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M agnetizing Current Characteristics

ARERNATING

CURRENT (AC)

Alternating cwrent is the most widely usedpower sourcefor conducting magnetic particle testing: a. AC can be readily converted to the low voltages used in magnetism particle inspection by the use of transformers. b. AC has little penetrating power and provides the best detection of surface discontinuities and is not effective for subsurface. c. Since AC is continuously reversing direction, the magnetic field has a tendency to agitate or make the iron particles more mobile. This causesthe iron particles to be more responsiveto the flux leakage.Current reversalis indicatedin Figure 1.

DIRECT CURRENT (DC) Single phase AC can be rectified to produce halfwave alternating current (HWAC), commonly called halfwave direct current (HWDC). ftWDC meansthat the reversepolarity or negative portion of the sine curye is eliminated as shown in Figure 2.' With HWDC, there are intervals of individual pulses of direct current and also intervals when no current is flowing.
t

Figure 7

TIME ---->

Figure 2

RECTIFIER BOX

AC Input - M.lcr*srrcPanrrcra LsvELONr - Osm,lrons NoN-DssrRucnvu TEsrrNc

Chapter4-Pagel

Hysteresis Loop The permeability of a material can be determined by increasing the magnetinng force (electric current strength) until the material reachesits saturationpoint. Each type of material has a point of maximum flux density (saturation).If we place a piece of steel in a coil, through which alternatingcurrent is flowing, we can plot the relation between,magnettzing current '6H" and the flux density "8". The result is a hysteresisloop as shown in Figure 3. At each increaseof the force o'H", there is an increasein flux density "B" until the saturationpoint is reached(Point A). The dashedline in Figure 3 (points ) to A) show the maximum flux density and is often referred to as the virgin curve. As the magnetic force is increased,the flux in the material increasesquite rapidly at first, then more slowly until it reachesa point beyond which any increasein the magnetizing force does to increase the flux density (point A). Saturation point. As the magnetizing force is reduced to zero (from point A to B), the flux density slowly drops until the magnetizingforce (current) is zero (seeFigure 4). The ability of the steel to retain a certain amount of residual magnetism is called retentivity, as shown betweenpoints O and B.

H_
(magnetlzing force of olposite pol".ity to H +)

H+
(magnetizing force)

B(flux densityof opposite pol"rity to B +)

B+ (flux density)

H_ (-magretizing

H+
force) (+ magnetizing force)

Figure 4

Page2-Chapter4

- MncNgncPnrncr-e. LevErOxn - Opm.nrons Nou-DesrnucnveTEsrrNc

is reducedto When the magn etrnngforce is reversed,as always happenswith AC, the flux density zero at point C as shown in Figure 5from the Coercive force is the reverse magneti nngforce required to remove residual magnetism material as shown. Hardened steel (high carbon steel)would require a strongerreversemagnetidng force to remove the residual magnetism. to the AS the reverse magnetizingforce is increased beyond point C, the flux density increases residual the saturation point in the reverse direction shown in point D, Figure 6. Point E shows magnetic freld in the reverse direction. points O and F and is again called Td force required to remove rhis residual field is shown bet'ween coercive force (seeFigure 7).
B+ (flux density)

Retentivity (residual magnetism)

Figure 5
H_ (- magnetizing force)

H'+
(+ magnetizing force)

Coercive force

Figure 6
H(- magnetizing force)

H+
(+ magnetizing force)

Saturationpoint of oppositepol"tity

B+ (flux density)

Figure 7
Magnetizing force line H(-magretizing (+ magnetizing force

force)

Coercive

force

:
n

NoX-DBsrnucrrvn Tesrriqc - lvlecxtrrc Pernci-e.

lxvn

Oxs - OpRATons

Chapter4-Page3

The hysteresis loop is completed as the magnetizing force is again increasedto a maximurn flux density at point A. As shown, a hysteresis loop is formed with every complete cycle of 50Hz current. A hysteresis could also be used to describe the magnetizationor demagnetizationwith DC where the current is either manually or automatically reversedbetween straight (+) polarity and reverse (-) polarity. A wide hysteresisloop indicates a material that is diffrcult to magnetize(onewith a high reluctance). The hysteresisloop getsits name from the lag betweenthe applied magnetizing force and the actual flux density in the part, this lag is sown betweenpoints O and F in Figure 8. The distance between points O and F will depend on the coercive force neededto overcome the reluctance of the steel. A magnetic "hard" steel would have the following qualities and would produce a wide hysteresisloop:

1 ) Low permeability - hard to magnetrze. 2) High retentivity - retains a strongresidualmagnetic field. 3) High coercive force - requires a high reversemagnetizing force to remove the
residual magnetism.

4) High reluctance- high resistance to magnetizingforce.

s) High residual magnetism-

retainsa strongresidual magneticfield.

Figuire 8: Magnetic "hard" material / high carbon steel-wide hysteresisloop


B+ (flux density)

H+
(magnetizing force)

Residual magnetism

OA A+D OB + OE OC + OF

= = = =

Virgin curve Saturationpoirtt Residual magnetism Coercive force

Page4-Chapter4

Nox-DesrRucrtve TEsrrNc - Mlcwerrc Pernct.e.

Lrvei-Oxr

- Opm,c]'oRs

The hysteresis loop is completed as the magnetizing force is again increasedto a maximum flux density at point A. As shown, a hysteresis loop is formed with every complete cycle of 50Hz current. A hysteresis could also be used to describe the magnetizationor demagnetizationwith DC where the current is either manually or automatically reversedbetween straight (+) polarity and reverse (-) polarity. Awide hysteresisloop indicates a material that is difficult to magnetize(onewith a high reluctance). The hysteresisloop getsits name from the lag betweenthe applied magnetizing force and the actual flux density in the part, this lag is sown betweenpoints O and F in Figure 8. The distance between points O and F will depend on the coercive force neededto overcome the reluctance of the steel. A magnetic "hard" steel would have the following qualities and would produce a wide hysteresisloop:

1 ) Low permeability - hard to magnetize. 2) High retentivity - retains a strongresidualmagnetic field. 3) High coercive force - requires a high reversemagnetizing force to remove the
residual magnetism.

4) High reluctance- high resistance to magnetizingforce.

s) High residual magnetism-

retainsa strongresidual magneticfield.

Figuire 8: Magnetic "hart'

material I high carbon steel - wide hysteresisloop


B+ (flux density)

ta a a

H+
(magnetizing force)

Residual magnetism

OA A+D OB + OE OC + OF

: = = =

Virgin curve Saturationpoirtt Residual magnetism Coercive force

i Page4-Chapter4
Nox-DBsrnucrtve TEsnNc - Mlcwerrc Perilcr-e" Lrvei- Oxr - Opm,$oRs

A narrowhysteresisroopindicatesa material of low retentivity. The loop in Figure9 td;;L" quutiri;;;, soft The coerciveforce is lorv materiJ suct,aslow carbon i""uur" the materid ,o';, steel. ;;y a weakresidualmagnetic field. Magnefic Materiat A "soft" or row carbon steelwould

havethe folrowing qualities:


enze.

1) High permeability _ easy to magn

2) Low rerendvig- reains a weak residuar magnetic fierd. 3) force- requires a low reverse magned :il":ri#:ve zingforce to remove theresiduar
4) Low reructanceIow resistanceto magnedzing force. 5) Low residual magnetism - retains a weak residuarmagneticfield.

4a Figure 9: IVragnetic "sot" material / Iow carbon steel narrow


B+
(flux density)

hysteresis loop

OA _ OB + OE OC + OF A+D

= = = =

Virgin curve Saturationgrcint Residual r*rn"rirrn Coercive force

Norv-Desrnucrrve Tnsrnvc_MecNE[c parncua

txvn ONr _Opm,lrons

Chapter4-page5

Chapter 4

Revision Test

1. The point at which the magnetism in a material cannot be increasedeven though the magnetizing force continuesto increaseis known as the: A. salientpole B. saturation point C. residual point D. remnant point 2. Coercive force: A. describesthe meansby which the magneticpar:ticles are suspended in the liquid when using the wet method. B. describesthe magnetizingforce usedwith the continuousmethod. C. representsthe reverse magneti ongforce necessaryto remove the residual magnetism in a material D. is not a term usedin magneticpanicle testing. 3. Demagnetization: A. may be accomplishedby heating a material aboveits Curie point. B. is always necessary. C. can be performed only with AC. D. can be performed only with DC. 4. Retentivity: A. represents the ability to induce magnetismin a ferromagneticbody by an outside magnetizing force. B. represents the ability of a material to resist the establishment of magnetic flux within it. C. representsthe ability of a material to retain a portion of the magnetic field set up in it after the magnetizing force has been removed. D. is not a terrn usedin magneticparticle testing. 5. A curve is sornetimes drawn to show graphically the relation of the magnetizing force to the strength of the magnetic field produced in a certain material.This curve is known as the: A. magnetic force curve. B. hysteresiscurve C. saturationcurve r D. induction curve
Nox-DesrRucnve Tnsnxc - Macxsrrc pnnrrcr-e. LnvnrOxe _Opm,uons Chaptef 4 _ page T

6. A narrow hysteresisloop could indicate a hard metal which has a high carbon
content.

7 . A high carbon steel will make a good permanentmagnet. 8 . Coercive force is the reversemagnetizing force neededto remove residual
magnetism.

9. Maximum flux density is shown on the hysteresisloop.


10. Most ferromagnetic materials are easily magnetizeA. 1 1 . When a part reachesmaximum flux density, it is said to be fully retentive.

t2. The magnetic field that remains in the part after the current is shut off is called the
coercive force. 13. Finish sketching the hysteresisloop and identify the parts indicated by numbers 1 through 5.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

+2

TOTAL MARKS: 17

PageS-Chapter4

NoN-DesrRucrrvs TEsrrNG- M.lcNruc Perncl.u"

Levsl ONe - OpEncroRs

CHAPTtr,R 5

M agneticF ield Distributions in and &roundMagnetic and I{ onmegneticConductors

- Opd.trons Nox-Desrnucrrve Tnsrnrc- MecNE-nc PnRrrcr-e. Lsvn Or.rp

Magnetic Field Distributions in and around Magnetic and N onmegneticConductors

SOLID NONMAGNETIC CONDUCTOR When direct current is passeddirectly through a solid nonmagneticconductor, such as a copper bar, the following can be observedin Figure 1: a. the magnetic field strengthvaries from zero at the cenffe to a maximum at the surface. b. The field strengthoutside the conductordiminisheswith the distancefrom the central conductor's centre (eg, the field at two times the radius from the centreis half the field at the surface).

Figure I

o0

tl)

Distance Then 2R from the centre of the field will be o. * ,

Now-DesrRuc'rrvs TEsrDrc - MacNE-nc Pnrncr-e.

LevEL ONe - Opm,qrons

Chapter5-Pagel

Distribution of a direct current magnetic field within a magnetic article can be illustrated graphically as shown in Figure 2. The flux density increasesevenly from zero until it reachespeak strengthat the surface. Becauseof the permeability of steel, the field strength is greater within a magnetic conductor as compared with a nonmagnetic conductor. The flux density drops rapidly just outside the surfaceof the steel bar. The field strength outside a solid conductor is the same with either a magnetic or nonmagnetic conductor, if the current and radius remain constant.

Figure 2

R =Radius F = Field at the surface


Then 2R from the centre of the field will be
@ c)
o c)

*,*.

Page2-Chapter5

Nox-DesrRucrrvrTesrnrc - M,lcxsnc Pexrrcr^e" LrvnOxn - Opnnrons

HOLLOW MAGNETIC CONDUCTOR Permeability is again a factor in determining field strength. If the outer diameter and current flow are identical when comparing a solid and hollow conducto! the field strength will be the same.

Figure 3

F =Fieldatthesurface Then 2R from the centrc of the field will be $, etc


bo

g
v 0)

Nox-Desrxucnve

TESTNG- lvlecxsflc PARIcLE

LEyEL Oxn - Opmerons

Chapter5-Page3

As shown in Figure 5, direct crurent flowing through a central r(* v''\'rult'r conductor will v pnrduce a maximum field on the inside surface of the tube being"inspected. since the magnetizing force is from tne n""la external to the central conductor, it is obvious (by comparing previous sketches)that either a magnetic or nonmagneticbar could be usedfor a cenfal conductor. However' a material such as copper is often recornmendedas a central conductor becausethereis less heat build-up due to better conductivity.

Figure 5

Conductor Test specimen

Wherc: R =Radius F, = FieU at surfaceofconducton Fz = Feld at inner zurfaceof specimen

NoN-Dnsrnucwe

TEsrNc - lvlncNstrc parncu.

'LevH.

ONe- Opm,croFs

Chapter5-page5

ALTERNATING

CT]RRENT FIELD DISTRIBUTION

Up to this point, all field distributions have assumedthe use of direct current (DC). Alternating curent (AC) tends to flow near the surfaceof a conductor.This phenomenonis know as "skin effect'n. It is show in Figure 6 that AC provides a concentratedflux density near the surfacewhich provides for good detection of surface discontinuities.

SOLID MAGNETIC CONDUCTOR The field strength outsidethe conductor is comparable for bothAC andDC.

Figure 6
Peak flux density

Page6-Chapter5

Nox-DpsreuctrvnTrsrrxc - Mlcxsrrc Pnrncr^e" LsvnOxe - Opm.mrps

SBNSITIVITY OF METHODS It is well establishedthat the AC method is best suited for finding surfacedefects. However, Figure 7 illustrates the ability of various currentsusing both wet and dry magneticparticles in locating subsurfacediscontinuities.

Figure 7
AC wet I | //^c dry

I 000

T,/

DC wet

800

o 0) uo
d

600

e k

400

r,
,/
7

Ir
-/

/ ,/

,<

,/

DC dry

HWDC dry

468 Hole nr:rnberalidrelative deph

l0

Magnetic particles

Nox-Drsraucrrve TnsrrNc- M,rcNsrrcPenrrcr-e- lxvsl- ONe - OPR ToRs

Chapter5-Page7

Chapter 5

Revision Test

1 . The field strength at the centre of a magnetic conductor is essentially zero when
direct current is used.

2. Because of the low permeability of steel, the field strength is greater within a
nonmagnetic conductor as compared with a magnetic conductor.

3 . The field strength outside a solid conductor is the samewith either a magnetic or
nonmagnetic conductor.

4. When a central conductor is used to induce a field into a hollow specimen, the
field stnengthin the hollow specimen is greatest at the outside surface.

5. Point A in the sketch best describesthe maximum peak stnengthwithin the


magnetic conductor.

'6.
In the sketch shown, the D level best describesthe field strength of nro times the radius.

7. The field strength (D would be


at the samecomparative level for both magnetic and nonmagnetic bars.

8. The field strength illustrated


best describesa hollow magnetic conductor with high permeability.

9. The sketch illustrates that AC


was probably used as the magnetizing curent.

10. Point A would drop to the B


level if the bar were solid instead of hollow.

=
Nox-Desrnucnve Tesrncc - Mlcxstlc ParucI.E lxvrL ONe - Opm.rrcns

Chapter5-Page9

I 1. If a copper conductor is placed through a ferrous cylinder and a current is passedthrough the conductor, then the magnetic field (flux density) in the cylinder will be: A. the sameintensity and pattern as in the conductor. B. greater than in the conductor. C. less than in the conductor. D. the sarneregardlessof its proximity to the cylinder wall. L2. The length of a part being magneti zedby passing an electric curent from one end to the other: A. affects the permeability of the part. B. changesthe strength of the magnetic field C. does not affect the strength of the magnetic field. D. causesthe magnetic field to vary. 13. If 25mm and 50mm diameter bars were magnetized by passing the same current through them the magnetic fields would be: A. the samefor both. B. stronger in the 50mm diameter bar. C. weaker in the 25mm diameter bar. D. stronger in the 25mm bar. 14. If a current of the same amperageis passedthrough two conductors of the samedimensions, one of which is magnetic and one of which is nonmagnetic, the magnetic field surrounding the conductors will: . A. be stronger for the magnetic conductor. B. be stronger for the nonmagnetic conductor. C. vary with the permeability. D. be the samefdr both conductors.

TOTAL MARKS: 14

Page10 - Chapter 5

NoN-DesrnucrrvrTssrnc

- Mlcnsrtc

Perncr-e"

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- OpRAroRs

CHAPTtrR6

Current R'equirements

Nox-Desrtucrrve

TBsrnqc - M.rcNerrc Perncl.!.

LevEL ONe - OpERArops

Current Requirements

CURRENT REQUIREMENTS

(Ci rcular Magnetization)

The amount of current will vary with the shapeand permeability of the material being tested.A test specimen with a typical indication is a good method to assurethat only enough crurent is used to show the indication. Too much current will burn the part or may cause heavy accumulations of iron particles. Too little crurent may not provide sufficient flux leakage to attract the iron particles. The following rule is used to determine the current needed: 28 - 36 amperes per millimetre of article thickness or diameter (700 - 900 A / inch). To use this rule on articles of greater thickness, just multiply the 28 and 36 by the number of millimetre of article thickness or diameter. What amperage would be used on the following part? Steel bar ZZmmOD x 150mm length. Answer: 616 to 792 Amps. What amperagerange is required to circglarly magnetizethe bar shown in Figure 1?

Figure 1<

(fi
tA = 29mm OD B = lSmm OD

Answer:

i) B = 504 to 648Amps ir) A = 812 to 1.M4 Amps

:
Nox-DnsrrucrrveTssrnc - MncNerrc Pmncue" [,evEL Oxe - OpBAroRs

Chapter6-Page1

Figare 2

ii)Ring,3lmm OD

Answer: i) I 064to I 368Ampsfor 38mmSpacer i0 868to I 116 Ampsfor 31 mmRing iii) 700to ffi Ampsfor 25mm Nut (Alwaysreferto theapplicable testqpecification for rctualvalues).

The rule of using 28 to 36 amperesper millimetre of thickness also applies to circular magneaz-ation with a central conductor. Article thickness is taken from the outside diameter of the article. What would the arrrpereranges be for the three parts shown on the central conductor in Figure 2?

CLRRENT REQUIREMENTS

(Lon gitu dinal Magnetization )

When a coil is used to produce longitudinal magnetization, the effective field it creates is determined by the product of the number of ariperes and the number of turns in the coil. For example, a current of 800 amperesthrough a five-nrrn coil createsa magnetizing force of 4 000 ampere turns. The arnount of current neededfor longindind magnetization with a coil is controlled by the formulu
f,rr_

"^- r /r) Ratio


where I = Current in amperes N = Numberof turns in coil L = I*ngth of article D = Diameteror thickness of article

45 000

50mm OD

Figare 3

Page2-Chapter6

- Macxrnc Pexncue. LuvEL Nox-Dasm.rjcnve TEsrnyc Oxn - Opmerons

The figure 45 000 is a constant for all computations: LID is the length to diameter or thickness ratio of the part, and NI is the ampere-turns. When the number of ampere-turns is found using the above formula, the next step is to divide the ampere-nrrnsby the number of turns in ttre coil. This will, determine the magnetizing current needed. Most coils typically have three to five turns. What magnetizrrg cwrent would be needed for a part 4O0 mm long with a diameter of 50 mm, using a five-turn coil?
Answen | 125Amps. When using the formula

Nr = -.gQQL/D Ratio the following assumptions are mde: l. An article grcaterthan457 mm requiresmorethanone coil strot. 2. The crosssectiqr of tlrc article is not gre.atrr thanone-tenththe areaof the coil opening. 3. The articlehas anLlD ratio of between 2 and 15. 4. The article is placed "gainst ttreinside wall of the coil, andnot in ttre centrewherethe flux densityis zero.

PROD MAGT{ETIZATION Prods are curent-carrying conductors which are used to magnetize localized areas as shown in Figure 4. r Caution' The use of prods may be restricted for some applications due to the possibility of arcing at the polnt of contact. : Prod magnetization creates a circular magnetic field in the part. The prods should be placed on the part so that the resultant circular field is at 9Ooto the suspected discontinuities. In Figure 4, can you use the right-hand rule to determine if the crurent is flowing from A to B or from B to A?
Prods

Ktg
T = 25mm Prodspacing = 150mm

p4)
Chapter6-Page3

Non-DnsreucrrvaTEsrn{c- Mncxsrrc PlrrrcI.e.

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'd guideline for detennining how much curcnt and what prod spacing are best for any glven testing problems is as follows: The current shall be 4 to 5 Amps / millimetre of prd spacing for sections 19 rnm thick or greater.For sections less than 19 mm, the current shall be 3,5 to 4,5 Amps / millimene of prd spacing. Pt'od spacing in excessof 200 mrn is not recommende4 but shorter spacing may be used to accommodate the geometric limitations of the areabeing examine{ or to increasesensitivity. Pnodspacings of less than 75 mm are usually not practical due to banding of particles around the prods.

Advantages of using HWDC compared to DC a. HWDC consumesless power. b. I{WDC produces lower heating effects at Prod contact points. c. HWDC produces better powder mobility than DC.

YOKE MAGNETTZNION The pole pieces of the magnet shall abut intimately against the component. The technique favours the detection of flaws where the major a>res lie transverse to the line joining the pole pieces of the magnet and becauseof the flux flowing from the yoke's north pole through the article to the south pole, it induces a local longitudinal field in the anicle. The magnetizing force of the yokes shall be checked by its lifting power. Each electromagRetic AC yoke shall have a lifting power of at least 4,5 kg at maximum polcspacing that will be used, and each Direct Current or pennanent magnetic yoke a lifting power of at least 18,1 kg at morimum pole spacing that will be used.

Figure 5

Page4-Chapter6

Nox-Desf,nucrrvn Thsrn*c- lvilcxrnc Penrrcrg LweL Oxn - Opmerons

Figure 6
Cqnbinatiorr circular-loagiurdinal rcsiduEl field

DEMAGhIETIZAIION
A resident magnetic field may not be desirablein the part for severalreasons: 1) Residual fields will affect magnetic compassesor create problems with delicate instruments. 2) Residual fields in rotating parts will attract metal particles, causing excessivewear or binding. 3) Par:tsare also demagnetizedso that all magnetic particles can be removed for further processing. 4) Residual fields can cause"arc blow" which deflects the molten metal during DC welding operations.

Review of residual rnagnetism 1) The residual, field is in the samedirection as the magnetic field. 2) The residual field is weaker than the magnetizing field. 3) The original magnetizing force causesthe residual field. 4) When an article has been magnetized in more than one direction, the second field {pplied completely overcomes the first field. However, this is only true if the second freld is stronger than the first. When the second field applied is not stronger than the first field, then a combinatio+Circular / longitudinal residual field will result. See Figure 6. It is difficult to tell whether a circularly magnetized bar is demagnetizedbecausethe flux lines do not norrnally leave the bar, and can therefore not be detected by a residual field indicator. On the other hand, it is easy to tell if a longitudinally magnetized bar is still magnetized or demagnetized. Therefore, it is often reconurrcndedthat a circularly magnetizedpart be longitudinally magnetized and then go through the demagnetizationprocedure.

Figure 7
{ { { {

,o,

Circular{y magnaized

Longinrdinally magrrctized

- Mecxsnc Pnrrrcus" Lpvnr-Oxn - Ormerons NoN-DBsrnucrrve TEsrn.Ic

Chapter6-Page5

Demagnetizinga part that has beenlongitudinally magnetized Eachtime the magnetiong field is reducedandreversed, the residualfield is reduced-

Reversingthe magneticfield 1) Reversing the part in the magnetic field. 2) Reversingthe crurentthroughthe coil. 3) Reversing the coil (turn the coil 180o).

Reducingthe magneticfield
1) Reduce the magnet current. 2) Move the pan away from the coil / yoke. 3) Move the coil / yoke away from the part. Any method of demagnetization will combine one of the methods to reduce the magnetizing field with one of the methods to reverse the magnetizing field. Demagnetization is d$ned as: The removal of residual magnetism by simultaneously or alternately reducing the strength and reversing the direction of a rnagnetic field.

Demagnetizatiotr p.*"durcs 7. Alternating current coil method ,

Alternating cturent is electrical curcnt flowing through a wire, first in one direction , then in the opposite direction. Each time the current reversesdirection, the magnetic field of the coil reverses. This meets one of the two requirements for demagnetization. To complete the demagnetization process, the part is placed in the reversing magnetic field as shown in Figure 8, and the current is slowly reduced which reducesthe strengh of the magnetic field. A rheostat is often used to reduce the crurent through the coil. Reducing the magnetization field in anAC coil demagneizeris usually done by slowly moving the article away from the coil.

Figure 8

Page6-Chapter6

- Mrcusrrc Plxncrr" Nox-Dssrnucrve Tnsrn.ra

LEvE-Oxe - Opmerons

2. Demagnetization using direct current to have somemechanical With DC the crurent is not automatically reversed.It is thereforenecessary meansto reversethe current. BecauseDC is more penetrating than AC, it is used on large parts.The maximum degree of demagnetization can be obtained with DC when the field is reversed at a frequency of one reversal per second. In DC demagnetization,the magnetizing field should be reduced first, then reversed. A rule of thuntbfor demagnetizingsoft iron: At least L0 reversals,but not over 30. When an article is demagnetized,the earth's field will leave a small amount of residual magnetism in the article if the demagnetizing field is also in a north / south direction. Where complete demagnetizationis required, the demagnetizationfield must be placed in an easti west direction (the coil opening face east and west).

Residual fi eld indicators There is no satisfactory method by which the magnetic field can be measuredinside the article without destroyingit. There must be a leakage field in order to determine whether the article is magnetzed. The residual field indicator

1 ) comparesthe strengthof the external field of the article with fixed field inside the
indicator,

2) is used more to locate flux leakage than to measurefield strength, 3) is usedto show when the part is demagnetized.

Figure 9

Nox-Drsrnucrwe

TesrrNc - M^lcNsrrc Perncr.n.

LevEL Oxe - OpRAroRs

Chapter6-Page?

MAGNETIC FIELD INDICATORS Verification of the direction and adequacyof the magneticfield

Figure 10:ASME field indicator


Eight low carbqr steel pie secticrs, fumace-brazed together

Nonferrous handle of any curvenient length

--rn

Artificial flaw (all segment interfaces)

Copperplate 0,010 in t0,0Ol in. thick

lE in.

"lI
II

YII

Figure 11: Berthold spoon


Artificial flaw in iron cylinder Brass top Nonferrous handle

Remanence-free ring

PageS-Chapter6

- Mecxsfic Pmrrcr.e" Nox-DasT nucrrve TBsTING

LnvnrOnn - Opm-arons

When it is necessaryto verify the adequacyor the direction of the magnetizing field, the abovefield indicators can be usedby positioning the indicator on the surfaceto be examined.A suitable flux or field strength is indicated when a clearly defined line of magnetic particles fonns on the surfaceof the indicators. The magnetic particle field indicator shall, not be used to verify the adequacy of the field when using yokes. Only magnetic field direction can be verifred with itre strips.

Figure 12: Barmahtastrol strips gASTR0l


Magnetic foil with slots sandwiched between brass or silver (50mmxl2mmx0,l5mm)

Three parallel slots (43mm lurg)

Non-DesraucrrvsTasrrr{c- MncNmc pnnrrcr-e" [,evEL oNs - opnAroRs

Chapter6-Page9

Chapter 6

Revision Test

1. If the operator has a question as to the proper amperage to use, it is always safe to use the mzurimum oulput of ttre machine. 2. A 25 mm diameter part that is being circularly magnenznd would require between 800 and I 000 ampresfor proper magnetization. 3. The nrle used to determine the proper magnetization for circular magnetization with a head shot is also used when using a central conductor. 4. The forrrula

N1= 15ooo'
I-rD Ratb is used to determine the prcper amperage for circular magnetization. 5. Prod magnetization creates a longinrdinal field in the part which is excellent for inspecting large and heavy comlnnents. 6. The prods should be placed on the part so that the field produced is in the same direction as the suspecteddefects. 7. A combination circular-longitudinal residual field can result if the demagnetizing force does not exceed the original circular field. 8. Residual field indicators can be effective in determining whether the specimen contains a circular magnetic field. 9. Becauseof the automatic crurent reversal, alternating curent is usually preferred for demagnetizationunits. 10. What equipment is used to determine whether a part has been demagnetized? A. A magnet on the pan.- -. B. A residual field meter. C. A sunrey meter. D. Careful observation for clinging magnet particles.
Non-DevrnucrrvsTnsr$rc- Mncxmrc Plnrrcr-e" I.EvBL Oxn - Opmrsons

Chapter6-Page11

11. An electric currentthrougha copperwire A. createsa magretic field aroundthe wire. B. createsmagneticpoles in the wire. C. magnetizes the wire. D. doesnot createa magneticfield. 12. Why shouldpartsbe cleanedafter dernagnetization? A. To ensuretlnt tle magneticparticlesareremoved. B. To preventfalse indications. C. To savethe solidsof the suspension. D. To preventcrackingduring heattreatrnent. 13. A specimen may be demagnetized by which of the following methods? A. Heat treatrnent abovecurie temperature. B. AC coil. C. ReversingDC fields D. All of above. 14. The amountof amperage usedfor magneticparticle inspectionusing the prod methodis determinedfrom the: A. type of material B. distancebetweenthe prods C. diameterof the parr D. total leng$ of the paft 15. The flux within and surroundinga magnetized part or arounda conductorcarrying a crulent is lnown as A. saturationpoint. B. magnetic field. C. ferromagnetic. D. paramagnetic. 16. Resistance to magnetization A. is greaterin hard materialsthanin soft materials. B. is greaterin soft materialsthanin hardmaterials. C. is the samefo'r both hard and soft materials. D. is non-existent.

'

i
Page12- Chapter6
Nox-Desrnucrrvn TssmNG- Mncxsfic Perncr.n" Levnt- ONs - OpFnAToRs

11. An A. B. C. D.

electric crurent through a copper wire createsa magnetic field around the wire createsmagnetic poles in the wire. magnetizesthe wire. does not createa magneticfield.

12. Why should parts be cleaned after demagnetization? A. To ensure that the magnetic particles are removed. B. To prevent false indications. C. To save the solids of the suspension. D. To prevent cracking during heat treatrnent. 13. A specimenmay be demagnetizedby which of the following methods? A. Heat treatment above curie temperature. . B. AC coil. C. Reversing DC fields D. All of above. L4. The amount of u*i"ru*e used for magnetic particle inspection using the prod method is determined from the: A. type of material. B. distance between the prods C. diameter of the part. D. total length of the part. 15. The flux within and surrounding a magnetizedpart or around a conductor carrying a cturent is known as A. saturation point. B. magnetic field. C. ferromagnetic. D. paramagnetic. 16. Resistance to magnetization A. is greater in hard materials than in soft materials. B. is greater in soft materials than in hard materials. C. is the samefor both hard and soft materials. D. is non-existent.

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Nox-Desnucrrvn

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Lnvn ONe - Opmrrons

17. Demagnetization A. may be easy or difficult depending on the type of material. B. is easy for materials having a high permeability. C. is always most difficult in materials retaining a high residual field. D. all of the above answersare correct. 18. A coil shot is required to be performed after a head shot using the wet continuous method. In order to properly conduct the coil shot it is necessaryto A. remove all residual wet magnetic particle fluid from the part using clean, dry absorbent rags. B. Demagneize the part between the head and first coil shot. C. place the part in the coil and continue the inspection after evaluating the head shot indications. D. none of the above. L9. When testing abarwith anL/D ratio of fourin a ten-turn coil, therequired current wouldbe A. 45 000 amperes. B. Unknown, more information is needed. C. 18 0m amperes. D. I I25 amperes. , 20. Some limitations of coil.magnetization techniquesare that A. coil must be of minimum diameter in relation to part. B. the effective field is generally limited on either side of the coil. C. small diameterparts should be placed close to the coil. D. all of the above.

TOTAL MARKS: 20

NoN-Davreucrrve Tns-rnqc- Macxsrrc Penrrcre.

Lrvei- Oxe - OphAroRs

Chapter6-Page13

CHAPTERT

M agneticParticle tr qaipment and Accessories

NoN-Desrnucrrvn TssrrNc - Mncurrrc P.l.nrrcle" LsvEL ONn - Oprr,lrons

Magnetic Particle Equipment and Accessories

MAGNETIC PARTICLB TESTING EQUIPMENT The following should be consideredwhen selecting equipment for magnetic particle testing: 1) Is equipment for wet or dry method? 2) Magnetization requirements(AC or DC). 3) Demagnetization - incorporated or separateunits? 4) Amperage required. 5) Line voltage requirements. 6) Accessoriesneededor required.

Wet horizontal equipment To obtain circular magnetization, the specimenis clamped between the head and tail stocks. For longitudinal magnetization, the coil is moved so that the area to be tested is encircled by the coil. A typical wet horizontal unit usually accommodatesboth AC and FIWDC magnetization. The wet continuousfield has four basic steps: 1) Apply current ,

2) Flow bath through nozzle and over entire surface of part, while curent is flowing. 3) Stop bath flow. 4) Stop current after the bath flow is stopped.

Figure I

Coil shot
Nox-DssnRucrrvr Tssrrxc - MecNsfic PAnncrr. l,svgl Oxe - OpmAToRs

ChapterT-Page1

,)Jq;>
Dry continuous-field method With this method the power is usually applied from a shaker,bulb, or blower and follows these steps: 1) Apply magnetizing current. 2) Blow powder particles over magnetizedarea. 3) Blow excesspowder off part. 4) Shut off magnetizingcurrent. The powder should float to the magnetizedareaso the particles witl be attractedto any flux leakage. The dry powder method is typically used with both mobile and portable equipment which will be discussed on the following pages.

,O'l
Figure 2

Mobile Equipment In many casesit is necessaryto bring the equipment to the specimen. Typical mobile equipment usually operateson 22A 1380 volts AC and will produce about 8 000 amperes. Mobile equipment will usually produce both AC and HWDC magnetizingcurrent. The cablesused on mo[ile equipmentvary from 5 metresto 30 metres.Shortercableswill permit the maximum current output. Prods and cablesare usually usedwith the mobile equipment. It often takes two technicians to manipulate the prods and apply the magnetic powder. However, longitudinal magnetization can be produceil by wrapping the cable into a coil. It is also possibleto use a central conductorclampedbetweenthe two cablesto producecircular magnetization. Typical mobile equipment usesthe dry powder method but can be used with aerosol cans or external tanks.

Portable Equipment Portable equipment is lighter and less expensive than the other types of magnetic particle testing equipment. Typical portable equipment as shown in Figure 4 operateson 220 volts AC with an output of between500 and 3 000 amperes. These units usually have a choice of either AC or HWDC. As with mobile equipment,the cablescan be usedfor prods, v/rappinginto a coil, or connectingto a central conductor. Portableequipmentalso usesthe dry powder method for most applications.

Dema gnetizing Equipment The most common type of demagnetizingequipmentconsistsof an open coil through which AC is flowing. A typical unit is shown in Figure 5 and includes a track that will carry the part through the coil. As the part is carried aqay from the coil, the magnetic field is reduced.The continuously alternating current in the coil completes the dem agnetization.

Page2-ChapterT

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Figure 3

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Figure 5

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ChapterT-Page3

UltravioletLight With fluorescent perticles,the examination is performedusing an ultravioletlight emitting light with a wavelength of 365nanometres. The examination shallbe performed asfollows:
1) It shall be performed in a darkenedarea. 2) The examiner shall be in the darkened areafor at least five minutes prior to performing the examination to enable his eyes to adapt to dark viewing. He shall not wear photosensitiveglasses or lenses. 3) The ultraviolet light shall be allowed to wirrrn up for at least 5 minutes prior to use, or measurementof the intensity. 4) The intensity shall be measuredwith a calibrated ultraviolet light intensity merer.The ultraviolet light shall be directed at the sensorfrom a distanceof 380 mm and a minimum reading of 800 pWcm2 shall be required. The intensity shall be measured at least once every 8 hours, and whenever the workstation is changed.

Safety precautions using the ultraviolet light 1) Ensure that filter is in place and not cracked. 2) Check electrical connectionsand wires for safe working conditions. 3) Avoid contact with the lamp housing,as it becomeshot in use.

General Safety Precautions 1) Electrical *ring is a hazard.It is usually causedby poor contactor by using excessive current. It can also be causedby allowing the prods to slip which may result in arcing on damaging the surfaceof the part The arcingcausessparkswhich may result in fire. 2) The dust from the magnetic par:ticlesis nontoxic, but excessiveamounts should not be inhaled. Use a dust respirator. 3) Smoking or open flame should not be permitted near the wet bath process. 4) The ultraviolet light which is usedwith fluorescentparticleswill nor damagethe skin or eyes if the filters are usedon the light. It is possibleto experienceclouding of vision if the ultraviolet light is directedinto the eyes.This happensbecause the fluid in the eyeswill momentarily fluoresce. 5) Burns can be causeddue to the resistance heating in the part or in the prods. Caution should be used in handling the parts or touching the prods immediately after the magnetic particle test.

Magnetic Particle Medium and their Preparation When the medium, whether dry or liquid, is applied to the specimenwhile the magnetizing current is flowing, the procedureis known as the continuousmethod. If the medium is applied after the magnetizing current is shut off, the procedure is known as the residual rnethod. In the dry method (Figure 6), the powder is upifi.O by sprinkling or dusting the specimen. In the wet method (Figure 7), the medium is mixed with a liquid (water) to make a barh,which is then applied to the surfaceof the specimen.
Page 4 - Cha pter 7 Nox-DssrRucnve Trsrno - M,rcxsrrc P.rrncr^e. Lnvnloxe - opm,croRs

Figure 6

Figure 7

Magnetic Properties Particles of thetesting mediummustpossess two


1) High permeability. 2) Low retentivity.

\>&

Magnetic particles containing thesecharacteristicswill give maximum responsein a leakagefield, but will not remain magneizedwhen the field is removed.

Particle Shape The shapeof the magnetic particle should be spherical and must have a high degreeof mobility and still have substantialattractive power. Globular particles offer good mobility but have low attractive power. Elongatedparticles have excellent attractive power, but do not have the mobility to move in a leakagefield. In the wet method, magnetic oxides of iion are used becausethey are extremely fine and have a lower permeability that the metallic d.y panicles. The particle size must be small in the wet method to permit the particles to remain in suspension in the liquid.

Particle Mobility Mobility is important becausewhen the particles are brought into a leakagefield",they must be able to move to form a pattern or indication. In the dry method, mobility is assistedby dusting or blowing the particles over the surfaceof the specimen. Mobility can also be assisted by vibrating the specimenafter the particleshave beendustedon the surface. Alternating curent also assistsmobility, sincethe alternatingfield causes the pa:ticles to "dance". In the wet method,mobility is greatly assisted particles because the are suspended in a liquid bath.

Particle Yisibility Visibility is important in magneticparticle testing and a good light sourceis essential. Magnetic particles areusually avaifablein grey,red and black, and the choice of colour is determined by the best contrast with the specimen surface. Fluorescentparticles are commonly used in the wet method to aid visibility, but this requiresthe use of an ultraviolet light.
NoN-DssrRucrrve TnsrrNc - MecNs'nc P,lrncu. Levst- Oxe - Opm.,rrrons

ChapterT-Page5

Wet Suspension Concentration The wet suspensions(bath) used in the wet method consist of a liquid in which the particles are suspended. The particles used are obtainable in a highly concenmted form and may be either fluorescent or nonfluorescent. To achieve the required test sensitivity, the degree of particle concentration in the bath must be correct. Agitation must be constantwhile the bath is in use to maintain the particlesin suspension. Agitation is usually accomplished by electrically driven pumps. The bath should be checkeddaily due to evaporationand loss of par:ticles that are removed from the bath by the specimen. Maximum temperatures: For Wet inks: 57" C (135' F). For dry powders: 375,5' C (600oF). The settlingtest is essentialto check the strengthof the bath andis accomplished by gravity settling in a graduatedpear-shapedcentrifuge tube as shown in Figure 8. l) Agitate the suspensionthoroughly to ensureparticle distribution. 2) Fill 100 cc sample from the delivery hose into the centrifuge tube. (when clumping occurs in the tube). 3) Demagneize, if necessary, 4) Allow settling for 30 minutes. 5) Take reading and record in 1og. 6) Adjust bath,"either by adding particles or vehicles, if necessary.

Figure 8

Page6-ChapterT

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LnvslONe - Opnrrons

The reading should be benveen 1,5 and 2,0 cc for a nonfluorescentbath and between0,2 and 0,4 cc for a fluorescent bath as shown in Figure 9. (These data are guidelines and will vary from one specification to another).

Fluorescent

Nonfluorescent

-50
-1

O.2cc to 0.4 cc

-25 -?]0 -15 :10 :8 : 6 \b-

\\-- ^{

to 2.0 cc

Figure 9

Nox-Dssrnuctwn Tesrn{c - M.lcNrrrc Pmrrcr-s LevELOxa - Op#"AToRs

Chapter7 -Page7

Chapter 7

R evisionTest

1. When dry powders are used they should first be applied gently to the part, and then the proper amount of current should be turned on. 2. Becauseportable and mobile equipment use cables, they are not capableof creating a longitudinal magnetic field. j. If the cables of a portable unit were attachedto a copper bar, typical inspection requiring a central conductor could be performed.

4. The cables of a portable magnetic particle unit could be wrapped into a coil which could be used for demagnetization. 5. Nonmagnetic materials can be inspectedwith the magnetic particle method, but they cannot be demagnetizedproperly. f. The magnetic particle method will detect only discontinuities that are completely open to the surface.

7. The ultraviolet light usedin the magnetic particle method will not damagethe eyes as long as the filter is properly in place. 8. parts that have a polished surface should not be inspectedwith prods becauseof the danger of arc burns. g. The settling test is usedin the wet magneticparticle method to determine the strength of both fluorescent and nonfluorescentparticles. 10. When an ultraviolet light is used,it must be allowed to warn up for about five minutes. shouldbe maintainedat a given level because 11. The strengthof the wet suspension A. a low level might give weak indication. B. A high level might give heavy background C. Both A and B D. None of the above. wetting agentsare added to 12. When using the wet particlesin a water suspension, A. prevent freezrng B. prevent corrosion of inspection equipment C. ensurethe proper wetting pf a part. D. decreasethe amount of wdter needed.
- MecNerrc Plrncrg Nox-DesrnucrweTEsnNc - OpFr.rrons Or.re I.nvelChaptef 7 - Page 9

13. When preparing an inspection bath, the amount of magnetic particles per litre of fluid is called its A. measuring scale. B. particle number. C. strength or concentration. D. useablelimits. 14. Which of the following is most often used for dry magnetic particle inspection? A. Full cycle direct current. B. Halfwave rectified alternating current. C. High voltage, low amperagecurrent. D. Direct current from electrolytic cells. 15. Halfwave rectified AC GIWDC) is used for the detection of A. surface defects only. B. subsurface defectsonly. C. surface and subsurfacedefects. D. none of the above. 16. If an overall pattern (sometimescircular lines) appearson the test surfaces,how should the ' inspectorreprocess the test piece? A. Retest at a higher amperage. B. Demagneize.. C. Retestat lower amperage. D. Both B and C. , L7. A prime consideration when selecting a powder to be used as a magnetic particle medium is to select a powder that A. provides a high contrast to the surfacebeing tested. B. provides a low contrast to the service being tested. C. will adhere to the surface being tested. D. requires a high demagnetizationcrurent to remove it. 18. When testing for fine shallow surface cracks, the preferred MT method should be A. dry AC. B. d.y DC. C. wet AC. D. wet DC. 19. Which of the following is an advantage of the dry method over the wet method? A. It is more sensitiveto fine surfacecracks. B. It is more capableof providing full surfacecoverageon irregularly shapedparts. C. It is easierto use for field inspectionwith porlable equipment. D. It is faster than the wet method when testing a number of small parts.

TOTAL MARKS: 19
Page 10 - Chapter 7

:
- Mro*E'nc Nox-DevrRucrrvn Tnsrnrc Perncur. Lsvrr-oxr- opn.rrons

CHAPTtrRB

M agnetic Particle Applic ations

;
I

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M agnetic Particle Applications

Prior to discussing the applications, some previously mentioned principles are recapped below. Severaldifferent basesare usedfor classrfying magnetizingmethods: 1) Whether or not the magnetizing force is maintainedduring the application of the medium. This includes the residual and continuousmethods. 2) The characterof the field utilized for magnetization which includes the circular and longitudinal methods. 3) The type of magnetizing current used which may be either AC, DC or FIWDC.

Residual Method - the medium is applied after the specimen has been magnetized and the magnetizing force removed. This method is not usedon specimensthat have low retentivity.

C<lntinuousMethod - the magnetizingoperationis conductedsimultaneously with the application of the dry powder or wet suspension.

Circular MagnetizingProcedures - wlfere it is necessary to passa crurentthrough the specimen, care must be exercised to prevent arcing or overheating at the contact areas. All contact areas must be clean, and suitable head pressure must be exerted to insure uniform magnetization.

Longitudinal Magnetization Procedures - When a solenoid or coil is used to magnetizethe specimen,it should be no longer than necessary to accommodate the specimen.

Direct current - To obtain indications of discontinuities that may be subsurface,direct current (DC) or halfwave rectified current (FIWDC) should be used.

Alternating Current - AC is used when the discontinuitiesare suspected to be on the surfaceof the specimen.

Testing Medium (Powdersand Suspensions) Dry Powder is commonlyirsed for testing weldmentswhere the prod method is employed.The powder is sprinkled on the surfacewhile the magnetizingcurrentis flowing. .
- M,ccr.rgrc Non-Dnsrnucrrve TBsrrNc Pnnrcr,:n- Levn- ONn- Opmerons Chaptef 8 - Page I

Liquid mediurn (nonfluorescent)can be used for both residual and wet continuous methods. Liquid mediurn (Fluarescent) can also be used with both wet residual and wet continuous methods.The particles are coatedwith a fluorescentdye which, when inspectedunder ultraviolet light, fluorescebrilliantly. The bath strength can be checked by the settling test describedin Chapter 7. The frequency of the test is determined by the degreeof bath usagewith the strength usually dependentupon the manufacturers'specifications.

Surface Preparation Prior to magnetic particle testing, the specimenshould be thoroughly cleaned. Cleaningmay involve removal of flake, slag,heavy build-up of paint, rust, greaseor other organic material that may interfere with the test results. The smoother the surface and more uniform the colour, the more favourable are the conditions for the formation of a magnetic pa:ticle indication. " or 25 mm must be cleaned either side of a weld along the entire length of the weld. At least 1.

Location of Discontinuities Discontinuities can be located either on or directly below the surfaceof the specimen(up to 6 mm). Discontinuities located on the surfaceappearas sharp,distinct lines, whereasdiscontinuities located below the surface appearas irregular, rough, hazy indications.

Demagnetization Requi rements If a specimen is to magnetized in a second direction, ie, circular magnetization followed by longitudinal magnetizatircn, the last applied field will drive out the residual field from the preceding magnetization. However, this will happenonly if the magneti"ing force last applied is equal to or higher than the previous residual field. A residual field indicator is used after performing demagneization on an article that has been longitudinally magnetized to determine if the field strength is reduced to the desired level. Large specimens can be found difficult to demagnetizecompletely. Shifting the specimento align it in an east-westposition from an original north-southposition facilitatesdemagnetization. The reasonfor this is the influence of the earth'smagneticfield.

Apptication of magnetic particle testing procedures The remainderof this chaptercontainsapplicationsof magneticparticle testing. The magnetic particle technician must have a good understanding of the reasonsfor applying the part. different techniques to the same It is even more important to be able to select the proper techniqueand procedureto obtain the bestresults.

Magnetization of a s<llidcylindrical specimen What methodsmust be usedto find all the discontinuities shown in Figure 1?

Figure 7

Page2-ChapterS

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Figure 2

Current

t-

- inspect Headshot (circular magnetization) for discontinuitiesshowinga longitudinal indication

Figure 3
Coil shot (longitudinal magnetization) inspect for trannsverse indications

currenr

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/ Coil Cracks

Figure 4

Magnetizationof a Large Gears What mettrods must be usedto find all of the discontinuities of the gearin Figure4?

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ChapterS-Page3

Head

Figure 5
Head shot (circular magnetization) with central conductor - inspect for discontinuities perpendicular to the circuit field

Figure 6
Discontinuities Discontinuities

FIRST SHOT

SECONDSHOT

Headshot (circular magnetization) using at leasttwo shotsand nrrningthe gear90"

Magnetization of Short Hollow Cylinders What methods must be used to find the discontinuitieson the inside and outside of this ring (Figure 7)?

Figure 7

Page4-ChapterS

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Head

Magnetic field

Head shot (circular magnetization) with central conductor

Figure I

If necessary, the ring can also be magnetizedby two head shotsacrossthe diameter or by placing in a coil. This will produce a longitudinal field which will detectdiscontinuities in the direction shown.

Ma gnetiz,ationof Hol loq Cyl i n drical Specimens What methods rnust be used to find the discontinuities on the inside and outside of the cylinder in Figure 9?

Figure 9

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Figure 10
Coil shot (longinrdinalmagnetization) inspectfor discontinuitiesshowingtransverse indications on the insideandoutsideof the cylinderas shownin Figure 10.

frori"particles

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ChapterS-Page5

Head shot (circular magnetization) with cenffal conductor - inspect for longitudinal discontinuities on the inside and outside of the cylinder as shown.

Magnetization of Irregular Shaped Specimens Each specimenmust be thoroughly analyzedto determine which methodswill be necessary to find discontinuitiesin all directions. The part hown in Figures 12,13 and 14 requiresthe use of a central conductorand two additional head shotsor tested,if size permits it, with a yoke.

Figure 12
CENTRAL CONDUCTOR SHOT I

Disc<rntinuities '

Figure 13
HEAD SHOT 2

Figure 14
HEAD SHOT 3

Page6-ChapterS

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LrvnOxe - Opm.enons

Magnetization of Large \ileldments or Castings Circular Magnetization of large specimensis usually accomplishedthrcugh the use of prods. Longitudinal Magnetization of large specimensis usually done with a yoke or by wrapping the pafi with cables. The weldments shown in Figure 15 require a criss-crosspatternin applying the magnetizingcurrent with prods to insure 100 percent coverage.

Figure 15

w
The coil shot shown in Figure 16 requires the cablesto be wrapped at severaldifferent locations to insure lffi percent coverage. However, longitudinal discontinuities will not be detected with this method.
914mm

Figure 16

:
Nox-DesrnucrrveTBsnxc - lvlecwE'[cPnnrtcu.
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ChapterS-Page7

Chapter 8

Revision Test

1 . Becauseit is changrng directions, alternating curent is the best choice when


attempting to locate discontinuities that are below the surface.

2. Parts damageddue to arcing may be the result of insufficient pressureon the part
during a head shot.

3. Demagnetizationcan be accomplishedby placing a part in a DC coil and slowly


reducing the amperage.

4. It is difficult to detect if a longitudinal magnetizedpart is still magnetized.

5. In the residual method, the medium (magnetizedpowder) is applied after the part
has been magnetizedand the magnetizing force removed. 6. When using a dry powder with the prod method, the medium is sprinkled on with the magnetizing crurent flowing. 7. Which of the following methodswould you select to provide the best technique on this high tolerance machin"d putt, with the discontinuities as shown in the skerch.(Methods may be used more than once). A. longitudinal field benpeenheads. B. longitudinal field in a coil s C. circular field between heads D. circular field with a central conductor E. prods using alternating current

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
8. Which residual field is most difficult to demagnetrze? A. Longitudinal. B. Circular. C. Vector. D. Binodal.
Nor.l-DBgnucrrve TEsmNc - MncNEnc Pmrrcr.s LsvBL Oxn - Opm.lrons

ChapterS-Page9

9- Which of the following is the most effective method for the detection of extremety deeplying defects? A. Dry residual method using DC with surge. B. Wet continuous methd using half wave rectified current. C. W'etresidual merhd. D. Dry continuous method using half wave rectified current with prods. 10. which of the following will produce circular magnetism? A. Passingcrurent through a coil. B. Placing the test part in a solenoid. C. Passingcurent through prods. D. Yokes. 11- When using the wet continuousmethod, the flow of suspension from the hose should be shut off A. immediately after applyrng the currenr. B. immediately before applying the current. C. while the current is flowing. D. 30 secondsbefore applying the cunent. L2. What method provides greater sensitivity, panicularly in locating subsurface discontinuities? A. Continuous. B. Residual. C. Circular. D. Longirudinal. 13- A break in the magnetic uniformity of a part that is called a magnetic discontinuity is related to a suddenchangein A. inductance. B. resistivity. C. capacitance. D. permeability. t4- In order to detect defects in different directions in a material by magnetic panicle inspection,it is best to use A. two or more fields in different directions. B. gnly one field. C. other probe locations. D. high frequency field. 15- The pattern of iron powder sprinkled on a paper placed over a bar magnet is called a A. field survey. B. magnetometer. C. magnetograph. D. flux meter.

. TOTAL MARKS: 15
Page 10 - Chapter 8 - MlcNrrc plrnc*. NoN-DssrRuc'nvs TEsrrNG Levnone - op'.erons

CHAPTER 9

Classification of Discontinuities

Nox-DesrRucrrve TEsfiNG - MecNs'nc Plnrrcr-r" LEvEL Oxe - Op-FRATops

s Classification of Discontinuitie

This chapter will discuss types of discontinuities ttrat can be evaluated with the magnetic panicle method. Discontinuities can be divided into tltree general categories Inherent, Processing and Service 1) Inherent discontinuities are usually formed when the metal is molten. Inherent wrought discontinuities relate to the melting and solidification of the original ingot before it is formed into slabs,blooms and billets. Inherent c(nt discontinuities relate to the melting, casting and solidification of a cast article. Usually causedby inherent variables such as inadequatefeeding, gating, excessivepouring temperatureand entrappedgases. 2) Processing discontinuities are usually related to various manufacturing pnocesses such as machining, forming, extruding, rolling, welding, heat treating and plating. 3) Semice discontinuities are related to the various service conditions such as stress, corrosion, fatigue and erosiori. During the manufacturing process,many discontinuities that were subsurfaceand not detectableby magnetic pafiicle inspection will be made open to the surfaceby machining, grinding, etc. REMEMBER: Discontinuities are not necessarily defects. Any indication that is found by the inspector is called a discontinuity until it can be identified and evaluated as to the effect it will have on the service of the part.

Classification of Discontinuities The greatestaid in interpretation is a knowledge of what is likely to be presentin any gtven instance. Knowing the history of a part, what it is made of and what processesit has been through all form important considerations. Every magnetic particle pattern produced is due to some magnetic disturbance set up in a leakage field. The inspector must be able to determinewhether thereis a seriouscrack, or someinsignificant or unimpoftant nonrelevant indication. Surface indications produce sh-arp, distinct, clean-cut, and tightly-held indication patterns. Sub-surface indications tend to produce indications which are less distinct, forming diffused or fuzzy patterns. :
- M.rcxmcPlmcrr. lxvn oxn - opm.mons Nox-Dssrnucrrve TEsrrNG Chapter 9 - Page 1

gravity' False indications are caused when particles are accumulated and held mechanically or by If the part has a rough surface, this may cause false indications.

ruli
Nonrelevant indications - This is a group of nonrelevant magnetic disnrrbances not due to discontinuities or actual breaksin ttre metal. A common nonrelevant indication could be causedby a constriction in a metal through which lines of force must pass, such as the shaft with a keyway shown in Figure 1. Nonrelevant indications can be causedby the following:

0
Figure 7

1 ) Excessive magnetizing crurent. 2) Sorrcnrral Design of the Article3) Variances of permeability within the Article.
Over Magnetization could causea nonrelevant indication due to the leakagefield attractingparticles as shown in Figure 2. object as Excesive Magnetization can also cause nonrelevant indications on a simple square shown ion the circularly magnertzndpart in Figure 3.

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Figure 4

Abrupt changes of Section Thickness of longitudinally magnetizedpart will causeflux leakage where the lines of force leave or enter th" prtt, causing nonrelevant indications. SeeFigure 4.

Permeability Differences in the part can also causenonrelevantindications. Cold working a metal can change the permeabilify. Exanple: Bending and straightening a nail will causethe metal to become hard at the point of bending. When the nail is magnetized, there will be a flux leakagewhere the permeability is changed.SeeFigure 5. A nonrelevant indication would also appearacrossthe shank of a cold chisel where the heat-treeted portion ends and the soft shank begins, as shown in Figure 6. Problems in'identifyrng nonrelevant indications can be reduced if the operator remembers that 1) they can be identified by a funy, rather than a sharp, indication. 2) they are usually associatedwith some feature of constmction like a keyway or sharp corner. 3) they are usually uniform in direction and size.

Figure 6

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Chapter9-Page3

False indications are causedwhen pa:ticles are accumulated. and held mechanically or by gravity. If the part has a rough surface,this may causefalse indications.

Classification of Discontinuities by Origin Inherent Discontinuities relate to the original melting and solidification of the metal in the ingot or in a casting. Typical discontinuities found in the ingot areinclusions, blowholes, pipe, and segregations. 1) Nonmetallic inclusions such as slag, oxides and sulphides are present in the original ingot. 2) Blowhole (porosity) are formed by gas which is insoluble in the molten metal and is trapped when the metal solidifies. 3) Pipe is a discontinuity in the centreof the ingot causedby internal shrinkage during solidificarion. 4) Segregationsoccur when the distribution of the various elements is not uniform throughout rhe ingot. This condition is alled "banding".

Pipe

Non-metallic inclusions Porosity

Figure 7

when an ingot is further processed into slabs, blooms and billets, it is possible for the above discontinuities to change size and shape. The discontinuities after rolling and forming are called laminations, stringom,or seamsdepending on the type of processing and the original, type of discontinuity. The "hot top" is usually cropped off to remove most of'the discontinuities before the ingot is further processed.

Casting Discontinuities Typicalinherent discontinuities foundin the castings arecold shuts, hot tears, shrinkage cavities, microshrinkage, blowholesandporosity.
A cold shut is causedwhen molten metal is poured over solidified metal as shown in Figure 8.

Figure 8

Cold shut - open to the surface (smooth, curved appearance)

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Hot Tears (shrinkage cracks) occur when there is unequal shrinkage htween light and heavy sections as shown in Figure 9.

Shrinkage Cavities are usually causedby lack of enoughmolten metal to fill the spacecreatedby shrinkage, similar to pipe in the ingot.

Microshrinkage usually appearsas many small subsurfaceholes at the gate of the casting. Microshrinkage can also occur when the molten metal must flow from a thin section into a thicker sectionof a casting.

Blowholes are small holes at the surfaceof the casting causedby gas which comes from the mould itself. Many moulds are made of sand,and when molten metal comes into contact with the mould. the water in the sandis releasedas steam.

Porosity is caused by entrapped gas.porosity ls usually subsurfacebut can occur on the surface depending on the design of themould.
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PROCESSING DISCONTIhTITIES Processing Discontinuities are those found or produced by forming or fabrication operations including rolling, forging, welding, machining, grinding and heat treating. As a billet is flattened and spreadout, nonmetallic inclusions may causea lamination, pipe and porosity could also cause laminations in the sanremanner as shown in Figure 11. As a billet is rolled irrro u bar stock, nonmetallic inclusions are squeezed out into longer and thinner discontinuities called stringers Figure 12.

Figure 12
Nqr-metallic inclusisrs

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Grinding cracks are a processing-typediscontinuity causedby stresses which are built up firom excessheat created between grinding wheel and metal Figure 13. Grinding cracks will usually occur at right angles to the rotation of the grinding wheel.

Heat Theat Cracks are often causedby the stresses built up during heating and cooling. Unequal heavy cooling between light and sectionsmay causeheat treat 6racks.

Heat trcat cracks have no specific direction and usually start at sharp corners which act as stress concentration points.

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Chapter9-Page7

WELDING DISCONTINUITTES Iilelding Discontinuities.The following aretypesof welding discontinuities:

Figure 14

Star cracks

Transverse cracks

Longitttdinal cracks

,Porosity

Slag inclusions

Tungsten inclwions

Lack of penetruion

Lack offusion

Undercut

PageS-Chapter9

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Figure 15

Forging lap

FORGING DISCONTINUTTIES Forging Discontinuities occur when metal is hammeredor pressedinto shape,usually while the metal is very hot. A forged part gains strength due to the grain flow taking the shapeof the die. The processis shown in Figure 15. A forging lap is causedby folding of metal on the surfaceof the forging, usually when someof the forging metal is squeezedout between the two dies. A forging burst is a rupture caused by forging at improper temperatures.Bursts may be either internal or open to the surface as shown in Figure 16.

Figure 76

lntemal burst (subsurface)

Extemal burst or crack (Open to the surface)

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Chapter9-Page9

SERVICE I}ISCO NTINUIT IE S Service Discontinuities are probably the most important types to consider. Articles which may develop defects due to metal fatigue are considered extremely critical and demand close attention. Fatigue cracks are service-t)?e discontinuities that are usually open to the surfacewhere they start from concentnationpoints. Fatigue cracks are possible only after the part is placed into service,but may be the result of porosity, inclusions, or other discontinuities in a highly stressedmetal part Figure 17. Preserration of Indications It is often desirable to preserve magnetic particle indications for future reference. There are several methods used to accomplish this purpose. Lacquer technique requires the indication to be sprayedwith a clear lacquer and later photographed Direct Photography is used to record the indication immediately after performing the test. Magnetic Rubber usesa processwhere the magnetic particles are in solution with a liquid rubber. The nrbber is allowed to harden on the pan after the magnetic field has arranged the magnetic particles. Transparent Thpe Transfer is commonly used to lift the indication from the part. The tape can be photographed or placed directly into a pennanent record book. Sketches - A plan view sketch is compiled showing type of indication, length and position of indication, traceable to a common datum point on test part

Figure 17

t Page10- Chapter 9
- M,ran*mcPrxnor" TBvrnsc Nox-DasrnucrrvE LnvnrOxe - Ormrnons

Chapter 9

R evisionTest

1. Inherent discontinuities are consideredto be those formed when the metal is in a molten condition. 2. Discontinuities and defects are terms that are considered to have the same meaning in magnetic particle testing. 3. Knowing the history of a pan is usually consideredimportant in selectingthe test method and knowing the qpe of discontinuity to look for. '4. A false indication and a non-relevant indication are considered to have he sanne *"*ing in magnetic par:ticletesting. 5. Stringers and laminations could be found in a finished producr 6. Porosity is causedby gas which is trappedin the molten metal as it solidifies. 7. Laps and bursts are examples of processing-typediscontinuities. 8. Grirrding cracks are often causedby the stresses heating createdby the excessive of the metal surface. 9. Lack of fusion between passesin a weldment is easily detected with the magnetic panicle method. 10. The general term used to refer to a break in the metallic continuity of the part being testedis A. discontinuity. B. crack. C. seam. D. lap. 11. Internal splinesand holes drilled parallel to or nearthe test surfaceswill cause A. brroad,fuzzy indications directly aligned with the part's internal contours. B. sharp,well-defined indications directly alignedwith the part's internal contours. C. no indications. D. both A and B above.
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12' what wattageis most commonry usedfor merc'ry vapour? A. 200 watts. B. 50 watts. C. 100wams D. 25 wans. 13' An examplcof a non-rerevant indication that wourd A. B.

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18. Whenthereis absolutel y no patternor distribution of magnetic particles,thepossiblecause is that the materialis non_magnetic. I the amperage settingis too low. _ t no currentis beingapplied. ! t). any of the abovecould be true.
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19. What arethe threecauses of non-relevant indications? grindingcracks. A. Lack of fusion,change of sectionthickness, B. Changeof sectionthickness, ve,ryhigh amperage, drilled hole near surface. C. Very high amperage, drilled hole nearsurface, blow holes. D. Drilled hole nearsurface, very high amperage, lack of fusion. 20. The most comrnonfailure mechanism and associated with sharpfillets, notches, undercuts is seams A. fatigue cracking. B. crystallization. C. shrinkage. D. decarburization.

TOTAL MARKS: 20

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Chapter9-Page13