Sie sind auf Seite 1von 2

Ground Grid Systems

Page 1 of 2

Ground Grid Systems


Since the early days of the electric power industry, the safety of personnel in and around electric power installations has been a primary concern. With ever increasing fault current levels in todays interconnected power systems, there is renewed emphasis on safety. The safety of personnel is compromised by the rise in the ground potential of grounded structures during unbalanced electric power faults. At such times, humans touching grounded structures can be subjected to high voltages. However, the magnitude and duration of the electric current conducted through the human body should not be sufficient to cause ventricular fibrillation Years of research on the effects of electric current on the human body have lead to the development of standards of permissible values to avoid electrocution. The Ground Grid Systems module utilizes the following four methods of computation: FEM - Finite Element Method IEEE 80-1986 IEEE 80-2000 IEEE 665-1995

The Ground Grid Systems module calculates the following: The Maximum Allowable Current for specified conductors. Warnings are issued if the specified conductor is rated lower than the fault current level. The Step and Touch potentials for any rectangular/triangular/L-shaped/T-shaped configuration of a ground grid, with or without ground rods (IEEE Std 80 and IEEE Std 665). The tolerable Step and Mesh potentials and compares them with actual, calculated Step and Mesh potentials (IEEE Std 80 and IEEE Std 665). Graphic profiles for the absolute Step and Touch voltages, as well as the tables of the voltages at various locations (Finite Element Method). The optimum number of parallel ground conductors and rods for a rectangular/triangular/Lshaped/T-shaped ground grid. The cost of conductors/rods and the safety of personnel in the vicinity of the substation/generating station during a ground fault are both considered. Design optimizations are performed using a relative cost effectiveness method (based on the IEEE Std 80 and IEEE Std 665). The Ground Resistance and Ground Potential rise (GPR).

Some of the main features of the Ground Grid Systems Analysis Study are summarized below: Calculate the tolerable Step and Touch potentials Compare potentials against the actual, calculated Step and Touch potentials Optimize number of conductors with fixed rods based on cost and safety Optimize number of conductors and rods based on cost and safety Calculate the maximum allowable current for specified conductors Compare allowable currents against fault currents Calculate ground system resistance Calculate ground potential rise User-expandable conductor library Allow a two-layer soil configuration in addition to the surface material Ground grid configurations showing conductor and rod plots Display 3-D/contour touch voltage plots Display 3-D/contour step voltage plots Display 3-D/contour absolute voltage plots Calculate Absolute, Step and Touch potentials at any point in the configuration Conductor/Rod can be oriented in any possible 3-D direction

mk:@MSITStore:C:\ETAP%201111\Etaps.chm::/Chapter_28___Ground_Grid_Systems... 5/1/2014

Ground Grid Systems

Page 2 of 2

Handle irregular configurations of any shape

Graphical User Interface Study Case Editor Calculation Methods Required Data Output Reports Plots

mk:@MSITStore:C:\ETAP%201111\Etaps.chm::/Chapter_28___Ground_Grid_Systems... 5/1/2014