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19 Ansichten121 SeitenGSM Technique

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GSM Technique

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19 Ansichten121 SeitenGSM Technique

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Sie sind auf Seite 1von 121

ausgefhrt zum Zwecke der Erlangung des akademischen Grades eines Diplom-Ingenieurs unter Zusammenarbeit von

von Thomas Baumgartner Gr. Kadolz 94 A-2062 Seefeld-Kadolz Matr.Nr.: 9426012

e-mail: Thomas.Baumgartner@iname.com

Supervisors: M.SC.E.E. Gert F. Pedersen, CPK-Aalborg University M.SC.E.E. Mikael B. Knudsen, Bosch Telekom Danmark A/S o.Univ.Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Dr. Ernst Bonek, INTHFT/TU-Wien Dipl.-Ing. Thomas Neubauer, INTHFT/TU-Wien

Zusammenfassung

In den letzten Jahren erregten adaptive Antennen fr Basisstationenen reges Interesse. Verschiedene Hersteller, Netzwerkbetreiber und Universitten fhrten Feldversuche durch um mehr Informationen ber die Leistungsfhigkeit dieser Systeme zu erhalten. Feldversuche in GSM Netzwerken haben gezeigt, da fr den Downlink sowohl in Makro- als auch Mikrozellen eine bemerkenswerte Verbesserung fr C/N (Carrier zu Noise Verhltnis) und C/I (Carrier zu Interference Verhltnis). Fr den Downlink wurden signifikante Verbesserungen in Makrozellenumgebungen festgestellt. In Mikrozellenumgebungen wurde jedoch nur ein kleiner Gewinn fr C/N und so gut wie keine C/I Verbesserung gemessen. Diese Diplomarbeit ist darauf ausgerichtet einen passenden Algorithmus fr ein Antennensystem mit geringer Komplexitt, das in einem Mobiltelefon eingesetzt werden kann, zu finden und zu simulieren. Dieses System soll das C/I im Downlink in einer Mikrozellenumgebung mit sich langsam bewegenden Bentzern verbessern. Es gibt verschiedene Methoden ein Antennensystem fr diesen Zweck zu implementieren. Fr diese Arbeit wurde ein Antennensystem mit 2 Antennenelementen, wo die Amplitude und die Phase eines Antennenzweiges mit Hilfe eines variablen Verstrkers und eines Phasenschiebers adaptiert wird, bevor die Antennensignale zusammengefhrt werden. Die Komplexitt dieses System ist gering genug um es in einem Mobiltelefon einzusetzen, da lediglich eine zustzliche Antenne, ein variabler Verstrker, ein Phasenschieber und ein Summierglied bentigt werden. Unter Bercksichtigung der Resultate von Hagerman [Hag95] und der groen Kohrenzbandbreite der gemessenen Kanaldaten wurde die Simulation des gefundenen Algorithmus auf einen Gleichkanalstrer und einen Kanal mit flachem Fading beschrnkt.

iii

Abstract

Adaptive antennas for base stations have obtained great interest over the past few years and at present. Several manufacturers, operators and universities have and are performing field test to get more detailed information about the performance of such systems. GSM field tests have shown a significant improvement of the uplink performance for both C/N (Carrier to Noise ratio) and C/I (Carrier to Interference ratio) in both macro cell and micro cell applications. For the downlink significant improvements are observed for macro cell environments, but for micro cell environments only small gains for C/N and almost no C/I improvements are observed. This project is concentrated about finding and simulating a suitable combining algorithm for a low complexity antenna system for a GSM mobile handset, which can improve the downlink C/I performance in a micro cell environment with slow moving users. There are several methods for implementing an antenna system to improve the downlink C/I performance. For this project an antenna system consisting of 2 antenna elements, where the amplitude and phase of the received signals from one of the antennas are altered prior to a combining by use of a variable gain block and a phase shifter right after the antenna element. The complexity of this antenna system is low enough to be suitable for a mobile handset, hence it only requires an extra antenna element, a phase shifter and a combiner compared to a standard mobile handset without any antenna system. Taking the results of Hagerman [Hag95] and the huge coherence bandwidth of the measured channel data into account the simulations are limited to 1 co-channel interferer and a flat fading channel.

Preface

This thesis presents the research work done at the Department of Communications Technology at Aalborg University. It is part of an ERASMUS student exchange program with my home university, Technische Universitt Wien, Austria. The thesis is divided into the following parts: A description of the GSM system. A brief description of radio wave propagation. A description of different diversity schemes and combining techniques. An explanation of how the necessary parameters for the chosen combining algorithm can be estimated from the received signal. A description of the receiver structure in GSM and the necessary changes in order to implement the proposed combining method. A description of the simulated algorithm. A presentation of the simulation results. A suggestion for a real time test configuration.

Appendices are placed in the last part, their purpose is to give supplementary information when reading the report.

vii

Acknowledgement

I want to thank my supervisors, Gert Frlund Pedersen and Mikael Bergholz Knudsen for the fruitful discussions and their invaluable expert advice. Thanks to Thomas Neubauer who gave me a lot of useful advice for my stay in Aalborg. Thanks are also extended to Nina Nielsen at CPK. I am pleased to acknowledge the financial support of the SOKRATES/ERASMUS exchange program and of the Siegfried Ludwig-Fonds fr universitre Einrichtungen in Niedersterreich, who made my stay in Aalborg possible. Special thanks to Dieter Schafhuber for solving bureaucratic problems in Vienna during my stay in Denmark and to Martin Pillwatsch for his friendship. Thanks to Sabine for her love understanding and patience during my long absence from home.

Thomas Baumgartner

ix

Table of Contents

1.1 1.2 1.3 Historical Note .......................................................................................................................................1 Cell Structure .........................................................................................................................................2 GSM Network ........................................................................................................................................2

1.4 The Radio Interface...............................................................................................................................3 1.4.1 Bursts and Synchronisation .............................................................................................................4 1.4.2 Logical channels ..............................................................................................................................5 1.4.3 Frequency Hopping..........................................................................................................................6 1.4.4 Discontinuous Transmission............................................................................................................8 1.4.5 Power Control..................................................................................................................................8 1.5 Frame Structure.....................................................................................................................................8

1.6 Channel Coding .....................................................................................................................................9 1.6.1 Coding .............................................................................................................................................9 1.6.2 Interleaving ......................................................................................................................................9 1.6.3 Modulation.....................................................................................................................................10

2.1 The Physics of Radio Wave Propagation...........................................................................................11 2.1.1 Reflection.......................................................................................................................................11 2.1.2 Diffraction......................................................................................................................................13 2.1.3 Scattering .......................................................................................................................................13 2.1.4 Free Space Propagation .................................................................................................................14 2.2 Multipath Propagation........................................................................................................................15 2.2.1 Slow Fading ...................................................................................................................................15 2.2.2 Fast Fading.....................................................................................................................................16 2.2.3 Doppler Shift .................................................................................................................................20 2.2.4 Delay Spread..................................................................................................................................22

3.1 Different Diversity Schemes................................................................................................................25 3.1.1 Space Diversity..............................................................................................................................25 3.1.2 Polarisation Diversity ....................................................................................................................26 3.1.3 Pattern Diversity ............................................................................................................................27 3.1.4 Frequency Diversity.......................................................................................................................27 3.1.5 Time Diversity ...............................................................................................................................28 3.2 Combining Techniques........................................................................................................................28 3.2.1 Switched Combining......................................................................................................................28 vii

Table of Contents

viii

Selection Combining......................................................................................................................29 Maximum Ratio Combining ..........................................................................................................29 Equal Gain Combining ..................................................................................................................29 Optimum Combining .....................................................................................................................29

3.3 Model For Optimum Combining........................................................................................................30 3.3.1 Algorithm A...................................................................................................................................33 3.3.2 Algorithm B ...................................................................................................................................33

4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Signal Composition..............................................................................................................................35 Propagation Vector of Wanted Signal ...............................................................................................38 Propagation Vector of Interfering Signal ..........................................................................................40 Detection of Interferer Position ..........................................................................................................42

4.5 Problematic Positions of the Bursts....................................................................................................43 4.5.1 Only a part of the interfering training sequence overlaps with the wanted burst...........................44 4.5.2 Change of interferer power during wanted time slot .....................................................................47 4.6 Noise Power ..........................................................................................................................................47

5.1 Classical GSM Receiver ......................................................................................................................49 5.1.1 RF Stage ........................................................................................................................................50 5.1.2 IF Stage..........................................................................................................................................50 5.1.3 Quadrature Stage ...........................................................................................................................50 5.1.4 Digitalisation stage ........................................................................................................................50 5.1.5 Detection stage...............................................................................................................................50 5.1.6 Decoding Stage..............................................................................................................................52 5.2 Necessary Changes in the Receiver ....................................................................................................52

6.1 6.2 Introduction .........................................................................................................................................55 Block Diagram of Algorithm...............................................................................................................57

7.1 7.2 Optimal Case........................................................................................................................................61 Different Antenna Powers...................................................................................................................64

7.3 Effect of Unsynchronised Network.....................................................................................................66 7.3.1 Overlapping Training Sequences...................................................................................................66 7.3.2 Overlapping Guard Period .............................................................................................................67 7.3.3 Gain Over Position of Interfering Training Sequence ...................................................................68

8.1 Test Setup .............................................................................................................................................71

Table of Contents

ix

8.2

APPENDIX A GENERATION OF A GSM BURST ..................................................A-1 APPENDIX B DATA USED FOR THE SIMULATIONS...........................................B-1

B.1 Measurements ....................................................................................................................................B-1

B.2 Data Processing..................................................................................................................................B-3 B.2.1 Data Used for Determining the Weight Set ................................................................................. B-3 B.2.2 Data Used for All Other Simulations........................................................................................... B-3

APPENDIX C TRAINING SEQUENCES IN GSM ...................................................C-1 APPENDIX D WEIGHT SET ...................................................................................D-1 APPENDIX E ESTIMATION OF INPUT SIGNAL....................................................E-1

E.1 E.2 Estimation Necessary for Algorithm A ............................................................................................ E-2 Estimation Necessary for Algorithm B ............................................................................................ E-5

F.1 F.2 Ideal Conditions ................................................................................................................................. F-1 Real Conditions.................................................................................................................................. F-3

This chapter gives a brief overview of the GSM system. The GSM family contains GSM900, DCS1800 and PCS1900 whose main difference is the used frequency band. The first part of this chapter (Section 1.1 to 1.3) give an overall description of the GSM system and the following sections deal with more detailed information about the burst structure and the channel coding.

In the early 1980s there were several different, to each other incompatible analog cellular phone systems in Europe. International roaming was nearly impossible because each country developed its own system. Therefore the costs for the equipment were very high due to the small market for each system type. This was recognised very early and in 1982 the Conference of European Posts and Telegraphs (CEPT) formed the Groupe Spcial Mobile (GSM). The task for this group was to develop a pan-European public land mobile system. The system had to meet certain criteria [Ste92]: spectrum efficiency subjective voice quality low mobile cost hand-portable feasibility low base station cost ability to support new services co-existence with current systems In 1989 the responsibility for GSM was transferred to the European Telecommunications Standard Institute (ETSI). Phase 1 of the GSM specification was published 1990 and the first commercial GSM network started their services mid 91. Since that time point the number of GSM networks and their users increased rapidly. At the end of 1998 there were more than 320 GSM Networks (including DCS1800 and PCS1900) in 129 countries. Figure 1-1 shows the number of the subscribers from 1992 to 1998.

160 140 120 million subscribers 100 80 60 40 20 0 Dec 92

Dec 93

Dec 94

Dec 95

Dec 96

Dec 97

Dec 98

Figure 1-1: The number of GSM subscribers from 1992 to 1998 [GSM99] 1

In GSM the covered area is divided into cells. A base station transceiver (BTS) is placed in each cell. A certain number of cells is grouped into cell clusters. The cells of one cluster share the available carrier frequencies. The same carrier frequencies are reused in the cells of other clusters. Figure 1-2 shows a cluster with seven cells, numbered 1-7. Cells with the same number are called co-channel cells because they use the same frequency sets.

In rural areas with very low traffic is the size of the cells limited by the propagation loss, the maximum transmitting power of the mobile stations (MS) and the propagation time. In urban areas with high traffic volume it is tried to make the cells small in order to have a high number of traffic channels per area. In this case the minimum cell size is given by the co-channel interference and the costs which arise by having a lot of base stations with low transmitting power. Co-channel interference means interference by a cell in a neighbouring cluster using the same frequencies. It is optional whether the time base counters of different base stations are synchronised together. The frequency accuracy of the frequency source of the base stations should be better than 0,05 ppm for RF frequency generation and clocking the time base [GSM0510]

The GSM network can be divided into several functional parts whose functions and interfaces are defined in the GSM specification. Figure 1-3 shows the general architecture of a GSM network. The network can be divided into the operation subsystem, the radio subsystem and the network subsystem. The radio subsystem consists of the mobile stations (MS) and one BTS for each cell. The operation subsystem contains the Operation and Maintenance Center (OMC) which handles administrative tasks like billing and updating of the system. The network subsystem consists of the Mobile Switching Center (MSC), the Visitor Location Register (VLR), the Home Location Register (HLR), the Authentication Center (AC) and the Equipment Identifier Register (EIR). The main part of the network system is the MSC which does the switching between mobile users and between mobile users and users of other networks. The mobility management is although handled by the MSC together with the MS, HLR and VLR. In the HLR is subscriber specific data like subscribed services, mobile subscriber identity, directory number, authentication code and the address of the VLR of all to the MSC subscribed users stored. Data which is necessary for managing the MS is stored in the VLR for all MS which are in the area of the MSC. The EIR contains a list of all registered MSs by their International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI). With the help of this list lost, stolen or defect equipment can be recognised. In Dublin is the Central Equipment Identity Register (CEIR) placed, where the identities of all mobile stations notified as

approved, lost or stolen are stored in the "white" and "black" lists. From this location can all GSM operators update their EIRs.

Other Networks Operation Subsystem Radio Subsystem

OMC

data networks

Network Subsystem

MSC

PSTN/ ISDN

BSC

BTS

VLR

HLR

AuC

EIR

BTS

logical connection MS MSC OMC PSTN VLR Mobile Station Mobile Switching Centre Operation and Maintenance C. Public Switched Teleph. Network Visitor Location Register

physical connection AuC BSC BTS EIR HLR Authentication Centre Base Station Controller Base Transceiver Station Equipment Identity Register Home Location Register

The GSM system uses a combination of FDMA and TDMA with 8 time slots per carrier (see Figure 1-4). For the separation of up- and downlink Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) and Time Division Duplex (TDD) are used. The time shift between the bursts of up- and downlink is 3 time slots. The time shift was introduced in order to simplify the equipment because it is not necessary to send and receive at the same time. The lower frequency band where attenuation in the channel is lower, was chosen for the uplink. In the time between sending and receiving the MS monitors the power of other Base Stations (BS).

Channel 124 Downlink Frequency

TDD (3 Slos) TDMA-Frame FDD Frequency Division Duplex TDD Time Division Duplex

During the time slots the data is transmitted in packets with a given structure the so called bursts. As shown in Figure 1-5 there are five types of bursts with a duration of 156,25 bits or 0,577 ms.

Normal Burst 3

TB

57

Data Bits

1

SB

26

57

Data Bits

3

TB

8,25

GP

Training SB Sequence

TB

142

Fixed Bits

3

TB

8,25

GP

Synchronisation Burst 3

TB

39

Data Bits

64

Training Sequence

39

Data Bits

3

TB

8,25

GP

Dummy Burst 3

TB

58

Mixed Bits

26

Training Sequence

58

Mixed Bits

3

TB

8,25

GP

Access Burst 8

TB

41

Training Sequence

36

Data Bits

3

TB

68,25

GP

Except the normal burst are all other bursts dedicated to a special function. The Frequency Correction Channel Burst (FCCH) contains a plain sinus wave which is used to match the carrier frequencies of the MS and the BS. The Synchronisation Channel Burst (SCH) is used to achieve synchronisation in the time domain. The 64 bit long training sequence is known by the MS. The exact position of the bits can be recognised through correlating the received training sequence with the stored version of this sequence. Then the 78 data bits are decoded which contain information about the actual frame number. The normal burst is transmitted during a call-in-progress. The two blocks of 57 data bits contain ciphered information. The 26 bit long training sequence is used for estimating the channel properties. Another function of the training sequence is to distinct between signals from the wanted and the interfering signal. In each cell cluster one of eight available training sequences is used. Therefore it is possible to detect co-channel interferer by the different training sequence. The stealing bits which guard the training sequence indicate if the information bits contain data or control information. The dummy burst has the same structure like the normal burst with the difference that no useful data is transmitted. The dummy burst is necessary because the MS monitors the signal strength of neighbouring BSs during a call in order to get information for handovers. For this reason every BS has to transmit all the time on the broadcast channel with full power. The transmitted power during a burst has to fit in a time mask in order not to interfere data transmitted from other MS using neighbouring time slots. In Figure 1-6 you can see the time mask for the normal

duration bursts how it is specified by ETSI. The time mask for the access burst is shorter because when the mobile sends this burst the timing advance is not adjusted.

Figure 1-6: Time mask for the normal duration bursts [Dav96]

In order to work properly a mobile radio system has to transmit several informations over the radio channel. Because of its specific functions this information can be classed into several logical channels. There is a principal differentiation between Traffic Channels (TCH) and Control Channels (CCH). Further the CCH is divided into Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH), Common Control Channel (CCCH) and Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH). The DCCH serves similar tasks like the ISDN D-Channel, whereas the other two channels have mobile radio specific tasks. An overview over all traffic and control channels is given in Table 1-1.

Logical Channels

TCH (Traffic Channel, duplex) FEC1-coded FEC-coded Speech Data BSMS BSMS BCCH Broadcast CCH BSMS CCH (Control Channel) CCCH DCCH Common Dedicated CCH CCH SDCCH ACCH Stand-Alone Associated DCCH CCH BSMS BSMS PCH SDCCH/4 Fast ACCH Paging FACCH/F Channel FACCH/H BSMS RACH SDCCH/8 Slow ACCH Random SACCH/TF Access Ch. SACCH/TH SACCH/C4 MSBS SACCH/C8 AGCH Access Grant Channel BSMS

Table 1-1: Overview Traffic- (TCH) and Control Channels (CCH) [Dav96]

The TCH carries digitally encoded speech or data. Full and half rate TCHs are specified in GSM. The different data rates for data transmission (9,6 kbit/s, 4,8 kbit/s and 2,4 kbit/s) are achieved by using different coding algorithms for error detection and correction. The BCCH is unidirectional from the BS to the MS and supplies the MS with following data needed for the communication with the BS: Configuration of the Common Control Channel Information about the frequency mapping at the BS Information about the location of the BCCH in neighbour cells Optional information about Frequency Hopping (FH), Voice Activity Detection (VAD) and power control Radio criterions for the cell selection, e.g. minimum received field strength. The BCCH is organised in a multiframe consisting of 51 frames (see Figure 1-5) and is transmitted in the zeroth time slot of a carrier without frequency hopping and without power control. The reason why for this carrier no power control is used is that MS located in other cells listen to the BCCH and the strength of its carrier is a measure of the path loss which is needed for handovers. Further the BCCH carries the Frequency Control Channel (FCCH) for frequency correction using the frequency correction burst and the Synchronisation Channel (SCH) for synchronisation using the synchronisation burst [Dav96]. The CCCH is used for setting up calls. The MS initiates a call by sending an access burst on the Random Access Channel (RACH). If there are free resources the MS is informed on the Access Grant Channel (AGCH) which Traffic Channel (TCH) and Slow Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH) to use. Is there a incoming call for a MS the BS sends this information on the Paging Channel (PCH). The DCCH serves similar functions like the ISDN D-Channel and some mobile radio specific tasks like transmitting of measurement data. It is divided into the Stand Alone DCCH (SDCCH) and the Associated Control Channel (ACCH). The SDCCH is always used when there is no TCH assigned to the MS. His tasks are Informing the MS which channel to use Transmitting of billing data Location updating and call forwarding Call set up The ACCH is used when a TCH is assigned. It is divided into the Fast ACCH (FACCH) and the Slow ACCH (SACCH). The FACCH is used when control information has to be transmitted at a high rate (e.g. during a handover). For transmitting the FACCH the TCH is used which is marked by setting the stealing bits. The SACCH is used for exchanging control information at a low rate (e.g. power control, timing advance and quality measures).

An option for GSM network operators is to implement slow Frequency Hopping. In contrast to fast frequency hopping as it is used for military proposals where the hopping frequency is higher than the bit rate allows the specified frequency hopping in GSM only a change of the frequency after each burst. There are two benefits using frequency hopping. First there is frequency diversity. As discussed in Section 1.6 is the transmitted information spread over several bursts and even if one burst has a very high bit error rate due to a deep fade is it possible to determine the correct data bits due to the information in the other bursts. This can be used for diversity. Since the chosen frequencies have to be uncorrelated is the probability very high that a slow moving user who is in a deep fade during one burst using one frequency will not be in a deep fade in the following burst where another frequency is used. In order that the fast fading faced by two frequencies is uncorrelated the frequencies must be separated at least by the coherence bandwidth. The coherence bandwidth is defined as the maximum frequency difference for which two signals have a certain value of correlation [Par92]. The coherence bandwidth in an indoor environment for a correlation coefficient of 0,5 is approximately 5MHz which limits the possibility of using frequency hopping in GSM as frequency diversity scheme as the whole downlink band in EGSM is just 25MHz wide.

The second benefit of frequency hopping is interferer diversity. Here is a frequency channel with a very weak C/I-ratio shared by many calls which use the weak channel cyclical. So the mean C/I-ratio for all calls is lower but this is for capacity reasons better than having a lower number of calls with a very good C/I-ratio whereas a whole carrier cannot be used through its bad C/I-ratio. Figure 1-7 shows the algorithm used for determining the hopping sequence in GSM. There are several input variables for this algorithm. First there is MA the set of RF-channels called mobile allocation. The MA contains N radio frequencies with 1N64. The mobile allocation index offset (1MAIO1). A Further input is the frame number (FN) in terms of T1, T2, T3 which are determined using equations 1.1 to 1.3 (mod stands for the modulo operation).

T1 = FN mod 64 T 2 = FN mod 26 T 3 = FN mod 51

(1.1) (1.2) (1.3)

The Hopping Sequence Number (0HSN64) specifies the hopping sequence to use. All this information is broadcast over the BCCH and the SCH. The function RNTable simply assigns one out of 114 pseudo-random numbers specified by GSM according to its argument. NB stands for the number of bits which are necessary to express the number of RF-channels N. The XOR operator means bit wise exclusive OR, while the remaining functions are self explaining.

MA MAIO HSN T1 T2 T3

Yes

HSN=0? No

MAI=(T1+MAIO) mod N

No

M'<N?

Yes

S=(M'+T') mod N

S=M'

MAI=(MAIO+S) mod N

In order to reduce interference and to lengthen the battery life-time of handsets Discontinuous Transmission (DTX) is specified as an option for up and downlink in GSM. This means that the network operator can decide if they want to use DTX or not. If DTX is activated transmits the transmitter in every burst only if the user is speaking. Otherwise is the data transmission reduced to 1 burst every 480ms. These 2 bursts per second describe the background noise. The background noise has to be transmitted in order that the listener at the other end of the line does not feel like having an interrupted connection. Therefore the noise information is fed into a noise generator which creates the so called comfort noise.

Another possibility to increase the battery life-time of the handsets and to reduce interference on the radio channel is to control the transmitting power of the base station and the mobile station. Like frequency hopping and discontinuous transmission is it up to the network operator to decide whether power control is implemented on the up or downlink or in both directions. If power control for the downlink is used, the BTS should be able to reduce its transmitting power down to 30dB of the maximum transmitting power in 15 2dB steps. Also the MS should be able to control the RF-power between its maximum and minimum in 2dB steps. The decision with which power to send is made in the base station system according to quality measures made in the BS and MS. The transmitting power must not change more than 2dB every 60ms. Therefore if e.g. a change from 17dBm to 37dBm is requested this will need 600ms. Figure 1-8 shows the adjusting of the mobile's transmitting power through commands of the base station system. The initial power levels to use in the MS are transmitted in the BCCH.

transmission level (dBm)

39

13

commands: 17dBm

The in Section 1.4.2 defined logical channels are transmitted over one physical channel. Hereby the logical channels are arranged in a frame structure where the number of bursts during a frame used by one logical channel depends on the data rate of the logical channel. The frame hierarchy in GSM knows 4 types of frames (shown in Figure 1-9): TDMA frame Multiframe Superframe Hyperframe The TDMA frame consists of 8 time slots, which are dedicated to one channel. 26 or 51 TDMA frames form one multiframe. Note that the 25th frame of the 26 multiframe is not used. This idle frame can be used for measuring noise and interfering signals. A superframe is built of 51 26 multiframes or 26 51 multiframes and 2048 superframes build one hyperframe with a duration of 3h 28min 52s 716ms.

50717,20

8:50717,208

2 3 8

28

$:50717,20

2: 9 17,208

8

28

2: 9 17,20

28

2: 9 17,20

28

$

/0

% 17,20

28

Figure 1-9: The hierarchical structure and duration of the different frames in GSM

The term channel coding means the adapting of the data bits to be transmitted to the transmission channel. This contains actions for error correction and modulation. Actions for error correction are coding and interleaving.

1.6.1 Coding

In GSM there are 3 different codes: Convolutional codes are used for error correction purposes. The specified convolutional code has a length of 5 and code rate . Fire codes are used to detect bursty errors. These are errors which occur in groups. The fire code used in GSM is able to correct 11 consecutive faulty bits [Mou92]. The parity code is a simple block code which is used for error detection [Meh97].

1.6.2 Interleaving

It is necessary to spread related data blocks over several bursts because error correcting codes are better in detecting single bit errors whereas in a mobile communication environment mainly burst errors due to fading occur. In GSM speech data is spread over 8 bursts and data traffic channels are spread over up to 19 bursts. Figure 1-10 shows the interleaving for a speech channel. The 456 coded data bits of a block are written row by row in a 8 column by 57 row matrix. In this way 8 subblocks with 57 bits each are created. In Figure 1-10 there are shown 3 consecutive data blocks (A, B and C) whose bits are grouped into 8 subblocks with 57 bits each (marked in block B). The numbering scheme for the subblocks can be seen at data block A. Note that consecutive bits in the original blocks are in different subblocks. The subblocks are spread over 8 consecutive bursts using a technique called diagonal interleaving. This results in bursts containing 2 subblocks of different data blocks. The bits of the subblocks 0 to 3 use even bit positions in the data bursts and the bits of the subblocks 4 to 7 use the odd bit positions. So the 4 first bursts share data block B with the previous data block (block A) and the last 4 bursts are shared with the consecutive data block (block C).

10

......

452

453

454

455

0 8 16 . 0 0 0 448

1 9 17 . 0 0 0 449

2 10 18 . 0 0 0 450

3 11 19 . 0 0 0 451

4 12 20 . 0 0 0 452

5 13 21 . 0 0 0 453

6 14 22 . 0 0 0 454

7 15 23 . 57 Rows 0 0 0 455

A 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

B 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57

TDMA Frame

C B C B C B C B ..... 57

B C B C B C B C ..... 57

1.6.3 Modulation

The modulation method used in GSM is Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK) with an roll of factor of 0,3. GMSK is produced by modulating a data burst filtered with a Gaussian low pass filter with a Minimum Shift Keying (MSK) modulator. The advantage of GMSK over MSK is that the side lobes in the power spectrum are lower. For further information about GMSK and MSK see [Meh97]

This chapter gives a brief theoretical description of radio wave propagation where the main interest is on the physical behaviour of the signals in the mobile channel. A few effects are not described very deeply as they have only a slight influence to the problem investigated in this project. The term radio wave is used generic in this chapter and means a TEM-wave in the far-field as far as nothing else appears from the context. I.e. the distance to the emitting antenna is further than R= 2 D2

(2.1)

where D and are the largest dimension of the antenna and the wave length, respectively. R is known as Rayleigh distance in the literature [Bon97]. There are many modes of propagation which mainly depend on the used frequency (E.g: ionospheric-, tropospheric- or ground waves). Frequencies in the range from 880MHz to 2GHz are interesting for this project as this frequency band covers the frequency bands of GSM900, DCS1800 and PCS1900. This frequency band belongs to the UHF band which covers the frequency range from 300MHz to 3GHz [Par92]. UHF waves propagate normally as ground waves [Par92].

This section deals with the physics of radio propagation which is quite similar to the behaviour of light. This is not very surprising as the only difference between radio waves and light is the higher frequency of the light. First the concepts of reflection, diffraction and scattering are discussed and then the free space propagation will be discussed.

2.1.1 Reflection

If a radio wave which propagates in one medium impinges on another medium having different properties then a part of the wave will be reflected and another part will continue the propagation in the other medium. Is the second medium a perfect dielectric (conductivity =0) than there will be no losses through absorption in the second medium. Is the second medium a perfect conductor (conductivity =) than the entire impinging wave will be reflected to the first medium.

11

12

Figure 2-1: Geometry for calculating the reflection coefficients between two dielectrics. The subscripts i, r, t, refer to the incident, reflected, and transmitted fields. Parameters 1, 1, 1 and 2, 2, 2 represent the permittivity, permeability and conductance of the two media.

Figure 2-1 shows a radio wave impinging on the boundary between medium 1 and 2. A part of the energy is reflected into medium 1 with the angle

r = i .

(2.2)

Another part is refracted with the angle t to medium 2. The angle t is given by Snell's law [Rap96] sin(90 i ) t = 90 arcsin 1 1 2 2 []

(2.3)

where 1, 1, 2 and 2 are the permeability and permittivity of the two media, respectively. The field strength of the transmitted and reflected wave (Et and Er) are given by [Rap96]

E r = E i E t = (1 + )E i

(2.4) (2.5)

where is the reflection factor or || according to the orientation of the E-field. The reflection coefficient is a function of the angle of incident, the polarisation of the impinging wave and the properties of the two media. The reflection factor for the two cases of parallel and perpendicular E-field polarisation at the boundary of two dielectrics are given by [Rap96] 2 sin(t ) 1 sin(i ) 2 1 2 1 sin(i ) + sin(t ) 1 2 2 sin(i ) 1 sin(t ) 2 1 2 1 sin(i ) + sin(t ) 1 2

|| =

13

2.1.2 Diffraction

Because of diffraction is it possible that radio waves propagate along the curved surface of the earth beyond the horizon or in shadowed areas. This phenomena can be explained with the help of Huygen's principle which says that every point of a wave front is the source of a secondary spherical wave. The field strength in a shadowed area is the vector sum of all secondary waves. Figure 2-2 shows this phenomena.

2.1.3 Scattering

If a plane radio wave impinges on a rough surface then is it spread out in all directions. In this case is equation 2.2 still valid. Since the surface has a lots of different orientations is the incident wave reflected in different directions (see Figure 2-3).

If a surface is rough or smooth can be tested with the help of the Rayleigh criterion, where the critical height of the surface protuberances (hc) is given by [Rap96]

hc = . 8 sin (i )

(2.8)

A surface is called smooth if its minimum to maximum protuberance are smaller than hc. Otherwise the surface is called rough. The reflection factor for smooth surfaces has to be multiplied by an scattering loss factor if the surface is rough [Rap96].

14

The easiest mathematical describable propagation form is the free space propagation. In this case is assumed that the transmitting antenna is placed in free space. It is assumed that the antenna has a gain GT in the direction of the receiving antenna which is also placed in free space. The power density per unit area in a point with the distance d is then W= PT G T 4 d 2

(2.9)

where PT represents the transmitting power. If the receiving antenna has an effective area A then is the received power

PR = PT G T PT G T 2G R = A 4 d 2 4 d 2 4

(2.10)

where GR represents the gain of the receiving antenna in the direction of the transmitting antenna. The relationship between transmitted and received power is given by PR = GTG R PT 4d

2

(2.11)

This is a fundamental relationship which is known in literature as Friis equation [Par92]. The free space propagation loss obeys an quadratic square law with range d.

Figure 2-4: Propagation over a plane earth (T and R stand for transmitting and receiving antenna)

Figure 2-4 shows the configuration when the antennas are mounted in a height hT and hR (superscript T and R stand for transmitting and receiving antenna) over plane earth. Assuming that the earth is an ideal conductor and that d>>hT, hR follows the relationship between transmitted and received power as [Par92] PR h h = GTG R T 2 R PT d

2

(2.12)

This a equation shows an inverse fourth-power law with the range. This is very close to what can be measured in real environment where the path loss PL can be expressed as a function of distance by the power law using a path loss exponent [Rap96] d PL d 0

(2.13)

where d0 is the close-in reference distance which is determined from measurements close to the transmitter and d is the separation between receiver and transmitter. In urban environments is the path loss exponent typically between 3 and 5.

15

The real mobile environment is too complicated to calculate the path loss deterministic. Therefore is the path loss described by models which are derived by analytical and empirical methods. The empirical approach is based on fitting curves or analytical expressions that recreate a set of measured data. This has the advantage of implicitly taking into account all propagation factors, both known and unknown, through actual field measurements. Several models have established and are used to predict large-scale coverage for mobile communication systems design (e.g. Egli model, JRC method, Blomquist-Ladell model to name some). A detailed description of these models is beyond the scope of this report. The interested reader is referenced to [Par92].

If a radio wave propagates through the mobile environment then the signal received at a receiving antenna is composed of components which origin to different phenomena like diffraction, reflection and refraction. The term for this is multipath fading. Figure 2-5 shows the received signal strength which was measured in an indoor environment with a handset moving on a predefined path. The path losses can be split up into two parts. First there are the losses according to shadowing which is called slow fading. On the other hand the signal strength varies because the incoming waves have travelled over different distances and therefore they have different phases. These signal components can interfere in a constructive or destructive way which is called fast fading.

6 4 Received Power [dB over mean] 2 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 -10 -12 0 1 2 Time [s] 3 4 5

measured signal strength slow fading

Figure 2-5: Received signal strength and slow fading in an indoor environment

Slow fading is often called shadowing because hills and buildings are shadowing the radio wave. As the mean path loss is log-normal distributed another often used term for this kind of fading is lognormal fading. The dashed line in Figure 2-5 shows the trend of the slow fading in an indoor environment. The received signal can be expressed as E( t ) = m( t ) ro ( t ) where m(t) and ro(t) represent the slow and fast fading, respectively. The slow fading is extracted of the measured signal strength by building the local mean over a certain length. The length of the averaging window has to be adjusted to the environment. If the window length is chosen to short then the slow fading will still contain some parts of the fast fading. Otherwise if the window length is to long then the calculated fast fading will still contain parts of the slow fading,

(2.14)

16

which will change the probability distribution of the signal. E.g. a Rayleigh distribution will be changed into another distribution.

Fast fading is also known as short-term fading because due to the fast fading the signal strength at an antenna can change dramatically when the antenna is moved over a very short distance. The fast fading is caused by signal components coming to the receiving antenna from different directions. As they have travelled over different distances the phase of the signals at a certain receiving point will be randomly distributed. These signals will interfere constructively or destructively according to their phase relations. A typical distance between constructive and destructive interference is /2 where is the wavelength of the radio wave. The fast fading ro is calculated using equation 2.15

ro ( t ) = r ( t ) m( t )

[dB] (2.15)

where r(t) and m(t) are the measured signal and the slow fading, respectively. Figure 2-6 shows the fast fading in an indoor environment.

6 4 2 ast Fading [dB] 0 -2 -4 -6 -8

2 Time [s]

17

The distribution of amplitude and phase of the received signal can be deviated using the scattering model. Figure 2-7 shows the co-ordinates of the scattering model. In this model it is assumed that the received signal is composed of a big number of components with amplitude Cn, phase n and spatial angles n and n which are random and statistical independent. The quadratic mean amplitude is given by E C2 n =

[ ]

E0 N

(2.16)

where E0 is a positive constant and N represents the number of incoming waves. The received field strength E(t) is E( t ) = with

2 E n ( t ) = C n cos o t [x 0 cos( n )cos( n ) + y 0 sin ( n )cos( n ) + z 0 sin ( n ) + n ]

(2.18)

E (t)

n n =1

(2.17)

where x0, y0 and z0 represent the position of the receiving antenna in the co-ordinate system and 0=2f0, where f0 is the frequency of the radio waves. If we assume that the receiver is moving with the speed v in the xy-plane in a direction enclosing the angle with the x-axis then the co-ordinates of the receiver are given by x 0 = v cos( ) y 0 = v sin( )

(2.19)

E( t ) = I( t ) cos(0 t ) + Q( t ) sin (0 t )

(2.20)

where I(t) and Q(t) are the in-phase and quadrature components that could be received by a suitable receiver. I( t ) =

C

n =1 N n =1

cos(n t + n ) sin(n t + n )

(2.21)

Q( t ) = with n =

(2.22)

(2.23) (2.24)

n=2fn is the Doppler shift experienced by the nth component. If z0 is different from 0 then the first part of equation 2.24 is the projection of the phase into the phase reference lying in the xy-plane. If there is a high number of incoming waves and there is no dominating wave then follows by the central limit theorem that I(t) and Q(t) are independent Gaussian processes. As the mean values of I(t) and Q(t) are zero, follows that the mean value of the envelope is also zero. I(t) and Q(t) have the same

18

variance 2 which is equal to their mean power. The PDF of the in-phase and quadrature component can be written as px ( x ) = 1 2

x2 22

(2.25)

where x = I(t) or Q(t) and 2=E0/N. The envelope r(t) and the phase (t) are given by equations 2.26 and 2.27. r ( t ) = I 2 ( t ) + Q2 ( t ) Q( t ) ( t ) = arctan I( t )

(2.26) (2.27)

Since like mentioned before I(t) and Q(t) have zero mean and the same variance is the joint probability density function pIQ: p IQ = p I pQ p IQ ( I, Q) = 1 e 2 2

I +Q

2 2

(2.28)

22

(2.29)

Applying a co-ordinate transformation from pIQ(I,Q) to pr(r,) we get the joint PDF pr(r,)

r 2 2 . p r ( r , ) = e 2 2 1

(2.30)

The PDF of the phase p is derived by integrating pr(r,) over the envelope r. 1 p ( ) = p r ( r , )dr = 2 0 0

0 2 otherwise

(2.31)

As you can see is the incoming phase uniform distributed. In the same way we get the PDF of the envelope pr. r 2 p r ( r ) = p r ( r, )d = 2 e 0

2

r2

(2.32)

Equation 2.32 is well known as Rayleigh distribution. The mean value E[r], the mean square value E[r] and the standard deviation A of the Rayleigh distribution are given by E[r ] = rp r ( r )dr =

E r 2 = r 2 p r ( r )dr = 22

0

[ ]

(2.33)

(2.34)

A = E r 2 E 2 [r ] = 2 . 2

[ ]

(2.35)

19

Figure 2-8: PDF of the Rayleigh distribution; 1=median (50% value), 1,1774, 2=mean value, 1,2533, 3=RMS value, 1,41

Rician Fading

In the deviation above we assumed that there is no dominating signal like it is in a non line of sight situation. Is there a line of sight between transmitting and receiving antenna then there will be one dominating signal. Therefore the mean I(t) and Q(t) will be different from zero and there will be less deep fades. In this case the joint PDF of pr(r,) is according to [Par92]

r p r ( r , ) = e 2 2 r 2 + rs2 2 rrs cos ( ) 22

(2.36)

where rs is the envelope of the dominant signal. By integrating over we get the PDF of the envelope pr(r). r pr ( r ) = 2 e

r 2 + rs2 22

rrs I0 2

(2.37)

I0(.) is the modified Bessel function of the first kind and zero order, which is given by I0 ( x ) =

x 2n . 2n n = 0 2 n! n!

(2.38)

The distribution function defined in equation 2.37 is called Rician distribution. Therefore this kind of fading is often referred to as Rician fading. An alternative form of the Rician distribution is given by equation 2.40, where the Rician factor K (equation 2.39) represents the ratio of the power in the dominant signal to the power in the multipath (random) components. rs2 K = 10 log 2 2

K 10

K

(2.39)

pr ( r ) =

2 r10 e rs2

10 10 rs2

(r

+ rs2

K ) 2 r1010

I0

rs2

(2.40)

20

Figure 2-9 shows the PDF of the Rician distribution for different values of K. If K goes to 0 the PDF becomes the form of the Rayleigh distribution and if K>>1 then the Rician distribution looks like a Gaussian distribution with mean rs.

The PDF of the phase p() at the presence of a dominating signal results by integrating equation 2.36 over the envelope r [Par92].

rs 1 2 2 1 + p ( ) = e 2

2

rs cos() s e 2

r 2 cos2 ( ) 2 2

r cos() 1 + erf s 2

(2.41)

0 x t2

dt .

(2.42)

If rs/ tends to zero then the resulting phase will be uniform distributed in the interval [0;2[. If rs/>>1 then the phase will be determined by the phase of the dominating signal.

If the distance between transmitter and receiver changes then the phase position of the received signal will also change. Figure 2-10 shows a mobile receiver which is moving with the speed v from A to B. During the time t travels the receiver a distance d=vt. This leads to a change of the path length between transmitter and receiver of l=dcos(). The received phase changes in the time t by = 2vt cos( ) .

(2.43)

This means that the phase changes over the time, which can be expressed by a frequency shift. This frequency shift fD is called Doppler frequency and can be expressed by fD = 1 d = f m cos( ) 2 dt

(2.44)

(2.45)

21

The extreme values of the Doppler frequency (fD=+fm and fD=-fm) result when the mobile station is moving directly towards the transmitting antenna or in the opposite direction. In the case that the moving mobile station receives a lot of different signal components from different directions then the signal components will experience a different frequency shift according to their direction . Because of this a continuous wave transmitted from a base station will have a spreaded spectrum of the bandwidth 2fm at the moving receiver. This spectrum has a specific form according to the environment and the antenna characteristics and is called Doppler spectrum. Assuming that the received signal is composed of many components (like in the chapter before) so that the power density is continuous distributed in the area [, + d] then is the power coming from this direction p(). Using a receiving antenna with a horizontal directivity pattern G2() results in a received power S() in the angle area d S( )d = AG 2 ( ) p()d

(2.46)

where A is a constant which depends on the path loss and the transmitting power of the base station. The power spectrum S(f ) = Ap( )G 2 ( ) fm f f0 1 f m

2

(2.47)

results by a variable transformation. f0 in equation 2.47 is the transmitting frequency. Assuming the incoming components are uniformly distributed over the angle area =[0; 2[ and a vertical monopole with an omnidirecitonal horizontal directivity pattern G2()=1.5 as receiving antenna the Doppler spectrum is given by equation 2.48 and will have the bath tube form shown in Figure 2-11. S(f ) = 4f m 3A f f0 1 f m

2

(2.48)

The deviation above is assumed on the Clark model, where uniformly distributed incoming signals over the angle area =[0; 2[ with an elevation angle =0 (horizontally waves) are assumed. Models with more complicated distributions of the incoming signals can be found in [Par92] page 116 to 120.

22

Because of the multipath propagation will the mobile station receive signals with different delays which means that there is time dispersion. A short impulse (t) transmitted from a base station will lead to a certain number of impulses with different attenuation at the mobile station. The channel impulse response h(t) can be written as h( t ) =

a ( t )

n n n =1

(2.49)

where an and n is the attenuation and the delay of the nth signal. N is the total number of incoming signals. Typical channel impulse responses for different areas are shown in Figure 2-12. If the n have about the length of the bit duration there will be inter symbol interference which makes it more difficult to detect the transmitted information. Equalisers are used to reduce this problem. For example the equaliser in a GSM handset must be able to deal with delays of up to 16 s or 4 bits. A measure for the in a channel impulse response occurring delays is the delay spread which is defined as the second central moment of the delay power spectrum |h(t)|2:

(t t ) h( t) h( t) dt

2 2 2 2

dt

(2.50)

t h( t) dt . t= h( t) dt

2

(2.51)

23

a) rural area

Time [s]

b) hilly terrain

Relative Power [dB]

Time [s]

c) typical urban

Relative Power [dB] Time [s] Figure 2-12: Typical, for GSM specified channel impulse responses

Table 2-1: Typical delay spreads

Table 2-1 shows typical delay spreads for different environments. The delay spread is for transmitting frequencies above 30 MHz nearly independent because in this frequency range all the potential reflectors are large compared to the wave length. If the number of reflectors is stable then the path length and the delays will remain stable too. A measure for the lowest bandwidth where signal distortions through big delay spreads can occur is the coherence bandwidth Bc. Bc tells the frequency distance between two signals where the attenuation of these signals can be said as uncorrelated. This means that the correlation coefficient (f,) is lower than a given value (for example 0,5 according to [Lee93]).

The term diversity means the quality of having variety. In the context of radio signals this means having choice between different signals. The basic idea is to get the transmitted information from different statistical independent fading channels. The probability that there is a deep fade at the same time in two uncorrelated propagation paths is very low. This can be seen in Figure 3-1.

0

Patch Antenna Dipol Antenna

-2

-4

-6

-8

-10

-12

0.5

1 Time [s]

1.5

2.5

Figure 3-1: Received signal strength of patch and dipol antenna in an indoor environment (correlation coefficient of the fast fading FF=-0,2)

3.1.1 Space Diversity

Space Diversity can be used in base stations and in mobile equipment. The idea is that the fast fading at two separated antennas is uncorrelated if the antennas have a certain distance. The necessary distance between the antennas is significantly larger for base stations due to the different surroundings of mobile and base station. Normally the antenna of a base station is mounted much higher than the height of the mobile antenna. Therefore the base station antenna is clear of its surroundings whereas the mobile unit antenna is embedded in them. Figure 3-2 show the different environments for base and mobile station.

25

26

Figure 3-2: The different environments at the base station and the mobile station

The correlation of the signal envelope r(d) between two separated antennas is [Lee98]

2 2 d r (d ) = J 0

(3.1)

where d is the distance between the antennas, is the wavelength of the radio wave and J0(.) is the Bessel function of the first kind zeroth order. In Figure 3-3 r(d) is plotted over d/. The first minimum of r(d) is at d0,4. This means that two identical antennas with the same polarisation of a mobile operating in the 1800 MHz band should be separated by 6 cm.

1 0.9 Normalised correlation coefficient 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 0.5 1 d/ 1.5 2

Figure 3-3: The normalised correlation coefficient over the separation of the antennas

Signals transmitted in different polarisations will exhibit uncorrelated fading statistics in a mobile radio environment. This can be used in a diversity scheme. Therefor the mobile unit needs two antennas which are orthogonally polarised. Using polarisation diversity does the distance between the two antennas not matter. In non line of sight conditions it is not necessary to transmit in both polarisation because there will exist both possible polarisations at the mobile station through the cross coupling in the mobile radio environment.

27

Another possibility to get uncorrelated signals at the mobile station is to use antennas with different antenna patterns. Figure 3-4 shows the antenna patterns in the XY-plane for the dipole and patch antenna of the handset used for measuring the channel data for this project. It can be seen that the antenna patterns for both polarisations are quite different. The correlation of the fast fading will be low because the incoming signals will be weighted in a different way according to their angel of arrival and polarisation. a)

90 35 120 30 25 20 150 15 10 5 180 0 180 30 150 15 10 5 0 60 120

b)

90 35 30 25 20 30 60

210

330

210

330

300

300

Figure 3-4: XY-plane of the simulated antenna patterns of the dipole (a) and patch (b) antenna of the modified test handset; dashed line represents polarisation E, solid line represents polarisation E and dotted line represents |E|+|E|; (user present looking towards 270, handset inclined by 60)

When frequency diversity is used the same information is transmitted over several carriers with different frequencies. If the used radio environment is frequency selective then the sufficiently spaced carriers will face uncorrelated fading. The correlation of the transmission coefficient for two frequencies is statistical dependent on their distance. This dependency can be evaluated by applying the Fourier transformation to the auto correlation of the mean impulse response [Par92]. Figure 3-5 shows the frequency correlation over frequency separation in an indoor environment. In this case the frequency separation should be at least 4,6 MHz if a correlation of 0,5 is assumed to be less enough to achieve a sufficient diversity gain. One benefit of frequency hopping which is used by some GSM network operators is frequency diversity. As discussed in Section 1.6.2 is the transmitted information spread over several bursts and even if one burst has a very high bit error rate due to a deep fade is it possible to determine the correct data bits due to the information in the other bursts. Since the chosen frequencies have to be uncorrelated is the probability very high that a slow moving user who is in a deep fade during one burst using one frequency will not be in a deep fade in the following burst where another frequency is used.

28

1 0.9 0.8 Frequency correlation 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 5 10 15 Frequency separation [MHz] 20

In a system using time diversity the same information is transmitted at different times. The channel is uncorrelated for two different time points when the mobile station is moving because the distance between two fades is very short. The performance of time diversity increases with increasing speed of the mobile unit. Note that no additional hardware is necessary for using time diversity.

The gain achieved by using a diversity scheme depends a lot on the method used for combining the received signals. For the discussion of the different combining techniques we assume space, polarisation or pattern diversity where a several number of antennas is used.

Switched Combining is the combining technique with the lowest effort in hardware. Only an antenna switch is needed. The algorithm switches to another antenna if the signal quality falls below a certain threshold. The threshold is determined as a kind of local mean.

Antennas

29

A receiver for each antenna is necessary if selection combining is used. The signal with the highest signal to noise ratio (SNR) is selected in the base band for further use. The SNR of selection combining is never higher than the SNR of the best signal because the signals of the non-chosen antennas are discarded. Antennas RX RX RX ... RX Receiver Selection Logic Output

Figure 3-7: Selection Combining

A system using maximum ratio combining weights the signals of the antennas according to their SNR, aligns their phases in the base band and adds them. This method is the best combining technique if only noise is present. A drawback of maximum ratio combining is the huge amount of calculations which are necessary to determine the correct weight setting. Antennas Adjustable Amplifiers RX RX RX ... RX Receiver phase correct summation and weight generation Output

Figure 3-8: Selection Combining

A simpler method than maximum ratio combining with nearly the same performance is equal gain combining. This combining method aligns only the phases of the base band signals before adding them.

All the combining techniques mentioned above improve only the SNR. Optimum combining has the same structure like maximum ratio combining. The difference is that in optimum combining the weights are chosen in that way that the signal to interferer and noise ratio (SINR) is maximised.

30

In this paragraph the principle of optimum combining is explained and a mathematical relation for the weights is derived. In Figure 3-9 a block diagram of an M antenna element adaptive array can be seen. The complex baseband signal received by the ith antenna element in the kth sampling interval xi(k) is multiplied by a controllable complex weight wi. The array output y(k) is then formed by summing the weighted signals. The optimum weights are the ones that minimise the SINR (Signal to Interferer and Noise Ratio).

(k)

y(k)

Array Output

Let the complex weight vector w be given by w1 w 2 w= w M and the received complex signal vector x is given by: x1 x 2 x= x M

(3.2)

(3.3)

The received signal consists of the desired signal, thermal noise and interfering signals. This can be expressed as: x = xd + xn +

x

j=1

(3.4)

where xd, xn and x are the received desired signal, noise, and jth interfering signal vectors, respectively, and L is the number of interferers. Furthermore, let sd(k) and s (k) be the desired and jth interfering signals as they are transmitted, respectively, with

2 E sd =1

[ ]

(3.5)

31

E s2 j =1

[ ]

for 1 j L.

(3.6)

u s ( k)

j j j=1

(3.7)

where ud and u are the desired and jth interfering signal propagation vectors, respectively. The error signal (k) is given by ( k ) = r ( k ) y( k )

(3.8)

where r(k) is the kth sample of the reference signal and y(k) is the output of the antenna array at the kth sample. Writing y(k) as the weighted sum of the input signals (3.8) becomes ( k ) = r ( k ) w T x( k ) where superscript T denotes transpose. The square absolute value of (k) is: ( k ) = r ( k ) r * ( k ) 2 r ( k ) w T x * ( k ) + w T x( k ) x T ( k ) w where the superscripts * denotes conjugate. Taking the expected values of ( k ) gives E ( k )

2 2

(3.9)

(3.10)

] = r( k )r ( k) 2 w r

* T

xr

+ w T R xx w

(3.11)

where the line above r(k)r*(k) means the mean value of this expression and rxr is x * ( k )r ( k) 1 * x 2 ( k)r ( k) rxr = * x ( k ) r ( k ) M

(3.12)

and Rxx is the received signals (desired and interfering signals plus noise) correlation matrix and which is given by = E x d + x n +

R xx

xj j=1

L

xd + xn +

xj j=1

L

(3.13)

Assuming the noise and interfering signals are uncorrelated, it can be shown that

T 2 R xx = u* d ud + I +

E[u u ]

L * j T j j=1

(3.14)

32

The weights which minimise ( k ) and maximise the SINR are found by solving w E ( k ) Since w E ( k )

([

]) = 0 .

xr

(3.15)

([

]) = 2r

+ R xx w

(3.16)

follows that the optimum choice for the weights must satisfy

1 w = R xx rxr

(3.17)

where superscript 1 denotes the inverse of the matrix. In the optimal case where the cross correlation between the desired signal and noise and interfering signal is zero, is rxr u * d

(3.18)

Remembering that multiplying w with a constant does not affect the SINR at the array output we can write the equation for the optimum weights

1 * w = R xx u d .

(3.19)

where is a constant. [Win84] comes up with a slightly different formula for calculating the optimum weights which results in another scaling of the weights which does not affect the output SINR of the antenna array [Boc99]. Winters suggests the use of a noise and interferer correlation matrix which is given by R nn = I +

2

E[u u ]

L * T j j j=1

(3.20)

1 * w = R nn u d

(3.21)

where is a constant again. Two different algorithms to gain the optimum weights are mentioned in this project. The first called algorithm A is based on equations 3.14 and 3.17 whereas the second called algorithm B is based on the weight formulas from Winters (equations 3.20 and 3.21).

33

3.3.1 Algorithm A

Algorithm A is based on equations 3.14 and 3.17. The optimum weights calculated by algorithm A are given by

1 xr w=R xx r

(3.22)

x ( j)x

* j=1

( j)

(3.23)

where K is the number of samples used. The estimated received signal cross correlation vector is given by xr = r 1 K

x ( j)r( j)

* j=1

(3.24)

The only available reference signal in GSM is the 26 bit long training sequence. As a GMSK modulated bit has an impulse response which is at least 3 bit long (see Appendix A) are the first two bits of the received training sequence distorted by the two preceding bits. Therefore is it not possible to use the first two bits of the training sequence as part of the reference signal. So the reference signal is just 24 bits long. Note that algorithm A does not need any information about the interfering signal in order to calculate the optimum weights but it is necessary to know the received signals at all antennas in order to xx and r xr . This makes two complete receiver chains necessary (see Appendix E). The aim calculate R of this project is to find an algorithm which needs only one receiver. Therefore is it not possible to use algorithm A for this project.

3.3.2 Algorithm B

To deal with the problem mentioned above the following on the formula of Winters [Win84] based method is used. The estimated noise and interferer matrix is given by nn = 2I + R and the weights are calculated by

1 * d w = R nn u

u u

* j j=1

T j

(3.25)

(3.26)

2 , the estimated propagation vector of the wanted signal d and the where estimated noise power estimated propagation vector of the interfering signal j are determined from the output of the antenna array as described in Chapter 4 Signal Estimation. In the case of only two antennas is it possible to scale the weights using equation 3.27 in that way that one weight equals always one. Doing this demands only one controllable amplifier and one phase shifter in the receiver.

(3.27)

In the Section 3.3.2 Algorithm B which describes the Algorithm B is shown that it is necessary to know the noise power and the propagation vectors of wanted and interfering signal at the input of the antenna system in order to calculate the optimum weights. As these parameters cannot be measured exactly they have to be estimated. In the first part of this section it is described, how the signal looks like and how it is composed for the simulation. Then in Sections 4.2 to 4.6 it is mentioned how the different parameters of the received signal can be estimated and which estimation error is made by using these methods.

The signal used in the receiver for estimating the parameters needed for calculating the weights consists of the wanted burst, the signal from the interfering base station and white gaussian noise. The amplitude and phase of the wanted and interfering signals will be different because both base stations can transmit with different powers and the propagation channels are different. The amplitude of the interfering signal will with a high probability be lower than that of the wanted because the distance to the interfering base station is larger. The bursts of the wanted and the interfering base station will start at different times because the base stations in GSM systems are not synchronised. For evaluating the estimation errors by the suggested algorithms, the signals are modelled as follows. For the interfering and wanted signal are GMSK modulated GSM bursts with 4 samples per bit with different training sequences used. Figure 4-1 shows the structure and the phase course of one GSM Burst. The 2 blocks with the 58 random bits stand for the 57 data bits and the stealing bit of a normal burst in GSM. Since the base stations in the GSM system are not synchronised it is unlikely that the training sequences of the wanted signal and the interferer occur at the same time. To take this into account is the burst of the interfering signal shifted by 50 Bits (see Figure 4-2). If the training sequences of wanted and interfering signal would overlap the estimation of the signals would be disturbed by the same bit sequence every time which leads to the same estimation error especially when the noise level is very low. In this case it is no use to average over a number of bursts to get a realistic measure for the estimation errors. The noise is modelled by a random signal which has a Gaussian distributed amplitude and a zero mean value. The phase of the noise is uniformly distributed between 0 and 2. Figure 4-3 shows how the input signal of the estimators is composed of wanted signal, attenuated interfering signal and noise.

35

36

a)

3 tail bits 58 random bits 26 bit TS 3 tail bits GP 58 random bits

b)

360 180 0 Phase [] -180 -360 -540 -720 -900 0

TS GP

50 Bit Number

Training Sequence Guard Period (shortened to 2 bits)

100

150

3 tail bits GP 3 tail bits 58 random bits 26 bit TS 58 random bits 58 random bits

3 tail bits

58 random bits

26 bit TS

58 random bits

58 random bits

Shifted Burst:

RB

26 bit TS

58 random bits

random bits

TS GP RB

The sequence of the 148 transmitted bits (3 tail bits + 57 data bits + 1 steeling bit + 26 bit training sequence + 1 steeling bit + 57 data bits +3 tail bits) has the duration of 150 bits because the impulse response of the GMSK modulator (which lasts several bits) is 3 bits long in the GSM transceiver (see Appendix A for details). So the last tail bit (bit number 148) will although cause an output at bit number 149 and 150 where actually no data is transmitted. In order to show this are the first two bits of the 8,25 bit long guard period also plotted in the graph. The guard period does not influence the quality of the results in this chapter because the estimation algorithm uses only the areas where the training sequences are located.

37

3 tail bits

3 tail bits GP 58 random bits Training sequence 0 (26 Bit) 58 random bits

Wanted Burst

Phase [] Amplitude

1.5 1 0.5 0

50

Bit Number

100

150

50

Bit Number

100

150

Burst Structure

Interfering Burst

58 random bits

46 random bits

Phase [] Amplitude

50

Bit Number

100

150

Phase [] Amplitude

Noise

50

Bit Number

100

150

Phase [] Amplitude

Entire Burst

50

Bit Number

100

150

50

Bit Number

100

150

GP

Figure 4-3: Composition of input signal for estimators (C/I=10dB, C/N=20dB)2 (the phase is limited to 180)

In reality the power of the interfering burst can change after bit number 101 (e. g. when the interfering base station is not transmitting in this time slot or power control is implemented). In this chapter we are only interested in the parts of the bursts, where the training sequences are placed, so there is no effect on the estimation error if the power of the interferer is chosen equal for both overlapping time slots. The case of different interferer powers is mentioned in Section 4.5.2.

38

The propagation vector (amplitude and phase) of the wanted signal is calculated by correlating the received signal with the modulated training sequence from the wanted base station. The phase and amplitude of the highest correlation peak is taken as an estimate for the propagation vector of the wanted signal. The received signal shown at the bottom of Figure 4-3 consists of noise, the wanted signal and one interfering burst. This can be represented by the received signal vector

x = xd + x n + xi

(4.1)

where xd is the modulated burst of the wanted signal containing the training sequence and random data bits. xn is the sampled noise and xi is a modulated burst from the interfering burst containing the training sequence of the interfering base station and random data. The interfering signal uses a different training sequence compared to the wanted signal, as specified in GSM where base stations which use the same frequency set use different training sequences. The correlation vector c of the received signal x with the training sequence r is calculated by c ( p) = 1 K

x ( j + 5)r( j)

* j=1

L +1 p L 1

(4.2)

where K is the number of samples in the training sequence and p is the lag between the received signal x and the training sequence r. As the GMSK modulated bursts are modelled with 4 samples per bit (Appendix A) is K=64 for the 16 bit long center part of the GSM training sequence. Only the 16 center bits of the 26 bit long training sequence are used as reference because the first and the last 5 bits are just the cyclic continuation of the center part (Appendix C) and the estimate of the channel is better if only the center of the training sequence is used. L is the number of samples of the entire received Burst. Because only the correlation of the stored with the received training sequence is of interest the received signal x can be reduced to the part containing this sequence. Figure 4-4 shows the correlation of a GSM Burst with the according training sequence and how amplitude and phase of the propagation vector is estimated. Note that Figure 4-4 shows the correlation of the stored training sequence with the entire received burst. Is the position of the maximum absolute value of c in vector c, then the estimated propagation vector of the wanted signal d is given by

d = c( ) . u

(4.3)

Figure 4-5 shows the mean amplitude estimation error for the desired signal over interferer and noise power. Figure 4-6 shows the mean phase estimation error over interferer and noise power. The mean amplitude error is lower than 15% as far as the power of the interfering signal is more than 1dB below the wanted signal. The noise power has no big influence on the estimation error. If the noise level is low the phase can be estimated with an error below 5 degrees if the interferer is more than 5dB below the wanted signal. An assumption for the simulation of the estimation errors is that the training sequences of wanted and interfering signal do not overlap. In the case that the training sequences overlap is the estimation error of the wanted signal a bit higher.

39

100

200

300

400

500

600

180 Phase of c(p) [] 90 estimated phase 0 -90 -180 0 100 200 p Figure 4-4: Estimation of amplitude and phase of the propagation vector using the correlation of the burst with his training sequence (only the part where c(p ) is different from 0 is showed) 300 400 500 600

Figure 4-5: Mean amplitude estimation error for the wanted signal over interferer and noise power3

The data points of this graph are interpolated using linear interpolation and the marked points. The mean error is built over 100 bursts.

40

Figure 4-6: Mean phase estimation error for the wanted signal over interferer and noise power4

Normally the power of the interfering signal is much lower than the power of the wanted signal. So the cross correlation of the data bits of the wanted signal with the training sequence of the interfering signal is larger than the correlation of the received interfering signal with its training sequence. Therefore the amount of the wanted signal in the received burst has to be removed before the estimation of the interferer can be made. In Section 5.2 Necessary Changes in the Receiver you can see that the wanted signal is already removed in the signal which is used for estimating the x used for estimating the propagation vector of the interfering signal and the noise power. The signal ~ interferer then can be written as

~ dsd x =xu

(4.4)

where x is the received signal as described in equation 4.1, d is the estimated propagation vector of the wanted signal and sd is the normalised modulated wanted data burst. In this estimation it is assumed that there are no bit errors and therefore

dsd . xd u

(4.5)

The amplitude and phase of the wanted signal's propagation vector is determined as described for the x as input. wanted signal in the previous chapter using ~

The data points of this graph are interpolated using linear interpolation and the marked points. The mean error is built over 100 bursts.

41

Figure 4-7: Mean amplitude estimation error for the interfering signal over interferer and noise power5

Figure 4-8: Mean phase estimation error for the wanted signal over interferer and noise power5

Figure 4-7 and 4-8 show that it is possible to get rather good estimates of the interferer's propagation vector if the power of the interferer is equal or higher than the noise power. It is no problem that the estimation is very weak if the noise is larger than the interference because the interfering signal has hardly any influence on the optimum weights if the noise is larger than the interfering signal. The slight bathtub form of the estimation error over the interferer power is due to the increasing error of the estimation of the wanted propagation vector with increasing interferer power which affects the estimation of the interfering propagation vector because of equation 4.4.

The data points of this graph are interpolated using linear interpolation and the marked points. The mean error is built over 100 bursts.

42

If the position of the interfering training sequence is known the length of the sequence which has to be correlated can be reduced to the training sequence plus a few bits. So in order to reduce the amount of calculations it is a good idea to determine the position of the interfering training sequence before applying the correlation with the training sequence. A good method of determining the position of the interfering burst is to make the mean of a certain number of bursts with removed wanted signal. The kth sample of the mean burst is given by x( k ) = 1 N 1 ~ x ( m i, k ) N i =0

(4.6)

where ~ x ( m i, k ) is the kth sample of the (m-i)th received burst with removed wanted signal (given by equation 4.4), m is the number of the actual burst and N is the number of bursts which are used for averaging. Doing this the amplitude of the parts of the burst containing data bits will become very low because of their randomness, whereas the training sequence will not be affected. The position of the interfering training sequence is at the maximum of x ( k ) which is given by x( k ) =

x ((L + i)

K i =1

mod L

(4.7)

where L is the number of samples of the whole burst and K is the number of samples of the 26 bit long training sequence. The operation (L+i) modulo L in the argument of x is necessary in order to detect an interfering training sequence which is placed like in Figure 4-10 at page 44. Is the position of the interfering training sequence known it can be tracked easily by following the movement of the correlation peak. Figure 4-9 shows x ( k ) for N=25. The dashed line shows the local mean value over the length of the training sequence x( k ) . The area with high mean amplitude around bit number 100 is caused by the tail bits of the interfering signal which are 3 zeros at the beginning and end of every burst. Note that the local peak of x( k ) caused by the tail bits is much lower than the peak caused by the training sequence.

Absolute Values of mean over 25 Bursts (wanted signal removed) 0.4 0.3 Amplitude 0.2 0.1 0 0 50 100 Bit Number Mean phase over 25 Bursts (wanted signal removed) 150

Figure 4-9: Mean absolute value and phase of 25 Bursts with removed wanted signal. The dashed line shows the local mean value over the length of the training sequence x ( k ) .

43

It is possible to assume that the relative distance between the training sequences of wanted and interfering signal changes very slowly because the oscillators used at the base stations are very stable (absolute frequency accuracy better than 0,05 ppm [GSM0510]). That means that with a frequency of f0 = 900 MHz the frequency of the local oscillator is within 900 MHz 45 Hz. The maximum time drift per oscillation between two base stations t d max = 1 1 f1 f 2

(4.8)

occurs when the oscillator of one base station has the frequency

f1 = f 0 + 45Hz

(4.9)

and the oscillator of the other base station has the frequency

f 2 = f 0 45Hz.

(4.10)

The number of periods during a burst n of an oscillator with a center frequency f0 is given by

n = TFrame f 0 .

(4.11)

Where TFrame = 4,615 ms is the duration between two bursts. Finally the number of bursts m until the distance between the two training sequences has changed by one bit is (note that this is the worst case) m= TBit = 8000 n t d max

(4.12)

As the base stations in GSM are not synchronised is it possible that the bursts of interfering and wanted base station have such a position that it is very hard or even impossible to estimate the propagation vector of the interfering signal. If this situation occurs it lasts for a long time because the clocks of the base stations are very stable. The constellations which cause problems are: Only a part of the interfering training sequence is received during the wanted burst (see Figure 4-10). In this case the training sequence for the estimation must be constructed by use of the overlapping parts of the training sequences of the bursts Tx and Tx+1. The interfering base station changes the transmitter power during the reception of the wanted burst (see Figures 4-13 and4-14). In this case the interfering signal would be estimated much lower than it actually is for nearly half of the burst. Especially if the transmitting power is zero during Tx+1.

In the next two sections it is described how these problems are dealt.

44

4.5.1 Only a part of the interfering training sequence overlaps with the wanted burst

If the training sequences of the interfering signal are located as shown in Figure 4-10 and the interfering base station is transmitting in both overlapping time slots than a training sequence for the estimation can be constructed using the overlapping parts of bursts Tx and Tx+1 as shown in Figure 4-11.

3 tail bits GP 58 random bits 26 bit TS #0 58 random bits 3 tail bits GP

Wanted Burst

26 bit TS #1

58 random bits

GP

58 random bits

26 bit TS #1

Interfering Burst Tx

TS #0 Training Sequence 0 TS #1 Training Sequence 1 GP Guard Period (8,25 bits)

Figure 4-10: Only a part of the interfering training sequence is received during the wanted burst

3 tail bits 58 random bits 26 bit TS #0 58 random bits 3 tail bits GP

Wanted Burst

26 bit TS #1

58 random bits

GP

58 random bits

26 bit TS #1

Interfering Burst Tx

TS #0 Training Sequence 0 TS #1 Training Sequence 1 GP Guard Period (8,25 bits) Zeros

Figure 4-11: Construction of sequence for estimation if only a part of the interfering training sequence is received during the wanted burst

Because of the power ramping in the guard period (see Figure 1-6 at page 5) it is not known, how the signal of the wanted base station looks like during this time. Therefore the part of the training sequence of Tx+1 which is sent during the guard period must be discarded and replaced by zeros. Zeroing a part of the training sequence reduces just the value of the estimated amplitude, whereas the phase estimation is still correct. The same goes if the power of the interfering bursts changes. Note that as long as the system is limited by interference are the optimum weights for the algorithm described in Section 3.3.2 Algorithm B only determined by the relation of the amplitudes and the phase of the interfering signal at the antennas. The relation of the amplitudes keeps the same because the systematically estimation error of the amplitudes, which is caused by using a training sequence with varying amplitudes or missing parts, is the same for all antennas. Figure 4-12 shows that the phase, estimated by the autocorrelation (as described in Section 4.2), is correct even if up to 14 bits at the beginning or end of the training sequence are zeroed. Further this figure shows that the phase error is still very low if 17 bits are zero. Therefore it is even possible to estimate the interferer if the interfering base station transmits only in the time slot Tx or Tx+1. As long as at least 9 bits of the training sequence of this time slot overlap with the wanted time slot. If less than 9 bits overlap there is still the possibility to estimate the interferer in the idle burst every 120 ms by increasing the size of the receiving window. This is not possible if the interfering base station has the idle burst at the same time (the probability therefor is 3,84%).

45

Estimated Amplitude

1.5 1 0.5 0 25

20

10

10

15

20

25

90 45 0 -45 -90 25 20 15 10 5 0 5 10 15 20 25

Figure 4-12: Estimated amplitude and phase error if the estimation is based on a training sequence with several zeroed bits at the beginning or end of the sequence6.

Of course will the combining gain be very low if the interfering signal is only estimated every 120ms. Is a system with two antennas used (as it is shown in Figure 5-4 at page 52)) then it is necessary to switch between the two antennas after the half duration of the training sequence in order to get an estimation of the propagation vector of the interferer at both antennas. Assumed that we receive the first part of the training sequence using antenna 1 and the second part using antenna 2. The received signal rx is then u 1s 1 u1s13R rx = . u 2 s13R +1 u 2 s 26R

(4.13)

Where R is the sampling rate of the receiver, u1, u2 are the propagation vectors of the interfering signal for antenna 1 and 2, respectively and s1 to s26R are the samples of the interfering training sequence.

Note that this figure shows only the systematic error which is made when only a part of the training sequence is used for the estimation algorithm described in Section 4.2. There will be an additional error due to noise and imperfect estimation of the wanted signal if the propagation vector of the interfering signal is estimated.

46

After splitting up this received signals into the parts received by each antenna rx1, rx2 and filling the missing parts of the training sequence with zeros, we get s1 s13R rx1 = u1 0 0 and 0 0 rx1 = u 2 . s 13 R 1 + s 26R

(4.14)

(4.15)

According to Figure 4-12 is it possible to estimate the amplitude and the phase of the interferer's propagation vector for both antennas. It is only necessary to multiply the resulting amplitude with 2 because the estimated signal has only the half amplitude if one half of the training sequence is used for the estimation.

3 tail bits 58 random bits 26 bit TS #0 58 random bits 3 tail bits GP

Wanted Burst

26 bit TS #1

58 random bits

GP

58 random bits

26 bit TS #1

GP

Time

TS #0 Training Sequence 0 TS #1 Training Sequence 1 GP Guard Period (8,25 bits)

Figure 4-13: Change of the transmitting power of the interfering base station during the wanted time slot (transmitting power in TSx is higher than in TSx+1)

47

A further constellation which causes additional estimation errors is shown in Figure 4-13 and 4-14. The interfering base station changes the transmitting power between the two overlapping time slots.

3 tail bits 58 random bits 26 bit TS #0 58 random bits 3 tail bits GP

Wanted Burst

26 bit TS #1

58 random bits

GP

58 random bits

26 bit TS #1

58 random

Time

TS #0 Training Sequence 0 TS #1 Training Sequence 1 GP Guard Period (8,25 bits)

Figure 4-14: Change of the transmitting power of the interfering base station during the wanted time slot (transmitting power in TSx is lower than in TSx+1)

If e.g. the transmitting power in TSx is higher than in TSx+1 (like it is shown in Figure 4-13) then the estimated interferer amplitude will be smaller than it is actually for nearly half of the burst. This has no effect to the calculated weights as long as the strength of the interferer during TSx+1 is larger than the noise. It was mentioned above that in a interference limited system the weights only depend on the relation of the interferers' amplitudes and their phase at the antennas. The phase of the propagation vector will be the same for TSx and TSx+1 if the channel is assumed stable during both bursts. If the received power of the interferer in TSx+1 is smaller than the power of the noise, exists the possibility of estimating the phase of the interferer every burst during the training sequence of TSx+1. The amplitude can be estimated in the idle burst by using the training sequence of TSx. Again this is not possible if the interfering base station has the idle burst at the same time. If the interfering power is to low in order to get a useable estimation of the phase then it can be tried to estimate the phase and amplitude of the interferer's propagation vector only in the idle burst as it is described for the first problematic constellation above. The treatment of the constellation shown in Figure 4-14 is quite similar to the one mentioned before, only the meanings of TSx and TSx+1 have to be exchanged.

Despite to the propagation vectors of wanted and interfering signal the noise power changes very slowly. The noise power is determined by removing all known signals from the received signal and assuming that the rest is noise. The problem by doing this is that the estimated errors of the wanted and interfering signals can be larger than the noise. To get rid of the estimation error for the wanted signal, the noise could be estimated using only the idle bursts (burst number 25 in the 26 multiframe). In this burst only noise and interferer are received. The interferer can be estimated quite accurate when only noise is present. Using this information the training sequence of the interfering burst can be removed from the received signal. The result of this operation is a short sequence containing only noise. The variance of this short sequence is a measure for the noise power. The result is very inaccurate due to the shortness of the sequence used for the estimation. But making the average over a certain amount of such estimations increases the quality of the result significantly. E.g. averaging over 20 bursts which means a duration of 2,4s gives an estimation error better than 10%.

The first part of this chapter describes the parts of a GSM receiver and how they work together. Then in the second part is discussed, which modifications to the classical receiver are necessary in order to implement the algorithm suggested in Section 3.3.2 Algorithm B.

Figure 5-1 shows the structure of a heterodyne receiver from the antenna to the channel decoder as it can be used in a GSM handset. Not shown in this diagram are the blocks which are placed after the channel decoder. The receiver can be divided into several parts with specific functions. The parts will be discussed in the following sections. RF stage IF stage Quadrature stage Q(t) fRF LNA fIF

90 fIF

D e t e c t o r Equaliser

Digitalisation stage

B u f f e r

Deinterleaver

Decipher

Channel Estimation

A D C

Figure 5-1: Block diagram of a GSM receiver (doubled lines indicate complex signals)

49

50

5.1.1 RF Stage

In the RF stage is the received spectrum limited to approximately the bandwidth of the desired radio band and amplified with an Low Noise Amplifier. In order to reduce the demands on the dynamic range of the succeeding stages the gain of the LNA is often controlled by an Automatic Gain Control (AGC) [Raz96].

5.1.2 IF Stage

The channel selection is done in the IF stage. In this stage is the band of the desired channel mixed down to the IF. Then the signal is filtered by a channel filter. The frequency of the local oscillator is adjusted according to the center frequency of the desired channel using equation 5.1, where fCh is the center frequency of the desired channel. Note that the frequency of the local oscillator can be located above or below the desired band. f IF f Ch f LO = f IF + f Ch for f LO < f RF for f LO > f RF

(5.1)

In the quadrature stage is the signal split into the in-phase I(t) and the quadrature component Q(t). The in-phase and quadrature components result through the signal of the oscillator for the quadrature branch is phase shifted by 90 degrees.

The analog digital converter (ADC) samples the analog signal and converts it into a digital data stream. This data stream is stored in a buffer until the detection stage has detected the whole burst.

As mentioned in Section 2.2.4 there are delay spreads in GSM which can lead to intersymbol interference over several bits. Additionaly is ISI introduced by the GMSK modulation. Therefore it is necessary to equalise the delay spreads and the ISI due to the GMSK modulation before the symbols are detected. [Med99] shows that the received samples in the GSM system can be approximately modelled as the data bits being filtered by a cascade of two channels, whose impulse responses are hgmsk (due to differential coding and GMSK modulation) and hch due to the radio channel and other filtering operations. Hence the effective channel as seen by the source bits d(n) can be modelled as h eff = h gmsk h ch

(5.2)

where stands for the convolution. Assuming an ideal training sequence r(n) with an auto correlation given by

R (r ( n ), r ( n + k ) ) = ( k )

(5.3)

where r(n) is the nth sample of the training sequence, k is a time shift and (k) represents the delta function, is the effective channel impulse response as seen by the source bits given by

R (y( n ), r ( n + k ) ) = R ((d h eff )( n ), r ( n + k ) ) = h eff ( k )

(5.4)

where y(n) represents the nth received sample and d is the entire training sequence.

51

In the middle of each GSM normal burst is a 26 bit long training sequence placed. Figure 5-2 shows the autocorrelation of one of the eight training sequences calculated between the central 16 bits and the whole 26-bit sequence. All 8 training sequences have the probability that the correlation between the 16 bit long center part with the entire 26 bit sequence has a correlation peak with height 16 (see Appendix C). This peak is surrounded by five "0" on each side of the peak. This gives the possibility to estimate the impulse response of the effective channel.

20

15

10

-15

-10

-5

0 k

10

15

20

One possibility to do the equalisation and the sequence detection at once is the Viterbi detector which is shown in Figure 5-3. The channel model is implemented as a FIR filter whose parameters are gained by correlating the received with the stored training sequence. This channel model is then used for the entire burst which assumes that the channel is stable during the burst. The Viterbi algorithm adapts the estimated data sequence in that way that the difference between received burst and estimated burst reaches a minimum.

Input Burst

Data TS Data

Estimated Burst

Data TS Data

Channelmodel

TS

Training Sequence Figure 5-3: Viterbi detector (doubled lines indicate complex signals)

52

The detected data sequence is deciphered by applying an xor-operation with the ciphering key to the data bits. The correct succession of the bits is achieved by the de-interleaver which does the inverse proces as described in Section 1.6.2 Interleaving. The channel decoder removes the channel coding which is often done with a Viterbi decoder.

Several additional parts in the receiver structure are necessary in order to implement the combining algorithm suggested in Section 3.3.2 Algorithm B. Fortunately the changes are restricted to the RF stage and the detection stage. Figure 5-4 shows the adapted RF stage. As additional hardware is necessary: a second antenna an additional band-pass filter a LNA with adjustable gain a phase shifter a combiner fRF LNA1

fRF + fRF

Figure 5-4: Adapted RF stage

LNA2

The gain of the LNA and the phase shifter are controlled by the weight generation block in the detection stage. Note that the necessary gain for LNA2 depends on the gain of LNA1. If the with equation 3.27 calculated weight is ~ = 1 . w w ~ 2

(5.5)

~ is the weight for the antenna where the weight for the antenna branch containing LNA1 is 1 and w 2 branch containing the phase shifter and LNA2. The correct gain for LNA2 is then given by

~ g g2 = w 2 1

(5.6)

where g1 is the gain of LNA1. Note that the gain of LNA1 can change if it is controlled by an AGC. The other additional blocks are placed in the detection stage which is shown in Figure 5-5. For this section it is assumed that the detection stage is implemented with a Viterbi detector. As the whole detection stage is implemented in software there is only an increase of the necessary calculation power. The additional functional blocks in the detection stage are the signal estimation and the weight generation blocks.

53

Input Burst

Data TS Data

Estimated Burst

Data TS Data

Channelmodel

Weight Generation

d,u j, 2 u

x TS

Signal Estimation

~ x

TS

Training Sequence Figure 5-5: Adapted Viterbi detector (doubled lines indicate complex signals)

If the Viterbi algorithm has found the correct sequence for the estimated burst then is one of the two inputs for the signal estimation block the received burst with removed wanted signal ~ x . So every time when the Viterbi has found the bit sequence for the estimated burst which minimises the difference , is the difference burst ~ between the received burst x and the estimated burst x x fed into the signal estimation block. In this block is the propagation vector of the interfering signal d and in the case of 2 estimated as described in the Sections 4.3 and 4.6. The kth sample of an idle burst the noise power ~ the difference burst x can be expressed as

~ (k) . x( k) = x( k) x

(5.7)

The second input for the signal estimation block is the received signal during the training sequence of the wanted base station was received xTS. This information is used to estimate the propagation vector of the wanted signal d as described in Section 4.2. The weight generation block uses the results of the signal estimation block to calculate the weight set for the next burst.

This chapter describes the whole algorithm which is used for the simulation and which should be implemented in a handset. In the first part of this chapter the restrictions which are given by the chosen receiver structure and the GSM-system are discussed. Then is the block diagram of the algorithm explained.

6.1 Introduction

The optimum weights can be calculated in that case that there has been a change in the used weight set in two preceding bursts if a receiver structure as suggested in Section 5.2 is used1. This means that the estimation of the propagation vectors of the input signal lasts two bursts (about 9ms in a GSM system). The from this estimation calculated weights can be used for the first time in the following burst. The channel has to change slowly so that it is possible to achieve a remarkable gain with such a delay. Figure 6-2 show the trend of the optimum weights for one user moving slowly in an indoor environment. Only one of the two weights is shown as the other weight equals always one through the normalisation (equation 3.27). It can be seen that normally the optimum weights do not change desultory. The with 8 amplitude and 8 argument steps quantized optimum weight is often stable for several bursts. Based on the interleaving depth of 8 bursts in GSM is the idea to use sub optimal weights in one out of 8 bursts so that new optimum weights can be calculated. Figure 6-1 shows the trend of the SINR when the weights are updated every 8th burst. It can be seen that the output SINR is high after a new estimation and falls when the weights are used for a longer time. Sometimes it can happen that the output SINR is worse than the SINR at one of the input antennas (e.g. between burst number 40 and 50). This shows that it is necessary to adapt the weights when the SINR is getting worse.

40 30 20 SINR [dB] 10 0 -10 -20 -30

10

20

30

40

70

80

90

100

Figure 6-1: SINR of the different antennas and of the output of the antenna array when the weights are calculated every 8 bursts (bursts where sub-optimal weights are chosen in order to estimate the signal properties at the antennas are marked with a circle).

1

In Appendix E is explained how the needed parameters from the signals at the input antennas can be estimated out of the weighted sum of the signals at the input antennas.

55

6.1 Introduction

56

5.86

Amplitude

3.5 2.37 1.8 1.38 1.09 0.74 0.34 1500 180 135 90 1550 1600 1650 1700 1750 1800 Burst Number 1850 1900 1950 2000

Phase []

45 0 -45 -90 -135 -180 1500 1550 1600 1650 1700 1750 1800 Burst Number 1850 1900 1950 2000

Figure 6-2: Amplitude and phase of optimum weights during 500 bursts (solid line show quantized weights and dashed line shows non-quantized weights)2

It has shown that it is possible to guess better weights when the output SINR becomes worse. In order to do this is it necessary to calculate some additional parameters every time when new weights are calculated. ~ and the These parameters are the quantization error of the argument of the normalised weight w 2 ~ . and are given by equations 6.2 and 6.1 change of the argument of the normalised weight w 2 ~ is the quantized equivalent of where arg(x) stands for the argument of the complex number x and w

q2

~ is the normalised weight w ~ . w ~ which was calculated at the previous estimation. w 2 2p 2 ~ ) arg w ~ = arg (w 2 q2

( )

(6.1) (6.2)

~ ) arg( w ~ ) = arg( w 2p 2

~ could be guessed using the following rules: With this information a better phase value for w 2

Using these rules for the phase guess will gain a better value for the phase with a probability higher than 70%.

2

The phase jumps of 180 degrees are due to the limitation of the scale to 180 degrees.

57

~ is changed in that way that it is decreased by one step If there is no phase change the amplitude of w 2 if it is bigger than 1 and increased in the other case. Doing this the probability of improving the amplitude in the correct direction is about 64%. This guessed weight is used only once because in the next burst a new estimation of the antenna signals can be done. Which results in a new weight vector. Therefore the main goal is just to change the weights slightly in the correct direction.

Figure 6-3 shows the block diagram of the complete algorithm which has to be implemented. In the first step is the burst received using the weights determined before. Is the received burst an idle burst then is the noise power estimated as described in Section 4.6. Note that the weighted sum of the signals at the input antennas is used for the estimation of the noise. The noise in the weighted sum is given by y n = w T x n = w 1 x n1 + w 2 x n 2

(6.6)

where w1, w2 are the weights used for antenna 1 and 2 and xn1, xn2 represent the independent noise at both antennas. Assuming that the noise power at antenna 1 and 2 is the same is the power of yn y =

2

(w

2 1

+ w2

) )

2 n

(6.7)

and n =

2

(w

y

2 1

2 2

+ w2

(6.8)

where n2 is the noise power at antenna 1 and 2. Is the received burst a normal burst then is the propagation vector of the wanted signal in the weighted sum estimated as described in Section 4.2. Is the position of an interfering training signal known then is the propagation vector of the interfering signal in the weighted sum estimated as described in Section 4.3. The position of the interfering training sequence will be updated if the position of the correlation peak has moved. Is the position of the interfering training sequence not known then the estimated propagation vector of the interfering signal is set to 0. The SINR is estimated using the estimated propagation vector of the wanted signal d, of the 2. interfering signal i and the estimated noise power

2 u d SINR = 10 log10 2 i +u

[dB]

(6.9)

58

Are the weights used in this burst different from the weights used in the previous burst then are the propagation vectors for both antennas estimated out of the propagation vectors for the weighted sum as described in Appendix E.2 Estimation Necessary for Algorithm B. The new weights are then calculated using equations 3.25 to 3.27. The weights are quantized and the quantization error of the argument (equation 6.1) and the change of the argument (equation 6.2) are calculated. Then is the weight CDF and the weight set updated3. Are the same weights used as in the previous burst then are better weights guessed as described above, if the trend of the SINR falls below 20dB or the trend of the SINR falls below 33dB and this condition was not fulfilled in the last 7 bursts4. The trend of the SINR is given by

TSINR = 2 SINR ( m) SINR ( m 1)

(6.10)

where SINR(m) and SINR(m-1) are the estimated SINR at the actual burst and the previous burst, respectively. Finally it is searched for new interferer as described in Section 4.4 Detection of Interferer Position. Is an interfering training sequence on a new position found and is this interferer stronger than the interferer which has been found before5 then is determined which training sequence the interfering base station uses. This is done by correlating the part of the mean burst x (equation 4.6), which contains the detected training sequence, with all in GSM specified training sequences (except the training sequence used by the wanted base station). The training sequence which produces the highest correlation peak is the sequence which is used by the interfering base station.

In the simulation is the set of amplitude quantization steps determined in that way, that the whole 2000 burst long sequence is processed two times. In the first run the weights are not quantized. Then the CDF of the weights and the set of quantization steps is calculated according to the CDF of the non-quantized weights. These amplitude quantization steps are then used in the second run. This is implemented in that way because the sequence is too short in order to track the amplitude quantization steps. For the implementation in the handset I suggest to calculate the weight CDF over 1000 calculated weights and update the set of quantization steps after every 1000th weight calculation. 4 This condition is a result of optimising the algorithm for the SINR gain at 10% level at an C/I-ratio of 13dB. 5 Note the interferer detection is done from the weighted sum of the received signals. If the algorithm works properly than the interferer whose propagation vector is used for calculating the optimum weights will be close to zero in the weighted sum. This means that this interferer is much bigger at the input antennas as in the weighted sum. Therefore must the amplitude of the new detected interferer be compared with the estimated amplitude of the propagation vector at the antennas of the interferer whose propagation vector is used for calculating the optimum weights.

59

Receive Burst

IDLE Burst?

yes

no estimate d

yes

no i=0 no

estimate i

estimate SINR

yes

calculate weights

(TSINR<=33dB)& (BurstCounter-fe)>7? no

yes

interferer detection

BurstCounter=BurstCounter+1

The tracking algorithm described in Chapter 6 was simulated using the channel data described in Appendix B. As the modelled GSM bursts consumed a lot of memory it was only practical to use 10 seconds of the recorded channel data. These 10 seconds correspond to 2000 bursts in the simulation1. The estimated noise used for calculating the optimum weights was averaged over 20 estimates done during the idle bursts. The first 600 bursts of the simulation were not used for calculating the combining gain in order to use only bursts for calculating the gain, where the estimated noise used for calculating the weights is not influenced by any start values. As the time period used for the simulation was to short to track the quantization intervals according to the CDF of the calculated weights (see Section 6.2 Block Diagram of Algorithm), the set of amplitude quantization steps was determined in the way, that the whole 2000 burst long sequence was processed two times. In the first run the weights were not quantized. Then the CDF of the weights and the set of quantization steps was calculated according to the CDF of the non-quantized weights. These amplitude quantization steps were then used in the second run. First the optimal case is presented where both antenna branches have the same path losses and the training sequence of the interfering signal do not overlap with the training sequence of the wanted signal or the guard period of the wanted signal. Then is investigated how much the achievable gain shrinks if the two antenna branches do not have the same average received power. Finally is investigated how the achievable gain is affected if the training sequence of the interfering signal overlaps with the training sequence or the guard period of the wanted signal. Because of the lack of time was the investigation limited to the data achieved from one user holding the handheld equipped with dipole and patch antenna in the left hand. It is supposed that the simulated gain for the channel data from other users and antenna types will be in the same order of magnitude as the received power of the two antennas was equalised before applying the simulations.

In this subsection is the achievable SINR gain presented if the two antennas have in average the same power and the training sequence of the interfering signal do not overlap the training sequence of the wanted signal or the guard period of the wanted signal. From the 20 possible combinations of wanted and interfering signals 4 combinations were chosen for calculating an average gain (see Appendix B for details about the data used). Figure 7-1 shows the achieved SINR gain at the 10% level, the average input SINR at the 10% level and the average SINR of the antenna array output at the 10% level for the most likely case where the training sequence of the interfering signal overlaps the random data bits of the wanted burst.

Note that the simulation uses channel data which is interpolated in 5ms intervals. So in the simulation the bursts are sent every 5ms instead of 4,615ms in the real GSM network. 61

62

a)

b)

c)

20

20

10

10

Figure 7-1: a) Average SINR gain over average input C/I ratio and average input SNR; b) Average input SINR at 10% level; c) Average SINR of the array output at 10% level; Note that in a) the axis are in another order than in b) and c)1

As it is very difficult to see the exact values in the figure the simulated values are presented in tables. Table 7-1 shows the average SINR of the antennas at the 10% level over the average input C/I-ratio and average input SNR. As this level is slightly different for the patch and dipole antenna the SINR from the antenna with the best SINR was taken. According to [Med99] and [Kuc99] GSM requires a SINR level between 7 and 9dB for proper bit error rate performance. To be on the save side it is supposed that a handheld will perform well in 90% of the time when the average SINR at the 10% level is above 9dB. In Table 7-1 the cells where this condition is fulfilled are marked. The handheld is supposed to perform well without any means of diversity in the marked area. You can see that the handheld will only perform well without any means of diversity if the average C/I-ratio is about 20dB or better and the average SNR is about 26dB or better. Table 7-2 shows the SINR gain at the 10% level over average input C/I-ratio and average input SNR. In this table all cells where the average SINR of the antenna array output is larger than 9dB at the 10% level are marked which means that a handheld will perform well during 90% of the time.

1

This is necessary because otherwise it would be impossible to recognise something in Figure b) and c).

63

SINR O = SINR I + gain

(7.1)

where SINRI is the average input SINR at the 10% level shown in Table 7-1 and gain is the average gain at the 10% level achieved by the tracking algorithm. It can be seen that if there is low noise can the average C/I-ratio become nearly 6dB and the mobile will still work properly in 90% of the cases. Note that the simulated gain for very low input C/I-ratios might be to optimistic as in this case the assumption that there is only one significant interferer might be wrong. The average SINR of the array output at the 10% level over average input C/I-ratio and average input SNR is shown in Table 7-3. In this table are also the cells with an output SINR larger than 9dB marked.

Avg. input SNR [dB] Avg. input C/I [dB]

10 -9,84 +0,78 -1,19 -8,98 +0,83 -1,03 -8,12 +0,84 -1,07 -7,28 +0,74 -0,95 -5,00 +0,95 -0,93 -3,56 +0,70 -0,94 -2,33 +0,63 -0,90 -0,92 +0,70 -1,25 0,00 +0,56 -1,27 0,72 +0,70 -1,29

13 -9,58 +0,68 -1,28 -8,67 +0,74 -1,24 -7,74 +0,78 -1,23 -6,85 +0,82 -1,20 -4,25 +0,79 -1,01 -2,68 +0,90 -0,91 -1,27 +0,76 -0,90 0,67 +0,58 -0,91 2,07 +0,63 -1,18 3,25 +0,58 -1,29

16 -9,43 +0,75 -1,37 -8,48 +0,72 -1,33 -7,53 +0,66 -1,30 -6,60 +0,64 -1,27 -3,83 +0,85 -1,21 -2,12 +0,83 -1,09 -0,50 +0,74 -0,97 1,71 +0,75 -0,93 3,69 +0,69 -0,98 5,45 +0,59 -1,22

20 -9,34 +0,80 -1,42 -8,35 +0,78 -1,42 -7,39 +0,77 -1,38 -6,43 +0,71 -1,35 -3,55 +0,68 -1,28 -1,66 +0,67 -1,25 0,17 +0,77 -1,12 2,72 +0,74 -1,04 5,01 +0,76 -0,90 7,68 +0,64 -0,99

26 -9,34 +0,76 -1,40 -8,34 +0,76 -1,40 -7,34 +0,76 -1,40 -6,35 +0,75 -1,40 -3,34 +0,80 -1,42 -1,39 +0,77 -1,38 0,55 +0,71 -1,34 3,38 +0,68 -1,25 6,15 +0,81 -1,20 9,53 +0,78 -0,95

30 -9,33 +0,77 -1,40 -8,33 +0,77 -1,40 -7,33 +0,77 -1,40 -6,34 +0,76 -1,40 -3,34 +0,75 -1,40 -1,35 +0,76 -1,40 0,66 +0,79 -1,42 3,59 +0,77 -1,38 6,46 +0,67 -1,31 10,19 +0,82 -1,14

0 1 2 3 6 8 10 13 16 20

+0,74 +0,69 -12,30 +0,55 -0,95 -11,29 -0,95 -10,47 -0,94 +0,72 +0,86 -11,83 +0,58 -10,58 -9,70 -1,09 -0,97 -0,99 +0,58 +0,88 -11,32 +0,65 -9,91 -9,04 -1,12 -0,83 -0,95 +0,66 +0,81 -10,87 +0,69 -1,16 -9,35 -1,01 -8,26 -0,92 +0,73 +0,62 -10,01 +0,63 -1,20 -7,92 -1,18 -6,34 -0,92 +0,57 +0,62 -9,57 +0,65 -7,23 -5,36 -1,32 -1,23 -1,16 +0,55 +0,57 -9,28 +0,77 -6,78 -4,55 -1,34 -1,31 -1,23 +0,73 +0,60 -8,98 +0,87 -1,38 -6,27 -1,38 -3,76 -1,33 +0,78 +0,70 -8,79 +0,89 -1,34 -5,99 -1,39 -3,23 -1,40 +0,82 +0,81 -8,65 +0,87 -5,73 -2,83 -1,38 -1,34 -1,29

Table 7-1: Average input SINR at 10% level over average input C/I-ratio and average input SNR; The small numbers give the difference of the average value to the extreme values; Areas where the average SINR is larger than 9dB are marked

0 4,10 +0,60 -1,30 4,33 +0,38 -0,82 4,00 +0,40 -0,80 4,03 +0,67 -1,12 4,48 +0,42 -0,28 4,70 +0,20 -0,10 4,85 +0,35 -0,35 4,90 +0,60 -0,40 4,98 +0,43 -0,48 5,03 +0,68 -0,42

3 5,80 +0,80 -0,80 5,78 +0,63 -0,98 5,35 +0,35 -0,75 5,45 +0,45 -0,65 5,30 +0,20 -0,30 5,30 +0,30 -0,20 5,25 +0,15 -0,15 5,28 +0,13 -0,08 5,28 +0,33 -0,38 5,13 +0,38 -0,43

6 7,58 +0,53 -1,08 7,18 +0,62 -1,07 7,23 +0,88 -0,83 6,80 +0,70 -1,00 6,15 +0,35 -0,75 5,93 +0,28 -0,32 5,73 +0,08 -0,23 5,53 +0,27 -0,22 5,53 +0,18 -0,12 5,50 +0,50 -0,40

10 9,58 +0,93 -0,97 9,28 +0,83 -0,98 8,98 +0,72 -0,88 8,55 +0,65 -0,85 7,75 +0,85 -0,75 7,05 +0,75 -0,75 6,45 +0,45 -0,75 5,98 +0,23 -0,18 5,80 +0,20 -0,20 5,73 +0,18 -0,23

13 10,83 +1,27 -0,83 10,55 +1,15 -0,65 10,20 +0,90 -0,80 10,08 +0,83 -0,87 8,88 +0,53 -0,68 8,15 +0,85 -0,85 7,55 +0,65 -0,75 6,78 +0,43 -0,88 6,28 +0,22 -0,38 5,90 +0,20 -0,10

16 11,45 +1,65 -1,15 11,43 +1,57 -1,03 11,15 +1,55 -1,05 10,73 +1,17 -0,92 10,03 +0,78 -0,72 9,38 +0,73 -0,78 8,68 +0,82 -0,77 7,55 +0,95 -0,75 6,73 +0,38 -0,53 6,18 +0,23 -0,28

20 11,95 +1,65 -1,05 11,90 +1,40 -1,10 11,88 +1,52 -0,88 11,75 +1,45 -1,15 11,40 +1,30 -1,00 10,68 +1,12 -0,78 10,18 +0,53 -0,68 9,05 +0,75 -0,55 8,05 +0,85 -0,95 6,83 +0,38 -0,62

26 12,08 +2,02 -1,28 12,10 +1,80 -1,30 12,10 +1,50 -1,60 12,08 +1,73 -1,28 12,13 +1,27 -0,82 12,08 +1,32 -0,58 11,83 +1,37 -0,63 11,13 +1,18 -0,83 10,13 +0,58 -0,62 8,68 +0,82 -0,88

30 12,38 +1,62 -1,47 12,55 +1,45 -1,35 12,53 +1,57 -1,12 12,33 +1,68 -1,33 12,33 +1,27 -1,03 12,38 +1,43 -0,88 12,18 +1,33 -1,28 11,88 +1,52 -0,88 11,43 +1,18 -0,92 9,95 +0,85 -0,75

0 1 2 3 6 8 10 13 16 20

Table 7-2: Average SINR gain over average input C/I-ratio and average input SNR for equal antenna power; The small numbers give the difference of the average value to the extreme values; Areas where the average output SINR built by equation 7.1 is larger than 9dB are marked

64

0 -8,20 -7,51 -7,32 -6,84 -5,53 -4,87 -4,43 -4,08 -3,81 -3,62

3 -5,49 -4,81 -4,56 -3,90 -2,62 -1,93 -1,53 -0,99 -0,71 -0,60

6 -2,89 -2,53 -1,81 -1,46 -0,19 0,56 1,18 1,76 2,29 2,67

10 -0,26 0,29 0,85 1,27 2,75 3,50 4,12 5,06 5,80 6,45

13 1,24 1,88 2,46 3,22 4,63 5,47 6,28 7,45 8,34 9,15

16 2,02 2,95 3,62 4,13 6,20 7,26 8,18 9,26 10,41 11,62

20 2,61 3,55 4,48 5,32 7,85 9,02 10,35 11,77 13,06 14,51

26 2,74 3,76 4,76 5,73 8,78 10,69 12,38 14,51 16,28 18,20

30 3,05 4,22 5,19 5,99 8,98 11,02 12,83 15,47 17,89 20,14

0 1 2 3 6 8 10 13 16 20

Table 7-3: Average SINR output of antenna array (built by equation 7.1) over average input C/I-ratio and average input SNR for equal antenna power; Areas where the average output SINR is larger than 9dB are marked

This section shows what happens to the SINR gain when the antenna branches have different received signal power. This was simulated by attenuating the wanted and interfering signal of one antenna. Attenuation was introduced for the antenna with lowest SINR at the 10% level. The reason therefor is that the gain is calculated as the difference between the SINR at the 10% level of the best antenna and the array output SINR at the 10% level. If the weaker antenna is attenuated the reference for the gain calculation remains approximately the same. Due to a lack of time this simulation was done with only one combination of the channel data for wanted and interfering signal (see Appendix B). Tables 7-4 to 7-7 show the achieved SINR gain at the 10% level for an average power difference between the two antenna branches of 0, 3, 6 and 10dB. In Table 7-4 you can see that the gain achieved with the chosen combination for the interfering and wanted channel data is higher than the average gain shown in Table 7-2.

Avg. input SNR [dB] Avg. input C/I [dB]

13

16

20

26

30

13

16

20

26

30

6 8 10 13 16 20

9,4 10,7 12,7 13,6 13,9 8,4 10,0 12,0 13,5 13,5 7,8 8,9 11,0 13,1 13,8 6,8 7,8 9,6 12,0 13,3 6,4 6,8 8,2 10,8 12,7 5,6 6,3 6,8 9,2 10,5

6 8 10 13 16 20

8,1 10,0 11,7 13,5 13,5 7,4 9,0 10,9 13,1 13,5 6,7 8,3 9,8 12,4 13,3 5,8 7,0 8,4 11,4 12,8 5,0 5,8 7,3 9,8 11,6 4,6 5,0 5,9 8,3 10,0

Table 7-4: SINR gain as a function of average input C/I-ratio and average input SNR for equal antenna branch power; Areas where the output SINR is larger than 9dB are marked

Avg. input SNR [dB] Avg. input C/I [dB]

Table 7-5: SINR gain as a function of average input C/I-ratio and average input SNR if the average power of one antenna branch is 3dB lower; Areas where the output SINR is larger than 9dB are marked

Avg. input SNR [dB] Avg. input C/I [dB]

16

20

26

30

20

26

30

6 8 10 13 16 20

8,8 10,8 13,0 13,4 7,8 9,9 12,5 13,1 6,9 8,8 12,1 13,0 5,9 7,5 10,2 11,9 5,0 6,3 8,9 10,8 3,8 4,8 6,9 9,0

6 8 10 13 16 20

9,2 11,6 13,1 8,0 11,1 12,7 7,0 10,1 12,0 5,5 8,8 10,5 4,5 7,1 9,1 3,2 5,5 7,2

Table 7-6: SINR gain as a function of average input C/I-ratio and average input SNR if the average power of one antenna branch is 6dB lower; Areas where the output SINR is larger than 9dB are marked

Table 7-7: SINR gain as a function of average input C/I-ratio and average input SNR if the average power of one antenna branch is 10dB lower; Areas where the output SINR is larger than 9dB are marked

Table 7-8 shows the difference between the achieved gain with equal antenna powers and the gain achieved when one antenna is attenuated by 3dB. It is possible to see that the difference of the gain is very low. The gain difference is lowest when the C/I-ratio is low and the SNR is high. The reason is that in this case the SINR of the attenuated antenna is mainly determined by the C/I-ratio which stays

65

the same if the antenna branch has losses. The average gain difference over all shown input C/I-ratios and input SNRs is 0,9dB for an average antenna power difference of 3dB. Table 7-9 shows the gain difference over average input C/I-ratio and average input SNR for the case that one antenna has a 6dB lower average power. The average difference for 6dB power difference is 1,9dB. In Table 7-10 the gain difference for an average antenna power difference of 10dB is shown. Again it can be seen that the difference is very low for a combination of low average input C/I-ratio and high average input SNR. The average gain difference over all in Table 7-10 shown points is 3,4dB The average gain differences are compared in Figure 7-2. The reason that it is difficult to see a trend in the gain difference, Tables 7-8 to 7-10, is that the gain achieved by the combining algorithm depends strongly on the chosen quantization intervals which are determined in the first run of the simulation. The method for calculating the quantization intervals is not optimal. It has been observed that there can be a gain difference of up to 0,3dB due to different quantization intervals found, when simulating two times with the same channel data and just another realisation of the noise with the same power. If the antenna branches have different powers the calculated quantization intervals will surely be different and it can happen that the quantization intervals found for equal antenna powers is very good whereas the quantization intervals found for different antenna powers is worse and vice versa. So the gain difference due to varying performance of the found quantization intervals will be in the same order of magnitude as the variation of the gain difference due to the different qualities of the input signals. Figure 7-3 shows the trend of the achievable gain over the average C/I-ratio and Figure 7-4 shows the SINR gain over average input SNR for an C/I-ratio of 20dB.

Avg. input SNR [dB] Avg. input C/I [dB]

6 8 10 13 16 20

6 8 10 13 16 20

Table 7-8: SINR gain difference as a function of average input C/I-ratio and average input SNR if the average power of one antenna branch is 3dB lower

Table 7-9: SINR gain difference as a function of average input C/I-ratio and average input SNR if the average power of one antenna branch is 6dB lower

4,0 3,5 Gain Difference [dB] 3,0 2,5 2,0 1,5 1,0 0,5 0,0 3 6 10 B ra n c h P o w e r D iffe rn e n c e [d B ] 0,9 1,9 3,4

6 8 10 13 16 20

Table 7-10: SINR gain difference as a function of average input C/I-ratio and average input SNR if the average power of one antenna branch is 10dB lower

Figure 7-2: Average gain difference for an antenna branch power difference of 3, 6 and 10dB

66

14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

0dB branch power difference 3dB branch power difference 6dB branch power difference 10dB branch power difference

18

20

Figure 7-3: Average SINR gain at 10% level over average input C/I-ratio for an antenna power difference of 0, 3, 6 and 10dB (average input SNR for the antenna with the stronger signal is 26dB)

0dB branch power difference 3dB branch power difference 6dB branch power difference 10dB branch power difference

30

Figure 7-4: Average SINR gain at 10% level over average input SNR for an antenna power difference of 0, 3, 6 and 10dB (average input C/I-ratio is 20dB)

In this section the effects of the unsynchronised GSM network are discussed. As the base stations are unsynchronised the training sequence of the interferer can be placed anywhere with respect ot the wanted burst. In the first subsection is demonstrated what happens to the gain if the training sequence of the wanted and interfering burst overlap. Next an investigation of how the gain behaves when the interfering training sequence overlaps the guard period of the wanted signal. Finally a graph of the expected gain over all possible positions of the interfering training sequence is shown.

The achievable gain for the case that the training sequences of the wanted and interfering burst overlap was simulated for one combination of waned and interfering channel data. The average power of the two antenna branches was equal for this simulation and the average input C/I-ratio was 6dB and the average input SNR was 20dB. The achievable gain for the chosen combination of wanted and interferer channel data if the training sequences do not overlap is about 12,7dB. The shift k between the training sequences of the wanted and interfering burst is counted as shown in Figure 7-5. Figure 7-6 shows the achieved SINR gain from k = -30 bit (interferers training sequence is placed before the training sequence of the wanted burst and they do not overlap) to k = 30 bit

67

(interferers training sequence is placed after the training sequence of the wanted burst and they do not overlap). The difference between the maximum and the minimum gain is 1,2dB which is less than the variations observed for the 4 different combinations for the channel data investigated in Section 7.1 Optimal Case.

3 tail bits 58 random bits 26 bit TS #1 58 random bits 3 tail bits GP

Wanted Burst

3 tail bits 58 random bits

Interfering Burst

TS #1 Training Sequence 1 TS #2 Training Sequence 2 GP Guard Period (8,25 bits)

Figure 7-5: Counting scheme for the shift k between the center of the training sequence of the wanted burst and the center of the interferers training sequence (in the drawn case is k positive)

13,00

12,75

12,50

12,25

12,00

11,75

11,50 -30

-20

-10

0 k [bit]

10

20

30

Figure 7-6: SINR gain at 10% level over shift k between the center of the training sequence of the wanted burst and the interferers training sequence;

Now the gain is simulated for the case that the guard period of the wanted signal overlaps the interferers training sequence. The sequence for estimating the interferer is built as suggested in Section 4.5.1 Only a part of the interfering training sequence overlaps with the wanted burst by using the parts of the training sequence from the preceding and succeeding interfering burst which overlap with the wanted burst and zeroing all parts of the sequence which overlap the guard period of the wanted signal (see Figure 4-11 at page 44). The parameters of the channel data are the same for this simulation as used in Section 7.3.1 Overlapping Training Sequences. Figure 7-7 shows the counting scheme for the shift k between the center of the guard period and the center of the interfering training sequence. The achieved SINR gain at the 10% over the position of the interferers training sequence is shown in Figure 7-8. The dashed lines in Figure 7-8 limit the area where all of the 8,25 bit of the guard period are received at the same time as the training sequence of the interfering signal. You can see that the gain drops by about 3dB if the guard period is placed around the center of the training sequence. The probability that the bursts in a real network will be placed in that way resulting in a gain drop of 3dB is about 7%.

68

3 tail bits GP

Wanted Burst

26 bit TS #2

58 random bits

GP

58 random bits

26 bit TS #2

Interfering Burst T x

TS #1 Training Sequence 1 TS #2 Training Sequence 2 GP Guard Period (8,25 bits)

Figure 7-7: Counting scheme for the shift k between the center of the interferers training sequence and the center of the guard period of the wanted burst (in the drawn case is k positive)

13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 -15

-10

-5

0 k [bit]

10

15

Figure 7-8: SINR Gain at 10% level over relative position of the interferers training sequence (the two dashed lines at k = 8,875 bit enclose the area of k where the entire guard period overlaps the training sequence of the interfering signal)

Using the information from the subsections before it is possible to draw the expected SINR gain over the position of the interferers training sequence. Figure 7-9 shows this graph where the actual gain is expected to be between the two drawn curves. In order to give a better impression the structure of the wanted burst is drawn below this graph. The counting scheme for the shifts, k, between the centers of the wanted and the interfering training sequences is the same as shown in Figure 7-5. The shift k=0 corresponds to the wanted and interfering burst match exactly which would be the case in a synchronised network. As the average gain for a synchronised network GA depends on the actual values of the input SNR and the input C/I-ratio, the gain values in Figure 7-9 are given relative to GA. Is the center of the interfering training sequence placed at the beginning of the wanted burst than is the gain very low as parts of the training sequence will be still overlapped by the guard period. Is the interfering training sequence placed in the area where the wanted burst has its data bits, the gain will be in the area of GA 0,25dB. This band of 0,5dB appears because the actual gain in this area depends on the average cross correlation of the interferers training sequence and the random data bits. As the number of simulated bursts is limited the simulated gain will vary in this band. When the training sequences of interfering and wanted burst overlap, the gain depends on the cross correlation of the two training sequences and as it can be seen in Figure 7-6 the gain may drop by up to 1dB. When the training sequence of the interferer starts to overlap the guard period of the wanted burst then the gain goes down again. According to Figure 7-8 the lowest gain will be about GA/2.

69

GA/2+0,5dB GA/2

-70

-60

-50

-40

-30

-20

-10

0 k [bit]

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

57 random bits

26 bit TS

57 data bits

GP

Figure 7-9: Expected SINR gain over position of interfering guard period; The actual gain is expected to be between the two curves

This chapter suggests a setup for testing the tracking algorithm mentioned in Chapter 6 in real time. The first section describes the test setup and the second section explains a procedure for measuring the C/I improvement by applying the tracking algorithm. Unfortunately there was not enough time to perform the measurements and no results can therefore be presented.

When performing measurements in a running network there are always problems with the repeatability of the measurements as there are many parameters determined by the network like the carrier frequency of the traffic channel used or handovers which influence the measurement but cannot be controlled from the handset during the measurement. In order to avoid this problem it was decided not to measure in a real network.

Channel Emulator Channel Emulator Channel Emulator Channel Emulator Branch B LNA Branch A

GSM Tester

Attenuator

Test handset

DBUS

Instead a test setup as shown in Figure 8-1 is suggested. The interfering signal is created by a GSM signal generator which produces random GMSK modulated data including a specific training sequence repeated every 4,615ms (156,25 bits). The power of the interfering signal can be controlled with the signal generator. The different signals which would be received by two different antennas are generated by using two channel emulators which emulate a Rayleigh fading channel. The wanted signal is generated by a GSM tester which is forced to use a different training sequence as the training sequence chosen for the interferer. Further the traffic channel is set to the same carrier frequency which is used by the signal generator for creating the interfering signal. The SNR of the wanted signal can be adjusted by changing the output power of the GSM tester. The two different channels for the wanted signal received by the two antennas are modelled by two additional channel emulators.

71

72

The signals in branch A and B which represent the signal at the two antennas are gained by combining the output of one channel emulator for the interfering signal with one channel emulator for the wanted signal. The weighting of the two antenna signals is done by an LNA followed by a phase shifter and an attenuator. The LNA is necessary in order that the branch containing the weighting can also be weighted stronger than the other branch. The test handset runs the tracking algorithm described in Chapter 6. The values of the calculated weights are sent to the control PC via the dbus. The control PC adjusts the phase shift of the phase shifter and the attenuation of the attenuator according to the received weights. With the signal generator which is locked to the same rubidium standard as the GSM tester is it possible to control the drift between the wanted and interfering signal which results in a change of the position of the interfering training sequence in the wanted burst.

The test for determining the C/I-ratio gain is divided into two steps. In the first step is the mobile connected directly to branch A. After establishing a call to the mobile with the GSM tester is the GSM signal generator which represents the interferer turned on. Then the output power of the GSM signal generator is increased slowly until the call is disconnected due to a too high bit error rate caused by the strong interference. The relation of the output power of the GSM tester to the output power of the signal generator gives the reference C/I-ratio which is too high to run a call without interferer suppression. In the second step is the test setup explained in Section 8.1 used. Again is the power of the interferer increased after establishing a call. As the test handset runs the tracking algorithm and branch A and B are weighted according to the weights calculated by the mobile, should the interferer power be higher than in the previous step, when the call is disconnected. The difference in the C/I-ratio which caused a disconnection using the tracking algorithm and without using any interferer suppression is the gain achieved by applying the tracking algorithm.

Conclusion

An algorithm for interference reduction based on an antenna system, where the antenna signals are combined in the Radio Frequency (RF) part of the receiver, has been proposed and simulated. Only one receiver systems have been investigated in this work because although two full receiver chains will give a better performance as it is possible to determine the correct weights after every burst the complexity is considered too high for mobile phones. It has been demonstrated that the proposed algorithm achieves a Signal to Interference and Noise Ratio (SINR) gain of more than 10dB for high Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) scenarios. Through to this SINR gain will a mobile, requiring an SINR of 9dB, work well in 90% of the time. When the average SNR is better than 20dB and the average input Carrier to Interference (C/I) ratio is down to 8dB compared with an average C/I-ratio of 20dB required without using diversity. It has also been investigated how important equal receiver mean power is and it has been shown that the SINR gain deviates not more than 1,5dB if the average powers of the signals received by the two antennas differ by 3dB. The found algorithm is based on estimating the channel of the wanted and interfering signals using the correlation properties of the training sequences. The base stations in a GSM network are unsynchronised. So the training sequence of the interferer can be placed at any place in the wanted burst. The variations of the combining gain over the position of the interferers training sequence in the wanted burst have been investigated and it has been shown that the combining gain will drop dramatically if the guard period of the wanted burst overlaps the center of the interferers training sequence (the probability therefore is about 7%). The channel data used for the simulations originates from measurements in an indoor environment with a slow moving user holding a handheld equipped with a patch antenna and either a dipole or helical antenna. According to network operators from Denmark (Sonofon and Telia) is the interferer most often a broad cast channel and therefore in the simulations it has been assumed that there is only one interferer and that the interferer is the broad cast channel of another base station. So the interferer is present all the time and is always transmitted with constant power. If the interferer is a traffic channel it can happen, due to the unsynchronised network, that the interferer is only present during a part of the users burst and if the training sequence of the interfering burst does not overlap with the wanted burst then the interferer cannot be detected. A possible solution to this problem might be to open the receiver for a longer time so that the training sequences of the interfering burst can be detected. The detection of the interferer will be much more difficult if frequency hopping is used because the base stations use different hopping sequences and therefore the interferer might only be present sometimes which makes it difficult to detect. The effect of frequency hopping has not been investigated. For the case that frequency hopping is used and the interferer is a broadcast channel, which is always transmitted on the same frequency carrier. Only the bursts using the same frequency as the interfering broad cast channel will have interference problems. Therefore the channel properties have to be estimated only for the frequency carrier with interference problems. The proposed algorithm can only estimate the channel properties if the carrier is used. Due to the long time between using the same frequency the channel will change and the

73

Conclusion

74

diversity gain will drop. One possibility to deal with this problem could be to use the time slot determined for monitoring the power of other base stations, in order to estimate the propagation vector of the interfering and wanted signal. For further investigations it would be nice to have exact figures about how often the interferer is a broadcast channel or a loaded system where all time slots will be used and no handover is possible. And for the case that the interferer is a carrier with traffic channels it would be nice to have figures which say how high the possibility is that the wanted burst overlaps two interfering timeslots where only one of these two is used (which means that only a part of the wanted burst is disturbed by an interferer). Further it would be interesting to see how high the combining gain will be if the algorithm is extended to deal with more than one interferer.

Abbreviations

A

ACCH AGC AGCH arg avg. Associated Control Channel Automatic Gain Control Access Grant Channel argument average

F

FACCH FCCH FDD FDMA FEC FFT FH FN Fast Associated Control Channel Frequency Correction Channel Frequency Division Duplex Frequency Divison Multiple Access Forward Error Correction Fast Fourier Transform Frequency Hopping Frame Number

B

BCCH BER BS BSs BTS Broadcast Control Channel Bit Error Rate Base Station Base Stations Base Transciever Station

G

GHz GMSK GP GSM Gigahertz Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying Guard Period Global System for Mobile Communication GSM900 Global System for Mobile Communication 900

C

C/I CCCH CCH CDF CDFs CEIR CEPT Carrier to Interference Common Control Channel Control Channel Cumulative Distribution Function Cumulative Distribution Functions Central Equipment Identity Register Confernce Europenne des Postes et Tlcommunications

H

HLR HSN Home Location Register Hopping Sequence Number

I

IF IMEI Intermediate Frequency International Mobile Equipment Identity

D

dB dBm dbus DCCH DCS1800 DTX decibel decibel over 1mW debug bus Dedicated Control Channel Digital Communication System 1800 Discontinuous Transmission

J

JRC Joint Radio Commitee

K

kbit kHz kilobit kilohertz

E

E.g EGSM EIR EIRs ETSI exempli gratia (for example) Extended Global System for Mobile Communications Equipment Identity Register Equipment Identity Registers European Telecommunication Standards Institute

75

L

LNA Low Noise Amplifier

M

MA MAIO MHz Mobile Allocation Moible Allocation Index Offset Mega Hetrz

Abbreviations

76

minute millisecond Mobile Station Mobile Switching Centre Minimum Shift Keying Mobile Stations milliwatt

Synchronisation Channel Stand-Alone Dedicated Control Channel Signal to Interference and Noise Ratio Signal to Noise Ratio Traffic Channel Traffic Channels Time Division Duplex Time Division Multiple Access Training Sequence

T

TCH TCHs TDD TDMA TS

P

PCH Paging Channel PCS1900 Personal Communication System 1900 PDF Probability Distribution Function ppm part per million

V

VAD VLR Voice Activity Detection Visitor Location Register

R

RACH RF RMS Random Access Channel Radio Frequency Root Mean Square

X

xor exclusive or

S

SACCH Slow Associated Control Channel

Bibliography

Blake R., Basic Electronic Communication, West Publishing Company Minneapolis/St. Paul, 1993 [Boc99] Boccuzzi J., Pillai S. U., Winterss, Adaptive Antenna Arrays Using Sub-space Techniques in a Mobile Radio Environment with Flat Fading and CCI, VTC Conference, Houston 1999 [Bon97] Bonek E., Magerl G., Scholtz A. L., Wellenausbreitung 2, Institut fr Nachrichtentechnik und Hochfrequenztechnik Technische Universitt Wien, 1997 [Boo78] De Boor, Carl, A Practical Guide to Splines, Springer-Verlag, 1978. [Dav96] K. David and T. Benkner, Digitale Mobilfunksysteme, B. G. Teubner Stuttgart 1996 [Dec93] C. Dchaux and R. Scheller, What are GSM and DCS, Electrical Communication, 2nd Quarter, 1993 [GSM0502] ETSI-GSM recommendation GSM 05.02, Version 4.0.0 [GSM0504] ETSI-GSM recommendation GSM 05.04, Version 4.0.0 [GSM0510] ETSI-GSM recommendation GSM 05.10, Version 5.0.0 [GSM99] GSM Association, GSM world, http://www.gsm.org/ (WWW server of the GSM Association), 1999 [Hag95] Hagerman B., Downlink Relative Co-Channel Interference Powers in Cellular Radio Systems, VTC Conference, Chicago 1995 [Jen98] Jensen P. V. and Dupont Ch., Measurement & Investigation of C/I, Aalborg University, 1998 [Knu99] Knudsen M. B., Faessler G., Pedersen G. F., Investigation of SINR Gain in Micro Cellular Environment by use of Antenna Systems in Mobile Handsets, VTC Conference, Houston 1999 [Kuc99] Kuchar A., Taferner M., Tangemann M., Hoeck C., Rauscher W., Strasser M., Pospischil G., Bonek E, Real-Time Smart Antenna Processing For GSM1800 Base Station, VTC Conference, Houston 1999 [Lan95] Langer H., Woracek H., Mathematik 2, Institut fr Analysis, Technische Mathematik und Versicherungsmathematik Technische Universitt Wien, 1995 [Lee93] Lee W. C. Y., Mobile Communication Designs Fundamentals, 2nd Edition, Wiley sereis in telecommunications, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 605 Third Avenue, New York, 1993 [Lee98] Lee W. C. Y., Mobile Communications Engineering, Theory and Applications, 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill, 1998 [Med99] Medapalli K. R., TDMA Interference Cancellation and Equalization Using Tentative Decisions, State University of New Jersey, New Brunwick, New Jersey, January 1999 [Meh97] Mehrotra A., GSM System Engineering 2. printing, The Artech House mobile commnications series, Boston, 1997 [Mou92] Mouly M. and Pautet M. B., The GSM System for Mobile Communications, 1992 Michael Mouly and Marie-Bernadette Pautet, 1992 [Par92] Parson J. D., The Mobile Propagation Channel, Pentech Press, London, Great Britain, 1992 [Ped97] Pedersen G. F., Amplitude modulated RF Fields stemming from a GSM/DCS-1800 phone, Wireless Networks 3, pp. 489-498, 1997 [Ped98] Pedersen G. F., Nielsen J. ., Olesen K., Kovacs I. Z., Measured Variations in Performance of Handheld Antennas for a large Number of test Persons, VTC Conference, Ottawa 1998 [Pro89] Proakis, J. G., Digital Communication, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1989 [Bla93]

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[Ste92] [Win84]

Rappaport Th. S., Wireless Communications Principles and Practice, IEEE Press, 1996 Razavi B., Challenges in portable RF Transceiver Design, IEEE Circuits and Devices Magazine, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 12-25, 1996 John Scourias , Overview of the Global System for Mobile Communications, http://www.ccnga.uwaterloo.ca/~jscourias/GSM/gsmreport.html, 1996, 1997 John Scourias, 1997 Steele R., Mobile Radio Communications, London Pentech Press 1992 Winterss J. H., Optimum combining in Digital Mobile Radio with Cochannel Interference, IEEE journal on selected areas in communications, vol. SAC-2, no.4, July 1984

This appendix describes how a modulated GSM burst in the base band is modelled. In Chapter 1 GSM System is described that a GSM normal burst consists of 156,25 bits which are composed out of (see Figure A-1) 3 tail bits 57 data bits 1 stealing bit 26 bit training sequence 1 stealing bit 57 data bits 3 tail bits 8,25 bit guard period The tail bits are always zero and the 26 bit long training sequence is one of eight in GSM defined training sequences (see Appendix C) [GSM0502]. The values of the two 57 bit data blocks and of the two stealing bits depend on the kind of data and the data which is transmitted. Therefore the data blocks and the stealing bits are modelled with random data bits. The guard period is not taken into account in the model as there is no data transmitted during the guard period [GSM0502].

3

TB

57

Data Bits

1

SB

26

57

Data Bits

3

TB

8,25

GP

Training SB Sequence

The transmitted data in GSM is differential encoded which means that the nth bit of the transmitted data stream is given by

( n ) = xor (d ( n 1), d( n ) ) 0 n N d 1 (A.1)

where Nd=148 is the number of bits to be transmitted1 and dn is the nth data bit per definition d -1=1 [GSM0504]. The modulation scheme used in GSM is Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK), where the phase varies as a function of time and the transmitted bits, , as [Pro89] ( t, )=

( n ) g ( nTB )d

0 n N d 1 (A.2)

where g(t) gives the frequency deviation as a function of time for a single bit with duration TB which is given by

1

3 tail bits + 57 data bits + 1 stealing bits + 26 bit training sequence + 1 stealing bit + 57 data bits + 3 tail bits = 148 bits A-1

A-2

1 1 1 2 2 TB 2 g( t ) = rect e 2TB 2 TB TB

t2

(A.3)

ln( 2) 2 BT

(A.4)

where BT is defined as the 3dB band width of the filter with impulse response

2 2 1 e 2 TB 2 TB t2

(A.5)

multiplied by TB. BT=0.3 for GSM [Ped97]. Figure A-2 shows g(t) for GSM which is used for modelling GSM bursts in this project.

6 x 10

4

Figure A-2: Frequency variation as a function of the bit time, TB, for GSM when a 1 is sent. Here the pulse is truncated to 3TB in order to implement it efficient but the area is kept at 0.5 which is required for MSK modulation [Ped97]

As g(t) lasts 3 bit durations will a 148 bit long data sequence produce a modulated sequence with the length of 150 bit durations. Which means that the modelled burst will contain a 2 bit long guard period containing the rest of the impulse responses of the last two tail bits. As only the parts of the bursts are relevant where the training sequence of wanted and interfering burst are located this guard period does not affect the results of the simulations. The amplitude for the modulated Burst was chosen one and the timing was chosen in that way that four samples per bit are produced. Therefore the kth sample of the modulated GSM burst using training sequence number i is defined as Bi ( k ) = e where j is the square root of 1.

kT j B , 4

0 k (N d + 2 ) 1 (A.6) 1 i 8

B.1 Measurements

The channel data used for this simulations origins from a measurement campaign, done by the Center for PersonKommunikation in order to measure the variation in performance of handheld antennas, which was done in December 1997 (see [Ped98]). The measurements were done using a carrier frequency of 1890MHz having 200 test persons holding the handset in normal speaking position. The mock-up handset consists of a commercial available GSM-1800 handheld equipped with a retractable dipole or helical antenna which was also modified to include a back mounted patch antenna (see Figure B-1a). Two 50 Ohm cables were used to connect the antenna to the receiving equipment. The mock-up therefore consists of three antennas connected to two connectors, a patch antenna on one connector and either the dipole or helical antenna on the other connector.

a)

b)

Figure B-1: a) The handheld equipped with helical and patch antenna; b) One of the test persons holding the handheld in what he feels as natural speaking position during measurement.

B-1

B-2

The measurements were carried out by asking each test person to hold the handheld in what he or she felt was a natural speaking position (see Figure B-1b). Then the persons had to follow a path marked with tape on the floor. The path was a square of 2 by 4 meter and each record of data lasts 30 seconds which corresponds to approximately two rounds. In order to record all three antennas each person had to follow the path for 30 seconds then the dipole antenna was changed to the helical antenna and walk the path once again. This procedure was done for the handheld hold in both hands. All together four locations were selected, one path on each floor and 50 test persons were used for each floor. On the first floor where the windows were facing opposite the transmitter were two persons asked to repeat the whole measurement procedure 5 times in order to get measurement data usable for diversity investigations. So there were 5 measurement records recorded for each combination of hand and antenna type used for each of these two persons. This data is actually used for this project. These repetitive measurements were only done with two persons because these measurements were very time consuming as the two persons had to undergo 20 measurement runs (that corresponds to 40 rounds on the predefined path) in order to measure all possible combinations of antennas and hand used. In this measurement campaign was only one base station used. So the wanted and interfering signal was transmitted from the same location. In a real network origins the interfering signal not from the same location. Placing the interfering and wanted signal at the same location is expected to be the worst case. In each SINR investigation one measurement has been used as the wanted signal and one of the repeated measurements has been used as the interfering signals. This gives the possibility to simulate 20 combinations of wanted and interfering signals due to the 5 repetitions. The handset was connected to a wide band dual-channel correlation sounder in order to record two antennas at a time. The carrier frequency was 1890MHz and a bandwidth of 20MHz was used. The instantaneous dynamic range of the sounder was 45dB and the over all dynamic range is 80dB with a linearity of 1dB. To match a typical urban GSM micro cell the transmitter antenna was located approximately 700m away on the 16th level of a high building in an urban environment. The transmit antenna was a 60 degrees sector antenna with a beam width of 5 degrees in elevation and it was tilted mechanically 4 degrees down. Figure B-2 shows the transmitting antenna together with the environment. The building where the measurements were performed is hidden by other buildings on the picture. Therefore no line of sight exists between the transmitter and the handheld phone.

M o b ile R ec eive r

T X A n te nn a

Figure B-2: Picture of transmitting base station antenna (the antenna is vertically mounted) and the view of the used urban area

B-3

Each recorded path lasts 30 seconds and consists of 1000 impulse responses with a depth of 6s. So the time between two impulse responses is 30ms whereas a GSM burst is received every 4,6ms [Dav96]. In order to be able to simulate a GSM system 5 equidistant impulse responses were calculated between each pair of measured impulse responses using cubic spline interpolation (see [Boo78] for details about splines). So the time distance between two impulse responses is now 5ms which is in the same order of magnitude as the 4,6ms between two received GSM bursts. The coherence bandwidth of the received signal is approximately 2,3MHz (for a correlation coefficient of 0,7). Therefore a GSM channel having 200kHz RF bandwidth can be considered flat fading. The parts of the impulse responses containing only noise were zeroed1 before the impulse responses were converted to the frequency domain by fast fourier transform (FFT). The distance between two samples of the FFT is about 200kHz. Therefore it was chosen to take one sample of the FFT of each impulse response to represent the propagation vector of the signal. So from each impulse response one propagation vector is obtained.

In the SINR gain investigation for determining the weight set one measurement has been used as the wanted signal and one of the repeated measurements has been used as the interfering signal. Both the interfering and the wanted signal came from the same location under similar path losses. Therefore is the average received power of wanted and interfering signal approximately the same. This C/I-ratio conditions are not realistic in a real GSM network. To investigate a GSM like scenario the interfering signal has to be scaled. According to [Knu99] who used the same measurement data the interfering signal is attenuated by 13dB for both antennas. Than the C/I-ratio will be below 4dB in approximately 10% of the cases. With an expected gain at the 10% level of 5 to 6dB the C/I-ratio at the output of the antenna array will be below 9dB in approximately 10% of the time. Normally it is expected that the system performance in GSM due to channel and speech coding is acceptable if the SINR is not more often than in 10% of the cases below 9dB [Knu99]. For the simulations described in the Appendix D the noise power is estimated using the first 25 samples (app. 0,5s) of each impulse response and scaled according to the 200kHz bandwidth which is the noise power level used. The scaled noise is about 45dB below the interfering signal which means that the system is interference limited. Note that the average power of the two antennas are different due to the different performances of the different antenna types (see [Ped98] for further details).

For all simulations instead of the simulations described in Appendix D, is in order to have equal powers at both antennas the channel data for each antenna of the wanted signal normalised using

u dni ( m ) = u di ( m ) u di

(B.1)

u di ( m) =

1 M u di ( m) M m =1

(B.2)

where M is the number of bursts to be simulated2. udi(m) is the mth propagation vector of the wanted

This was done by zeroing each sample of the impulse response whose absolute value was below a certain threshold. The threshold was found by looking to the first 25 samples (app. 0,5s) of each impulse response which contains only noise as the signal needed this time to travel from the transmitter to the receiver. 2 Due to memory problems the maximum number of burst simulated was 2000. Though from each interpolated measurement record are 5995 ((1000-1)*6+1) propagation vectors obtained.

B-4

signal for antenna 1 or 2 and udni(m) is the normalised equivalent of udi(m). The wanted signal of the ith antenna (i equals 1 or 2 according to the two antennas) is then created by

Wi ( m ) = u dni ( m )B1m

(B.3)

where B1m is a modulated GSM burst using training sequence 1 which is generated as described in Appendix A. Note that B1m is the same for both antennas during one burst but it contains different data bits every burst. In every 26th burst the wanted signal is zero for the whole burst duration in order to simulate the idle bursts. The propagation vectors for the interfering signals which are gained from a repeated measurement are normalised in the same way as the propagation vector of the wanted signal. Additionally the propagation vectors of the interfering signals are scaled according to the average C/I-ratio to be simulated. Since the base stations in the GSM system are not synchronised it is unlikely that the training sequences of the wanted signal and the interfering signal occur at the same time. To take this into account, if not stated otherwise, is the burst of the interfering signal shifted by ns=50 bits. This means that the interfering burst for antenna i is modelled by ~ I i ( m) = u jni ( m)B 2 m

th

(B.4)

~ B 2 m is the shifted version of B2m a modulated GSM burst using training sequence 2 which is modelled as described in Appendix A3. The kth sample of the shifted GSM burst is given by ~ B2 m ( k ) = B2 m (( k + n s ) mod N B ) where NB=600 is the number of samples per burst. The entire signal for the ith antenna in the mth burst is then composed using

Ei ( m ) = Wi ( m ) + I i ( m ) + N i ( m )

where ujni(m) is the m normalised and scaled propagation vector of the interfering signal at antenna i.

0 k N B 1 (B.5)

(B.6)

where Ni(m) contains NB samples of white Gaussian noise with a power according to the desired Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR).

Note that B2m follows the same rules as described for B1m

In GSM there are 8 different training sequences specified for the normal burst. This sequences are: Number of Sequence 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Actual Bit Configuration of Training Sequence A B C A B 00100 10111 000010 00100 10111 00101 10111 011110 00101 10111 01000 01110 111010 01000 01110 01000 11110 110100 01000 11110 00011 01011 100100 00011 01011 01001 11010 110000 01001 11010 10100 11111 011000 10100 11111 11101 11100 010010 11101 11100

As you can see each sequence consists of a 16 bit long center part (B C A) and a 5 bit long cyclic continuation of the center part at the beginning and end of the sequence (A, B). All 8 training sequences have the probability that the correlation between the center part (BCA) with the entire sequence (ABCAB) has a correlation peak with height 16. This peak is surrounded by five "0" on each side of the peak. The Figures C-1 to C-8 show the correlation of the center part of the training sequence with the whole sequence of itself and the other training sequences. In this figures can be seen that the cross correlation properties of the training sequences are not very good as there are quite big peaks in the cross correlation. As you can see there are 15 combinations of training sequences with a cross correlation peak larger than 10. The largest cross correlation peak with 14 show the combinations 4-8, 6-7, 7-6 and 8-4. Where the combinations 6-7 and 7-6 are worst as they have additional peaks with +12 and -12. The same weak cross correlation properties can be expected when the training sequence is correlated with random data. That is the reason why there is a large estimation error for the wanted signal if the interferer has about the same power like the wanted signal.

C-1

C-2

Correlation of TS 1 with TS 1 15 10 10

Correlation of TS 1 with TS 2

c(k)

c(k)

0 10 k Correlation of TS 1 with TS 3 -10 20

5 0 -5 -10 -20

10

10

c(k)

c(k)

0 10 k Correlation of TS 1 with TS 5 -10 20

-10 -20

10

10

c(k)

c(k)

0 10 k Correlation of TS 1 with TS 7 -10 20

-10 -20

10

10

c(k)

c(k)

-10 0 k 10 20

-10 -20

Figure C-1: Correlation of the center part of training sequence 1 with all entire training sequences

C-3

Correlation of TS 2 with TS 2 15 10 10

Correlation of TS 2 with TS 1

c(k)

c(k)

0 10 k Correlation of TS 2 with TS 3 -10 20

5 0 -5 -10 -20

10

10

c(k)

c(k)

0 10 k Correlation of TS 2 with TS 5 -10 20

-10 -20

10

10

c(k)

c(k)

0 10 k Correlation of TS 2 with TS 7 -10 20

-10 -20

10

10

c(k)

c(k)

-10 0 k 10 20

-10 -20

Figure C-2: Correlation of the center part of training sequence 2 with all entire training sequences

C-4

Correlation of TS 3 with TS 3 15 10 10

Correlation of TS 3 with TS 1

c(k)

c(k)

0 10 k Correlation of TS 3 with TS 2 -10 20

5 0 -5 -10 -20

10

10

c(k)

c(k)

0 10 k Correlation of TS 3 with TS 5 -10 20

-10 -20

10

10

c(k)

c(k)

0 10 k Correlation of TS 3 with TS 7 -10 20

-10 -20

10

10

c(k)

c(k)

-10 0 k 10 20

-10 -20

Figure C-3: Correlation of the center part of training sequence 3 with all entire training sequences

C-5

Correlation of TS 4 with TS 4 15 10 10

Correlation of TS 4 with TS 1

c(k)

c(k)

0 10 k Correlation of TS 4 with TS 2 -10 20

5 0 -5 -10 -20

10

10

c(k)

c(k)

0 10 k Correlation of TS 4 with TS 5 -10 20

-10 -20

10

10

c(k)

c(k)

0 10 k Correlation of TS 4 with TS 7 -10 20

-10 -20

10

10

c(k)

c(k)

-10 0 k 10 20

-10 -20

Figure C-4: Correlation of the center part of training sequence 4 with all entire training sequences

C-6

Correlation of TS 5 with TS 5 15 10 10

Correlation of TS 5 with TS 1

c(k)

c(k)

0 10 k Correlation of TS 5 with TS 2 -10 20

5 0 -5 -10 -20

10

10

c(k)

c(k)

0 10 k Correlation of TS 5 with TS 4 -10 20

-10 -20

10

10

c(k)

c(k)

0 10 k Correlation of TS 5 with TS 7 -10 20

-10 -20

10

10

c(k)

c(k)

-10 0 k 10 20

-10 -20

Figure C-5: Correlation of the center part of training sequence 5 with all entire training sequences

C-7

Correlation of TS 6 with TS 6 15 10 10

Correlation of TS 6 with TS 1

c(k)

c(k)

0 10 k Correlation of TS 6 with TS 2 -10 20

5 0 -5 -10 -20

10

10

c(k)

c(k)

0 10 k Correlation of TS 6 with TS 4 -10 20

-10 -20

10

10

c(k)

c(k)

0 10 k Correlation of TS 6 with TS 7 -10 20

-10 -20

10

10

c(k)

c(k)

-10 0 k 10 20

-10 -20

Figure C-6: Correlation of the center part of training sequence 6 with all entire training sequences

C-8

Correlation of TS 7 with TS 7 15 10 10

Correlation of TS 7 with TS 1

c(k)

c(k)

0 10 k Correlation of TS 7 with TS 2 -10 20

5 0 -5 -10 -20

10

10

c(k)

c(k)

0 10 k Correlation of TS 7 with TS 4 -10 20

-10 -20

10

10

c(k)

c(k)

0 10 k Correlation of TS 7 with TS 6 -10 20

-10 -20

10

10

c(k)

c(k)

-10 0 k 10 20

-10 -20

Figure C-7: Correlation of the center part of training sequence 7 with all entire training sequences

C-9

Correlation of TS 8 with TS 8 15 10 10

Correlation of TS 8 with TS 1

c(k)

c(k)

0 10 k Correlation of TS 8 with TS 2 -10 20

5 0 -5 -10 -20

10

10

c(k)

c(k)

0 10 k Correlation of TS 8 with TS 4 -10 20

-10 -20

10

10

c(k)

c(k)

0 10 k Correlation of TS 8 with TS 6 -10 20

-10 -20

10

10

c(k)

c(k)

-10 0 k 10 20

-10 -20

Figure C-8: Correlation of the center part of training sequence 8 with all entire training sequences

In order to reduce the complexity of the necessary hard- and software for implementing a combining algorithm, the number of quantization steps for the argument and absolute value of the weights has to be limited. All simulations in this appendix were performed using algorithm B with a C/I-ratio of 13dB and the noise level was approximately 45dB below the interfering signal. In Appendix B is described how the channel data for interfering and wanted signal was gained. The first method of amplitude quantization uses a weight set determined by equation D.1. Where i refers to the ith amplitude step and N is the total number of amplitude steps. w q (i) = 2i N 1

0 i N 1 (D.1)

An odd number of weights is used in order to have a quantization step with amplitude=1. Figure D-1 shows the output of the quantization function over the amplitude of the input weight for 9 amplitude steps.

2.5

|wq(w)|

1.5

0.5

0.5

1.5 |w|

2.5

Figure D-1: Output of amplitude quantization function over amplitude of input weight for 9 amplitude steps

The quantization steps of the argument of the complex weights are determined by q (i ) = 360 (i 1) M

0 i M 1 (D.2)

where M is the number of quantization intervals and i refers to the ith argument step.

D-1

D-2

(D.3)

Figure D-2 shows the gain at the 10% level over the number of amplitude and argument steps. In this simulation the optimum weights are calculated for each burst and used in the succeeding burst (after 5ms) because in GSM it is not possible to change the weights during a burst. It can be seen that by choosing this amplitude quantization scheme there is no increase in the achievable gain if more than 5 quantization steps are chosen. The gain increment by choosing argument steps of 45 degrees instead of 90 degrees is larger than the increment which is achieved by changing from 45 degrees argument steps to no argument quantization.

14 13 12 11 SINR Gain [dB] 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 0 5 10 15 20 Number of Amplitude 25 30 35 No argument quantization = 45 S = 90 S = 180

S

Figure D-2: SINR gain at 10% level over the number of amplitude and argument steps (average C/I-ratio is 13dB)

Figure D-3 shows how often the different amplitudes are used for the case of 9 amplitude steps. You can see that the different amplitudes do not occur with the same probability. The amplitude 2 for example is used much more often than the other amplitudes. This is a sign therefore that the maximum amplitude is chosen too small.

3000

2500

Number of Uses

2000

1500

1000

500

0.25

0.5

1.5

1.75

Figure D-3: Histogram of the quantized optimum weights during 30 seconds (C/I=13dB)

D-3

As a second attempt it is tried to make the weight quantization according to the CDF of the absolute value of the optimum weights. Figure D-4 shows how the weights and the quantization intervals are determined according to the CDF for 3 amplitude steps. You can see that the borders of the ith quantization intervals bq(i) are given by the value of |w| where the probability P w < abscissa = where M is the number of quantization intervals. Is

b q (i 1) w < b q (i + 1)

100% i M

0 i M (D.4)

1 i M 1 (D.5)

or

w b q (i )

i = M (D.6)

then is the value of the quantized weight wq(i) given by the value of |w| where the probability P w < abscissa =

100% (2i 1) 2M

(D.7)

100

83,3 80

P(|w|<abscissa) [%]

66,6 60 50

40 33,3 20 16,7 0

wq(2)=1,58

0 5 wq(1)=0,65 wq(3)=3,58

10 |w|

15

20

Figure D-4: CDF of the optimum weights for a C/I-ratio of 13dB and the quantization intervals for 3 amplitude steps

Figure D-5 shows the achieved SINR gain at 10% level over amplitude and argument steps if the amplitude is quantized according to the CDF of the absolute value of the optimum weights. It can be seen that the gain is larger compared to the gain achieved by using a amplitude quantization determined by equation D.1. It is also obvious that the gain improvement by choosing S=22,5 instead of S=45 is much smaller than the improvement achieved by changing S=90 to S=45. Note that reducing S to the half doubles the complexity of the necessary phase shifter. Because of this 8 argument quantization steps (S=45) are chosen for this project.

D-4

S

Figure D-5: SINR gain at 10% level over the number of amplitude and argument steps using quantization steps according to the CDF of the amplitudes of the optimum weights (average C/I-ratio is 13dB)

Until now a odd number of amplitude quantization steps was chosen. Figure D-6 compares the achievable gain for S=45 over amplitude steps for even and odd number of amplitudes. As you can see there is hardly any difference in the achieved gain by changing the number of quantization steps e.g. from 9 to 8.

16

15

14

13

S

11

10

10

15 20 Number of Amplitude

25

30

35

Figure D-6: Comparison SINR gain at 10% level over the number of amplitude steps for an odd and even number of amplitude steps (average C/I-ratio is 13dB)

For the rest of the project it is chosen to use 8 amplitude quantization steps which are determined according to the CDF of the amplitudes of the optimum weights.

D-5

In Figure D-7 can be seen that the CDFs of the amplitudes of the optimum weights depends on the user and in which hand the handset is hold. The reason therefore is that the performance of the different antennas depends on the user and which hand is used to hold the handset. This phenomena is described in [Ped98] where the same measurement data like in this project was used. Because of this differences in the CDFs of the amplitudes of the weights, the CDF of the non quantized weights should be calculated during a call, so that the quantization steps for the amplitudes can be adapted to the user. a)

100 90 80 P(|w|<abscissa) [dB] P(|w|<abscissa) [dB] User User User User 0 5 10 |w| 1 1 2 2 using using using using left hand right hand left hand right hand 20 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

b)

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 User User User User 0 5 10 |w| 1 1 2 2 using using using using left hand right hand left hand right hand 20

15

15

c)

100 90 Right Hand 80 P(|w|<abscissa) [dB] 70 60 Left Hand 50 40 30 20 10 0

d)

100 90 Right Hand 80 P(|w|<abscissa) [dB] 70 60 Left Hand 50 40 30 20 10 0

10 |w|

15

20

10 |w|

15

20

Figure D-7: CDFs of amplitudes of optimum weights for average C/I=13dB; a) 2 different users using left or right hand with a handset which is equipped with dipol and patch antenna; b) 2 different users using left or right hand with a handset which is equipped with helix and patch antenna; c) different combinations of interferer and wanted channel data for one user using a handset which is equipped with dipol and patch antenna; d) different combinations of interferer and wanted channel data for one user using a handset which is equipped with helix and patch antenna

This appendix deals with the problem of estimating the received signal at both of the two antennas in the case that only the weighted sum of the received signal is known. For the calculations later in this appendix is assumed that the propagation vector for wanted and interfering signal is stable. Figure E-1 shows a model of the antenna array. The only information the signal estimation and weight generation unit has is the weighted sum y(m,k) of the received signals x1(m,k) and x2(m,k). Where m represents the number of the burst and k numbers the samples in the burst.

y(m,k)

(E.1)

The received signal consists of the desired signal, thermal noise and interfering signals. This can be expressed as: x( m, k ) = x d ( m, k ) + x n ( m, k ) +

x (m, k)

j j=1

(E.2)

With ud(m), sd(m,k) and uj(m), sj(m,k) the propagation vector and the sampled transmitted sequence for the wanted and the jth interfering signal equation E.2 can be written as x( m, k ) = u d ( m)s d ( m, k ) + x n ( m, k ) +

u (m)s (m, k)

j j j=1

(E.3)

E-1

E-2

The signal y(m,k) which is available for estimating the sequences at both antennas is y( m, k ) = w T ( m)x ( m, k ) where superscript T means transpose and w(m) is given by w1 ( m) w( m) = . w 2 ( m )

(E.5) (E.4)

Algorithm A has to know the sequences x1(m,k) and x2(m,k) during the samples of the training sequence in order to calculate the weights. An estimation of the sequences x1(m,k) and x2(m,k) is only possible if the following conditions are fulfilled: the propagation channel is approximately stable for at least the duration of two bursts

u d ( m ) u d ( m 1)

(E.6) (E.7)

s d ( m, k ) = s d ( m 1, k )

(E.8) (E.9)

(E.10)

Are all these conditions fulfilled then the sequences at the antennas can be estimated by

1 ( m, k ) = x y( m 1, k ) w 2 ( m ) y( m, k ) w 2 ( m 1) w 1 ( m 1) w 2 ( m ) w 1 ( m ) w 2 ( m 1) 1 ( m, k ) w 1 ( m 1) y( m 1, k ) x w 2 ( m 1)

(E.11)

2 ( m, k ) = x

(E.12)

If w2(m-1)=0 then equation E.13 and E.14 have to be used for estimating the sequences at the antennas.

1 ( m, k ) = x y( m 1, k ) w 1 ( m 1)

(E.13)

2 ( m, k ) = x

1 ( m, k ) w 1 ( m ) y( m, k ) x w 2 ( m)

(E.14)

E-3

Considering a GSM-System with a slow walking user the propagation vectors for the wanted and the interfering signals will be approximately constant. As the base stations in GSM are not synchronised transmit the interfering base stations random data when the wanted base station transmits the training sequence. This means that normally s j ( m, k ) s j ( m 1, k ) during the training sequence of the wanted signal. Figure E-2 and Figure E-3 show the part of the sequence where the training sequence of the wanted signal is placed for two succeeding bursts1 and the from the weighted sum calculated sequence at both antennas for the weights w(m-1)=[1 0]T and w(m)=[1 0,2]T. As w(m-1)=[1 0]T is the estimated burst for antenna 1 equal to the burst received at m-1. In Figure E.14 you can see that that there is a huge estimation error through the non stable interfering sequence. The huge error at the start and the end of the training sequence of the wanted signal is due to the interference of preceding and succeeding data bits which differ in the bursts m-1 and m.

x(m-1,k)

Amplitude Amplitude 3 2 1 0 100 Phase [] Phase [] 0 -100 -200 -300 0 10 20 Bit Number 26 0 10 20 Bit Number 3 2 1 0 100 0 -100 -200 -300 0 10 20 Bit Number 26 Phase [] 0 10 20 Bit Number 26

(E.15)

x(m,k)

Amplitude 3 2 1 0 100 0 -100 -200 -300

Estimated Burst

Entire Signal

26

10 20 Bit Number

26

10 20 Bit Number

26

x(m-1,k)

3 Amplitude Amplitude 2 1 0 100 Phase [] Phase [] 0 -100 -200 -300 0 10 20 Bit Number 26 0 10 20 Bit Number 3 2 1 0 100 0 -100 -200 -300 0 0

x(m,k)

3 Amplitude 2 1 0 100 Phase [] 0 -100 -200 10 20 Bit Number 26 -300 0 0

Estimated Burst

Wanted Signal

26

10 20 Bit Number

26

10 20 Bit Number

26

10 20 Bit Number

26

x(m-1,k)

1 Amplitude mplitude 1

x(m,k)

1 Amplitude

Estimated Burst

Interfering Signal

0.5

0.5

0.5

0 300 Phase []

10 20 Bit Number

26 Phase []

10 20 Bit Number

26 Phase []

0 300

10 20 Bit Number

26

200 100 0

26

-100

10 20 Bit Number

26

Figure E-2: Amplitude and Phase for x(m-1,k), x(m,k) and the from y(m-1) and y(m) estimated Burst (calculated using equation E.13) for the entire signal, the interfering signal at antenna 1; during the time where the training sequence of the wanted signal is transmitted (w(m-1)=[1 0] T; w(m)=[1 0,2] T)

1

E-4

x(m-1,k)

2 mplitude mplitude 2

x(m,k)

10 mplitude

Estimated Burst

Entire Signal

10 20 Bit Number

26 Phase []

10 20 Bit Number

26 Phase []

10 20 Bit Number

26

10 20 Bit Number

26

-300

10 20 Bit Number

26

-300

10 20 Bit Number

26

x(m-1,k)

2 Amplitude Amplitude 2

x(m,k)

2 Amplitude

Estimated Burst

Wanted Signal

10 20 Bit Number

26 Phase []

10 20 Bit Number

26 Phase []

10 20 Bit Number

26

0 -200 -400

10 20 Bit Number

26

-300

10 20 Bit Number

26

10 20 Bit Number

26

x(m-1,k)

Amplitude Amplitude 0.4 0.2 0 100 Phase [] 0 -100 -200 -300 0 10 20 Bit Number 26 0 10 20 Bit Number 26 0.4 0.2 0 400 Phase [] 200 0 -200 0 0

x(m,k)

Amplitude 4 2 0 100 Phase [] 0 -100 -200 -300 0 0

Estimated Burst

Interfering Signal

10 20 Bit Number

26

10 20 Bit Number

26

10 20 Bit Number

26

10 20 Bit Number

26

Figure E-3: Amplitude and Phase for x(m-1,k), x(m,k) and the from y(m-1) and y(m) estimated Burst (calculated using equation E.14) for the entire signal, the interfering signal at antenna 2; during the time where the training sequence of the wanted signal is transmitted (w(m-1)=[1 0] T; w(m)=[1 0,2] T)

w(m-1) w(m)

T T

Achieved C/I when the input for algorithm A is x(m-1,k) x(m,k) Estimated Burst [dB] [dB] [dB]

[1 1] [1 -1] 14,9 16,2 88,6 85,4 23,0 T T [0 1] [1 0] 14,9 16,2 88,6 85,4 23,0 T T [1 0] [0 1] 14,9 16,2 88,6 85,4 23,0 Table E-1: Comparison of achieved C/I-ratio if the input for algorithm A is x(m-1,k); x(m,k) and the estimated burst which is calculated out of the weighted sums y(m) and y(m-1) of the input signals; (The propagation vector is the same for burst m and m-1; transmitted data of the interferer differs between burst m and m-1; noise power app. 45dB below interfering signal)

E-5

Table E-1 shows the achieved C/I-ratio for algorithm A if the input for the algorithm is x(m-1,k), x(m,k) or a sequence estimated from the weighted sums y(m) and y(m-1) using equations E.11 to E.14. For this comparison the propagation vector for the wanted signal and the interferer are the same for all bursts. The input burst contains noise which is approximately 45dB below the interfering signal. The only difference between burst m and burst m-1 is that the transmitted sequence of the interferer and the noise is different. The C/I-ratio was calculated by [w w ] u d1 1 2 u d 2 C / I = 20 log10 u j1 [w w 2 ] 1 u j2

[dB]

(E.16)

where ud1, ud2, uj1 and uj2 are the propagation vectors for antenna 1 and 2 of the wanted and interfering signal, respectively. w1 and w2 are the complex weights for antenna 1 and 2 resulting from algorithm A. The different C/I-ratio for burst x(m-1,k) and x(m,k) is due to a slightly larger noise power in burst x(m,k). Further it is obvious that algorithm A does not work properly with the estimated sequence. Even if the weights are chosen in that way that

y( m 1, k ) = x 1 ( m 1, k ) y ( m, k ) = x 2 ( m, k )

(E.17) (E.18)

is the achieved C/I-ratio very poor. It seems that algorithm A needs a synchronised system where the wanted and interfering base station transmit the training sequence at the same time. Therefore is it not possible to use algorithm A in this project.

Algorithm B needs only the knowledge of the propagation vectors of the wanted and interfering signals in order to calculate a proper weight set. Assuming that the propagation vectors are at least constant for the duration of two bursts it is possible to estimate the propagation vectors of wanted and interfering signal out of y(m) and y(m-1) as described in Chapter 4 Signal Estimation. If equation E.10 is fulfilled then this combined vectors can be counted back to the two input antennas using i1 ( m) = u u i y ( m 1) w 2 ( m) u iy ( m) w 2 ( m 1) w1 ( m 1) w 2 ( m) w1 ( m) w 2 ( m 1) i1 ( m) w1 ( m 1) u i y ( m 1) u w 2 ( m 1)

(E.19)

i 2 ( m) = u

(E.20)

If w2(m-1)=0 then the propagation vectors at the input antennas can be calculated using i1 ( m) = u u i y ( m 1) w1 ( m 1)

(E.21)

i 2 ( m) = u

i1 ( m) w1 ( m) u i y ( m) u w 2 ( m)

(E.22)

i1 ( m ) , u i 2 ( m ) have to be substituted by the components of the estimated propagation vector where u of the wanted or interfering signal and uiy has to be substituted by the estimated propagation vector of

E-6

wanted or interfering signal which is gained out of y(m) and y(m-1) according to Chapter 4 Signal Estimation. Table E-2 shows, for the same input bursts and propagation vectors as Table E-1, the achievable C/I-ratio with algorithm B for different weight sets at the input if the propagation vectors are estimated from y(m) and y(m-1) and recalculated to the input antennas using equations E.19 to E.22. As reference the C/I-ratio achieved by using the propagation vectors estimated from x(m-1,k) and x(m,k) are also shown. It can be seen that the combination of w(m) and w(m-1) does not affect the achievable C/I-ratio which is nearly the same as the C/I-ratio achieved by estimating the propagation vectors from x(m-1,k) and x(m,k). The different output C/I-ratios for burst x(m-1,k) and x(m,k) are due to a slightly larger noise power in burst x(m).

Achieved C/I if the propagation vectors for algorithm B are estimated and recalculated from y(m,k) and estimated from estimated from x(m-1,k) x(m,k) y(m-1,k) C/I Antenna 1 C/I Antenna 2 [dB] [dB] [dB] [dB] [dB]

w(m-1) w(m) [1 [1 [1 [1 [1 [0

T T

1] [1 -1] 14,9 16,2 84,5 78,5 78,5 T T [1 j] 1] 14,9 16,2 84,5 78,5 78,5 T T 1] [0 0,2] 14,9 16,2 84,5 78,5 78,5 T T 1] [0 j0,2] 14,9 16,2 84,5 78,5 78,5 T T [0 1] 0] 14,9 16,2 84,5 78,5 78,5 T T [1 0] 1] 14,9 16,2 84,5 78,5 78,5 Table E-2: Comparison of achieved C/I-ratio for algorithm B if the propagation vectors for wanted and interfering signal are estimated from x(m-1,k); x(m,k) or if they are estimated from the propagation vectors determined from the weighted sums y(m) and y(m-1) and counted back to the input antennas; (The propagation vectors are the same for burst m and m-1; transmitted data of interferer differs between burst m and m-1; noise power app. 45dB below interfering signal)

In this appendix are algorithm A and algorithm B which are suggested in Section 3.3 Model for Optimum Combining compared under two different conditions. For both conditions is assumed that an antenna system with 2 antennas is used and that there is only one interferer.

First the two algorithms are tested in ideal conditions. This means that the algorithms can use the input sequences at both antennas simultaneously and the signals of the two antennas are buffered until the optimum weights are calculated and that the weights are not quantized. So it is possible to use the calculated weights without time delay. Algorithm B, where the propagation vectors of the wanted signal d, the interfering signal j and the 2 are known, is used as a reference. That means that it is not necessary to estimate the noise power propagation vectors of the wanted and interfering signal. This algorithm will be called Algorithm B without estimation. Table F-1 shows the SINR gains at the 10% level which are achieved with algorithm A, algorithm B and algorithm B without estimation for different combinations of wanted and interfering channel and Figure F-1 shows the average SINR gain for the three algorithms. The received mean power of both antennas is equal and the noise is 30dB below the wanted signal. In Table F-1 can be seen that the reference algorithm performs in certain cases worse than algorithm A which is always better than the ordinary algorithm B. The reason is that algorithm B without estimation chooses sometimes the weights in a way that the C/I ratio is very high but at the same time becomes the power of the wanted signal small compared to the noise power. The probability that algorithm B without estimation produces such bad weights is very low.

25,0 20,0 15,0 10,0 5,0 0,0 Algorithm A Algorithm B Algorithm B without estimation

Figure F-1: Comparison of average SINR gain at 10% level of algorithm A, algorithm B and algorithm B without estimation at ideal conditions (average input SNR 30dB) F-1

F-2

Algorithm B without estimation [dB] [dB] [dB] [dB] dgl0102 7,0 22,3 19,4 22,1 dgr0102 7,0 19,3 17,3 19,2 dkl0102 7,0 22,8 18,9 22,6 dkr0102 7,0 23,1 20,7 23,2 hgl0102 7,0 21,5 18,1 21,4 hgr0102 7,0 21,7 20,0 21,7 hkl0102 7,0 22,4 19,8 22,5 hkr0102 7,0 20,2 17,8 20,2 dgl0102 13,0 16,7 15,9 16,3 dgr0102 13,0 14,3 12,9 14,3 dkl0102 13,0 17,4 16,0 17,1 dkr0102 13,0 17,3 16,5 17,3 hgl0102 13,0 16,0 14,8 15,5 hgr0102 13,0 16,1 15,4 16,1 hkl0102 13,0 16,9 16,2 16,6 hkr0102 13,0 15,6 13,7 15,6 Table F-1: Comparison of the SINR gain at 10% level for algorithm A, algorithm B and algorithm B without estimation for 7 and 13dB input C/I-ratio1 (average input SNR 30dB)

40 SINR [dB] 20 0 -20 20 SINR [dB] 15 10 5 0 -5 1.095 1.1 1.105 1.11 Time [s] 1.115 1.12 1.125

Channel Code

Input C/I

Algorithm A

Algorithm B

0.5

2.5

Figure F-2: SINR at input antennas and after applying algorithm A or algorithm B without estimation in an area where algorithm B without estimation does not perform well, in the lower part of the figure is zoomed a 30ms period where algorithm B without estimation produces an worse SINR than the SINR at the input antennas (Average input C/I-ratio is 7dB)

Figure F-2 shows the trend of the SINR at the input antennas and after applying algorithm A or algorithm B without estimation for an average input C/I-ratio of 7dB. The upper part of Figure F-2 shows the trend of the SINR over 3 seconds. It is very hard to see the difference between algorithm A and algorithm B without estimation as they most of the time produce nearly the same SINR. In the

1

The first letter of the channel code determines if the channel data was gained by a dummy handset which was equipped with dipol and patch antenna (d) or helix and patch antenna (h). The second letter determines the test person. The third letter tells the hand which was used to hold the handset (l for left hand and r for right hand). The following two digits determine which one of the 5 repetitive measurements was chosen for the wanted signal and the last two digits determine which one of the 5 repetitive measurements was chosen for the interfering signal (see Appendix B for details about the channel data).

F-3

lower part of Figure F-2 a time period of 30ms is zoomed out where algorithm B without estimation produces an output SINR which is worse than the SINR at the input antennas.

In the second level both algorithms are compared under real conditions. This means the simulation is based on the GSM-system and a receiver model as discussed in Section 5.2 Necessary Changes in the Receiver. Hence it follows that the calculated weights can only be used for the succeeding bursts and the weights are quantized by 8 amplitude and phase steps. A "blind" change of the weights, which means that the weights are changed to a non-optimum combination in order to estimate the signals at the antennas, is only allowed in two out of 8 bursts (where the number 8 comes from the interleaving depth of 8 bursts in GSM). Algorithm A estimates every 8th bursts the input sequence at the antennas by setting the weights to [1 0]T and [0 1]T in two succeeding bursts. The calculated weights are then used for the next 6 bursts. Algorithm A2 estimates the input signals at both antennas in the same way but if the SINR falls below 20dB blind weights according to the rules described in Chapter 6 Tracking Algorithm will be used. Algorithm B is exactly the same algorithm as described in Chapter 6 Tracking Algorithm . Table F-2 shows the SINR gains at the 10% level which are achieved with algorithm A, algorithm A2 and algorithm B for different combinations of wanted and interfering channel. It is obvious that algorithm B performs much better than the algorithms A and A2. This weak performance of algorithm A and A2 is because the weights can be estimated only every 8th burst as there is only one receiver chain. It can also be seen that algorithm A2 which uses guessing when the SINR is low, performs worse than Algorithm A which does not guess. This is because Algorithm A2 cannot use the change of the weights, when guessing a better combination, for a new weight calculation due to the problem of estimating the input sequence at both antennas described in Appendix E. So if the guessed weight set is worse than the weight set used before, the SINR will be lower and the algorithm will adapt the weights in the same wrong direction as before making the SINR worse. This is because the guessing algorithm was designed for algorithm B which can use each change of the weights for estimating the channel and adapting the weights. So in algorithm B there cannot be two guesses in a row. Figure F-3 shows the average SINR gain at the 10% level for the algorithms A, A2 and B for an average input C/I-ratio of 7 and 13dB.

Algorithm Algorithm Algorithm A A2 B [dB] [dB] [dB] [dB] dgl0102 7,0 2,3 0,5 9,8 dgr0102 7,0 1,1 0,5 10,3 dkl0102 7,0 4,4 2,6 11,6 dkr0102 7,0 3,9 3,0 13,6 hgl0102 7,0 2,3 0,6 10,4 hgr0102 7,0 2,7 2,2 11,1 hkl0102 7,0 1,8 1,3 12,8 hkr0102 7,0 3,6 2,9 12,5 dgl0102 13,0 1,7 1,2 9,8 dgr0102 13,0 1,2 0,8 9,3 dkl0102 13,0 4,2 2,8 11,1 dkr0102 13,0 3,4 3,3 12,1 hgl0102 13,0 2,8 1,1 9,9 hgr0102 13,0 2,8 3,0 11,0 hkl0102 13,0 2,2 1,7 11,5 hkr0102 13,0 3,3 2,6 11,7 Table F-2: Comparison of the SINR gain at 10% level for algorithm A, algorithm A2 and algorithm B for 7 and 13dB input C/I-ratio2 (average input SNR 30dB) Channel Code Input C/I

F-4

14,0 12,0 10,0 8,0 6,0 4,0 2,0 0,0 Algorithm A Algorithm A2 Algorithm B

Figure F-3: Comparison of average SINR gain at 10% level of algorithm A, algorithm A2 and algorithm B at real conditions (average input SNR 30dB)