B A.0./ at the rate of one percent ,%( cc catalyst per 8t. resin/ at EE degrees F. "he pot life and thin film cure time can be altered by ad#usting the amount of catalyst up!ard or do!n!ard depending on ambient temperature ,additional catalyst is re8uired in cooler conditions and less in !armer conditions/. .ot life ,time for resin to gel, usually measured in a <(( gm. mass at room temperature/ is usually around %;3<( minutes. .ot life is influenced by three variables, namely> "he amount of catalyst used. "he volume or mass of resin vis3O3vis surface area and Ambient temperature.

@hen conditions are cooler than desired you may use more catalyst to assist thin film curing but be careful 3 resin in a large mass can become very hot ,potentially posing a ha ard/. +t is advisable to ad#ust catalyst up!ard or do!n!ard in small increments until desired !orking properties is achieved. "he polyester resin and the styrene solvent react together to crosslink, or polymeri e, to form a film. Styrene monomer is a dilutent in these resins. +t is highly flammable and an irritant if in contact !ith skin or as vapor to eyes and upper respiratory tract. .olyester resins are air inhibited : curing !ith a surface tack. 9se surface seal at the rate of ' o . per gallon !hen applying finishing coat. Finishing resins contain surface seal ,a solution of !a* and styrene monomer/. "he material has the potential to be %(( percent solid. "his depends on ho! fast 4ept of + 5 . 2ngineering 6. +. 2., Mysore

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A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

the reaction takes place. 2.7.2 S1%#4( i $! UP R( i% 9nsaturated polyesters have been synthesi ed by the reaction of unsaturated and saturated dibasic acids or anhydrides !ith dihydric alcohols or o*ides in o*ygen free atmosphere. "he rates of polyesterification reactions are influenced by the structure and stoichiometry of the glycol and dibasic acid components. 1enerally, a ;B e*cess glycol is added in the initial stages to prevent any glycol losses during polymeri ation. After adding the ra! materials the temperature of reactor is raised to %(( AC to start e*othermic reaction. "!o main reactions are involved in this synthesis? ,i/ monoester formation and ,ii/ polycondensation. "he monoester formation takes place in the temperature range of =(M%:( AC !hile the polycondensation takes place above %=( AC. Since it is a reversible reaction, therefore, !ater coming out of the reaction has to be removed continuously. Such resins on curing give net!orks !ith better toughness and mechanical strength. 2.7.3 A''li"a#i$% $! P$l1( #() 9nsaturated polyester resins either in the form of pure resin or in the compounded form !ith fillers find !ide range of applications. "heir main applications are in the construction industry ,non3reinforced or glass fiber reinforced products/, automotive industry, and industrial !ood and furniture finishing. Some of the important products based on 9.2 resins are cast items such as pearl buttons, knife and umbrella handles, and encapsulation of electronic assemblies. .olyester compounds have been formulated for the manufacture of bathroom fi*tures. Floor3tiles have been manufactured by mi*ing 9. resin !ith fillers such as limestone, silica, china clay, etc. "he applications of 9.2 resins in a variety of areas such as transportation, electrical appliances, and building and construction is largely due to development of bulk and sheet molding compounds using glass fibers.

2.;

REINFORCEMENTS

"hese are fibrous materials, !hen introduced into polymer matri* produce a dramatic improvement in physical properties of a composite. -einforcement improves overall mechanical properties of the matri*. "he reinforcing filler usually takes the form of fiber but particles ,for e.g. 1lass spheres/ are also used. A !ide range of amorphous and

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crystalline materials can be used as reinforcing fibers. "hese include glass, carbon, boron and silicon. +n recent years, fibers have been produced from synthetic polymers for e.g. 7evlar fibers. 1lass in the form of fibers is relatively ine*pensive and is the principal form of reinforcement used in plastics. 4ra!ing of continuous strands of glass from an orifice in the base of an electrically heated platinum crucible, !hich contains molten glass, produces the fibers. "he earliest successful glass reinforcement had a calcium3 alumina borosilicate composition developed specifically for insulation purpose ,23glass/. "he types of fiber reinforced composites is sho!n in fig.<.= "he use of reinforcement fibers can result in the follo!ing changes> properties +ncrease in tensile, compressive and fle*ural strength .artial improvement in creep behavior -eduction of visco3elastic yield under load. +ncrease in modulus of elasticity and stiffness +ncreases in heat distortion temperature ,$4"/ Do!er shrinkage Do! temperature dependency of mechanical and physical

Fig 2.3: Fi,() )(i%!$)"(- "$&'$ i#(

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2.<

FIBER=LASS:
Fiberglass or glass fiber is material made from e*tremely fine fibers of glass. +t is

used as a reinforcing agent for many polymer products, the resulting composite material, properly kno!n as fiber3reinforced polymer ,F-./ or glass3reinforced plastic ,1-./, is called PfiberglassP in popular usage. Fiberglass is sho!n in fig <.E.

Fig 2.7: Fi,()gla

2.<.1 Fa,)i"a#i$%
1lass fiber is formed !hen thin strands of silica3based or other formulation glass is e*truded into many fibers !ith small diameters suitable for te*tile processing. 1lass is unlike other polymers, in that even as a fiber it has little crystalline structure. "he properties of the structure of glass in its softened stage are very much like its properties !hen spun into fiber. 0ne definition of glass is Pan inorganic substance in a condition !hich is continuous !ith, and analogous to the li8uid state of that substance, but !hich, as a result of a reversible change in viscosity during cooling, has attained so high a degree of viscosity has to be for all practical purposes rigidP. "he techni8ue of heating and dra!ing glass into fine fibers has been kno!n to e*ist for thousands of years. $o!ever, the concept of using these fibers for te*tile applications is more recent.

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2.<.2 P)$'()#i(
1lass fibers are useful because of their high ratio of surface area to !eight. $o!ever, the increased surface makes them much more susceptible to chemical attack. By trapping air !ithin them, blocks of glass fiber make good thermal insulation, !ith a good thermal conductivity. 1lass strengths are usually tested and reported for PvirginP fibers !hich have #ust been manufactured. "he freshest, thinnest fibers are the strongest and this is thought to be due to the fact that it is easier for thinner fibers to bend. "he more the surface is scratched, the less the resulting tenacity is. Because glass has an amorphous structure, its properties are the same along the fiber and across the fiber. $umidity is an important factor in the tensile strength. Moisture is easily adsorbed, and can !orsen microscopic cracks and surface defects, and lessen tenacity. +n contrast to carbon fiber, glass fiber can undergo more elongation before it breaks. "he viscosity of the molten glass is very important for manufacturing success. 4uring dra!ing, the viscosity should be relatively lo!. +f it is too high the fiber !ill break during dra!ing, ho!ever if it is too lo! the glass !ill form droplets rather than dra!ing out into fiber.

2.<.3 A''li"a#i$% OF Fi,() =la


Fiber glass reinforced resins are !idely used in building and construction industry. "hey are used in the form of a cladding for other structural materials or as on integral part of a structural or non load bearing !all panel. For eg> !indo! frames, tanks, bathroom units, pipes. +t is also used in aerospace industries.

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1-. is also a proven roofing material that has been used on millions of s8uare meters of roofs throughout the 97. Fiber glass is also used in the telecommunications industry for shrouding the visual appearance of antennas, due to its -F permeability and lo! signal attenuation properties. Fiber glass reinforced product are used for Fire!ater systems Cooling !ater systems 4rinking !ater systems @aste !ater systems or se!age systems

2.1> TYPES OF =LASS


Four types of glass available are> E?=LASS> 2lectrical applications, based on lime3alumina boro3silicate. S? =LASS> $igh strength properties, based on silica3alumina magnesia. C?=LASS> Corrosion resistant. D?=LASS: +mproved dielectric properties.

2.1>.1

E?=la
"his is the most commonly used fiber today. +t is made from molten glass, spun

into individual fibers. 23glass has basically good strength values as virgin fibers but loses a lot of its strength !hen it is processed, si ed and !oven. manufacturing process. "he cost of 23glass is relatively lo!. "his material is generally made for use as electrical grade made materials such as circuit board manufacturing, telecommunication cables, and outstanding high heat3 resistant, lo! volume !eight, thermal shock resistance and strength properties rot and milde! resistance make fiberglass !oven fabrics valuable over a !ide range of marine and industrial applications. "hey are asbestos free, they cause no harm to health, making fiberglass products ideal replacements to non te*turi ed yarns, these fabrics appear smooth and have higher !eight than the te*turi ed ones. "hey can be produced by different kinds of !eaving333plain, t!ill, satin. "hey are !idely used in thermal 4ept of + 5 . 2ngineering 6. +. 2., Mysore 23glass en#oys ma*imum advantage !hen it is in unidirectional form due to less handling and manipulation in the

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A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

insulation, heat protection, fireproofing, economi e energy sources, labor insurance and can be treated in different !ays in order to meet specific purposes. "hey !ill not burn, rot, milde! or deteriorate and resist most acids.

2.1>.2 A''li"a#i$%
All types of the thermal insulation and heat protection 9sed for compensators Basic cloth for coating and lamination

2.11

REINFORCEMENT FORMS
-egardless of the material, reinforcement is available in the forms to serve a

!ide range of processes and end products re8uirements. Materials supplied as reinforcements include roving, milled fibers, chopped strands, continuous, chopped or thermo formable mat. -einforcement materials can be designed !ith uni8ue fiber architecture and can be performed depending on the product re8uirements and manufacturing process.

Fig 2.;: C$%#i%+$+ !i,() a%- 4$)# !i,() "$&'$ i#( Continuous fibers and short fiber composites is as sho!n in fig.<.A. 19 CONTINUOUS FIBERS: a. S#)a%-s> collection of filaments, the basic form in !hich fiber is produced. b. Ya)% > t!isting the strands makes yarns. c. R$6i%g> the collection of strands made in tape like form !ithout t!isting. 4ept of + 5 . 2ngineering 6. +. 2., Mysore

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A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

d. W$6(% )$5i%g &a#> roving is !oven !ith fiber in !arp and !eft direction. e. C$%#i%+$+ binder 29 SHORT FIBERS: a. b. Mill(- !i,() > fibers crushed into short length used as filter in C4$''(- #)a%- > chopped into :mm or =mm or longer strands. thermoplastics. #)a%- > strands are randomly oriented and bounded to other !ith a

2.12 FACTORS THAT CONTROL THE CHARECTERISTICS OF


FIBER@RESIN COMPOSITES
Fiber Aspect -atio ,lengthQdiameter/ 3 3 3 3 "he larger the better, thinner and longer 1reater fraction increases strength and stiffness Multiple plies, !oven fabric Specific modulus and specific strength Holume Fraction of Fibers 0rientation of Fibers .roperties of the Fiber

2.1.

CATALYSTSA FILLERS AND OTHER ADDITIVES:


Catalysts are materials, !hich initiate the chemical reaction that causes the resin

to cure. Accelerators are used to speed and enhance the cure. -etards are used to reduce the gel time. A !ide range of catalysts, accelerators systems are available for use !ith polyester resin. "he selection of proper catalyst and the amount to be used for applications depends on the resin, the curing temperature, re8uired !orking or pot life and the gel time. "he most commonly used catalyst is Methyl 2thyl 7etone .ero*ide ,M27./, !ith ;(B .ero*ide content !hich acts as a cross linking agent for 9nsaturated .olyester -esins used in Fiberglass -einforced .lastic ,F-./ +ndustries. "his compound is administered in controlled 8uantities to initiate the cure of the products. M27. is a colorless li8uid !ith a characteristic odour? Methyl 2thyl 7etone .ero*ide is partially miscible !ith !ater, but completely miscible !ith a ma#ority of organic li8uids. +t is used as a solvent for a ma#ority of resins. Cobalt 0ctate is used as an Accelerator !ith <B and =B Cobalt content that helps Catalyst M27. in ;(B .olymeri ation of 9nsaturated .olyester -esins. "he uni8ue 4ept of + 5 . 2ngineering 6. +. 2., Mysore

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A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

feature of cobalt is that it is least affected by atmospheric humidity. Cobalt is an effective accelerator for polyester. "he Cobalt Accelerator !ith Cobalt Salts is best !ith M27.. Fillers and small organic and inorganic particulate materials mi*ed !ith polymer are used to modify their properties, e*tended resin in short supply and reduce cost. "here are much filler available !ith variety of shapes. "he introduction of the fillers modifies some of the physical properties like corrosion resistance, lo! cure shrinkage, lo! coefficient of friction.

2.1/

SILICON CARBIDE:
Silicon carbide is composed of tetrahedral of carbon and silicon atoms strong

bonds in the crystal lattice. "his produces very hard and strong material. Fig <.A sho!s Synthetic silicon carbide crystal aggregate. Silicon carbide !as originally produced by a high temperature electro chemical reaction of sand and carbon. SiC is an e*cellent abrasive and has been produced and made into grinding !heels and other abrasive products. Any acids or alkalis do not attack SiC up to A(( RC. +n air SiC forms a protective SiC coating at %<((Rc and is able to used up to %=((Rc.

Fig 2.<: S1%#4(#i" ili"$% "a),i-( ")1 #al agg)(ga#(

2.1/.1

P)$'()#i(
$igh hardness Do! density Do! porosity

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1ood !ear resistance in sliding and abrasive environments. 2*cellent corrosion resistance in most chemical environments. Do! thermal e*pansion and high thermal conductivity.

2.1/.2

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,'$/, respectively :.(( eH ,=$/ eH.

Semiconductor: .ure SiC is an intrinsic semiconductor !ith a band gap of :.<= eH Silicon carbide is used for blue D24s, ultra fast Schottky diodes, and high temperature thyristors for high po!er s!itching. 4ue to its high thermal conductivity, SiC is also used as substrate for other semiconductor materials such as gallium nitride. +t is also used as an ultraviolet detector. .ure SiC is a bad electrical conductor. Addition of suitable dopants significantly enhances its conductivity. "ypically, such material has a negative temperature coefficient bet!een room temperature and about &(( SC, and positive temperature coefficient at higher temperatures, making it suitable material for high temperature heating elements. Structural material: Silicon carbide !as studied on several research programs for high3temperature gas turbines in the 9nited States, Tapan, and 2urope. "he components !ere intended to replace nickel super alloy turbine blades or no le vanes. $o!ever, none of these pro#ects resulted in a production 8uantity, mainly because of its lo! impact resistance and its lo! fracture toughness. Astronomy: Silicon carbideUs hardness and rigidity make it a desirable mirror material for astronomical !ork, although they also make manufacturing and figuring such mirrors 8uite difficult. Silicon carbide may be a ma#or component of the mantles of as3yet hypothetical carbon planets. 1rit: Silicon carbide is a popular product in modern lapidary due to the durability and lo! cost of the material. +t is also used in Psuper fineP grit sandpapers. 4isc brake: Silicon3infiltrated carbon3carbon composite is used for high performance brake discs as it is able to !ithstand e*treme temperatures.

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"he silicon reacts !ith the graphite in the carbon3carbon composite to become silicon carbide. "hese discs are used on some sports cars. 4iesel particulate filter: Silicon carbide is used in a sintered form for 4iesel .articulate Filters.

2.13 =RAPHITE
1raphite derives its name from the 1reek !ord PgrapheinP, to !rite. "he material is generally grayish3black, opa8ue and has a lustrous black sheen. +t is uni8ue in that it has properties of both a metal and a non3metal. +t is fle*ible but not elastic, has a high thermal and electrical conductivity, and is highly refractory and chemically inert. 1raphite has a lo! adsorption of V3rays and neutrons making it a particularly useful material in nuclear applications. 1raphite is pure carbon in a crystal form much like that of micaWsheets of strongly linked atoms, !ith very !eak bonds bet!een the sheets. "his structure makes graphite an e*cellent dry lubricant !herever temperatures do not get too high. .encils make use of graphite for the same reason, as graphite rubs off on paper so easily. 1raphite is very soft, measuring % or %.; on the Mohs scale of mineral hardness. 1raphite forms during the metamorphism, under intense heat and pressure, of coal or limestone !ith a great deal of organic matter in them. Dike diamonds, the other crystalline form of carbon, graphite can be manufactured artificially, but the natural material is still cheaper.

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Fig 1.;: Na#+)al =)a'4i#( a%- Fi%( =)a'4i#( P$5-()

2.13.1

P)$'()#i(
C$&&()"ial g)a'4i#( %.:3%.&; (.E3;: A3%; <(3<(( =.&3%(( %.<3A.< <;3'E( E%(3A:( ;*%(3=3:(*%(3=

P)$'()#1 Bulk 4ensity ,gLcm:/ .orosity ,B/ Modulus of 2lasticity ,1.a/ Compressive strength ,M.a/ Fle*ural strength ,M.a/ Coefficient of "hermal 2*pansion ,*%(3= SC/ "hermal conductivity ,@Lm.7/ Specific heat capacity ,TLkg.7/ 2lectrical resistivity ,@.m/

2.13.2 A''li"a#i$% $! =)a'4i#(


1. R(!)a"#$)1 Ma#()ial 4ue to its high temperature stability and chemical inertness graphite is a good candidate for a refractory material. +t is used in the production of refractory 4ept of + 5 . 2ngineering 6. +. 2., Mysore

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A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

bricks and in the production of IMag3carbonJ refractory bricks ,Mg3C./ 1raphite is also used to manufacture crucibles, ladles and moulds for containing molten metals. 2. C4(&i"al I%-+ #)1 "here are many high temperature uses for graphite in the chemical industry such as in the production of phosphorus and calcium carbide in arc furnaces. 1raphite is used as anodes in some a8ueous electrolytic processes such as in the production of halogens ,chlorine and fluorine./ 3. N+"l(a) I%-+ #)1 $igh purity electro graphite is used in large amounts for the production of moderator rods and reflector components in nuclear reactors. "heir suitability arises from their lo! absorption of neutrons, high thermal conductivity and their high strength at temperature. .. El("#)i"al A''li"a#i$% "he main application for graphite as an electrical material is in the manufacture of carbon brushes in electric motors. +n this application the performance and lifetime of the component is very dependent on grade and structure. /. M("4a%i"al A''li"a#i$% 1raphite is used !idely as an engineering material over a variety of applications. Applications include piston rings, thrust bearings, #ournal bearings and vanes. Carbon based seals are used in the shafts and fuel pumps of many aircraft #et engines. 3. O#4() A''li"a#i$% Metallurgy .encil production Coatings Dubricants .aint production

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Batteries 1rinding !heels .o!der metallurgy Aerospace applications

1raphite electrodes for electric arc furnaces for metallurgical processing

2.17 RULE OF MI*TURE LAW


-ules of mi*ture are mathematical e*pressions !hich give some property of the composite in terms of the properties, 8uantity and arrangement of its constitutes. +t says that the strength of the composite is a !eighted average of the strength of the fiber and the matri*. EC$&'$ i#( B EFi,() VFi,()CEMa#)i0 VMa#)i0 @here, 2Composite X Modulus of elasticity of composite 2Fiber 2Matri* HFiber HMatri* X Modulus of elasticity of fibers X Modulus of elasticity of matri* X Holume fraction of fibers X Holume fraction of matri* DDDDDD ,<.%/

2.1; ADVANTA=ES OF COMPOSITES


"here are number of advantages of composites. A fe! of them are listed belo!> $igh strength and strength to density ratio. $igh strength at temperature. Do! density. $igh stiffness to density ratio. "oughness ,impact and thermal shock/ +mproved fatigue strength. +mproved creep strength. +mproved strength3rupture life. +mproved o*idation and corrosion resistance. Controlled thermal e*pansion conductivity. +mproved hardness and corrosion resistance. 6. +. 2., Mysore

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Ability to tailor3 made specific properties. Multiple combinations of above properties. Ability to fabricate comple* components to near net shape. Ability to use lo! cost tooling materials. Composite materials have good sound dampening nature. Composite material can eliminate many parts and can be fastened by simplified method, thus, eliminating structural !eakness.

2.1< LIMITATIONS
Fabrication time for the end product is long for the reason that set time needed to initiate and complete chemical reaction is long. "hermoset composites are strong but brittle in nature. "hey are very hygroscopic and thus material handling becomes difficult. 4ifficult to analy e for t!o3phase composites behavior. $igh cost of ra! materials and fabrication.

2.2> APPLICATIONS OF COMPOSITES


Composite materials have found applications in almost all branches of engineering. A rough estimate indicates that more than =(((( products are being made using these materials. Some of the important applications of composites are given belo!. +n the automotive and aerospace industry. +n bio3medical field and rehabilitation applications. +n defense, including rockets, and missiles +n the manufacture of sports goods, including tennis rackets, fishing poles and durable consumer products. 9sed for electronic goods !here components are substrate for printed circuit boards. +n superconductors and communication applications. +n land transportation applications. +n sound dampening media, barrier films and non3lined optics. +n chemical plants and corrosion resistant products. +n marine vessels and structure.

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+n building and construction industries.

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CHAPTER 3

MANUFACTURIN= TECHNIEUES OF COMPOSITES


3.1. THERMOFORMIN=
"hermoforming is a molding process used to form sheets of plastic to a mold surface by using heat and force consisting of vacuum andLor pressure. "his technology appeared to have applications during the prime of thermoplastics. "hermoforming is a do!nstream plastic process? ho!ever it is often vie!ed as an alternative to in#ection molding in numerous markets and end3uses. "hermoforming is used primarily in lo!3cost applications for the simple embossing of thin plastic sheet and cannot be used to form as rigid shapes as vacuum forming is capable of. "hermoformed plastics are invariably thermoplastics because thermosetting plastics assume their final shape through heat and so can not be moulded !ith this process. Familiar products manufactured by thermoforming include> yoghurt pots and simple trays. "he plastics that are used in thermoforming include> acrylic, lo! density polyethylene ,D4.2/ and crystalline polyester ,C.2"/.

Fig 3.1 T4()&$!$)&i%g

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"here are basically three types of thermoforming moulds> Ma"4i%(- Al+&i%+& M$l- 3 are typically built for shallo! parts !ith small dra! ratios. Male or female molds and vacuum3form or pressure3form molds can be machined aluminum molds. "hey can be te*tured and may offer features such as loose cores, pneumatic cores, and inserts. Ca # Al+&i%+& M$l- 3 are cast at a foundry from a machined pattern from a composite material and typically are built for parts !ith large dra! ratios. C$&'$ i#( M$l- 3For prototyping and short production runs, cost3efficient composite materials are used for mold construction. "hese molds produce parts that are to be evaluated for fit, form, and function and may be modified to evaluate possible design changes. "hese molds are for vacuum3forming only and are not temperature controlled. "hese molds have a limited life. "he benefits of thermoforming are3 2fficient and very cost3effective lo!er machine cost large parts can be easily formed 0ffers close tolerances, tight specifications, and sharp detail Much lo!er initial pro#ect costs +ne*pensive tooling "ypical applications include, production of Darge panels, housings, enclosures, and similar parts, children)s s!imming pools, small boat hulls, $allo!een masks, disposable S0D0 cups, ice cube trays, refrigerator door liners, cookie or donut trays, and food containers.

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3.2. HAND LAY UP


$and lay3up is an open contact molding in one3sided molds are the lo!est3cost and most common processes for making fiberglass composite products and is the most common method of producing composites parts in the aircraft industry. +n a typical open mold application, the mold is first !a*ed and sprayed !ith gel coat. +t then may be cured in a heated oven at about %<(Y F. +n the spray3up process, after the gel coat cures, cataly ed resin ,usually polyester or vinyl ester at ;(( cps to %((( cps viscosity/ is sprayed into the mold, along !ith chopped fiberglass. A chopper gun chops roving ,usually 23glass/ directly into the resin spray, so that all materials are applied simultaneously to the mould. +n hand lay3up processing, fiberglass ,typically 23glass/ continuous strand mat andLor other fabrics such as !oven roving are manually placed in the mold. 2ach ply is sprayed !ith Cataly ed resin ,%((( to %;(( cps/ and the resin is !orked into the fiber !ith brushes and rollers to !et3out and compact the laminate.

Fig 3.2 Ha%- La1 +' T("4%iF+( +t can be used !ith any type of resin system, but the fibers should be either in the !oven or stitched form. "he typical applications include most of aircraft composite parts, boat hulls and decks, truck cabs and fenders, !ind3turbine blades etc.

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3.3. VACUUM BA==IN=


"his process is basically an e*tension of the !et lay3up process !here pressure is applied to the laminate once laid3up in order to improve its consolidation. "his is achieved by sealing a plastic film over the !et laid3up laminate and onto the tool. "he air under the bag is e*tracted by a vacuum pump and thus up to one atmosphere of pressure can be applied to the laminate to consolidate it.

Fig 3.3 Va"++& Baggi%g "he benefits of this method are> Darge parts can be produced. $igh 8uality products can be obtained. Clean process. Do! cost tooling can be used.

"ypical applications> Darge, one3off cruising boats -ace car components Core3bonding in production boats

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3... FILAMENT WINDIN=


"his process is primarily used for hollo!, generally circular or oval sectioned components, such as pipes and tanks. Fibre to!s are passed through a resin bath before being !ound onto a mandrel in a variety of orientations, controlled by the fibre feeding mechanism, and rate of rotation of the mandrel. @hile filament !inding machine design varies !ith part geometry, the basic filament !inding process concept is described in fig:.'

Fig 3.. Fila&(%# Wi%-i%g "he fibers are impregnated !ith resin ,by immersion, or by passing over a resin3 !etted drum, or by in#ection into the die/ before being led to a feed eye !here a controlled band3!idth is set prior to positioning on the mandrel. "he fibers are supplied on creels and it is normal to have fiber tensioners in the feed line. "he tension directly affects both fibre volume fraction and voids content and, in turn, influence the strength and stiffness of the composite part. 0nce the fiber package is positioned the resin is taken to full cure, often by heating in an oven. "he final stage is mandrel removal to leave the desired hollo! component. "his may be achieved by hydraulic rams for e*tracting steel mandrels. "his method can be employed to produce glass, aramid, carbon or boron fiber reinforced vinyl ester, polyester, epo*y or phenolic composites and the typical applications include Chemical storage tanks and pipelines, gas cylinders, rocket motors, launch tubes, pressure vessels, drive shafts and fishing rods and missile cases.

3./. VACUUM ASSISTED RESIN TRANSFER MOULDIN=


HA-"M is a single sided molding process !here the dry preform ,reinforcement or coring materials/ is placed into the mold? a cover ,or a vacuum bag/ is placed over the 4ept of + 5 . 2ngineering 6. +. 2., Mysore

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A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

top to form a vacuum3tight seal. A distribution medium ,a mesh/ is used and laid on top of the top release fabric to help maintain an even distribution of resin and facilitate the flo! of resin through the thickness of the panel. "he lo! viscosity resin typically enters the preform through resin distribution and vacuum distribution lines !ith the aid of vacuum. +n HA-"M process, the flo! of resin occurs in plane as !ell as in the transverse directions to the preform. "he permeability of the preform, fiber architecture and fabric crimp have an influence on the !etting of the fabric.

Fig 3./ Va"++& a i #(- )( i% #)a% !() &$+l-i%g "he benefits are> Applicable to larger, less comple* and lo!er volume part production of composite parts? Simple and lo! cost tooling? 0nsite manufacturing and repairing are practical? $igh fiber volume panel achievable? "ypical HA-"M applications include marine, ground transportation and infrastructure parts.

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3.3. E*TRUSION
A thermoplastic process !hereby pellets, granules, or po!der are melted and forced through a die under pressure to form a given, continuous shape. "ypical shapes e*truded are flat films and sheets, filaments and fibers, strands for palleti ing, and !ebs for coating and laminating. Also used for forming composite preformed materials from mi*tures of a matri* po!der and short fibers suitable for MMCs. @idely used for continuous production of film, sheet, tube, and other profiles? also used in con#unction !ith blo! molding. "hermoplastic or thermoset molding compound is fed from a hopper to a scre! and barrel !here it is heated to plasticity then for!arded, usually via a rotating scre!, through a no le possessing the desired cross section. .roduction lines re8uire input and takeoff e8uipment that can be comple*. Do! tool cost, numerous comple* profile shapes possible, very rapid production rates, can apply coatings or #acketing to core materials ,such as !ire/. Familiar products manufactured by e*trusion include> pipes, ingot, guttering, !indo! sills and insulation on !ires.

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CHAPTER 4

LITERATURE SURVEY
"he most commonly used resin systems for engineering applications are thermosets like polyester, vinyl ester, epo*y, phenolics. 0f these, epo*ies find !idest range of applications because of their supreme mechanical properties and a good number of studies have been performed on epo*y based composites over the last t!o decades. 2po*ies, no doubt are stronger than .2 and H2, but are many times more e*pensive. $ence, .2 and H2 are being used increasingly for medium strength applications these days. "he ne*t section deals !ith research !ork performed on the above mentioned resin systems reinforced !ith different fibers and particles, evaluating their tribological and mechanical properties, forming the basis for the selection of material systems for the current study. IMechanical and tribological properties of glass3epo*y composites !ith and !ith out graphite particulate fillerJ paper F%:G evaluated the mechanical and tribological properties of glass3fiber3reinforced epo*y composites !ith and !ithout graphite particulate filler. "he mechanical properties, including tensile strength, tensile modulus, elongation at break and surface hardness !ere investigated in accordance !ith AS"M standards. From the e*perimental investigations it !as found that the tensile strength and dimensional stability of the 132 composite increased !ith increasing graphite content. "he effect of filler content ,(3E.; !t B/ and sliding distance on the friction and !ear behaviour of the graphite filled 132 composite systems !ere studied. "he marginal increase in the co3efficient of friction !ith sliding distance for the unfilled composites !as noticed, but a slight reduction !as noticed for the graphite filled composites. "he !ear loss of the composites decreased !ith increasing !eight fraction of graphite filler and increased !ith increasing sliding distance. "he !orn surface morphological features !ere studied using S2M. From this !ork, it can be concluded that graphite improves both mechanical and tribological properties of epo*y composites. I2valuation of polymer composites for sliding and abrasive !ear applicationJ paper F%;G studied the !ear behaviour of several polymer composite materials sliding against smooth steel counter parts, a general comparison !as made bet!een the sliding !ear rates and previously ascertained severe abrasive !ear rate of the

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material under consideration. A greater increase in the !ear resistance of matri* materials due to fiber reinforcement !as evident under a sliding !ear conditions. "his paper moves that use of fibrous, reinforcement increases the abrasion resistance of polymers. I2ffect of sliding speed on friction and !ear of un3directional aramid fiber K phenolic resin compositeJ paper F<<G studied tribological performance of compression molded aramid fiber phenolic resin composite. "he effect of sliding speed on friction and !ear behaviour of this composite !as investigated. "he C0F !as found to be stable over a !ide range of sliding speed and normal pressures. "he !ear of composite !as found to be insensitive to changes in the speed in the higher speed range. I"he influence of cenosphere filler additions on the three3body abrasive !ear behaviour of glass fiber3reinforced epo*y compositesJ paper F%=G evaluated the dry three body abrasive !ear behaviour of bi3directional glass fabrics reinforced epo*y composites !ith and !ithout cenosphere filler using dry sand L rubber !heel abrasion tester. From the e*perimental !ear data it !as observed that the abrasive !ear of the composites !ere dependent on the applied load and abrading distances. S2M !as used to study the morphology of the !orn surface features. Dike graphite, cenosphere particles also favorably influence the three body abrasive !ear behaviour of epo*ies. From their !ork, and the previous paper it can be understood that load and abrading distances affect three body abrasive !ear behaviour. I+nfluence of Silicon carbide filler on Mechanical and 4ielectric properties of glass fabric reinforced "hermoset CompositesJ paper F<AG studied that upon introduction of SiC filler in 23glass reinforced thermoset composites, mechanical properties such as tensile strength, tensile modulus, elongation at break, fle*ural strength and hardness have been investigated in accordance !ith AS"M standards. From the e*perimental investigation, it !as found that the tensile strength, fle*ural strength and hardness of the glass reinforced thermoset composite increased !ith the inclusion of SiC filler. "hus emphasi ing the importance for the need to introduce fillers into glass reinforced thermoset composites. After SiC loading a drastical change in dielectric constant of composite !as noticed due to increase in conducting phase in the composites. Sic influences mechanical and tribological behaviour of epo*y composites in a manner similar to graphite. IDoss of Mechanical properties by !ater absorption of Hinyl3ester reinforced !ith glass fiberJ paper F<=G studied the effect of !ater absorption on the 4ept of + 5 . 2ngineering 6. +. 2., Mysore

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mechanical properties of the composites ."he composite fle*ural modulus !as fitted by means of a modified rule of mi*ture, !hich included an interfacial coefficient. "he unidirectionality of the fiber improves the interfacial resistance, as the shear resistance value is greater in the unidirectional composite than in the mat. I2ffects of moisture on the mechanical properties of 1lass fiber reinforced vinyl ester resin compositesJ paper F:<G studied 1lass fiber reinforced vinyl ester composites incorporating varying amounts of fibers characteri ed for their mechanical properties both as prepared and after treatment !ith boiling !ater. +n keeping !ith the composite principle, the mechanical properties improved !ith fiber loading. $o!ever for longer duration of e*posure, the fibers !ere also affected seriously. I"he effect of aggressive environments on composite propertiesJ paper F<(G sub#ected the glass fiber reinforced epo*y and unsaturated polyester composites to different aggressive environments such as heat, !ater ageing, lubricating oil, fuel, ;B$cl, ;B o*alic acid, sea !ater for E days at room temperature. "he e*posed specimens !ere characteri ed by physical, mechanical, chemical and thermal properties. A marginal increase in mechanical properties in heat ageing but reduction in properties in other e*posed systems !as observed. I+nfluence of Fiber orientation on mechanical properties of polyesterL#ute compositesJ paper F<'G studied "ensile and +mpact properties of compression molded unsaturated polyesterL#ute composites as a function of fiber content and orientation. "he mechanical behaviour displayed by the #ute fiber3reinforced composites under investigations fulfilled the theoretical predictions developed for synthetic fiber reinforced composites. "he good mechanical properties obtained sho! that the polyesterL#ute composite developed here display a suitable set of mechanical properties for many medium to lo! strength demands. IMechanical Behavior of +sothalic .olyester3based untreated !oven Tute and 1lass fabric hybrid compositesJ paper F<;G studied tensile properties and impact properties of #ute3polyester !ere found to improve by the incorporation of glass fibers sho!ing positive hybrid effect. "he hybrid approach of blending more durable glass fabric !ith #ute fabric in isothalic polyester resin is a viable approach for enhancing the mechanical properties and durability of #ute composites. FromF%:G and F<AG, it can be observed that both sic and graphite have improved tensile strength, modules, three body abrasive !ear behaviour of epo*y L 231lass composites, establish their compatibility !ith both the resin and re3enforcements types. 4ept of + 5 . 2ngineering 6. +. 2., Mysore

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A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

2ven though, polyester possesses poor mechanical properties in relation to epo*y, its gaining !ider acceptance as an engineering material because of economical nature and the possibilities of increasing its strength using fibrous re3enforcements. .apers F<'Gand F<;Gpoint out to this fact, !here the use of #ute fibers has appreciably improved mechanical properties. Also, in paper F<;G #ute along !ith the 231lass !as used as the reinforcement and found to be 8uite compatible and it can be assumed that 231lass, alone !ould be compatible !ith polyester. As far as the fillers are concerned, since graphite and Silicon carbide !ere found to be compatible !ith epo*yL231lass combination their impact on 231lass Lpolyesters can be evaluated. Also papers F<=G, F:<G, F:<G, have indicated that aggressive environments have a harmful effect on composite properties. "he effect of sea !ater ageing on polyester composites can also be investigated.

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A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

CHAPTER 5

FABRICATION OF COMPOSITE
/.1 Ha%- La1 +' T("4%iF+(: "he composite plates from !hich the test specimens !ere cut !ere fabricated by employing the traditional $and Day 9p techni8ue. "his is a very popular method of composite fabrication, limited by its ability to produce simple shapes and re8uiring reinforcement either in the stitched or !oven form. "he mould used for the fabrication of 1F-. consisted of t!o granite slabs of dimensions is as sho!n in fig ;.%. +nitially, a plate consisting of polyester resin !ith glass fiber re3inforcement !as fabricated !ithout the addition of particulate fillers. "he plate !as made up of ;;B glass fiber and ';B polyester by !eight. Subse8uent fabrication of plates involved addition of silicon carbide filler in steps of :B, =B and &B by !eight of polyester resin, !hich !as follo!ed by fabrication of plates !ith graphite as the filler material added in the same steps.

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A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

Fig 5.1: Granite slabs forming the mold

Fig 5.2: Affixation of release film

Fig5.3: Application of first resin coat

Fig 5.4: Placement of glass fabric

/.2 Fa,)i"a#i$% #(' :? "o begin !ith, the facing surfaces of both the slabs !ere cleaned thoroughly !ith acetone follo!ed by affi*ation of a layer of release film to the bottom slab as sho!n in fig ;.<. "he initial material preparation included getting the glass fabric cut to the desired si e and fourteen such fabrics !ent into each fabricated plate.

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A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

"he !eight of the fabrics !as determined, in accordance !ith !hich the 8uantity of resin to be used !as decided in such a !ay that the final plate is made up of ';B resin and ;;B reinforcement by !eight. "he resin !as taken in t!o separate bo!ls ,because of the relatively short gelling time of polyester !hich !as Amins./ each bo!l containing half the total !eight. "he curing additives !ere added in the ratio ,Accelerator3 Cobalt octate %.< !tB 5 Catalyst3 M27. < !tB/ to the first bo!l, stirred thoroughly and the first resin coat !as applied on the resin film !hich spanned an area of ,!hich is the area of the final plate as sho!n in fig ;.:.

Fig /./: O,#ai%i%g #4$)$+g4 "$&'a"#i$%

Fig /.3: Pla"i%g )(l(a ( !il& $6() #4( la1 +'

Fig /.7:M$+l- "l$ i%g #ag(

Fig /.;: C+)i%g #ag(

"he first layer of fabric !as carefully placed over the resin coat as sho!n in fig ;.'.and thorough compaction !as achieved to prevent air bubble entrapment ,fig ;.;/. "his !as follo!ed by the application of alternate layers of resin and reinforcement and after laying seven fabrics, the resin from the second bo!l ,mi*ed !ith curing agents #ust before use/ !as used for the remaining seven layers and after the final resin coat !as 4ept of + 5 . 2ngineering 6. +. 2., Mysore

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A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

applied, the lay up !as covered by another layer of release film ,fig ;.=/. "he mould !as closed by placing the top slab ,fig ;.E/ "he top slab on account of its !eight ,%A kg/ compresses the lay up to the desired thickness, !hich !as maintained at <.; mm using appropriate stoppers and the lay up !as allo!ed to cure for <' hours before it !as retrieved from the mould.

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A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

CHAPTER 6

THEORETICAL STUDY
3.1 THE MAIN PURPOSE OF TESTIN= COMPOSITE MATERIALS ARE
"o ensure 8uality of ra! materials 2valuate and optimi e materials 2valuate and optimi e manufacturing process available "o determine the effect of e8uipments and tool design "o establish engineering design information "o measure 8uality and reproducibility of end products

3.2

FOUR MAIN CAUSES FOR FAILURE OF PRODUCTS ARE


+mproper application of product .oor design +nade8uate control of materials .oor manufacturing techni8ues and misapplication of materials.

3.3 TENSILE TEST:


A tensile test also kno!n as tension test is probably the most fundamental type of mechanical test !e can perform on a material. "ensile tests are simple, relatively ine*pensive, and fully standardi ed. By pulling a specimen !e can find its tensile strength by measuring its deformation. As !e continue to pull on the material until it breaks, !e !ill obtain a good, complete tensile profile. A curve !ill result sho!ing ho! it reacted to the forces being applied. "he point of failure is of much interest and is typically called its 9ltimate Strength or 9"S on the chart. 9ltimate strength is calculated based on gross cross sectional area.

3.3.1

H$$G(H La5 For most tensile testing of materials, !e !ill notice that in the initial portion of the

graph, the relationship bet!een the applied force, or load, and the elongation of the

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A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

specimen is linear. +n this linear region, the line obeys the relationship defined as P$ookeUs Da!P !here the ratio of stress to strain is a constant. 2 is the slope of the line in this region !here stress ,Z/ is proportional to strain ,[/ and is called the PModulus of 2lasticityJ 3.3.2 M$-+l+ $! Ela #i"i#1 "he modulus of elasticity is a measure of the stiffness of the material, but it only applies in the linear region of the curve. +f a specimen is loaded !ithin this linear region, the material !ill return to its e*act same condition if the load is removed. At the point !here the curve is no longer linear and deviates from the straight3line relationship, $ookeUs Da! no longer applies and some permanent deformation occurs in the specimen. "his point is called the Pelastic or proportional limitP. From this point on in the tensile test, the material reacts plastically to any further increase in load or stress. +t !ill not return to its original, unstressed condition if the load !ere to be removed. "he \oungUs modulus allo!s the behavior of a material under load to be calculated. For instance, it can be used to predict the amount a fiber !ill e*tend under tension, or to predict the load at !hich a thin column !ill buckle under compression. Some calculations also re8uire the use of other material properties, such as the shear modulus, density, or .oissonUs ratio. 3.3.3 S#)( : Stress is the internal distribution of force per unit area that balances and reacts to e*ternal loads applied to a body. Stress is often broken do!n into its shear and normal components as these have uni8ue physical significance. Solids can support both shear and normal stress, !ith ductile materials failing under shear and brittle materials failing under normal stress. "he simplest definition of stress, Z X FLA, !here A is the initial cross3 sectional area prior to the application of the load, is called engineering stress or nominal stress. $o!ever, !hen any material is stretched, its cross3sectional area may change by an amount that depends on the .oissonUs ratio of the material.

3.3.3.a T(% il( S#)( : "ension is the stress state leading to e*pansion along the length of a material in the tensile direction. "he volume of the material stays constant. "herefore in a unia*ial material the length increases in the tensile stress direction and the other t!o directions !ill decrease in si e. +n the unia*ial manner of tension, tensile stress is induced by pulling

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A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

forces across a bar, specimen, etc. "ensile stress is the opposite of compressive stress. "ensile stress may be increased until the reach of tensile strength, namely the limit state of stress. "he formula for computing tensile stress in a rod is>3

]]]]].

,=.%/

@here Z is the tensile stress, . is the tensile force over the rod and A is the cross3 sectional area of the rod. 9nit for tensile stress is 6e!ton per s8uare meter ,6LM</. Many of the mechanical properties of a composite material can be e*tracted from a tensile test. +n a tensile test, a sample is strained at a constant rate and the stress needed to maintain this strain rate is measured. "he stress and strain can either be measured in terms of engineering stress and strain, the elastic modulus, the ultimate tensile stress, the fracture stress, the modulus of toughness and the modulus of resilience. 3.3.3., Yi(l- #)( : \ield strength, or the yield point, is defined in engineering and materials science as the stress at !hich a material begins to plastically deform. .rior to the yield point the material !ill deform elastically and !ill return to its original shape !hen the applied stress is removed. 0nce the yield point is passed some fraction of the deformation !ill be permanent and non3reversible. 7no!ledge of the yield point is vital !hen designing a component since it generally represents an upper limit to the load that can be applied. 3.3.. S#)ai%: Strain is the geometrical e*pression of deformation caused by the action of stress on a physical body. Strain is calculated by first assuming a change bet!een t!o body states> the beginning state and the final state. "hen the difference in placement of t!o points in this body in those t!o states e*presses the numerical value of strain. Strain therefore e*presses itself as a change in si e and shape. +f strain is e8ual over all parts of a body, it is referred to as homogeneous strain other!ise, it is non3homogeneous strain. +n its most general form, the strain is a tensor. 1iven that strain results in the deformation of a body, it can be measured by calculating the change in length of a line or by the change in angle bet!een t!o lines. "he change in length of a line is termed the stretch, absolute strain, or e*tension, and may be !ritten as . "hen the strain ,[/, is given by

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A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

]]]] @here, is strain in measured direction is the original length of the material is the current length of the material

,=.</

"he e*tension is positive if the material has gained length and negative if the value has reduced length. Because strain diagram is as sho!n fig =.% is al!ays positive, the sign of strain is al!ays the

same as the sign of e*tension. Strain is a dimensionless 8uantity. "heoretical stress versus

Fig 3.1: T4($)(#i"al #)( 3.3./ P$i $%H Ra#i$:

6() +

#)ai% -iag)a&

Fig 3.2: R("#a%g+la) '("i&(% +,I("#(- #$ "$&')( i$%A 5i#4 P$i $%H )a#i$ >./ 4ept of + 5 . 2ngineering 6. +. 2., Mysore

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A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

@hen a sample of material is stretched in one direction, it gets thinner in other t!o directions as sho!n in fig =.<. .oisson)s ratio named after Siemen poisson is a measure of this tendency. .oisson)s ratio is the ratio of relative concentration strain, or transverse strain or transverse strain divided by the relative e*tension strain or a*ial strain ,in the direction of the applied load/. For a perfectly incompressible material, the .oisson)s ratio !ould be e*actly (.;. Most of practical engineering materials have ^ bet!een (.( to (.;. Cork is close to (.(, most steel are around (.:, and rubber is almost (.;. Some materials mostly polymer foams, have a negative .oisson)s ratio, if these materials are stretched in one direction, they become thicker in perpendicular directions. Assuming that material is compressed along the a*ial direction>

]]]]] @here, v is the resulti ! "#iss# $s r%ti# is the transverse strain is the a*ial strain

,=.:/

At first glance, a poisson)s ratio greater than (.; does not make sense because at specific strain the material !ould reach ero volume, and any further strain !ould give the material I6egative volumeJ . 9nusual poisson)s ratios are usually a result of a material !ith comple* architecture.

3.. TABS:
"abs protect the surface of the end section of the specimens against the damage in the grips and improve transmission of tensile forces to the specimen, !hich in turn causes more distribution of stresses. "abs are glued to the specimen by cleaning the surface of both the tab as !ell as the specimen thoroughly using acetone. 4imensions of tabs are usually selected e*perimentally. According to the AS"M standards the thickness of the tabs, $ t must be e8ual to, $tX ,%.; to '/ $, !here $Xspecimen thickness.

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A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

3./ SPECIMEN FASTENIN=>


"ensile testing is carried out in the tensile testing machine !here in one of the most difficult operations is precise installation of the specimen in the testing machine grips. Care should be taken to avoid the effects due to bending and shear forces !hich may deform the specimen in a non uniform manner.

3.3 APPARATUS:
A testing machine of the constant rate of the cross head movement and comprising essentially of the follo!ing> Fi*ed member3 a fi*ed or essentially stationary member carrying a grip. Movable member3 a movable member carrying a secondary grip. 1rips3 for holding the test specimen.

Fi*ed grips are rigidly attached to the fi*ed and movable members of the testing machine. Self aligning grips are attached to the fi*ed and movable members of the testing machine in such a manner that they !ill align as soon as any load is applied.

3.7 SPEED OF TESTIN=:


Speed of testing shall be the relative rate of motion of the grips or test fi*tures during the test. -ate of motion of the driven grip or fi*ture !hen the testing machine is running idle may be used, if it can be sho!n that the resulting speed of testing is !ithin the limits of variation allo!ed.

3.; TENSILE CALCULATIONS:


"he ultimate strength ,"/ is calculated by the formula TB P@ 8,J-9 @here, "X ultimate tensile strength in 6Lmm< .Xma*imum load in 6, bX !idth in mm, dX thickness in mm. "he modulus of elasticity ,2/ is calculated by using the formula EB 8P@L9J8l@ 8,J-99 4ept of + 5 . 2ngineering ]]]]]] ,=.;/ ]]]]]] ,=.'/

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A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

@here, 2X modulus of elasticity in 6Lmm< .LDX slope of the plot of the load as a function of deformation. lX length of the measuring instrument in mm.

3.< TENSILE TEST SETUP


Na&(> T T Dloyd universal testing machine M$-(l> 2Z<( easy test N$. $! a&'l( #( #(-> ; Ma0: l$a-> <(76

3.1> THE =ENERAL PURPOSE SETUP FOR TENSILE TEST.


.-2 D0A4 S.224> 1A912 D261"$> 4+S"A6C2 B2"@226 "$2 1-+.S> @+4"$ 0F "$2 S.2C+M26> @+4"$ 0F "$2 6A--0@ S2C"+06> 60" A..D+CABD2 ;mmLmin ;(mm %%;mm <%mm %;.Emm

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A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

Fig 3.2 C$&'+#()i2(- U%i6() al T( #i%g Ma"4i%(

2./ T$' Vi(5


37 R 31

2 1

13 7

F)$%# Vi(5

Si-( Vi(5 All Di&(% i$% a)( i% &&

Fig 3.3: T(% il( #( # '("i&(%

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A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

3.11 PROCEDURE:
"ensile test !as conducted according to AS"M 43=:A Specimen is cut according to AS"M 43=:A ,Fig =.:/ 9niversal testing machine is calibrated before use. Specimen plate is enclosed bet!een the grippers of universal testing machine. Doad is slo!ly applied by deforming the specimen. Doad corresponding to deformation is noted do!n. "hen stress strain corresponding load and corresponding deformation are calculated. .rocedure is repeated for different trials.

3.12 FLE*URE TESTIN=


A fle*ure test produces tensile stress in the conve* side of the specimen and compression stress in the concave side. "his creates an area of shear stress along the midline. "o ensure the primary failure comes from tensile or compression stress the shear stress must be minimi ed. "his is done by controlling the span to depth ratio, the length of the outer span divided by the height of the specimen. For most materials SLdX%= is acceptable. Some materials re8uire SLdX:< to =' to keep the shear stress lo! enough.

3.13 TYPES OF FLE*URE TESTS


Fle*ure testing is often done on relatively fle*ible materials such as polymers, !ood and composites. "here are t!o test types? :3point fle* and '3point fle*. +n a :3point test the area of uniform stress is 8uite small and concentrated under the center loading point. +n a '3point test, the area of uniform stress e*ists bet!een the inner span loading points. 3.13.1 P$l1&() "he :3point fle*ure test ,Fig =.'/ is the most common for polymers. Specimen deflection is usually measured by the crosshead position. "est results include fle*ural strength and fle*ural modulus.

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Fig 3..: Fl(0+)( #( # 5i#4 3 '$i%# l$a-i%g Measure the !idth and depth of the specimen and determine the support span depending on the !idth and the depth. Set the machine to specified rate of cross head motion. "he rate of cross head motion,-/ depends on support span ,D/, depth ,d/, rate of strain of the outer fiber , / as given by the formula RB2L2@3]]]]]] ,=.=/ Align the loading nose and support such that the cylindrical surface is parallel and the loading nose is mid !ay bet!een the supports. Apply the load to the specimen at the specified rate and take simultaneous load deflection data. Measure the deflection by gauge placed under the specimen at the center of the supports span.

3.1. CALCULATIONS:
+n the fle*ural test at small strains the actual deformation is sufficiently large to be measured accurately. "he ma*imum strain in the outer fiber !hich also occurs at the mid span is calculated using the e8uation ) B 3D-@l2 @here, r 3333 Strain 43333 4eflection l3333 Span. d3333 "hickness. ]]]]]. ,=.E/

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A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

Fle*ural modulus is a measure of stiffness during the first or initial state of the process. "he fle*ural modulus is represented by the slope of the initial straight line portion of the stress3strain curve and is calculated by dividing the change in stress by corresponding change in strain. +n many cases this value is e8ual to modulus of tension.

3.1/ FLE*URAL TEST SETUP


Na&(: T T Dloyd universal testing machine M$-(l> 2Z<( easy test N$. $! a&'l( #( #(-: : Ma0 l$a-: <(76

Fig 3.. EF+i'&(%# !$) Fl(0+)al T( #i%g

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A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

3.13 =ENERAL PURPOSE 3 POINT LOAD SETUP FOR FLE*URAL TEST>


.-2 D0A4> S.A6> S2C"+06 S"0. A" F-AC"9-2> ;( 6 ;(mm <mm * :(mm %76 load drops 8uickly.

2 T$' Vi(5

12

7> F)$%# Vi(5

Si-( Vi(5 All -i&(% i$% a)( i% &&

Fig 3./: Fl(0+)al #( # '("i&(%

3.17 PROCEDURE:
Fle*ural test !as conducted according to AS"M 43E&( Specimen is cut according to AS"M 43E&( ,Fig =.;/ 9niversal testing machine is calibrated before use. Specimen plate is placed as simply supported beam and a central load is applied.. Doad is slo!ly applied by deforming the specimen. Doad at !hich ma*imum deformation is noted do!n.

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A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

.rocedure is repeated for different trials.

3.1; IMPACT TEST


"hese test methods cover the determination of the resistance of plastics to breakage by fle*ural shocks as indicated by the energy e*tracted from standardi ed pendulum type hammers, mounted in machines, in breaking standard specimens !ith one specimen s!ing. "he standard tests for this re8uire specimen made !ith a milled notch, !hich provides the stress concentration . "he results of this test are reported in terms of energy absorbed per unit specimen !idth. +n i od test the specimen is held as vertical cantilever beam and is broken by a single s!ing of the pendulum !ith the line of the initial contact at affi*ed distance from the specimen clamp and from the centre line of the notch and on the same face as a notch.

Fig 3.3: L$aV() + D(!l("#i$% -iag)a& +mpact 2nergy> +mpact 2nergyX.otential 2nergy _ 7inetic 2nergy Absorbed 2nergy> %. A measure of material Strength and 4uctility. <. 1raphically the area beneath the load displacement curve Doad versus 4eflection diagram is as sho!n in Fig =.=.

3.1< IMPACT TEST SETUP


Na&(> .endulum impact tester T( # #1'(> + od N$. $! '("i&(% #( #(-: / Ma0.l$a->%.; #oules

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A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

Fig 3.7 P(%-+l+& I&'a"# T( #()

2./ T$' Vi(5 1 2 7> F)$%# Vi(5 Si-( Vi(5 All -i&(% i$% a)( i% &&

Fig 3.;: I&'a"# #( # '("i&(%

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A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

3.2> P)$"(-+)(:
+mpact test !as conducted according to AS"M 43 <;= Specimen is cut according to AS"M 4 3<;= ,fig =.A/ +mpact testing machine is calibrated before use. .otential energy is kept at ma*imum value. Specimen is fi*ed on the slot. 6o! impact load is applied, by releasing the pendulum. @hen pendulum is released, it hits the specimen placed in the slots. Doad absorbed for breakage is noted do!n. .rocedure is repeated for different trials.

3.21 HARDNESS TEST


3.21.1 S4$)( D Ha)-%( #( # Aim !as to determine 4urometer $ardness for 132 composites in accordance !ith AS"M 43 <<'(. Shore 4 hardness test is the procedure for determining the indentation hardness of homogeneous materials ranging from soft vulcani ed rubber to some rigid plastics. "his test method permits hardness measurements on either initial indentations or indentation after specified period of time or both. "his method is based on the penetration of a specified indentor forced into the material under specified conditions. "he indentation hardness is inversely related to the penetration and is dependent on the elastic modulus and visco3elastic behaviour of the material. "he shape of the indentor and the force applied to it influence the results.

Fig 3.< D+)$&(#()

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A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

2./ #$ 3.2

1.13 #$ 1..> &&

2./ K >.>.

P)( () !$$# I%-(%#$) 3> K 1L )a- >.1 K >.>12 3> K 1L All -i&(% i$% a)( i% && 2./ K >.>.

> 2./ #$ 3.2 Fig 3.1>: I%-(%#$) !$) T1'( D -+)$&(#() .1.13 #$ 1..> >12 4urometer consists of the follo!ing components .resser foot, +ndentor, +ndicating device, .rotector for indentor, Calibrated spring and Standard check gage . .resser foot> !ith a hole diameter bet!een <.; and :.<mm centered at least =mm from any edge of the foot. +ndentor> formed from the hardened steel rod !ith a diameter bet!een %.%= and %.'( to the shape and dimensions as sho!n in the figure. +ndicating device> on !hich the amount of e*tension of the point of indentor is read in terms of graduations ranging from ero for full e*tension of <.'= to <.;'mm to %(( for ero e*tension obtained by placing presser foot and indentor in firm contact !ith a flat piece of glass. Calibrated spring> for applying force to the indentor in accordance !ith follo!ing e8uations> F$)"(A NB>..../H@here, $d is the hardness reading on a "ype 4 durometer +n this test the depth of penetration and the force re8uired are easily measured and this provides a good indication of hardness i.e. resistance to the permanent deformation. ]]]]]]] ,=.A/

4ept of + 5 . 2ngineering

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A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

3.22 HARDNESS TEST SETUP


T1'( $! 4a)-%( > Shore 4 $ardness. T1'( $! &a#()ial> 1lass fiber reinforced plastic. N$. $! #( #(- '("i&(% > :

2./ T$' Vi(5

2/

F)$%# Vi(5

Si-( Vi(5 All -i&(% i$% a)( i% &&

Fig: 3.11 Ha)-%(

#( # '("i&(%

3.23 P)$"(-+)(:
$ardness test !as conducted according to AS"M 4 3<<'( Cut the specimen according to AS"M 43 <<'( ,fig =.%%/ Calibrate the durometer by using standard check gage. +f there is any error, note do!n the ero correction. .lace the specimen on hard, hori ontal surface. $old the durometer in a vertical position !ith point of indentor atleast %<mm from any edge of the specimen. Apply the presser foot to the specimen as rapidly as possible !ithout shock. Apply #ust sufficient pressure to obtain contact bet!een presser foot and specimen. -ead the scale !ithin % sec, the presser foot is in firm contact !ith the specimen, unless the ma*imum reading indicator type durometer is used. +f a reading after a 4ept of + 5 . 2ngineering 6. +. 2., Mysore

=%

A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

time interval is specified, hold the presser foot in contact !ith the specimen !ithout change in position of pressure and read the scale after the period specified. Make three measurements at different positions on the specimen and determine the median value or arithmetic mean. .rocedure is repeated for different trials.

3.2. A=EIN= $) WEATHERIN=:


"he effect, on materials, of e*posure to an environment for a period of time is kno!n as aging. "he follo!ing agencies may cause a change in the properties of polymer> %/ Chemical environments, !hich may include atmospheric o*ygen, acidic fumes and !ater. </ $eat. :/ 9ltra violent light. '/ $igh3energy radiation. +n a commercial plastics material, there are also normally a number of other ingredients present and there may also be affected by the above agencies. Furthermore they may interact !ith each other and !ith the polymer so that the effects of the above agencies be more, or may be less, drastic. Since different polymers and additives respond in different !ays to the influence of chemicals and radial energy, !eathering behaviour can be very specific. "he bi3directional .olyester 1lass composite !ere e*posed to aggressive environment such as o*alic acid ,;B/, 6a0$ ,;B/, lubricating oil ,<t servo/, and salt !ater. "he specimen !as sub#ected to these aggressive environments for ageing for a period of fifteen days and thirty days at room temperature. +n the present !ork, "ensile strength, Fle*ural strength and +mpact strength !ere investigated for the aged samples and comparisons are made bet!een mechanical properties of unaged and aged samples. Formula to find out the !eight loss>3 M W(ig4# l$ @here, @% K +nitial !eight of the specimen @< K Final !eight of the specimen 4ept of + 5 . 2ngineering 6. +. 2., Mysore B N8W2 : W19@ W1OJ 1>> ]]]]]. ,=.&/

=<

A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

3.2/ SCANNIN= CHARACTERIPATION


"he scanning electron microscope ,S2M/ is a type of electron microscope capable of producing high3resolution images of a sample surface. 4ue to the manner in !hich the image is created, S2M images have a characteristic three3dimensional appearance and are useful for #udging the surface structure of the sample. +n a typical S2M, electrons are thermionically emitted from a tungsten or lanthanum he*aboride ,DaB=/ cathode and are accelerated to!ards an anode. "he most common imaging mode monitors lo! energy ,`;( eH/ secondary electrons. 4ue to their lo! energy, these electrons originate !ithin a fe! nanometers from the surface. A scintillator3photomultiplier device detects the electrons and the resulting signal is rendered into a t!o3dimensional intensity distribution that can be vie!ed and saved as a digital image. "his process relies on a raster3scanned primary beam. "he brightness of the signal depends on the number of secondary electrons reaching the detector. +f the beam enters the sample perpendicular to the surface, then the activated region is uniform about the a*is of the beam and a certain number of electrons PescapeP from !ithin the sample. As the angle of incidence increases, the PescapeP distance of one side of the beam !ill decrease, and more secondary electrons !ill be emitted. "hus steep surfaces and edges tend to be brighter than flat surfaces, !hich results in images !ith a !ell3defined, three3 dimensional appearance. 9sing this techni8ue, resolutions less than % nm is possible. Backscattered electrons consist of high3energy electrons originating in the electron beam that are reflected or back scattered out of the specimen interaction volume. Backscattered electrons may be used to detect contrast bet!een areas !ith different chemical compositions, especially !hen the average atomic number of the various regions is different, since the brightness of the BS2 image tends to increase !ith the atomic number. Backscattered electrons can also be used to form electron backscatter diffraction ,2BS4/ image. "his image can be used to determine the crystallographic structure of the specimen. "he resolution of S2M can fall some!here bet!een less than % nm and <( nm.

4ept of + 5 . 2ngineering

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A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

3.23 TRIBOLO=Y
"ribology, !hich focuses on friction, !ear and lubrication of interesting surfaces in relative motion. @ear is the ma#or cause of material !astage and loss of mechanical performance and any reduction in !ear can result in considerable savings. Friction is the principal cause of !ear and energy dissipation. "ribology is a field of science, !hich applies in operation analysis to problems of great economic significance such as reliability, maintenance and !ear of technical e8uipment ranging from household appliances to spacecraft. Film formation bet!een solid ob#ects is intrinsic to sliding and other forms of relative motion and the study and application of these films for human benefits is the reason for tribology. 0b#ective of tribology is to minimi e t!o main disadvantages of solid3to3solid contact> friction and !ear, but this is not al!ays the case. +n some situations minimi ing friction and ma*imi ing !ear or minimi ing !ear and ma*imi ing friction or ma*imi ing both friction and !ear is desirable. For e*ample reduction of !ear but not friction is desirable in breaks and lubricated clutches, reduction of friction but not !ear is desirable in pencils, increase in both friction and !ear is desirable in erasers.

3.27 WEAR
.lastic deformation at the interface often leads to !ear? i.e. deformation induced !ear. @ear can also be caused by chemical process. "he conse8uence of film failure is severe !ear. @ear in these circumstances is the result of adhesion bet!een contacting bodies and is termed adhesive !ear. "hen the intervening films are partially effective then milder forms of !ear occur and these are often initiated by fatigue process due to repetitive stress under either sliding or rolling. "hese milder forms of !ear can therefore be termed fatigue !ear. 0n the other hand if the film material consists of hard particles or merely flo!s against one body !ithout providing support against another body then a form of !ear, !hich sometimes can be very rapid, kno!n as abrasive !ear occurs. "!o other associated forms of !ear are erosive !ear ,due to impacting particles/ and cavitation !earA !hich is caused by fast flo!ing li8uids. +n some particle situations, the film material is formed by chemical attack of either contacting body and !hile this may provide some lubrication, significant !ear is virtually inevitable. "his form of !ear is kno!n as corrosive !ear and !hen atmospheric o*ygen is the corroding agent, then o*idative !ear is said to occur. @hen the amplitude of movement bet!een contacting

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A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

bodies is restricted to, for e*ample, a fe! micrometers, the film material is trapped !ithin the contact and may eventually become destructive. 9nder these conditions fretting !ear may result. "here are also many other forms or mechanisms of !ear. Almost any interaction bet!een solid bodies !ill cause !ear. "ypical e*amples are impact !ear caused by impact bet!een t!o bodies, melting !ear occurring !hen the contact loads and speeds are sufficiently high to allo! for the surface layers of the solids to melt and diffusive !ear occurring at high interface temperatures. "his dependence of !ear on various operating conditions can be summari ed.

3.2;

FRICTION
Friction is the force that opposes the relative motion or tendency to!ard such

motion of t!o surfaces in contact.

3.2;.1 C$?(!!i"i(%# $! !)i"#i$%


"he coefficient of friction is a dimensionless 8uantity used to calculate the force of friction ,static or kinetic/. a "he coefficient of static friction is defined as the ratio of the ma*imum static friction force bet!een the surfaces in contact to the normal force. "he coefficient of kinetic friction is defined as the ratio of the kinetic friction force bet!een the surfaces in contact to the normal force. Both static and kinetic coefficients of friction depend on the pair of surfaces in contact and their values are usually determined e*perimentally. For a given pair of surfaces, the coefficient of static friction is larger than that of kinetic friction. "he friction force is directed in the opposite direction of the -esultant Force acting on a body. +n the case of kinetic friction, the direction of the friction force may or may not match the direction of motion. A block sliding atop a table !ith rectilinear motion is sub#ect to friction directed along the line of motion? an automobile making a turn is sub#ect to friction acting perpendicular to the line of motion ,in !hich case it is said to be UnormalU to it/. C$(!!i"i(%# $! !)i"#i$% 8Q9 B!)i"#i$%al !$)"(@A''li(- %$)&al !$)"( ]].. ,=.%(/

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A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

3.2< FRICTION AND WEAR TESTS:


"he principle of conducting !ear and friction tests is that it helps to record friction and !ear in sliding contact in dry, lubricated, controlled environment and partial vacuum, fundamental !ear studies and !ear mapping. Friction and !ear testing of metals , ceramics, soft and hard coatings, plastics, polymers and composites, lubricants, cutting fluids, heat processed samples. Some of the features of these tests are> 4isplays and controls friction, !ear and pin temperature,0ptional/ 4ry, lubricated, controlled environment and vacuum tests. @ide sliding speed range.

3.3> BASIC MECHANISM OF FRICTION IN POLYMERS:


Hiscoelastic Kplastic deformation at the sliding interface. .lo!ing. Asperity deformation. @ear particle deformation.

3.31 WEARS IN POLYMERS:


.lastic deformation at the interface often leads to !ear, i.e, and deformation induced !ear. @ear can also be caused by chemical process.

3.32 THE MAIN REASONS FOR CHOOSIN= A POLYMER OR A POLYMER COMPOSITE AS THE MATERIAL FOR BEARIN= APPLICATION:
Do! friction. 6o need to lubricate. Bio3compatible. 2ase of manufacturing. Do! noise. Do! cost. 4ept of + 5 . 2ngineering 6. +. 2., Mysore

==

A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

3.33 THREE BODY ABRASIVE WEAR TEST: 3.33.1 T( # '("i&(% :


"he tribological behaviour of 1lass fiber3.olyester composites !ith and !ith out filler !ere studied using a 4ry Sand Abrasive "ester ,AS"M 1=;/. "he three body !ear test !as conducted on Silicon carbide and graphite filled glass reinforced polyester composites.

3.3. THREE BODY ABRASIVE WEAR TEST SET UP:


L$a- a''li(- 8N9 X <<, :< Sli-i%g 6(l$"i#i( 8&@ 9 X <.%; A,)a-i%g -i #a%"( 8&9 X <E(, ;'(, A%(, %(A( W4((l -ia&(#() 8&&9 X <((

Fig 3.12 D)1 A,)a i$% #( # )ig

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A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

3.3..1

W(a) l$

"al"+la#i$% :

+nitial !eight3 final !eightX !ear loss ,g/

Fig 3.13 S'("i&(% !$) T4)(( ,$-1 a,)a i6( 5(a) #( #

3.3/ PROCEDURE:
"hree3body abrasive !ear test !as conducted according to AS"M G-65 Specimens !ere cut according to AS"M 13=; standards ,Fig =.%:/ +nitial @eight of specimen !ere measured and held against the rotating !heel. Specimen is held in the slot provided in the e8uipment. Helocity and time of the e8uipment is then set. Abrasives !ere introduced bet!een the test specimen and rotating abrasive !heel composed of cholorobutyl rubber tyre ,hardness? 4urometer3A ;A3=</. At the end of the test, the specimen is removed from the slot and thoroughly cleaned to remove abrasives present on the specimen. After cleaning the specimen the final !eight of the specimen is measured. 4ifference in !eight bet!een initial !eight and final !eight is the !ear loss,g/. "ests are repeated for different abrading distances. "he entire above procedure is repeated by varying load at different abrading distances.

4ept of + 5 . 2ngineering

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A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

Chapter 7

E*PERIMENTAL WORR
7.1 MECHANICAL TESTS 7.1.1 T(% il( T( # R( +l# 7.1.1.1 Sili"$% Ca),i-( !ill(- C$&'$ i#( Ta,l( 7.1
Sa&'l( Sili"$% Ca),i-( M C$&'$ i#i$% Ul#i&a#( T(% il( S#)(%g#4 i% M'a Y$+%gS M$-+l+ 8M'a9 S#)( a# B)(aG8M'a9 M El$%ga#i$%

N$% ? Ag(-

( : = & ( : = & (

%A(.<' %&%.<; %A<.:; %EA.:& %EE.E& %A'.'% %EA.=% %E;.;% %E%.': %EE.=E %E:.&% %E(.%<

1/ Da1 Ag(i%g

3> Da1 Ag(i%g

: = &

%<=&%.< %:=(E %<E%; %<=E<.A %<':E.: %:%<(.: ; %<';'.& % %<'=A.< % %<(&:.= %<='(.A % %<%<E.% E %<(A;.:

:E.%' :A.<; :=.'E :;.=A :;.A :=.AA :;.E< :;.(& :'.;E :;.;: :'.EA :'.(<

<.A% <.&: <.E= <.=& <.'& <.E= <.:' <.:: <.:' <.;% <.<% <.<'

'ensile $trength ()pa*

1#5 1# 1"5 1" 1!5 1! 165 16 155 3 6 # $ic % &omposition +A 15 A 3 A

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A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

Fig 7.1 Ul#i&a#( T(% il( #)(%g#4 6() + ili"$% "a),i-( "$%#(%# !$) E?=la @PE@Si" C$&'$ i#(
14 ,o-ng.s )od-l-s()pa* 135 13 125 12 115 11 3 6 # $ic % &omposition +A 15 A 3 A

Fig 7.2 Y$+%gH M$-+l+ 6() +

ili"$% "a),i-( "$%#(%# !$) E?=la @PE@Si" C$&'$ i#(

3# $tress at brea/ ()pa* 3" 3! 36 35 34 33 32 31 +A 15 A 3 A

$ic % &omposition

Fig 7.3 S#)(

a# ,)(aG 6() +

ili"$% "a),i-( "$%#(%# !$) E?=la @PE@Si" C$&'$ i#(

4ept of + 5 . 2ngineering

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A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

3.5 $tress at brea/ ()pa* 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 .5 3 6 # +A 15 A 3 A

$ic % &omposition

Fig 7.. MEl$%ga#i$% a# ,)(aG 6() + ili"$% "a),i-( "$%#(%# !$) E?=la @PE@Si" C$&'$ i#(

Fig 7./ S#)(

6() +

#)ai% "+)6( $! +%!ill(- =la

)(i%!$)"(- '$l1( #() C$&'$ i#(

4ept of + 5 . 2ngineering

E%

6. +. 2., Mysore

A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

7.3 S#)(

6() +

#)ai% "+)6( $! 3MSili"$% "a),i-( !ill(- =la C$&'$ i#(

)(i%!$)"(- '$l1( #()

7.1.1.2 =)a'4i#( !ill(- C$&'$ i#( Ta,l( 7.2


Sa&'l( =)a'4i#( M C$&'$ i#i$% Ul#i&a#( T(% il( S#)(%g#4 i% M'a Y$+%gS M$-+l+ 8M'a9 S#)( a# B)(aG8M'a9 M El$%ga#i$% a# ,)(aG

N$% ? Ag(-

1/ Da1 Ag(i%g

3> Da1 Ag(i%g

( : = & ( : = & ( : = &

%A(.<' <<(.== %&'.:A %E;.(% %EE.E& <%(.E; %A=.A' %E%.;< %E%.': %&A.=' %A(.;' %==.%

%<=&%.< %%(<: &:<(.<' A:&%.&E %<':E.: %('A=.; A&;A.E% A<<'.%' %<(&:.= &AA:.& A==A.E E&E;.:=

:E.%' ''.%' :A.AA :;.(% :;.A '<.%; :'.E :'.:% :'.;E :&.E' ::.;: ::.<:

<.A%
3.84 3.678 3.636

<.'&
3.75 3.597 3.54

<.:'
3.62 3.396 3.24

4ept of + 5 . 2ngineering

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A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

25 'ensile strength ()pa* 2 15 1 5 +A 15 A 3 A

Graphite % &omposition

Fig 7.7 Ul#i&a#( T(% il( #)(%g#4 6() + g)a'4i#( "$%#(%# !$) E?=la @PE@=)a'4i#( C$&'$ i#(

14 ,o-ng.s )od-l-s ()pa* 12 1 " 6 4 2 3 6 # +A 15 A 3 A

Graphite % &omposition

Fig 7.; Y$+%gH M$-+l+ 6() + g)a'4i#( "$%#(%# !$) E?=la @PE@=)a'4i#( C$&'$ i#(

4ept of + 5 . 2ngineering

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A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

5 45 4 35 3 25 2 15 1 5 3 6 #

$tress at brea/ ()pa*

+A 15 A 3 A

Graphite % &omposition

Fig 7.< S#)(

a# ,)(aG 6() + g)a'4i#( "$%#(%# !$) E?=la @PE@=)a'4i#( C$&'$ i#(

4.5 $tress at brea/ ()pa* 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 .5 3 6 # +A 15 A 3 A

Graphite % &omposition

Fig 7.1> M El$%ga#i$% a# ,)(aG 6() + g)a'4i#( "$%#(%# !$) E?=la @PE@=)a'4i#( C$&'$ i#(

4ept of + 5 . 2ngineering

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6. +. 2., Mysore

A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

7.11 S#)(

6() +

#)ai% "+)6( $! 3M=)a'4i#( !ill(- =la C$&'$ i#(

)(i%!$)"(- '$l1( #()

7.1.2 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS:


"able E.% depicts the tensile test results for Silicon CarbideL .olyester composites for varying Silicon Carbide content. Five specimens !ere tested and the average values for "ensile strength ,Mpa/, \oung)s modulus ,Mpa/, Stress at break and Belongation break are reported. "he variations of each of these parameters !ith B composition of Silicon Carbide are sho!n in figures E.%3 E.'. From the table and the graphs, it is evident that :B Silicon Carbide filled composites yields best results for "ensile strength and modulus and !ith further increase in filler content, these properties deteriorates. For :B Silicon Carbide filled composites, the percentage increase in strength and moduli over unfilled composites are =.%;B 5 =.EB respectively. "his sho!s that Silicon Carbide filler is compatible !ith polyester and 231lass fabric, as there can be an increase in strength, if the particles carry a part of the load, increasing the overall load carrying capacity. "he "ensile test results for graphite filled composites are sho!n in the table E.< and the corresponding graphs are sho!n in figures E.E3 E.%(. $ere again, :B graphite filled composites yields optimum values, but the B increase in tensile strength and

4ept of + 5 . 2ngineering

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A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

modulus over (B !hich is <<.'B 5 %;.%:B respectively are greater than those observed !ith Silicon Carbide filled composites. $ence graphite filled composites enhances tensile properties to a greater e*tent compared to Silicon Carbide filled composites. Sea !ater ageing for %;days has resulted in reduction of tensile strength !ith both graphite and Silicon Carbide filled composites. $ere again graphite filled composites sho! better tensile properties compared to Silicon Carbide filled composites !ith :(days ageing and a greater reduction can be observed.

7.1.3 Fl(0+)al T( # R( +l# 7.1.3.1 Sili"$% Ca),i-( !ill(- C$&'$ i#( Ta,l( 7.3

Sa&'l(

Sili"$% Ca),i-( M C$&'$ i#i$%

Fl(0+)al S#)(%g#4 i% M'a

Y$+%gS M$-+l+ 8M'a9

(
N$% ? Ag(-

%&A.=; <%;.:E <((.%( %AE.;% %A=.=' <(<.< %AE.EA %E=.(' %=&.:' %E&.; %==.E %;=.<A

%%<(:.' %<<<&.: %%(&A.< &='<.'% &A'=.: %(E;A.= &E=:.;: A'A<.A% &%'%.A &%<;.=: A:E:.A% E%&;.<E

: = & (

1/ Da1 Ag(i%g

: = & (

3> Da1 Ag(i%g

: = &

4ept of + 5 . 2ngineering

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6. +. 2., Mysore

A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

25 Flex-ral $trength ()pa* 2 15 1 5 +A 15 A 3 A

$ic % &omposition

Fig 7.12 Fl(0+)al S#)(%g#4 6() + ili"$% "a),i-( "$%#(%# !$) E?=la @PE@Si" C$&'$ i#(

14

,o-ng.s )od-l-s()pa*

12 1 " 6 4 2 +A 15 A 3 A

$ic %&omposition

Fig 7.13 Y$+%gH M$-+l+ 6() + ili"$% "a),i-( "$%#(%# !$) E?=la @PE@Si" C$&'$ i#(

4ept of + 5 . 2ngineering

EE

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A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

7.1. B(%-i%g S#)(

6() + B(%-i%g #)ai% "+)6( $! 3MSili"$% "a),i-( !ill(- =la )(i%!$)"(- '$l1( #() C$&'$ i#(

7.1.3.2 =)a'4i#( !ill(- C$&'$ i#( Ta,l( 7..


=)a'4i#( M C$&'$ i#i$% Fl(0+)al S#)(%g#4 i% M'a Y$+%gS M$-+l+ 8M'a9

Sa&'l(

(
N$% ? Ag(-

%&A.=; <<&.(E <%;.A< <(=.%A %A=.=' <<(.(' <(E.:% %&A.(; %=&.:' 211.23 181.37 174.96

%%<(:.' %:&E'.<= %:=E:.%' %:;:;.% &A'=.: %(A<(.<< %(=:%.<E %('A(.%A &%'%.A 9213.72 8966.15 8471.63

: = & ( : = & 0 3 6 9

1/ Da1 Ag(i%g

3> Da1 Ag(i%g

4ept of + 5 . 2ngineering

EA

6. +. 2., Mysore

A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

25
Flex-ral strength ()pa*

2 15 1 5
+A 15 A 3 A

Graphite %&omposition

Fig 7.1/ T(% il( #)(%g#4 6() + g)a'4i#( "$%#(%# !$) E?=la @PE@=)a'4i#( C$&'$ i#(

16 ,o-ng.s )od-l-s ()pa* 14 12 1 " 6 4 2 +A 15 A 3 A

Graphite %&omposition

Fig 7.13 Y$+%gH M$-+l+ 6() + g)a'4i#( "$%#(%# !$) E?=la @PE@=)a'4i#( C$&'$ i#(

4ept of + 5 . 2ngineering

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A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

7.17 B(%-i%g S#)(

6() + B(%-i%g #)ai% "+)6( $! 3M=)a'4i#( !ill(- =la )(i%!$)"(- '$l1( #() C$&'$ i#(

7.1.. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS:


"able E.' sho!s the fle*ural test results for Silicon Carbide filled composites. "he average values of Fle*ural strength and \oung)s Modulus are reported and their variations are sho!n in figures E.%<3 E.%:. :B Silicon Carbide filled composites gives optimum values for fle*ural strength, modulus and the B increase over unfilled composites are E.E=B 5 A.'B respectively. "he fle*ural test results for graphite filled composites sho! a similar trend, but here the B increase of :B graphite composition over ( B composition are A.:B and <'.:B, !hich is once again greater than the B improvement observed !ith Silicon Carbide filled composites. "he effect of sea !ater ageing on fle*ural properties follo!s the same trend observed !ith the tensile properties for both Silicon Carbide and graphite composites.

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A(

6. +. 2., Mysore

A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

7.1./ I&'a"# T( # R( +l# 7.1./.1 Sili"$% Ca),i-( !ill(- C$&'$ i#( Ta,l( 7./
Sa&'l( Sili"$% Ca),i-(M C$&'$ i#i$% I&'a"# S#)(%g#4 i% 8RJ@& 9
<

N$% ? Ag(-

1/ Da1 Ag(i%g

3> Da1 Ag(i%g

( : = & ( : = & ( : = &

%<E.:A %%:.; A&.%& E&.<= %(A.;= E&.' E;.': ='.E &%.': E%.'< =&.:; =%.:

14 0mpact $trength (123m 2* 12 1 " 6 4 2 3 6 # +A 15 A 3 A

$ic % &omposition

Fig 7.1; I&'a"# S#)(%g#4 6() +

ili"$% "a),i-( "$%#(%# !$) E?=la @PE@Si" C$&'$ i#(

7.1./.2 =)a'4i#( !ill(- C$&'$ i#(


4ept of + 5 . 2ngineering 6. +. 2., Mysore

A%

A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

Ta,l( 7.3
Sa&'l( =)a'4i#( M C$&'$ i#i$% I&'a"# S#)(%g#4 i% 8RJ@& 9
<

N$% ? Ag(-

1/ Da1 Ag(i%g

3> Da1 Ag(i%g

( : = & ( : = & ( : = &

%<E.:A A=.'= A%.E; EE.A% %(A.;= A'.:' EE.%= E<.;= &%.': E&.&A E;.%: =A.:'

14 0mpact $trength (123m 2* 12 1 " 6 4 2 3 6 # +A 15 A 3 A

Graphite % &omposition

Fig 7.1< I&'a"# #)(%g#4 6() + g)a'4i#( "$%#(%# !$) E?=la @PE@=)a'4i#( C$&'$ i#(

7.1.3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS:

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A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

"hese tests determine the resistance of plastics to breakage by fle*ural shock as indicated by the impact energy e*tracted from pendulum type hammers mounted in machines, in breaking standard specimens !ith one pendulum s!ing. "he impact test results of Silicon CarbideL231lassL.olyester composites and graphite L231lassL.olyester are sho!n in tables E.; 5 E.= respectively and their variation !ith B composites are sho!n in graphs that follo! the table. @ith the addition of both these fillers, marginal reduction in impact strength ,7TLm</ is observed, ho!ever greater deterioration is observed !ith Silicon Carbide composites.

7.1.7 S4$)( D Ha)-%( T( # R( +l# 7.1.7.1 Sili"$% Ca),i-( !ill(- C$&'$ i#( Ta,l( 7.7
S4$)( D Ha)-%( T( # R( +l#

Si" M C$&'$ i#i$% Sa&'l( > 1 2 3 A: A' A: 3 &( A& A& 3 A; A' A; < A: A: A'

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A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

#2 $hore 4 5ardness # "" "6 "4 "2 " !" 3 6 # $ic % &omposition 1 2 3

Fig 7.2> S4$)( D Ha)-%(

6() + ili"$% "a),i-( "$%#(%# !$) E?=la @PE@Si" C$&'$ i#(

7.1.7.2 =)a'4i#( !ill(- C$&'$ i#( Ta,l( 7.;


S4$)( D Ha)-%( T( # R( +l#

=)a'4i#( M C$&'$ i#i$% Sa&'l( > 1 2 3 A: A' A: 3 A; A; A' 3 A: A' A: < A< A: A<

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A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

"5.5 "5 "4.5 "4 "3.5 "3 "2.5 "2 "1.5 "1 " .5 3 6 # Graphite % &omposition

$hore 4 5ardness

1 2 3

Fig 7.21 S4$)( D Ha)-%(

6() + g)a'4i#( "$%#(%# !$) E?=la @PE@=)a'4i#( C$&'$ i#(

7.1.; RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS:


"he measured hardness test results Silicon carbide filled composites and graphite filled composites are sho!n in the table E.E and table E.A respectively. "he addition of Silicon Carbide brings about a marginal increase in Shore 4 hardness values, !here as the reverse is for 1raphite composites. "he specimen having highest shore 4 hardness number e*hibits better hardness. "his test method !as based on the penetration of a specified indenter forced into the material under specified conditions. After the shore 4 $ardness test, indentations on the specimens !ere clearly visible.

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A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

7.1.< FRACTO=RAPHIC ANALYSIS:

Fig 7.22: SEM 'i"#+)( $! #(% il( !)a"#+)(- +)!a"( $! U%!ill(- =la a&'l( a# />* Mag%i!i"a#i$%

P$l1( #()

Fig 7.23: SEM 'i"#+)( $! #(% il( !)a"#+)(- +)!a"( $! Si" !ill(- =la P$l1( #() a&'l( a# 2>>>* Mag%i!i"a#i$%

R(i%!$)"(-

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A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

Fig 7.2.: SEM 'i"#+)( $! #(% il( !)a"#+)(- +)!a"( $! Si" !ill(- =la P$l1( #() a&'l( a# 2>>* Mag%i!i"a#i$%

R(i%!$)"(-

Fig 7.2/: SEM 'i"#+)( $! #(% il( !)a"#+)(- +)!a"( $! =)a'4i#( !ill(- =la R(i%!$)"(- P$l1( #() a&'l( a# 2>>* Mag%i!i"a#i$%

"he S2M micrographs in figures E.<<3E.<; sho! the fractured surface of unfilled 1lass .olyester, Sic filled 1lass .olyester and 1raphite filled 1lass .olyester composite systems. "he photomicrographs revealed brittle type fracture for the test samples along !ith instant multiple fractures. "he fracture is due to delamination bet!een the layers of

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A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

the composite samples and fiber3pullout. From the table E.% it is clear from the results that the percentage elongation decreased for Sic filled thermoset composites. Although no chemical reaction is possible, some physical interaction has to be considered. +t is interesting to note that composite characteri ed by higher tensile strength sho! brittle fractures. For unfilled 1lass .olyester sample, the fracture is brittle and can be e*plained by the plastic deformation of the matri* after fiber3matri* debonding ."he S2M micrograph sho!n in fig E.<: support this failure mechanism because the fibers on fractured surfaces are clean, !hich sho!s brittle fracture. 0ther important failure mechanisms of composites such as fiber fracture, cohesive resin fracture and fiber matri* debonding are also observed in S2M micrograph ,fig E.<:/. 1enerally matri* fracture !as found to initiate at the surface of the fibers as indicated by the direction of river lines,fig E.<:/ and propagates into the resin on either side, !here cracks e*tend from the surfaces of ad#acent fibers simultaneously. S2M characteri ation of the 1raphite filled composite fracture surface sho!s ,fig E.<;/ that the fibers are more or less covered !ith the matri* and the graphite particles sho! a 8ualitative indication of a greater interfacial strength. 4isorientation of transverse fibers, fiber bridging, fibers pull out, inclined fracture of longitudinal fibers and matri* cracking is also seen. "he improvement reported in terms of mechanical properties of the composites evaluated is mainly due to the enhancement of adhesion or interfacial interactions among the fibers, matri* and fillers.

4ept of + 5 . 2ngineering

AA

6. +. 2., Mysore

A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

7.2 TRIBOLO=ICAL TESTS 7.2.1 DRY ABRASION WEAR 83?B$-1 5(a)9 T( # R( +l# 7.2.1.1 Sili"$% Ca),i-( !ill(- C$&'$ i#( Ta,l( 7.<
L$a8N9 A,)a-i%g Di #a%"(8&9 <E( 23 ;'( A%( %(A(

3M Si" (.:%%A (.'<%: (.;%<E (.;=E=

3M Si" (.: (.:'; (.'=%E (.;:;<

<M Si" (.<:& (.:& (.'=:E (.'=':

.6 .5 6ear 7oss (g* .4 .3 .2 .1 3% 6% #%

2!

54

"1

1 "

Abrading 4istance (m*

Fig 7.23 Va)ia#i$% $! 5(a) l$

5i#4 a,)a-i%g -i #a%"( !$) Sili"$% "a),i-( !ill("$&'$ i#( a# 23N

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A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

"able E.%(
L$a- 8N9 A,)a-i%g Di #a%"(8&9 <E( ;'( 33 A%( %(A( (.=&E; (.A<; (.=<%= (.=A;' (.;<=E (.;=&A 3M Si" (.:A(E (.;;&< 3M Si" (.:;<A (.;<<E <M Si" (.:'; (.;%'<

.# ." .! 6ear 7oss (g* .6 .5 .4 .3 .2 .1 2! 54 "1 1 " 3% 6% #%

Abrading 4istance (m*

Fig 7.27 Va)ia#i$% $! 5(a) l$

5i#4 a,)a-i%g -i #a%"( !$) Sili"$% "a),i-( !ill("$&'$ i#( a# 33N

7.2.1.2 =)a'4i#( !ill(- C$&'$ i#(


4ept of + 5 . 2ngineering &( 6. +. 2., Mysore

A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

Ta,l( 7.11

L$a- 8N9

A,)a-i%g Di #a%"(8&9 <E( ;'(

3M =)a'4i#( (.<%;' (.<&;= (.'%(% (.'A&%

3M =)a'4i#( (.<A;A (.':(= (.'AEA (.==<A

<M =)a'4i#( (.: (.'&<E (.;((: (.E%A&

23 A%( %(A(

." .! 6ear 7oss (g* .6 .5 .4 .3 .2 .1 2! 54 "1 1 " 3% 6% #%

Abrading 4istance (m*

Fig 7.2; Va)ia#i$% $! 5(a) l$ 5i#4 a,)a-i%g -i #a%"( !$) =)a'4i#( !ill("$&'$ i#( a# 23N

"able E.%<
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&%

A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

L$a- 8N9

A,)a-i%g Di #a%"(8&9 <E( ;'(

3M =)a'4i#( (.:<=A (.'=A< (.;E(< (.=:A%

3M =)a'4i#( (.':E: (.=(<; (.EE<< (.A;;A

<M =)a'4i#( (.;%A; (.;;=A (.E&&E (.&:'=

33 A%( %(A(

6ear 7oss (g*

1 .# ." .! .6 .5 .4 .3 .2 .1 2! 54 "1 1 "

3% 6% #%

Abrading 4istance (m*

Fig 7.2< Va)ia#i$% $! 5(a) l$ 5i#4 a,)a-i%g -i #a%"( !$) =)a'4i#( !ill("$&'$ i#( a# 33N

7.2.2 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS:


"able E.& depicts the !ear loss ,g/ of Silicon carbide filled composites !ith abrading distances for <: 6 load using buart sand ,si e <((3<;( m/ as abrasive. 1lass fibre3.olyester composites !ith :B Sic filler !hen tested at <: 6 sho! 8uite large !ear loss compared to composites !ith =B and &B sic filler. @ear loss !as recorded for different abrading distances of <E(m, ;'(m, A%(m and %(A(m.

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6. +. 2., Mysore

A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

Similarly tests !ere carried out for specimens at load of :: 6 and !ear loss recorded at different abrading distances are sho!n in the table E.%(. By increasing the load from <:6 to ::6, the !eight loss of Silicon Carbide ,&B/ filled F-. is found to be increased from (.'=:Egm to (.;=&Agm. +t is evident from the figures E.<= 5 E.<E that irrespective of the type of sample used there is almost a linear trend of !eight loss and it can also be seen that the !ear resistance of the Silicon Carbide Filled F-. increases !ith increase in filler material. @ear loss,g/ !ith respect to abrading distance for Silicon carbide filled composites !ere tested at :: 6 load using buart sand and the !ear loss !ith respect to abrading distance can be seen in figure. "ables E.%% 5 E.%< depicts the !ear loss,g/ of 1raphite filled composites !ith abrading distances for <: 6 load and ::6 load respectively. buart sand !ith particle si e varying from <((3<;( m !as used as abrasive. +t can be seen from the figures E.<A 5 E.<& that higher compositions of graphite filled composites sho! a greater !ear loss compare to lo!er compositions. +t is evident from the test that Silicon carbide filled polyester glass fabric composites enhances better tribological properties compared to 1raphite filled polyester glass fabric composites. From the e*perimental observation, it can be concluded that graphite as a filler material is advantageous !hen it comes to improving "ensile, Fle*ural properties, but Silicon Carbide as filler is best suited enhancing tribological properties.

7.2.3 S+)!a"( M$)'4$l$g1 7.2.3.1 Sili"$% Ca),i-( !ill(- C$&'$ i#(


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A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

Fig 7.3> Vi i$% M(a +)i%g Ma"4i%( 'i"#+)( 4$5i%g 5$)% +)!a"( $! 3M Sili"$% "a),i-( !ill(- "$&'$ i#( a# 33N

Fig 7.31 Vi i$% M(a +)i%g Ma"4i%( 'i"#+)( 4$5i%g 5$)% +)!a"( $! <M Sili"$% "a),i-( !ill(- "$&'$ i#( a# 33N "he !orn surfaces of :B Sic and &B Sic filled composites abraded at a load of :: 6 !ere displayed using Hision Measuring Machine. Figures E.:( 5 E.:% sho!s the !orn surface of the :B Sic and &B Sic filled composites abraded at a load of :: 6. +t can be seen from figures that the !orn surface sho! formation of tracks by ploughing and also the surface e*hibits scratches o!ing to ploughing. .hotomicrographs of !ith &B Sic filled composites sho! lesser surface damage and the tracks are found to be less !hen compared to :B Sic filled composites. +t can be also seen that matri* !ear and distortion of &B Sic filled composites !ere found to be less !hen compared to composites !ith :B 4ept of + 5 . 2ngineering 6. +. 2., Mysore

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A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

Sic. "his reveals that increase in silicon carbide filler content increases the !ear resistance properties of the composites.

7.2.3.2 =)a'4i#( !ill(- C$&'$ i#(

Fig 7.32 Vi i$% M(a +)i%g Ma"4i%( 'i"#+)( 4$5i%g 5$)% +)!a"( $! 3M =)a'4i#( !ill(- "$&'$ i#( a# 33N

Fig 7.33 Vi i$% M(a +)i%g Ma"4i%( 'i"#+)( 4$5i%g 5$)% +)!a"( $! <M =)a'4i#( !ill(- "$&'$ i#( a# 33N Figure E.:< 5 E.:: depicts the !orn surface of the :B graphite and &B graphite filled composites abraded at a load of :: 6 displayed under Hision Measuring Machine. +t can seen from the photo micrographs that :B graphite filled composites sho! lesser formation of tracks and ploughing !hen compared to &B graphite filled composites. "his

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A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

reveals that increase in graphite filler content decreases the !ear resistance properties of the composites.

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A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF GRAPHITE & SILICON CARBIDE FILLER ON GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

CONCLUSION
From the literature survey, it !as observed that addition of particulate fillers, in general !ould have a beneficial effect on the mechanical properties and tribological properties or both, of fiber reinforced composites. "his observation has been proved right by the results obtained from the tests obtained on both graphite and silicon carbide filled composites. 1raphite has improved the tensile and fle*ural properties significantly !ith :B composition yielding optimum properties for both. +t has also marginally improved !ear resistance, but has brought about a slight reduction in impact strength and hardness. "he !ear resistance !as ma*imum for :B composition. Silicon carbide also improved tensile and fle*ural properties, !hen its addition !as made at :B by !eight. But the improvement !as not as great as observed !ith graphite composites. But it had a greater influence in improving !ear properties as compared to graphite. 2ven in this case, impact strength decreased !ith increasing filler content, but the Shore 4 hardness has found to have increased. Finally, it can be concluded that, graphite can be used in applications !here mechanical properties are critical and silicon carbide !here !ear resistance is of importance.

4ept of + 5 . 2ngineering

&E

6. +. 2., Mysore