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Modelling of continuous steelconcrete composite beams: computational aspects


G. Fabbrocino, G. Manfredi *, E. Cosenza
Department of Structural Analysis and Design, University of Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli, Italy Received 15 November 2000; accepted 4 July 2002

Abstract Steelconcrete composite members are an interesting option for structural designers, but the reliability of design procedures both in the case of gravity and seismic loads is in continuous development. The issue is very complex, since behaviour of continuous composite beams results from local phenomena of interaction such as partial shear connection and bond. Furthermore, composite beams in buildings generally are not characterised by a full continuity due to the beam to column connections; thus the analysis and the detailing of such parts have a key role in the development of suitable design procedures. In the present paper, some computational aspects related to the modelling of composite exural members are discussed with reference to continuous and semi-continuous structural systems widely used in practice. 2002 Civil-Comp Ltd. and Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction The research eorts in the last years have been devoted to analyse the mechanical behaviour of steel concrete composite members subjected to gravity loads [17]. Thus codes concerning such structures, i.e. Eurocode 4 [8], provide rules only for vertical loading patterns. On the other hand, Eurocode 8 [9] deals with steel concrete composite members, but the short part that is devoted to this specic type of structures is poor due to the lack of knowledge [10]. As a result, the extension of available code provisions for composite structures to seismic resistant structures is a very dicult task, since many aspects have to be analysed. In fact, a primary goal of such analyses is really a reliable assessment of the ductility of both composite

Corresponding author. Tel.: +39-81-768-3424/3488; fax: +39-81-768-3424/3491. E-mail address: gamanfre@unina.it (G. Manfredi).

beams and columns, of the connection rotation capacity and also of the structural behaviour under cycling loading leading to strength softening [11]. Researches concerning each one of the above topics are complex, since composite behaviour results from many interaction phenomena that involve the steel component, the concrete component and the shear connection between the two parts [2,5,7]. As a consequence, the attention cannot be focussed on each component without taking into account the interaction with all the related aspects, as demonstrated by the eects of Northridge and Hyogoken-Nambu earthquakes on many composite oors-steel columns connections [12,13]. Furthermore, negative bending moments, that develop at the support regions of composite beams, modify the structural response of members due to tensile stresses acting on the slab and the consequent cracking of the concrete, so that steel reinforcement properties can inuence the plastic rotation capacity of members [14]. In the present paper, some computational aspects related to the numerical simulation of composite beams are examined. In particular, the attention is focussed on

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the modelling of continuous beams and semi-continuous structural systems, that are meaningful of the composite mechanism governing the transfer of loads and the development of the rotation in the joint region of composite frames. Overall performances of composite beams with different end connections are compared pointing out some interesting remarks on the role of the slab reinforcement ductility and of deformation at the slabprole interface due to shear connectors. 2. The continuity at intermediate supports The combination of the steel and the concrete leads to traditional composite exural members that can sustain very well positive bending moment, so that the simply supported beams seem to be the more reliable structural pattern. However continuous composite beams are also frequently used, since a number of advantages can be obtained, i.e. reduction of the deections and/or of the cross sections [15]. Furthermore in building systems, the fully continuity at internal support cannot be generally achieved (Fig. 1), since in framed structures the columns usually cross the joint regions, while the steel beams are not continuous and connected to the columns with dierent steelworks [2]. The main feature of the composite construction is the continuity of the slab in the nodal zone, so that the concrete slab can sustain loads in this area, resulting in a strongly dierent structural response of the joint if compared to bare steel connections. In fact, the continuous concrete slab leads to a composite action in the joint region that is the most important aspect in the behaviour and modelling of these structures [16]. In order to simplify the discussion, a very simple detailing of the joint, the so-called contact plate connection, is analysed and compared to the fully continuous composite beams from a computational point of view.
Fig. 2. Semi-continuous beam in framed structures.

As shown in Fig. 2, the joint detail is characterised by the absence of any connection between the steel prole and the column. It is commonly used when braced frames are concerned, so that beams are designed basically to sustain gravity loads. It is easy to recognise that steel reinforcement of the slab has a relevant role in the development of the composite action and in the structural response of the connection.

3. The theoretical model of the composite cross section The present section summarises the main features of a theoretical model for composite exural members that is able to take directly account of partial interaction and bond acting on continuous structural patterns, as demonstrated by the eective comparison between numerical and former experimental data [1719]. The approach is based on a simplied kinematics of the cross section that enables a mono-dimensional approach. This assumption requires the reliable denition of the slab eective width depending on the type of loading, hogging or sagging, and on connection detailing at the beam end, but leads to a strong reduction of the computational eort. This circumstance has been checked both theoretically and experimentally pointing out that simple expression for eective width can be used if the non-linear response of materials is properly taken into account. The cross section of the beam is characterised by a slip at the rebarconcrete interface, s1 , and a slip at the slabprole interface, s2 , as reported in Fig. 3. A linear pattern of strains is applied to each component of the cross section. The curvature and the rotation are the same for each component (concrete slab and steel prole), therefore the uplift between the slab and the prole is neglected. The slab is characterised by crack distance, dcrack , depending on the geometry of the slab and the me-

Fig. 1. The continuous beam at intermediate support.

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Fig. 3. The model of the cross section under negative bending.

chanical properties and diameter of the reinforcing bars according to CEB provisions [20]. Furthermore, it is assumed that concrete between two subsequent cracks is able to bear tensile stresses; the related resultant tensile force on the concrete Tct is given by the following equation: Z rct y ; z dA 1 Tct
Aeff

Equilibrium of the composite cross section is dependent upon the following three equations: longitudinal equilibrium of the steel prole subjected to the interaction force due to shear connectors: Z Fs rs y ; z dA F 6
As

where Aeff is the region of the slab where the distribution of strains is inuenced by bond interaction. Since a constant level of strain is assumed on the eective area the relation (1) can be simplied as follows: Tct rct Aeff 2

longitudinal equilibrium of the concrete slab subjected to the interaction force due to shear connectors: Z Fc Asc rsc Tct rcc y ; z dA F 7
Acc

where rct is the tensile stress acting on the concrete; as a consequence the resultant of tensile stresses is applied at the centroid of the eective area of concrete. This static parameter inuences directly the tensile strain levels in the steel bars and the tension stiening eect and is equal to zero when cracked sections are concerned. Two slips allow taking directly account of local interaction due to bond and shear connection. They can be evaluated referring to the following kinematic equations: s1 x wsc x wct x s2 x wup s x wlow c x 3 4

rotational equilibrium of the composite section as a whole: M Ms Mc Fd where Z rs y ds dA Ms


As

Mc

Z
Acc

rcc y dc dA rsc Asc ysc dc

Tct yG;Aeff dc are the components of the global bending moment due to the prole, Ms , and the concrete slab, Mc respectively. dc , ds and ysc represent the distances between the centroids of the two parts of the section and of the reinforcing bars and the reference axis x; rcc and rct are respectively the magnitude of compressive and tensile stresses of concrete; As , Asc and Acc are respectively the area of the steel prole, of the rebars and of the concrete in compression. The above equations are not sucient to dene the distribution of strain along the y-axis, since bond and shear connection have to be directly introduced by

where wsc x is the displacement of the reinforcement; wct x is the displacement of concrete in tension in the eective area Aeff ; wup s x is the longitudinal displacement of the upper bre of the steel prole; wlow c x is the longitudinal displacement of the lower bre of the concrete slab. The static parameter related to shear connection is the interaction force F, that can be expressed as follows: F x
n X Fj j1

where Fj is the force acting on the generic shear connector located before the reference cross section.

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means of additional kinematic equations that can be written as follows: compatibility equation for bond: ds1 x esc x ect x dx compatibility equation for shear connection: ds2 x es x ec x vxd dx 10

the positive bending regions and the extended model can be introduced in the negative bending zones, where the tension stiening of the concrete component develops. 3.1. The momentcurvature relationship

9 The response of composite cross sections depends on two static parameters representing interactions due to bond and shear connection, as a consequence the traditional one to one function resulting from the Bernoullis assumptions cannot represent all the balanced solutions for composite sections. Conversely a generalised momentcurvature relationship can be dened and plotted using a family of curves depending on the interactions force F and the resultant of the tensile stresses on concrete, Tct . In the present section the main computational aspects related to the denition of the above relationship are discussed with reference to both hogging and sagging bending. A nite number of curves corresponding to given values of the tension force in concrete Tct and of the interaction level F , can be dened, since they can range between a minimum and a maximum value related only to the mechanical and geometrical properties of the cross section. A reliable representation of the generalised moment curvature relationship can be performed using a reference system M ; v; Tct . From a geometrical point of view, the generalised momentcurvature relationship results in a 3D domain that can be drawn using the sections with plane surfaces corresponding to given values of the tensile forces Tct acting on the concrete and varying the value of the interaction force F between the concrete and the steel components. The numerical procedure to dene the relationship is based on the strip method, as shown in Fig. 5. In fact, both the slab and the steel prole are divided into a nite number of strips that can be identied by the position of the centroid, yGi , evaluated respect to the upper bre of the slab and the corresponding area Ai . It is also as-

equation of equilibrium of the concrete in tension subjected to the bond stresses: dTct z nsc PUsb z dx 11

The above equations need specic boundary conditions that lead to analyse at the same time the entire beam. Furthermore the constitutive relationships for phenomena of interaction have to be introduced [21,22]. The model discussed above represents an extension of the well known model by Newmark [23] and widely used [2426]. Newmarks kinematic model is reported in Fig. 4, where the stress and strain parameters are identied as already done in Fig. 3. It is easy to recognise that Newmarks model is not dependent upon bond interaction, since concrete cannot bear tensile stresses according to traditional design approach of concrete structures. This circumstance leads to assume the tensile force Tct equal to zero as done in cracked sections. This remark is very useful since it allows to reduce the computational eort in the positive bending regions; in fact when positive bending moments act on the cross sections the interaction force F is basically associated to compressive stresses on the slab, so that the reinforcement is under compression and/or under moderate tension, thus the assumption of perfect bond between rebars and concrete can be satisfactory. In conclusion, the classical model for the composite section can be used to t the behaviour of the beam in

Fig. 4. The model of the cross section under positive bending.

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the distribution of the strains on the concrete slab that satises the longitudinal equilibrium of the concrete component with the given curvature vj must be evaluated. This step requires again the solution of a non-linear equation; to this end the strain of the lower ber of the slab can be addressed as the control parameter. The longitudinal equilibrium of the slab can be written in the following form:
nstr X i1
slab

;l j;l rj c;i ec;low Ac;i

nsc X i1

;l j ;l p n rj sc;i ec;low Asc;i Tct F 0

14
Fig. 5. Evaluation of the momentcurvature relationship.
;l where rj c;i represents the stress acting on the generic strip of the slab, nslab str is the total number of the strips and nsc is the number of reinforcing bars. the last step is the calculation of the global bending moment acting on the section and corresponding to the curvature vj . nstr X i 1
pro

sumed that the strip is aected by a constant level of strain and therefore of stress. In this way the equations of the longitudinal equilibrium of the slab, of the longitudinal equilibrium of the prole and the global rotational equilibrium of the cross section can be written as a sum of nite terms. The method is well known for compact sections, but can be modied for composite sections according to the following steps: a number of values of the resultant of the tensile p stresses on the concrete Tct is chosen and is sequentially imposed on the cross section; a number of values of the interaction force F n (the apex identies the generic momentcurvature curve) is chosen and the strain of the lower bre of the steel prole, ej s;low , is given as a pivot parameter in compliance with the ultimate strain under compression and tension; the distribution of the strain in the prole that satises the longitudinal equilibrium of the steel component is evaluated using as control parameter the ;k strain of the upper bre of the prole ej s;up (the apex j gives the generic increment of the pivot strain, the apex k gives the generic iteration of the process). This step requires an iterative process to solve the non-linear equation that can be written as follows:
nsrt X i1
pro

;l rj s;i Ac;i yGi

nstr X i1

slab

;l rj c;i Ac;i yGi

nsc X i 1

;l p rj sc;i Asc;i yGsc Tct yGAeff

15

where the lever arm of each term is evaluated respect to the upper bre of the slab. Finally the exural problem of the composite section is completely solved, since the distribution of strains are known and the derivative of the slips s1 and s2 can be evaluated as follows: dsj p 1 ej sc ect dx dsj j 2 ej c;low es;up dx 16

17

;k j;k n rj s;i es;up Ai F 0

12

where Ai is the area of the single strip of the prole, ;k pro rj s;i is the stress acting on the strip, nstr is the total number of strips of the prole. The iterative process gives the value of the strain of the pivot strain ej s;low as shown in Fig. 5 and the curvature of the cross section can be dened as follows: vj
j;k ej s;low es;up Hprofile

The derivative of the function s2 can be easily dened using the roots of the non-linear equations of equilibrium (12) and (14), while the derivative of the slips s1 can be calculated using the strain of rebars and of the concrete in tension placed in the eective area. In fact:   Tct p ep 18 ct erct e Aeff The above level of strain depends only on the value of p the imposed force Tct . Furthermore, the strain of the rebars are generally very high compared with the strain of the surrounding concrete in tension, thus it can be stated that the second term of Eq. (16) can be neglected. As a result the following relationship exists:

13

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dsj 1 ej sc dx

19

The above calculations lead to the denition of an array containing the generalised momentcurvature relationship that can be stored and used to solve the problem of the composite beam [18]. The denition of the momentcurvature relationship of the cross section according to the classical Newmarks approach can be easily carried out using the same above equations. In fact, the momentcurvature becomes a 2D domain, since Tct is equal to zero, so that all the related terms in the above equations disappear and the interaction force F is the key parameter [17].

iterative process is carried out. Rotations and displacements are then calculated by integration of the distribution of the curvature. The solution of the problem can be obtained using the shooting technique and the nite dierence method. The specic boundary conditions concerning the slip at the slabprole interface require the solution of the entire beam. In the following, the discussion is simplied referring to a simple structural system of the beam that is characterised by both geometrical and mechanical symmetry. The numerical procedure is based on the classical method of compatibility, so that the bending moment at the support is the main unknown of the problem and the beam is statically determined. The procedure is described in Fig. 6, and is based on the following steps: 1. denition of discrete number of cracked sections along the beam depending on the properties of the slab and of reinforcement; 2. iterative process to ensure the compatibility at internal support. When a symmetrical structural scheme k is considered the bending moment at support, mn1 , (n 1 is the number of integration nodes, k is the iteration number) can be assumed as pivot parameter k and the corresponding rotation, un1 , as control parameter; 3. iterative process along the whole beam to ensure the compatibility at slabprole interface for a given

4. The solution of the continuous composite beam The numerical procedure developed to solve continuous composite beams combines the main behavioural aspects of the dierent regions of the beam. In fact, the traditional Newmarks model for positive bending is used when composite section is subjected to sagging bending moment and the extended one is introduced when cracked zones of the beam are concerned. The aim of the procedure is the denition of the actual momentcurvature relationship in each section of the beam among all the balanced solutions available in the generalised momentcurvature relationship, thus an

Fig. 6. The numerical solution of the continuous beam.

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value of mn1 ; in this case the slip at the end of the j beam, s2 1 , governs the process and the check of compatibility is performed at the support, where the j slip at the slabprole interface, s2 n 1 , must be zero due to symmetry; 4. when cracking occurs in the slab, according to a proper criterion, the last iterative process is oriented to dene the distribution of the slip at the rebarconcrete interface. In this case the process must be performed for each part of the slab between two subsequent cracks (placed at the generic nodes icr , jcr ) until the control condition Tct jcr 0 is satised. It is worth noting that the family of curves giving the momentcurvature relationship is calculated for each typical section of the beam, thus the number of the resolving equations to be used in the iterative procedure can be reduced. The remaining equations can be written in the following form:
j Fij 1 Fi F i j

transfer capacity; only the presence of a continuous concrete slab in the nodal region leads the joint to bear bending moments. This specic type of joint is generally subjected to negative bending since it is basically used in braced frames; in the following a symmetrical structural scheme is analysed in order to simplify the discussion. Therefore, the continuity of the slab allows to develop a tensile force in the reinforcement that is balanced horizontally by the compressive action applied at the lower centroid of the contact plate, as shown in Fig. 7a. The force T is applied at the centroid of the rebars, so that the geometry of the connection allows to dene easily the lever arm d. It is worth noting that the strength of the nodal region is much lower than the strength of the composite cross section, since the whole contribution of the bending moment carried by the prole is equal to zero.

20  ds1 dx j Dx
i

j s1 j i1 s1 i

21

;h j;h s2 j i1 s2 i

d s2 dx

j;h Dx
i

22

;h j ;h j ;h Tct j i1 Tct i nsc pU Dx sb i i

23

where F is equal to zero if the shear connectors are not present in the considered section, while, if the connectors are present, it is given by the force acting on the shear connectors evaluated by the corresponding constitutive relationship. The procedure is quite complex, but an eective use of the momentcurvature relationships makes it reliable, as demonstrated by the validation against former experimental results [19].

5. The analysis of the semi-continuous beam 5.1. The modelling of the joint region The analysis of the semi-continuous composite beam requires the discussion of the mechanisms governing the strength and the deformation of the connection between the column and the prole. The considered joint is very simple; any steelwork is not needed, since the steel prole is only installed on a settlement welded to the column. In this way the connection at the steel prole level is able to bear only shear forces, but there is not moment

Fig. 7. The strength and the deformation of the contact plate beamcolumn connection.

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Even if the development of the strength of such a connection is very simple, the mechanism governing the joint rotation is characterised by complex phenomena. In fact, the relative rotation between the column and the beam, developed in the case of symmetrical structure, is related basically to: the slip between the reinforcement and the concrete ssc;b at the end of the beam; the slip between the reinforcement and the concrete ssc;j in the nodal zone; the slip at the proleconcrete slab interface, sconn ; the displacement of the web panel of the column subjected to the compressive action C , sweb . The calculation of the relative rotation resulting from the above sources of deformation can be performed assuming that the end section of the beam remains plane; furthermore the slab and the prole are characterised by the same rotation, in compliance with the assumptions made for the cross sections of the beam. In this way, referring to the symbols given in Fig. 7a, the relative rotation can be written as follows: ujoint sweb sconn ssc;j ssc;b d 24

Fig. 9. Evaluation of the forcedisplacement relation of the web panel.

be used to determine the distribution of slips at the rebarconcrete interface complying with the boundary conditions. In this case only the bond related equations must be used to solve the problem. Therefore Eqs. (9) and (10) can be used; it is worth noting that Eq. (10) can be more eectively substituted by the following: drsc z 4 sb z dz U 25

The equation shows that the deformation of the nodal region is coupled with the response of the beam, since the slips at the slabprole interface and at the rebar concrete interface depends on phenomena of interaction developing along the beam. For what concerns the slip of the reinforcement placed in the joint region, it can be evaluated solving the problem of a concrete element subjected to a tensile force T, assuming a given distance between the cracked sections. It is easy to recognise that unbalanced bending moments lead to shear forces on the column in the joint region; in this case an additional source of deformation has to be introduced with a slight increase of the computational eort, but without relevant changes in the numerical approach. The solution of the problem is schematically reported in Fig. 8, where the part of the concrete slab placed in the nodal region is shown. The shooting technique can

that represents the longitudinal equilibrium of the reinforcing bar subjected to the bond stress. The boundary conditions can be written in terms of stress of the rebar that can be easily evaluated according to the strength mechanism shown in Fig. 7a. On the other hand the relationship between the compressive force C and the related displacement sweb can be introduced using results of experimental tests [27] that take account of the inuence of the axial force in the column, as shown in Fig. 9. 5.2. The procedure of solution The procedure of solution of the semi-continuous composite beams is based on the solution strategy described for continuous composite beams. In the following the beam is considered propped, so that the rotation required to the composite joint is maximised. On the analogy on the continuous beam, the procedure starts with the denition of a tentative value of the bending moment at support, as shown in Fig. 10. Due to the mechanism governing the resistance of the nodal region the bending moment leads to a known value of the interaction force at the support (Fig. 7a). Furthermore, the deformability of the nodal region modies the compatibility conditions at the support, since the rotation in the last node of integration n 1 can be dierent from zero, due to a non-linear relationship between the bending moment and the relative rotation between the column and the beam exists. However, such a relationship is not known a priori since Eq. (24) contains some terms related to the problem of

Fig. 8. Solution of the slab under tension in the joint.

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Fig. 10. The numerical solution of the semi-continuous beam.

the beam; in other words the problem is coupled, so that the rotation at support must be evaluated at each step. The iterative process is therefore scheduled as follows: denition of a tentative value of the bending moment k mn1 and of the related value of the interaction force k Fn1 ; iterative process to ensure the compatibility at the steel proleconcrete slab interface; the pivot parameter of this step of the procedure is the value of the proleslab slip at the rst node of integration, while the control parameter is the value of the interaction force at the last node of integration. In this way the process is oriented to solve the following non-linear equation: Fn1 s2 j 1 Fn1
k

remaining kinematic parameters given in Eq. (24) can be calculated according to the procedure discussed in Figs. 8 and 9. In addition, the knowledge of the distribution of the curvature along the beam allow to calculate the related k k rotation at the support un1 mn1 . At this point the outer control condition: un1 mn1 ujoint
k k

28

26

on the analogy with continuous beams, when cracking occurs in the slab, according to a proper criterion, the last iterative process is aimed to dene the distribution of the slip at the rebarconcrete interface. In this case the process must be performed for each part of the slab between two subsequent cracks (located at the generic nodes icr , jcr ) and is oriented to solve the non-linear equation:
j;h jcr s2 j Tct 1 ; s1 icr 0

can be checked. Obviously the non-linear equations (26)(28) have to be solved using proper tolerances. The procedure is very similar to the one developed for continuous beams, since the only dierent aspects are the boundary condition that controls the iterative procedure to solve the partial shear connection problem and the need to introduce a deformability at the end of the beam that is coupled with the behaviour of the beam as a whole. Eqs. (20)(23) are the only used in the procedure based on the nite difference method, conversely the derivatives of the function s1 and s2 can be evaluated using the array of the generalised momentcurvature relationship. As a consequence, the solution of the exural problem of the section has not to be solved at each node of integration and at each iteration.

27 6. Conclusions

When the two above conditions are satised, the values of the proleslab slip and the rebarconcrete slip at the end of the beam are known, so that the

An advanced modelling of steelconcrete composite beams requires the explicit introduction of local

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G. Fabbrocino et al. / Computers and Structures 80 (2002) 22412251 [9] Commission of the European Communities. Eurocode 8 Design Provisions for earthquake resistance of structures, ENV 1998, 1994. [10] Plumier A. European research and code developments on seismic design of composite steel concrete structures. Proceedings of the 12th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, WCEE, Paper 1147, Auckland, New Zealand, 2000. [11] Bursi OS, Caldara R. Composite substructures with partial shear connection: low cycle fatigue behaviour and analysis issues. Proceedings of the 12th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, WCEE, Paper 0498, Auckland, New Zealand, 2000. [12] Matsuo A, Nakamura Y, Takamatsu T, Yoshimasa Matsui Y. Fracture and plastic deformation capacity of the welded joint of composite beam-to-steel column connections. Proceedings of the 12th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, WCEE, Paper 0181, Auckland, New Zealand, 2000. [13] Yang IL, Tagawa Y. Eect of joint details for behaviour of moment resisting steel frames with composite girders-toSHS column. Proceedings of the 12th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, WCEE, Paper 0181, Auckland, New Zealand, 2000. [14] Fabbrocino G, Manfredi G, Cosenza E. Ductility of composite beams under negative bending: an equivalence index for reinforcing steel classication. J Construct Steel Res 2001;57:185202. [15] Cosenza E, Zandonini R. Composite constructionHandbook of structural engineering. In: Chen WF, editor Purdue University, CRC Press LLC; 1997. [16] Aribert JM, Dinga ON. Modelling and experimental investigation of bolted ush end-plate composite beamto-column joints. Proceedings of the UEF Conference Composite Construction IV, Ban, Alberta, Canada, 2000. [17] Fabbrocino G, Manfredi G, Cosenza E. Non-linear analysis of composite beams under positive bending. Comput Struct 1999;70:7789. [18] Manfredi G, Fabbrocino G, Cosenza E. Modelling of composite beams under negative bending. ASCE J Eng Mech 1999;125(6):65462. [19] Fabbrocino G, Manfredi G, Cosenza E. Analysis of continuous composite beams including partial interaction and bond. ASCE J Struct Eng 2000;126(11):1288 94. [20] CEB, Bulletin dInformation no. 213/214, Model Code 90, 1993. [21] Ciampi V, Eligehausen R, Popov EP, Bertero VV. Analytical model for concrete anchorage of reinforcing bars under generalised excitations. UCB/EERC 82-23, University of California, Berkeley, 1982. [22] Ollgaard JG, Slutter RG, Fisher JW. Shear strength of stud connectors in lightweight and normal weight concrete. AISC Eng J 1971. [23] Newmark NM, Siess CP, Viest IM. Tests and analysis of composite beams with incomplete interaction. Proc Soc Exp Stress Anal 1951;(1):7592. [24] Reza Salari M, Spacone E, Shing PB, Frangopol DM. Non-linear analysis of composite beams with deformable shear connectors. ASCE J Struct Eng 1998;(10):124.

interaction phenomena i.e. shear connection force-slip relation and bond of reinforcement in hogging moment regions. To this end, a generalisation of the well known Newmarks kinematic model of the composite cross section has been presented and the main computational problems related to local (cross section) and global (beam) non-linear analysis have been analysed. At local level, the attention has been focussed on the denition of a generalised momentcurvature relationship; at a global level the solution of simple but meaningful structural schemes has been analysed. The reliability and the eectiveness of the procedure for continuous beams, which allows to obtain both global parameters such as rotations and deections as well as local quantities such as slips, curvature, interaction forces and rebar strains, can be extended also to semi-continuous beams. In this case, however, the key issue is the evaluation of a reliable modelling of the relationship between applied bending moment and relative rotation in the columnbeam connection. The use of a generalised momentcurvature relationship is really useful and enables the numerical solution of continuous and semicontinuous beams according to the secant method. As a result, force and deformation pattern in composite elements can be identied and simplied models can be developed to enhance frame analyses under vertical and lateral loads.

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G. Fabbrocino et al. / Computers and Structures 80 (2002) 22412251  lasto-Plastique [25] Aribert JM, Labib AG. Mod ele de CalculE de Poutres Mixtes a Connexion Partielle. Construct Metall 1982;(4):351. [26] Leon RT, Viest IM. Theories of incomplete interaction in composite beams. In: Proceedings of UEF Conference,

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