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KyleKramer Biology1010 ArticleReview 4/6/14 BirthofComplexCells ThearticlesIhavechosentoreadarebothabouthowComplexCellscameto existence.ThefirstscientificarticleisbyChristianDeDuve.HewroteTheBirthof ComplexCells.Duvebeginstoexplainthathistheoryofhowthecomplexcellcametobe isfromtheevolutionofProkaryoticCellstoEukaryoticCells.Thesecondarticleisa summarybasedoffofCellEvolutionbyMaryK.Montgomery.Itbasesitstheoriesoffof whatChristiandeDuveputinhisarticle.TheBirthofComplexcellswaspublishedin 1996,bytheScientificAmericanInc.WhereasCellEvolutionwaspublishedin2014,by AdvamegInc.BothofthesearticlesexplainwhereEukaryoticcellscamefrom. Thehypothesistobothofthesearticlesisthatapproximately3.

.57billionyearsago CellularLifeemergedontoearthintheformofProkaryotes(Bacteria),andthatevolution tookplace,andthatswhereEukaryoticcellsevolvedfrom.Theydocompare,because theybothgoofftoexplainthatProkaryoticCellswereverysuccessfulintheirwaystoadapt andevolve.Thereviewsummaryarticle,doesnotquitegointomuchdetailaswhatthe mainarticledoes.Itindeedtellsusthat,prokaryoticcellsdonothaveanucleus,while Eukaryoticcellsdo.WithouttheevolutionofEukaryoticcells,humansandotheranimals andplantswouldnotexist.EukaryoticCellscontainanucleusthatcontainsallofourDNA. WithoutDNAandgenes,therewouldbenowaytoconductalivingcell. CytoplasmicGenesfoundedbyMargulis,statedthatDNAwasfoundoutsidethe nucleus.MargulisstatesthatSET(Serialendosymbiosistheory)beginswiththemerger

ofanarchaebacterium,lackingarigidcellwall,withmotilespirochetestoformthefirst eukaryoticcell.Thearcheabacterium'sflexiblemembranepinchedinwardstoenclosethe DNAwithinadoublemembranenucleusandthespirochetesprovidedcytoskeletal support,ultimatelygivingrisetomotilestructuresknownasmicrotubules(n.p).Thenew cellthenengulfedanaerobicbacteria,whichneedsoxygen,itretainedwithinamembrane vesicle,andaftermanyyearsofevolutionemergedintowhatwecallamitochondrion today.Whichthuslies,thecomingtoDNAandanucleuswithinacell. ThemainarticlebyChristianDuve,statesalmostthesamethingasthesummary.It goesintoalotmoredetailabouthowtheEukaryoticCellevolvedfromaProkaryoticCell. Thevastwaysthatprokaryoticcellscanadaptandevolveareverysuccessfulaccordingto Duve.DuvestatesthattheEukaryoticCellsdonothaveacytoplasm,mitochondria,or peroxisomeswhicharefoundinplantcells.Duvestatesthat,afterabillionyearswentby, theProkaryoticCellevolvedintoaEukaryoticCellincludinganucleus.Heexplainsthis theorythatthehostingProkaryoticcellsundergoesendosymbiosis.Whichmeansliving togetherwithinacell.DuvestatesEndosymbiosisadoptionisoftenpresentedasresulting fromsomekindofencounteraggressivepredation,peacefulinvasion,mutuallybeneficial associationormergerbetweentwotypicalprokaryotes.Butthesedescriptionsare troublingbecausemodernbacteriadonotexhibitsuchbehavior.Moreover,thejoiningof simpleprokaryoteswouldleavemanyothercharacteristicsofeukaryoticcellsunaccounted for.Thereisamorestraightforwardexplanation,whichisdirectlysuggestedbynature itselfnamely,thatendosymbiontswereoriginallytakenupinthecourseoffeedingbyan unusuallylargehostcellthathadalreadyacquiredmanypropertiesnowassociatedwith

eukaryoticcells.(P9)ThusexplainingthatNaturalSelectionwastakingplace,andforming thecorrectthingsneededtomakeaEukaryoticcell.Ex,Mitochondria,Cytoplasm,and peroxisomes. ThesetwoarticlesareverysimilarintheirconclusionsofhowtheEukaryoticcell wasmade.Thescientificarticlethough,whenreadingit,justmakesalotmoresense.Ifeel thatthesummaryarticledidindeedexplainhowthethingsneededforaEukaryoticCellto evolve,evolvedfromaProkaryoticCell.Ifeelthattheyshouldhavebetterexplainedthe cellularprocessesthatunderwenttogettoaEukaryoticCell.Yesitexplainedhowthe ProkaryoticCellengulfedcontinuousaerobicbacteriaoverandoveragain,buttheyshould havementionedthatnaturalselectionwastakingplace,andusingtheoldandusedorgans ofacelltoproduceacompleteEukaryoticCell.Thesummaryarticlepresentitsconclusion justbriefly.Notalongwrittenexplanationofthesummary,butmoreThisishowitworks theendkindoffeelingtoit,WhereasTheBirthofComplexCellsreviewstheirconclusion withfactsthroughoutthearticlethatwereused.Prettymuchsummarizedwhatthey hypothesesandexperimentscametobe. AfterreadingthesetwotopicsIhaveamuchbroaderaspectofhowEukaryotic Cellsevolvedintolife.Ineverknewthisquestionfromthegetgo,andhavealways wonderedhowitworked.ItiscoolhowmuchNaturalSelectioncanbeapartofmutating thedifferentcellstomakethemcompletelydifferentorturnintosomethingelse.Evolutionis alsomorecleartome,becauseitshowshowsomethingcanstartasonething,then throughouttheyearsitcanmutateintosomethingelseItalsogavemeabetter understandingofhowimportantEukaryoticcellsare,andthatwithoutthemwewouldnot

exist.Iwouldsaybeforereadingthisarticle,Ihadanideathatevolutionhadapartof cellularlife,butdidnotknowexactlyhowitworked.Afterreadingthisarticleitjust supportedmyowntheoryandmadeitmuchmoreclear. ThesearticlesdefinatelymadeitsoIunderstoodhowevolutionandnaturalselection canbesuchabigpartinchangingsomething.Readingdetailedstepbystepprocessof howtheProkaryoticcellwasevolvedintoaEukaryotichelpedmealsobetterunderstand thedetailswithinthecellsandhowtheybothwork. Citation Devu,Christian.1997.TheBirthofComplexCells. http://sciencealtair.wikispaces.com/file/view/The+Birth+of+Complex+CellsSciAm1996.p df Montgomery,MaryK.2014.CellEvolution