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RhizomesIssue23(2012)LeenDeBolle

JeffWallandthePoeticPicture: WithBergsonandDeleuzetowardsaPhototheorybeyondRepresentation
LeenDeBolle
1.PHOTOGRAPHYANDREPRESENTATION
[1]Itiscommonlyknowntheextenttowhichthepictorialartssincethetwentiethcentury(drivenbytheavantgardeand othercriticalmovements)havecalledintoquestionthe'reignofrepresentation'.Inphotography,however,thereseemsto remainastrongattachmenttorepresentation.Photographsaresaidtobe'frozenscenes'thatrepresentaneternal presence.Asopposedtocinema,photographsarestatic.Asopposedtopainting,whichischaracterizedbyacertain opacity,photographsaretransparentrepresentationsofreality.Thetwocharacteristics(immobilityandtransparency) assurephotography'sbondwiththereignofrepresentation.Representationassurestheobjectiverecognitionofdepicted objectsastheyresembleobjectsinrealityorcanbeidentifiedwiththem. [2]TheCanadianartphotographerJeffWall,whoiswellknownforhiscinematographictableauxandtransparentcolour photographsmountedinlightboxes,states:"Abstractandexperimentalartbeginsitsrevolutionandcontinuesitsevolution withtherejectionofdepiction,ofitsownhistoryaslimningandpicturing,andthen,withthedeconsecrationofthe institutionwhichcametobeknownasRepresentation."[1]"Yet,"headds,"photography'sownhistoricalevolutioninto modernistdiscoursehasbeendeterminedbythefactthat,unliketheolderarts,itcannotdispensewithdepiction."[2] AlthoughWalladmitsthat,aroundthemid1960s,numerousyoungartistsandartstudents(moreorlesssuccessfully) triedtointegratephotographyinto"thenewradicallogicsbyeliminatingallthepictorialsuavityandthetechnical sophisticationithadaccumulatedintheprocessofitsownimitationoftheGreatPicture,"[3]healsoassertsthatthis couldhappeninthecontextofa"testingofthemedium"butatthesametime"withoutabandoningdepiction."[4] [3]Nevertheless,itismysuspicionthatWalltranscendsthecriteriaofrepresentation(withoutabandoningrepresentation) bymeansofaparticular'referentiality'inrespecttopictorialhistory.Wall'smultilayeredimagesdon'tseemtobeoriented towardtherecognitionofimagesfromthepastastheyopenupaspaceforthewanderinggaze,movingbetweenthe clearrepresentationofthedepictedandthevaguereminiscencesthisevokes.Theyshouldratherbequalifiedintermsof contraction,fusionandcondensation.AsMichaelNewmanstates:"Wall'sworkisanaffirmationofthevisibleanda commitmenttorepresentation,yetitalsocontainsbuiltintoitasenseofthelimitsofboth."[5] [4]Inthispaper,IwilltrytofindoutwhetherDeleuze'snonrepresentationalphilosophyofdifferenceandhisconceptionof thevirtualcanprovideanalternativeontologyforphotographyasopposedtothe'modernistontology'. [5]Agreatnumberofphototheoreticianshavepursuedlongdiscussionsabouttherepresentationalnatureof photography.Thesediscussionswerepredominantlyinspiredbystructuralistandsemiotictheories.The'modernist ontology'ofphotography(fromElisabethEastlaketoRolandBarthesviaWalterBenjamin,AndrBazinandSusan Sontag)holdsthattheparticular'nature'ofphotographyconsistsinitsindexicaloriconographicrelationtoreality.[6]The photographisatransparentrepresentationofrealityandreferstoitbymeansofacausalorphysicalrelation.Inthecase ofanaloguephotography,thephysicalrelationwithrealityisguaranteedsincetheimageisproducedbyraysoflight transmittedbyobjectsfixedonalightsensitivesilverplate.[7]However,manyphototheoreticiansmaintainthata'nave realism'istobeavoided.Moreover,agreatmanycontemporarytheoreticianshaveformulatedsomefundamental critiquesonthismodernistontology.Theyquestiontherelevanceofsemiotictheoriesaboutcausalorphysicalrelations. Thisfitsinwiththetechnicalevolutionofphotographyfromanaloguetodigital.Thedigitalimage,consistingofagridof pixels,nolongermaintainsaphysicalorcausalrelationtoreality.[8]Consequently,theindexicalthesiscanbeseenas merelyastageintheoreticaldevelopment.Or,asJeanBaudrillardwrites:"Whathappenstoreality?Whathappensto representation?Butwhen,inaVirtualworld,thereferentdisappears,fadesawayinthetechnicalprogrammingofthe image,whenthereisnorealworldfacingasensitivefilm[...],thentherecanbenorealrepresentationpossible."[9] [6]Itisimportantheretoestablishadistinctionbetweentwosortsofpictures:1)picturesfordocumentary,journalisticor recordingpurposes,whichonecouldcall'descriptiveimages'and2)picturesforartisticorothercreativepurposes appealingtotheimagination,whichonecouldcall'poeticimages'.Forthefirstsortofpictures,therealityvalueofthe picture'srepresentationalstatusismoreprecariousthanforthesecond.However,manytheoristsrelyonapragmatist argument.AndrGunthertstates:"Althoughallourimagesarenowmadeupofpixels,wecontinuetoopenour newspapers,switchonourtelevisionsandtrusttheinformationtheyprovideus."[10]Heconcludes:"Theacceptanceof

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digitalphotographyhasdemonstratedthatthetruthoftheimageisunrelatedtoitsontogenesis."[11]Thesecondsortof picturesenterintoacomplexrelationshipintertwiningtherepresentational(thedescriptive)andthenonrepresentational (thepoetic). [7]Foradiscoursethatgoesbeyondthepicture'sontogenesisandfocusesonpictorialqualitiesthemselves,thevirtual becomeshighlyrelevant.Thenotionofthevirtualiscommonlyattributedtothe'digitalera'andiscommonlyassociated withproblemsofderealisation.However,thevirtualismorefundamentalthan,andhistoricallyprecedes,digitization.The word'virtual'originatesfromthemedievalLatinwordvirtualis inthescholastictradition,thistermmeansthepossibleor thepotential.[12]However,contemporaryauthors(Bergson,Deleuze,Serres,Hansen)distinguishthe'virtual'fromthe 'possible'.Whereasthedualityofthepossibleandtherealimpliesthatthepossibleisnotyetreal,thevirtualisnowareal fringeoftheactual.Itindicatesanotherzoneofbeing:thepoetic,thesubliminal,andsoon. [8]BytakingWall'spoeticimagesasastartingpoint,IwilldiscusshowDeleuze'sphilosophicalsystemprovidesauseful frameworkfortheunderstandingandinterpretationofpoeticpictures.Wallhimselfspeaksintermsofpoeticimagesand heconsidershimself,withaphrasecoinedbyCharlesBaudelaire,"thepainterofmodernlife"(Baudelaire'stagfor ConstantinGuys,anillustratorfortheIllustratedLondonNews ).ThegoalforBaudelaire'sPainterofModernlife"isto extractfromfashionwhateverelementitmaycontainofpoetrywithinhistory,todistiltheeternalfromthetransitory."[13] OrasWallhimselfputsit:"Theopportunityisbothtorecuperatethepastandatthesametimetoparticipatewithacritical effectinthemostuptodatespectacularity."[14]This"uptodatespectacularity"revealsadeepawarenessofthe transitorycharacterofourtimes.AlthoughWalloftenreferstothepaintingsofmastersfromthenineteenthcentury,itis neverhisambitiontocopythemortorestoreoldervaluesortechniquespropertothemediumofpainting. [9]Ofhispoeticimages,hesays:"Theexperienceofaphotographisassociativeandsimultaneous,andinthisrespectit resemblesourexperienceofpoetry.Inpoeticwriting,meaningisnotachievedbymeansofaconsistentstructureof controlledmovementsalonglinesmadeupofsentences.Ratherthepoemismadeoflinesthatmayresemblesentences typographicallybutwhichabrogatetherequirementtobereadthewaysentencesareread.Sothereisabreakwithany necessaryrelationtothechronicle."[15]Likeapoem,whichismadeupby'linesthatresemblesentences'butexceeds thenormalwaywereadsentences,aphotographicimagemightbemadeupbyrepresentationsthatresemblethestate ofthingsinreality,butitexceedsthewayrepresentationsareread.Thepoeticqualityofanimagetransgressesthe indexicaltruthfulnessofarepresentation.Itoffersthepossibilityof'seeingmore'orseeingbeyondthedepicted,thereby reachingforsomethingdepictioncanhardlycontaininitself.Wall'sreferencestothepaintingsofmastersfromthe nineteenthcenturyarethereforeofapoeticnature. [10]HisDestroyedRoom(Fig.1),forinstance,depictsameticulouslystageddestroyedroomcontainingthechaotic scatteringofawoman'swardrobe:crumpledclothes,accessories,brokendownfurniture...WallreferstotheDelacroix paintingLaMortdeSardanapale(Fig.2),thatdepictsaviolentsceneofanAssyriankingsurroundedbyentwistednaked bodiesswarminginagonyandpain.Wall'scibachromeisnotareproductionofDelacroix'spainting,norcanitbe explainedintermsofresemblanceofthedepictedobjects.TheresemblancesestablishedbyWallseemtobeofa'poetic' nature.Althoughthetruthclaimthatpoetrymakesis,asWallhassaid,"noteasytodefine,"we,"generallyspeaking, acceptit"[16].ThepoeticresemblancesbetweenLaMortdeSardanapaleandTheDestroyedRoomdealwiththingsthat transcendtheleveloftheobjectsdepicted.Rather,theyconcerntheDionysianforcesofdestructionanddeath,which areperceptibleinbothpictures.Theyoperateatthelevelofforces,coloursandorientations.Wall'spictureisthe unmediatedrevivaloftheforcesofDelacroix'sspectacle.ResonancesofDelacroixarepalpableintheDionysiansphere ofdestructionanddevastation,suggestingasexualtension,possiblesadisticpleasureandavoyeuristicgazeonit. Furthermore,theconnectionbetweenthetwoimagesalsoconsistsinthestrangecompositionalcontrol.OfDelacroix,itis saidthathe"probablypresentedthebestorganizedchaosinthehistoryofart."[17]Thiscanbesaidparexcellenceof Wall,whometiculouslystagesthescenesheistophotograph.

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Fig.1:J.Wall,TheDestroyedRoom(1978).

Fig.2:E.Delacroix,LaMortdeSardanapale (1827).

[11]MostofWall'sphotographictableausareinvestedwithnonrepresentationalforces.Theyarecontractionsor repetitionsofvariousimagesbelongingtopictorialhistorythusprovokingdjvueffectsandfeelingsofUnheimlichkeit. Withsomeofhisphotos,forinstance,Wallhimselfrefersexplicitlytoimagesfromthepastotherscanbeinterpretedas suchbythespectator.Someotherexamplesofthisreferentialityare:ASuddenGustofWind(AfterHukosai) (Fig.3) , whichreferstoKatsushikaHokusai'sAHighWindinYeijiri,SurugaProvince.FromtheseriesThirtysixviewsofMount Fuji(Fig.4)TheArrest(Fig.5),whichreferstoCaravaggio'sTheFlaggelationofChrist(Fig.6)Stereo(Fig.7),referring toManet'sOlympia(Fig.8)Backpack (Fig.9) ,whichreferstoManet'sLeFifre(Fig.10)TheCrookedPath(Fig.11), whichreferstoPoussin'sLandscapewithDiogenes (Fig.12)TheStoryteller (Fig.13),referringtoManet'sLedjeuner surl'herbe(Fig.14)TheDrain(Fig.15),whichreferstoCzanne'sLePontdeMaincy (Fig.16)andPictureforwomen (Fig.17),whichreferstoManet'sUnbarauxFoliesBergres(Fig.18).

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Fig.3:Wall,J.ASuddenGustofWind(AfterHokusai),(1993).

Fig.4:KatsushikaHokusai,AHighWindinYeijiri,SurugaProvince. FromtheseriesThirtysixviewsofMountFuji(1827).

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Fig.5:Wall,J.,TheArrest(1998).

Fig.6:Caravaggio,M.,Theflagellationofchrist(16061607).

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Fig.7:Wall,J.,Stereo (1989).

Fig.8:Manet,E.,Olympia (1863).

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Fig.9:Wall,J.,Backpack(19811982).

Fig.10:Manet.E.,LeFifre (1866).

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Fig.11:Wall,J.,TheCrookedPath (1991).

Fig.12:Poussin,N.,LandscapewithDiogenes(1647).

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Fig.13:Wall,J.,TheStoryteller(1986).

Fig.14:Manet,E.,Ledjeunersurl'herbe (1863).

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Fig.15:J.Wall,TheDrain (1989).

Fig.16:P.Czanne,LePontdeMaincy(18701880).

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Fig.17:Wall,J.,Pictureforwomen (1979).

Fig.18:E.Manet,UnbarauxFoliesBergres(1882).

[12]Whatnowcanbesaidfurthermoreaboutthispoeticnatureofreferentiality?

2.THENATUREOFREFERENTIALITY
[13]ThierryDeDuveremarksinhis"TheMainstreamandtheCrookedPath"(1995)thatWall'sworkischaracterizedby arejectionoftheartofquotation.Headmitsthatatfirstglancethisseemstoimplyacontradiction.Wallwouldoppose himselftothepracticeofquotation,although"...therearefewartistswithamoresophisticatedpracticeofredeployingand subvertingoriginalsources,andofdirectorobliqueallusion."[18]Heexplainsthatthisstatementisneverthelessdistinct fromquotingsince"theseproceduresarepolesapartfromthepracticeofquotationwhichprevailsamongtheartistswith whomhesharesabackgroundinconceptualart,polesapartfromquotationconceivedasobjettrouvorreadymade, fromappropriation,fromrephotographing,fromtheartofquotationmarks."[19] [14]ThereferencesinWall'swork,onthecontrary,seemtobereminiscencesthatdonotexclusivelyrefertothegreat imagesofthehistoryofartbutthatalsoopenupakindofpoeticunconscious.Withsomeofhisphotos,forinstance,Wall refersexplicitlytoimagesfromthepast.Noneofhisworks,however,depictsobjectsthatareexactlythesameasinthe

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paintingsordrawingsofwhichtheyarereminiscent.Neitherdotheyconsistofpartsorfragmentsborrowedfromthem. TherejectionoftheartofquotationisrelatedtoanotheraspectmentionedbyDeDuvenamely,therejectionofthephoto montageanditsfragmentarycharacter.Photomontageconsistsofajuxtapositionofquotationsorfragmentsthat establishesanewconstellation.Fragments,components,atomicpartsaretheelementsofit.Wall'sphotos,onthe contrary,canbeconsideredasgreattableauxthatbecomedisplaced. [15]DeDuvementionssomeFreudianconceptsthatfunctioninthefieldoftheinterpretationofdreams,namely condensationanddisplacement,towhichitissaidthatWallhimselfrefers.Processesofcondensationanddisplacement arebothprocessesoftheunconsciousbymeansofwhichwetransferordistributemeaning,eitherfromonemeaningto another(displacement)orfromvariousmeaningstoonlyone(condensation).Asanexampleofthesecondensationsand displacements,DeDuvedrawsourattentiontothemanyreminiscencesinTheDrain(1989)(Fig.15)thatreferto Czanne'sLePontdeMaincy (18791880)(Fig.16),althoughheadmitsthatWallhasconfidedinhimthathehad"never inhislifemadeaconsciousiconographicreferencetoCzanneinanyofhisworks,norhasreallystudiedhim,norread hisbiographythis,hesays,doesnotstophimfromhavingthegreatestadmirationforCzanneorfromhavinghimin mindplastically,whencomposing."[20]

3.DEJAVU
[16]Uptothispoint,wecanconcludethatWall'sreferentialityhasnothingtodowithexactresemblancesbetween depictedobjects,withdirectquotation,handeddownfragmentsorfoundobjects.ButwhatpreciselyisWall'srelationto thehistoryofart?Conceptssuchasreminiscence,condensationanddisplacementhavealreadybeenmentioned. FollowingDeDuve,wecouldaddtothisthenotionofdjvu.AsaresultofthesimilaritiesbetweenWall'sTheDrainand Czanne'sLePontdeMaincy ,DeDuvestatesthatthereferentialityintermsofcondensations,displacementsand reminiscencesareallabout"theartists'chanceencounterwiththefamiliar,thedjvu...."[21]Furthermore,hedescribes thisphenomenonas"...asecretrecallofthatHeimlichkeitwhichresidesinallUnheimlichkeit,anunconsciousencounter withsomethingdjvu."[22]ThedjvueffectweexperiencewhenlookingatWall'sTheDrainisofcourseduetothe factthatbothimageslookatfirstsightfairlysimilar.Bothimagesshowanidyllictableauofnature,plentyoftreesand greenleaves,inthemiddleariverwithabridgeaboveit.Atfirstglance,wehavetheimpressionthatwehaveseenthis scenebefore. [17]ThebiggestdifferenceisthepresenceofthetwolittlegirlsinTheDrainandtheirabsenceinCzanne'spainting.This differenceisthereasonDeDuvemakeshispointinaslightlystrangewaynegatively,asitwere.Heasksusto abstractfromsomethings,inthefirstplace,thetwogirls:"Forgetthetwoyounggirlswiththeirambiguousgamesand theirhalfchildlike,halfwomanlypostures.Forgetanystorylinetheimagemightsuggestandanyfreeassociationsit mightpromptinyou.Forgetthealmostprovocativearchedstanceofthegirlintheshortskirtandtheotherone'sstudied poseoffright.Forgetthattheyarestillplayingatscaringthemselves[...]"[23]Strangelyenough,themoreDeDuveasks us(bymeansofhisdetaileddescriptionsandincantationlikeimperatives)toforget,themoreourattentionisdirected towardsthoseverythingsweareaskedtoforget.DeDuve'sparadoxicalexerciseseemstooperateonthelevelof discerningsimilaritiesanddifferences.Thisoperationofabstraction,however,istheobjectofacomparativeinvestigation. Itisaconstruction.Theexperienceofdjvuthusbecomesexplainedoranalyzedafterwards,bymeansofafaculty thathasdistanceditselffromtheimmediateimpactofthedjvuanditsUnheimlichkeit.Moreover,aninventoryof similaritiesanddifferencesoperateswithinthe'orderofResemblance',the'orderoftheSame',thatarethecategoriespar excellenceofrepresentation.TheUnheimlichkeitweexperiencewhenlookingatTheDrainshouldratherbeexplainedin termsofanunconstructedanddirectcontactwithsomething'original.'Althoughwefeelalittleunease,unlikethe psychoanalyticalconnotationsofthe'uncanny'intermsoffearoranxiety,thisexperiencebringsusinthenearnessof something'original'thathascomedetachedfromitsplace.Inthisexperience,wearenolongerthesubjectofrecognition inrespecttotherepresentationofastateofthingsrather,wecoincidewithsomethingthatrefuseseverylogical, mechanicalortranscendentalconstruction. [18]ThisexperienceofUnheimlichkeitcouldbereconciledwithHenriBergson'snotionofthedeeperself( MoiProfond). Withthisnotion,BergsonpositionshimselfexplicitlyagainstKant.Thedeeperselfisaselfthat,unlikeKant'spassive, empiricalselfofthefacultyofsensibilityortheactiveunityofapperceptionofthefacultyofunderstanding(the"Ithink"),is capableofgraspingtheunmediatedmaterialofthesensible.Thedeeperselfestablishesadirectcontactwiththetotality ofthegivensinceforBergsonthereisnosuch(Kantian)splittingupofthesubjectintoanempiricalandatranscendental subject.Thedeeperselfisaninnerselfthatproceedsbymeansofintuition.ForBergson,intuitionisamethodthatbrings usdirectlyincontactwiththereal. [19]Inthiscase,weintuitivelyapprehendthestrangeparadoxthatWall'scompleximagesareallaboutanoriginalmise enscne:originalbutsomehowsecondary.Ontheonehand,wecannotgetridoftheimpressionthatWall'spictureinits totality,distinctfromitsfragmentsorparts,fromitsdifferencesorsimilarities,acquiresaparticulardynamicunrelatedto

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Czanne'spainting.Ontheotherhand,DeDuve'sexercisemakesusawareofastrongsenseofparadox,suchas seeingandnotseeing,recallingandforgetting,similarandnotsimilar.

4.BERGSONANDVIRTUALMEMORY
[20]HenriBergson'sexplanationofthisexperienceisthefollowing:inthedjvu,weexperiencethepastinthepresent moment.Thestructureofdjvuconsistsinthefactthatitisanactualperceptionandatthesametimearecollection. Thisrecollection,however,isnottheconsciousrepresentationofaformerpresent.Thatwhichbecomesinsertedinthe experienceoftheactualmoment,doesnotinterferewiththepresentwhatsoever.Itisnotsomethingthatwouldbethe continuationofthepresentintothepast,inthesenseofaformerpresentrather,itissomethingbelongingtoapastthatis ofatotallydifferentnature. [21]InhisMatterandMemory (1939),Bergsonestablishesa'differenceinnature'betweenthe'past'andthe'present'. Whereasthepresentischaracterizedbyactionsperformedinresponsetothedemandsofpracticallife,suchasthose concerningthesensorymotorprolongationofbodilymovementsinamaterialisticuniverse,thepastischaracterizedby immaterial,spiritualphenomena:dreams,hallucinations,fantasies,djvuandsoon.Thisnotionofthepast,which releasesallbondswiththematerialisticuniverse,iscalledthepurepastorthevirtualpast.By'pure'and'virtual,'Bergson meansthatitistotallydistinctfromactualrepresentationsandthatitisinaccessibletopsychologicalrecollectioninthe senseofarepresentationofaformerpresent.Indjvu,asinthedreamstate,ourattentionissuspendedfromthe practicaldemandsofdailylifeandweexperiencetheactualmomentandthepurepastinthesameinstance.Bergson explains:"Thememorywillbeseentoduplicatetheperceptionateverymoment,toarisewithit,tobedevelopedatthe sametime,andtosurviveitpreciselybecauseitisofaquitedifferentnature."[24]Thepresentandthepastdifferin nature,buttheycoexistastwodifferentworlds.Thevirtualpastisazoneofbeingwheretimeemergesinperson. Althoughitisnotrepresentative,outofreach,orunassailable,virtualmemoryaccompanieseverymomentasa personalityaccompaniestheperson.Thevirtualpastdiffersinnaturefromtheactualpresent,butatthesametimeit constitutes,withtheactualpresent,oneandthesameevent.Assuch,thevirtualpastbreakswiththechronological successionofmoments.Itremainsunaffectedbylogicalorchronologicalrepresentations.Theglimpsesofaseemingly otherlifethatitoffersare,strictlyspeaking,notdatable.Thepureorvirtualpastdoesnotofferlocalizablerepresentations. [22]Insofarasweunderstanddjvuwithinthelogicsofrepresentationandresemblance,wearecomparingvarious representations.Djvuasthecoexistenceofvirtualmemoryandactualpresence,onthecontrary,establishes connectionsbetweennonrepresentational,nonchronological,vague,dreamlikeelementsandactualrepresentations.In thecaseofTheDrain:wedonotsimplycompareitwithaclearanddistinctrepresentationofLePontdeMaincy .Evenif ourmemorywouldpresentaclearandlocalizablerepresentationofCzanne'spainting,italmostimmediatelystarts transforming,blurringorfadingaway.Also,theremembranceitselfofitconsistsofacontractionofotherimagesorit movesfromimagetoimage,sothatitbecomesCzanne'spainting. [23]Themoststrikingparadoxofdjvu(asBergsonconceivesit)isthefactthatweseemtoremembersomethingthat wehavenot,strictlyspeaking,seen,sincethepurepastisinaccessibletopsychologicalexperience.Ratherthansay thatdjvureferstorepresentationsofthepast,wecould,somewhatparadoxically,saythatitreferstothatwhichhas neverbeenseen.ThisisthedjvuofwhichCatherineFrancblinsaysthat"itisasifdjvuwereforhim[Wall]justan agentforthetransmissionofjamaisvu(theneverseen)."[25]

5.DELEUZEANDVIRTUALONTOLOGY
[24]GillesDeleuzewasthefirsttoradicalizeBergson'stheoriesofpurememorytowardsanontologyofthevirtual:"What Bergsoncalls'purememory'hasnopsychologicalexistence.Thatiswhyitiscalledvirtual,inactiveandunconscious.[...] Strictlyspeaking,psychologybelongstothepresent.Onlythepresentis'psychological',thepast,however,ispure ontology."[26] [25]Thisontologyofthevirtualestablishes,asDeleuzecallsit,aworldwithtwofoci.Deleuzementionsanimagethatis actualandvirtualatthesametime:"...wecansaythattheactualimageitselfhasavirtualimagewhichcorrespondstoit likeadoubleorareflection.InBergsonianterms,therealobjectisreflectedinamirrorimageasinthevirtualobject, which,fromitssideandsimultaneously,envelopsorreflectsthereal:thereis'coalescence'betweenthetwo.Thereisa formationofanimagewithtwosides,actualandvirtual"[27]wherebytheactualpolestandsfortheorderofdepiction, whilethevirtualstandsforthepoeticforcestranscendingtheorderofdepiction.Or,inWall'swords:"Thus,tomakean image,therearetwoatmospherescrossingeachotherofwhichtheonethatishiddenismorepowerfulthantheother." [28] [26]Wediscernherethetheoreticalpossibilitiesofgoingbeyondtherepresentationalnatureofdepiction.AsWallhimself

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saidaboutthepoetic:"Mostartistsatleastmostgoodoneswouldprobablyconcedethatatsomepointorothertheir workraisesapoetickindofclaimtorelatetosomethingoutsideitself."[29]This'outsideitself'canpreciselybe understoodasthatwhichappealstoazoneofbeingthatcannotberepresentedordepicted:thevirtual. [27]TheradicalizationofBergson'snotionofthevirtualintoontologicaltermsimpliesthatthevirtualisnolongerrestricted totemporalconnotationssuchasmemoryorreminiscence.ThisdualcharacterofWall'spictures,however,doesnot solelyconcernthewayweasspectatorsreadorexperiencethem,butalsothewayWall(consciouslyorunconsciously) conceivedthemor(re)constructedthem.Nexttoourexperienceofdjvu,ofperceivingavirtualmemoryinhis pictures,thisvirtualmemoryisbuiltintothepicturesbyWallhimself.Inthisrespect,Newmandrawsattentiontothe staged,reconstructedaspectofhiscinematographictableaux.Becauseoftheelaboratereconstruction,therelationofthe picturetorealityinitsindexicalqualitybecomessuspended,andavirtualmemoryisinserted:"Theretrospective characterofreconstructionincorporatesintotheprocessofmakingthephotographwhatwouldnormally,insnapshotor documentaryphotography,beanaspectofthereceptionofthephotograph:theworkingofmemory.Thephotographis nolongertheindexicaltraceofa'raw'sight,buttherepresentationofanexperiencethathasbeenabsorbedandworked through,whetherconsciouslyorunconsciously."[30]Newmanrelatesthisinsighttoanotherdualityalreadymentioned above:"ItisinthiswaythatthecinematographicphotographrealizesBaudelaire'sprogramofcombiningthefleetingand theeternalbeautiesofmodernity."[31] [28]Theontologyofthevirtualthatestablishesaworldwithtwofocirendersbetteraccountofthestrangedoublenessof Wall'sphotosthanthemodernistontologyofrepresentation.Histableauxofthescenesofdailylifetestifytoanoneiric atmosphere.Hisfigures,thatseematfirstsightabsorbedbytheiroccupations,aremeticulouslystaged.The'flat'images seemtocontainadepththatparadoxicallyrisestothesurface.

6.PARADOXESOFPHOTOGRAPY
[29]TheontologyofthevirtualconcernsallthedualitiesorparadoxesthatarecommonlymentionedinrespecttoWall's pictures:theephemeralandtheeternal,thebanalandtheoneiric,transparencyandopacity,absorptionandtheatricality andflatnessanddepth. [30]Thepictureofanakedyoungmanstretchedoutonacouch,awalkmanpluggedinhisears,thatisentitledStereo (Fig.7)offersastrangecontrastbetweenbeingcompletelyexposedtotheviewerandbeingselfsufficient.Newman writes:"Thereisasenseinwhichheisatoncevisuallyavailableandyetopaque."[32] [31]Anotherpicture,AdrianWalker (Fig.19) ,depicts,asMartinSchwanderdescribesinaninterviewwithWall,"ayoung manwhoisconcentratingsointenselyonhisworkthatheseemstoberemovedtoanothersphereoflife."[33]Wall replies:"One[wayoflookingatthepicture]isthatitisapictureofsomeoneengagedinhisoccupationandnotpaying attentionto,orrespondingtothefactthatheisbeingobservedby,thespectator."[34]Referringtoadistinctionmadeby MichaelFriedabouttherelationshipbetweenfiguresinpicturesandtheirspectators,namelythe'absorptivemode'and the'theatricalmode',Walladds:"He[Fried]identifiedan'absorptivemode',exemplifiedbypainterslikeChardin,inwhich figuresareimmersedintheirownworldandactivitiesanddisplaynoawarenessoftheconstructofthepictureandthe necessarypresenceoftheviewer.Obviouslythe'theatricalmode'wasjusttheopposite.Inabsorptivepictures,weare lookingatfiguresthatappearnottobe'actingout'theirworld,only'beingin'it.Bothofcoursearemodesofperformance." [35]

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Fig.19:Wall,J.AdrianWalker (1992). [32]Theseparadoxesofthebanalandtheconstructed,ofabsorptionandtheatricality,appealtoanotherkindofre doubling:theredoublingoftheverynotionofidentityitself.ToWall,thisparadoxisthesourceofalltransformationand development.Furthermore,thisreflectiononhissubjectsiselevatedtothelevelofamoregeneralreflectionon modernity.Wallasserts:"Thekeyexperienceformodernistart,Ithink,isthisdissociationofidentity.Throughit,we perceiveatonceourreallifeasitis,andatthesametimewesensesomethingextremelydifferent."[36]Inaddition,he remarksthatitisbymeansoftechniquesborrowedfrompaintingandcinemathatphotography,whichisnormallynot capableofshowingsomethingoutsideitsproperidentity,canrepresentthis'otherlife'orthis'virtuallife'beyondour 'actuallife'.Butunlikepaintingitself,Wall'smediumischaracterizedbyimmediacy .Thephotographicimageisthe immediatedepictionofascene.Itistheresultofasimultaneous,notaconsecutive,operation.Itisnotthegatheringof parts,broughttogetherintoonewhole.Rather,wecouldsaythattherelationofthepartstothewholeisreplacedby repetitionsorcirculationsofwholesdisplacingorstreamingintooneanother. [33]Thecoexistenceor'coalescence'ofavirtualandanactualpartimpliesthatdepthandsurfacecoincideinthe 'flatness'ofthephotographicimage.Depthandsurfacearenolongerdistinctfromthespatial,threedimensionalpointof view,buttheymergeintooneanother,therebyconstitutinganimagethatisreally'multilayered'initsveryflatness. Furthermore,Deleuze'squalificationofthevirtualimpliesthattheclearandtransparentsurfaceoftheimagealways containsanobscuredepth,butthisdepthrisestothesurfaceandconstituteswiththesurfaceaparadoxicalimagethatis bothtransparentandopaque. [34]FollowingDeleuze,itismysuspicionthatphotographicimages,totheextentthattheyreachacertain'poeticor artisticstatus',arecharacterizedbythisdoublestructure,beingpartlyactualandpartlyvirtual,andassuch,both remainingwithintherealmofrepresentationwhileatthesametimealsotransgressingit.EspeciallyinrespecttoWall's work,themodernistontologyofafully'actualimage',cannotsufficientlyaccountfortheintrinsiccomplexityoftheimage. Wall'sphotographictableauxarenotmerelyrepresentationsoftheactualstateofthings.Theyarecontractionsof coexistingseriesofactualandvirtualelements,assuchappealingtoaworldwithtwofoci.Elucidatingtheworkingofhis lightboxes,Wallpointsoutthat,contrarytopaintingsorordinaryphotography,wherethelightfallingonthemisthesame asthelightthatenterstheroom,therearenowtwosourcesoflight.Extendingthisbifocalitytotheontologicalassumption oftwodifferentworlds(a'visible'worldthatispresentanda'hidden'worldthatisalways'somewhereelse'),Wallasserts: "Forme,thisexperienceoftwosites,oftwoworlds,inthesameinstant,istheessentialformoftheexperienceof modernity."[37]

7.DELEUZEANDTHEPASSIVESYNTHESES
[35]SofarwecanconcludethatDeleuze'sontologyofthevirtualcorrespondsverywellwithathesisthatuncoversthe artisticrelevanceofphotographicimages.Now,wecouldevengoonestepfurtherandreflectupontherelevanceof Deleuze'sbroaderphilosophicalsysteminrespecttopoeticpictures.Inhismainwork,DifferenceandRepetition(1968), Deleuzeconstructstheconditionsforhislaterworks.Therehedevelopsasubrepresentativesystemconsistingofthree

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passivesyntheses.Thesearethreefundamentalrepetitionsoftheunconsciousthatconstitutethepresent,thepastand thefuture.Thepassivesynthesesoperateinasystemthatcanbequalifiedas'transcendentalempiricism'or'superior empiricism'.Thissystemoftranscendentalempiricismmustallowto"apprehenddirectlyinthesensiblethatwhichcan onlybesensed,theverybeingofthesensible."[38] [36]WiththesenotionsDeleuzeexplicitlyopposeshissystemtothatofKant.Histriplestructureofthepassivesynthesis oftime(habit,memoryandtheeternalreturn)arethecounterpartsofKant'sactivesynthesisofimagination, understandingandreason.[39]ForDeleuze,theconceptofpassivityimpliesanactivitythathecallsaccordingto PlotinusandHumecontemplationandcontraction.[40]Butthisactivityisnotinitiatedbythemind,itisanactivitythatis acontractionofthemind.[41]Thepassivesynthesesarerepetitive,rhythmicprocessesoftheunconscious,likefor instance,thebeatingoftheheart,thecontractionsofmuscles,themultiplicationofcells,theplayofinvoluntarymemories anddrivesandsoon.Thesearetheconstitutiveelementsthatprecedeeveryconsciousapperception.Thisnew transcendentalphilosophydoesnotculminateinrepresentationbyrecognition,orthefacultyoftheunderstandingthat connectstheobjectswithathinkingsubjectbytheuseofconcepts,asitdidforKant.Deleuzewantstoleadhisthree synthesesintotheplayofdifferenceandrepetition.Thesearethetranscendentalconditionsoflifeinallitsaspects.In thesedynamics,thenotionsofdifferenceandrepetitiongetapositivemeaning.Inrepresentationalthinking,difference andrepetitionwerecommonlyunderstoodinanegativesense:repetitionwasalwaysafunctionofidentityasthe repetitionofthesame,whiledifferencestoodforthatwhichdidnotbelongtotheidentityofaconcept.InDeleuze's system,thethreesynthesesoftimearethreefundamentalrepetitions,inwhichthenotionsofdifferenceandrepetition haveafullyautonomousandpositivemeaning. [37]Thesethreesynthesesoftimecanbediscernedinatheoryofphotographybeyondrepresentation.Thefirst synthesisthatconstitutesthelivingpresentDeleuzecallshabitus .Whenthesamephenomenaoccurrepeatedly,a differenceinthemindiseffectuated.Thesamecasesarecontractedbythemindinthesenseofcontemplations. Contemplationmeansthatasynthesisisconstitutedbyelementsthatarenotcentralizedinthemind.Thesynthesesthey bringaboutarepassivesince"itisnotcarriedoutbythemind,butoccursinthemindwhichcontemplates,priortoall memoryandreflection."[42]FollowingHume,Deleuzestatesthatcontemplationislinkedtoprinciplesofassociationsuch ascontiguity,resemblance,andcausalitythatprovokeacertainliveliness.Bythisliveliness,theexperiencetransgresses itselftowardsaconviction,anexpectation,ahabit.Assuch,themindbecomesahumannature.Thishumannatureis thusconstitutedwithouttheunityofapperceptionoranyothertranscendentinstance.Thetranscendentalordetermining elementproceedsfromanunconsciousplaneofimmanencebymeansofsubliminalperception,or,withawordcoined fromLeibniz,bymeansofsmallperceptions.[43]Theactivitythatisnotinitiatedbythemindbutthatoccursthroughthe mindisofthenatureofassociation,fusion,condensationandcontraction.Thesearetheconceptsthatcharacterizethe experienceofWall'sphotographs.Asmentionedabove,Wallassertedthat"theexperienceofaphotographisassociative andsimultaneous,andinthisrespectitresemblesourexperienceofpoetry."[44]Moreprecisely,theexperienceof fusion,condensationandcontractionelucidatetheexperienceof'Ihaveseenthisscenebefore.'Wall'sreferentiality installsarelationofcontiguityandassociationwiththehistoryofpictorialarts.Butthislevelofcontiguitythatconstitutes thelivingpresent(myperceptionhereandnow)becomestransgressedtowardsanawarenessofagreatplentiful memory. [38]Thefirstsynthesistransgressesitselftowardsasecondsynthesisinwhichthereisadoubledevelopment.Onthe onehand,thereisthecontinuationofthepassivesynthesistowardsthepast,whichconstitutesavirtualmemory.Onthe otherhand,thereistheseriesofanactivesynthesisofmemoryinapsychologicalsensethatmakesrecognition, reflection,andrepresentationpossible.Ofthetwoseriesthatevolveoutofthefirstsynthesis,Deleuzeconsidersthe developmentintothedeeper,passivesynthesisofmemorymostfundamental.Itispreciselythispassivememorythat constitutesanontologyofthevirtualorworldwithtwofoci.Deleuze'sradicalizationofthismemorytowardsavirtual ontologyelucidatestheparticularambiguityofWall'spictures.Ontheonehandtheyareclearrepresentationsofdepicted scenesontheotherhand,theyexceedthemererepresentativestatusofdescriptiveimages.Thisambiguityandthese paradoxesentailamorecomplexreflectionontheontologicalstatusofphotographicpicturesassuch. [39]InDeleuze'ssystemoftranscendentalempiricism,thissecondsynthesisculminatesintoathirdsynthesisinwhich thecategoriesofrepresentation,identity,resemblance,analogyandnegationareonceandforalloverturned.This synthesisproducesarepetitionthatisnolongerarepetitionofthesame,orareproductionofanoriginal.Withthethird synthesisDeleuzemanagestothinkarepetitionthatisfullypositiveandthatdoesnotrefertoafirstimageoralost object. [40]Furthermore,onthelevelofthisthirdsynthesis,DeleuzereferstoHamlet:"Timeisoutofjoint."[45]Timestopsbeing cardinalandbecomesordinal.The'joint'canbeunderstoodintermsofcardinality.Inthetechnicalspeechoffurniture making,the'cardinal'standsforthehingearoundwhichadooropensandcloses.Thecardinalisthejointthatdetermines themovement.WhenDeleuzesays,withHamlet,thattimeisoutofjoint,hemeansthattimeisnolongersubordinatedto

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suchhinges.Timebecomesthenonteleologicalandabundanteventofanexcessiveenergy,itbecomespureorder, pure'inbetween':"Timeitselfunfolds[...]insteadofthingsunfoldingwithinit."[46]Theresultisthattimebecomes independentofGod,men,andnature.Timebecomesanautonomousorder,arhythm,arepetitionandreturn,or,as Nietzscheputsit,aneternalreturn.Theeternalreturninstalls,asKlossowskipointsout,"acoherencethatissoperfect,it excludesmyowncoherence"[47].Intheeternalreturn,everythingcomesback,notonlytheinteresting,thejoyful,orthe goodmoments,butlifeinitssmallestandmostmeaninglessdetails.Nogroundofexpectationoranticipationbymeansof acquiredidentificationsorconvictionscandisciplinethechaoticdisjunctionsofthisexcessive,problematicenergy.The excessivecontainsallofthepossible,inthefigureoftheemptyformoftime.Theeternalreturninstallsarevaluationof thenotionofthesimulacrum.Here,Deleuze'sambitiousprojectofthe'overturningofPlatonism'findsitsculmination.The multiple,thedifferentandthesimulacrumbelongtoasecretcoherencethatdestroysthecoherenceofGod,men,and nature.Withthethirdsynthesis,Deleuzebecomesonceandforallfinishedwiththecategoryofidentity.Thecogitoorthe unityofapperceptionbecomesreplacedbyafundamentaldissociation,acoherence,whichexcludesmyowncoherence, andanimmanentplanethatisonlytraversedbycoexistingseries,movementsofcontractionandfusionandoffieldsof intensities. [41]Thequestionnowistofindoutwhetherthisthirdsynthesiscanbereconciledwiththenatureofphotographicimages orwiththeartisticorpoeticaspectofit.

8.REPETITIONANDREPRODUCTION
[42]AsinWall'spoeticimagesorinBaudelaire's"PainterofModernLife,"theessentialelementthatbecomesinsertedin thisworldwithtwofociisrepetition.Whereastheorderofrepresentationischaracterizedbychronologicalsuccession, thevirtualischaracterizedbyrepetition.Elucidatinghisvirtualmemoryfurther,Bergsonwrites:"thesamepsychicallife wouldthereforeberepeatedanendlessnumberoftimes,onthesuccessivestoreysofmemory,andthesameactofthe mindmaybeperformedatvaryingheights."[48]ForDeleuze,repetitionisthatwhichwithstandstheorderof representation. [43]TheCzechphototheoreticianVilemFlusserappliesthenotionofrepetitionacrossabroaderperspective.Ina philosophical,evenmetaphysicalway,hediscussesinhisTowardsaPhilosophyofPhotography (Flusser,1983)the propernatureofthetechnicalimage(i.e.,infilm,television,andphotography)intermsofrepetition.Heexplainsthat,in oppositiontotraditionalimages(cavepaintingsorthefrescoesinEtruscangraves),thetechnicalimageischaracterized bythedynamicsofaneternalreturn:"Technicalimagesthussuckallofhistoryintotheirsurfaces,andtheycometo constituteaneternallyrotatingmemoryofsociety.[...]Everythingdesirestoflowintothiseternalmemory,andtobecome eternallyreproduciblethere.[...]Theresultisthateveryeventoractionlosesitsproperhistoricalcharacter,tendingto becomeamagicritual,aneternallyrepeatedmotion.Theuniverseoftechnicalimages,asitisabouttoestablishitself aroundus,posesitselfastheplenitudeofourtimes,inwhichallactionsandpassionsturnineternalrepetition.Itisfrom thisapocalypticperspectivethattheproblemofphotographywillacquiretheshapepropertoit."[49]Thesephilosophical (almostNietzschean)reflectionsontheeternalreproducibilityofphotographicimagesseemstofitwellinDeleuze's systemofthethreesynthesesthatrevealsthenonrepresentationaldynamicofapoetic,magicworldandanoriginaland positiverepetition.Andyet,photographyisthemediumparexcellencewhereanendlessrepetitionof'representations' becomespossiblebymeansofreproduction. [44]RepetitionasreproductionhasbeenextensivelydiscussedbyWalterBenjamininhisessay"TheWorkofArtinthe AgeofMechanicalReproduction"(1935).Bymeansofreproduction,aworkofartlosesits'aura',i.e.,itsauthenticity.This authenticityBenjaminunderstandsastheactualpresenceintimeandspace:"...itspresenceintimeandspace,its uniqueexistenceattheplacewhereithappenstobe."[50]Photographicimagesinparticularlosetheirauthenticityinthe 'eraofmechanicalreproduction'since"Fromaphotographicnegative,forexample,onecanmakeanynumberofprints toaskforthe'authentic'printmakesnosense."[51] [45]Despitethesestatementsonthenatureofphotography,Wall'scibachromesarebasicallyunreproducible.Boris Groysstatesthat"photographyhasapparentlynothingtolosebybeingreproduced.WorksbyWall,however,losetheir glowingaurawhenreproducedinacatalogueorabook,althoughtheyarephotographs.Inreproduction,worksbyWall ceasetoglow."[52]NewmanstatesthatthisisduetothefactthatWallworkswithlargescalelightboxes,which contributetothe"unityofthepicturebycreatingan'overall'effect"[53]hiscibachromesareunreproducible:"Although thetransparenciesworkveryaffectivelyonthepage,theyare,strictlyspeaking,unreproducible"[54]. [46]FollowingDeleuze,weunderstandreproductionasamechanicalactivitythataimsatmultiplicationbymeansof technicalinterventions.InthelongPlatonictonethatdominatedthehistoryofWesterncultureovermanycenturies,the notionofreproductionhasalwaysbeenlinkedwithdichotomiessuchasoriginalversuscopy,authenticityversus degradation,trueversusfalse,wherebyreproductionwasalwaysassociatedwiththepejorativeconnotationsofthefalse,

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thedegradedcopy.Inpostmoderntheories,however,thisPlatonictendencyhasbeenreevaluated.Thenotionofan originalrepetitionwhichstandsinsharpcontrastwithreproductionascopyhasgainedground. [47]ItistruethatreproductioncanbeconceivedofasaparticularsortofrepetitionthatDeleuzecalls'repetitionofthe same'or'mechanicalrepetition,'inthesensethatthesamecontentsorpartsbecomemultipliedbymeansofmechanical procedures.[55]However,onthelevelofhisthirdsynthesis,Deleuzeputsforwardtheparadoxicalnotionofrepetitionas a'repetitionofdifference'.Thisisnotamechanicalrepetitionbutrathera'spiritual'repetition. [48]Deleuzerelatesthisspiritualrepetitionwiththenotionofthesingular .Itispreciselybecausethesingularwithstands generalstructuresandfinalinterpretationsthatitcanberepeatedendlessly:"torepeatistobehaveinacertainmanner, butinarelationtosomethinguniqueorsingularwhichhasnoequalorequivalent."[56]Whenaneventoraworkofartis repeated,thisrevealstheirreplaceablesingularityofit.Itisthusnotamatterofrepeatingasecondorthirdtime(etc.)but torepeatsomethingthatisparadoxically"unrepeatable:"thesingularpowerofsomethinguniquethatcontainsallthe repetitionsthatwillfollow.AsDeleuzestates:"...itisnotFederationDaywhichcommemoratesorrepresentsthefallof theBastille,butthefalloftheBastillewhichcelebratesandrepeatsinadvancealltheFederationDays,orMonet'sfirst waterlilywhichrepeatsalltheothers.[...]Therepetitionofaworkofartislikeasingularitywithoutconcept,anditisnot bychancethatapoemmustbelearnedbyheart.Theheadistheorganofexchange,buttheheartistheamorousorgan ofrepetition."[57] [49]ApplyingBergson'stheoryofthevirtualandtheactual,wecouldsaythatmechanicalrepetitionorreproduction operatesattheleveloftheactualrepresentations,whereasoriginalrepetitionsorrepetitionsofdifferenceoperateonthe levelofthevirtualthelatterareofthenatureofthepoeticoroneiric.Theparadoxicalnotionofthe'repetitionofdifference' isalsocomprehensibleinthecontextofBergson'sconceptofdjvu.Asexplainedabove,djvuisnotarecognitionof aformerrepresentation,butratherarecognitionofthatwhichhasneverbeenexperienced.Itisarepetitionofsomething thathasneverbeenrepresentedbeforeassuch,itrepeatsanunrepeatable(inthesenseof'irreproducible')element,or repeatsthedifferent.OfWall'swork,wecouldsaythatitisunrepeatableinthesenseofmechanicalreproduction,butthat itischaracterizedbyoriginalrepetitions. 9.CONCLUSION [50]WecanconcludethatDeleuze'smagisterialsystemofthepassivesyntheses,producingapoeticexperience,an ontologyofthevirtualandanoriginalrepetitionofdifferencecanofferaninterestingtheoreticalframeworktointerpretand evaluatephotographicimageswithinadiscoursethatgoesbeyondrepresentation. [51]ThesystemofthethreesynthesesestablishedbyDeleuzerendersabetteraccountoftheartisticrelevanceofthe photographthanrepresentationdoes.Moreover,whilephotography'sindexicaltruthclaimshavebeenextensively questionedintheeraofdigitalphotography,infavorofavirtualworld,wenowdiscernthepossibilityofamore fundamentalandphilosophicalconceptionofthevirtualthatstructurallyprecedestheproblemofindexicaltruthinthe digitalera. [52]WithWall,ithasbecomeclearthat"photographershaveshownthepotentialtogenerateDeleuzianimages,suggest linesofflight,andimaginenewkindsofbecomings."WhenlookingatWall'spictures,webecomeawareofagigantic virtualmemory,apoeticworldofimages,which,despitetheirbanalsubjectmatterand'staged'reconstructions,testifyto originalandsingularrepetitions.ThePainterofModernlifeseemstohavemanagedtocapturethepastinthepresent,the virtualintheactual,theslownessintheimmediate,theopacityintransparency,thedepthinflatness,thenon representationalinrepresentation.TheironyhereliesinthefactthatI,bymeansofadiscursivemedium,spentmany pagesdiscussingthisredoubling,thisbifocality,theserepetitionsofthephotographicimage,whileWallsucceededin presentingthemimmediatelywithhiscondensed,multilayeredimages.Thenagain,ironyisalsoaninterestingDeleuzian theme.

Notes
[1]JeffWall,"Marksofindifference:AspectsofPhotographyin,oras,ConceptualArt.",inMichaelNewman,JeffWall, JeffWall:WorksandCollectedWritings (Barcelona:EdicionesPolgrafa,2007),352.FirstprintedinReconsideringthe ObjectofArt,ed:AnnGoldsteinetal.(Cambridge/Massachusetts:MITpress,1995).ReprintedinJeffWall,Essaiset entretiens19842001(2001).ditiontablieetprsenteparoisChevrier(Paris:coleNationaleSuprieuredesbeaux arts,2004). [2]Wall,"Marksofindifference",352. [3]Wall,"Marksofindifference",353.

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[4]Wall,"Marksofindifference",353. [5]MichaelNewman,"Light,DarknessandtheWorld",inMichaelNewman,JeffWall,JeffWall:WorksandCollected Writings (Barcelona:EdicionesPolgrafa,2007),235. [6]AndrGunthert,"TheDigitalImprint.TheTheoryandPracticeofPhotographyintheDigitalAge",inTheWeightof Photography ,ed.JohanSwinnen,andLucDeneulin(Brussels:ASPeditions,2010),425. [7]Johansen,"TheDistinctionbetweenIcon,IndexandSymbol",499.Seealso:JohanSwinnenandLucDeneulin, "GeneralIntroduction:ThinkingabouttheTheoryofPhotography",inTheWeightofPhotography ,20. [8]SeeWilliamJ.Mitchell,ThereconfiguredEye.Visualtruthinthepostphotographicera(Cambridge/Massachusetts: MITpress,1992). [9]JeanBaudrillard,J."ViolenceInflictedonImages",inTheWeightofPhotography ,221. [10]Gunthert,"TheDigitalImprint",424. [11]Gunthert,"TheDigitalImprint",429. [12]PierreLvy,Qu'estcequelevirtuel?(Paris:ditionsdelaDcouverte,1995),13. [13]CharlesBaudelaire,"ThePainterofModernLife"(1863).In:C.Baudelaire,ThePainterofModernLifeandOther Essays .(TranslatedandeditedbyJ.Mayne.London:PhaidonPress,2008,12. [14]JamesRondeau,"JamesRondeauindialoguewithJeffWall".In:P.Galassi,JeffWall(NewYork:TheMuseumof ModernArt,2007),152. [15]Wall,"MonochromeandPhotojournalism",337. [16]BorisGroys,(1995),"BorisGroysinConversationwithJeffWall".In:DeDuveetal.,JeffWall,2ndrev.ed.(London: PhaidonPress,2002.Reprintedin:Wall,J.,SelectedEssaysandInterviews .NewYork:MuseumofModernArt,2007), 300301. [17]T.Brideaux,1978,DewereldvanDelacroix .(Nederland:TimeLifeinternational,1978),65,mytranslation. [18]ThierryDeDuve(1995),"TheMainstreamandtheCrookedPath",inJeffWall,ed.Thierry.DeDuveetal.(London: PhaidonPress,2002),27. [19]DeDuve,"TheMainstreamandtheCrookedPath",27. [20]DeDuve,"TheMainstreamandtheCrookedPath",35. [21]DeDuve,"TheMainstreamandtheCrookedPath",40. [22]DeDuve,"TheMainstreamandtheCrookedPath",36. [23]DeDuve,"TheMainstreamandtheCrookedPath",34. [24]Bergson,L'nergiespirituelle,135. [25]CatherineFrancblinquotedbyRalLussier,"Regardsurlesannes90",inJeffWallOeuvres19901998,translated bec:Mused'artcontemporaindeMontreal,1999),10. [26]GillesDeleuze(1966),LeBergsonisme(Paris:PUF,1997),5051(mytranslation). [27]GillesDeleuze(1985),Cinema2,TheTimeimage,translatedbyHughTomlinsonetal.(London:Continuum,2005), 67. [28]JeffWall(1985),"Typologie,Luminesczenz,Freiheit,AuszgeauseinemGesprchzwischenElsBarentsundJeff Wall",translatedbyB.SeelerundR.Seeler,in:JeffWall,Transparencies (Mnchen:JeffWallandSchirmer/MoselVerlag Mnchen,1986),100(mytranslation).ReprintedinJeffWall,Essaisetentretiens19842001,ed.JeanFranois Chevrier,translatedbyM.HugonnetandJ.L.Maubant(Paris:coleNationaleSuprieuredesbeauxarts,2004).Also reprintedin:JeffWall,SelectedEssaysandInterviews (NewYork:TheMuseumofModernArt,2007). [29]BorisGroys(1995),"BorisGroysinConversationwithJeffWall".In:DeDuveetal.,JeffWall,2ndrev.ed.London:

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PhaidonPress,2002.Reprintedin:Wall,J.,SelectedEssaysandInterviews (NewYork:MuseumofModernArt,2007), 300301. [30]MichaelNewman,"Gestureandtime".In:M.Newman,JeffWall:WorksandCollectedWritings (Barcelona:Ediciones Polgrafa,2007),66. [31]Newman,"Gestureandtime",66. [32]MichaelNewman,"TheReinvigorationoftheWesternTableauandthetransformationofthePhotograph".In:M. Newman,JeffWall:WorksandCollectedWritings (Barcelona:Edicionesgrafa,2007),48. [33]MichaelFried,"JeffWall,Wittgensteinetlequotidien".In:LesCahiersduMnam92,2005,8. [34]Fried,"JeffWall,Wittgensteinetlequotidien",8. [35]Fried,"JeffWall,Wittgensteinetlequotidien",8. [36]Wall,J.,"Typologie,Luminesczenz,Freiheit,AuszgeauseinemGesprchzwischenElsBarentsundJeffWall" (1985),TranslatedbyB.SeelerundR.Seeler.In:JeffWall,Transparencies.(Mnchen:JeffWallandSchirmer/Mosel VerlagMnchen,1986).Reprintedin:J.Wall,Essaisetentretiens19842001(2001).ditiontablieetprsentepar JeanFranoisChevrier.TranslatedbyM.HugonnetandJ.L.Maubant.(Paris:coleNationaleSuprieuredesbeaux arts,2004).Alsoreprintedin:JeffWall,SelectedEssaysandInterviews .(NewYork:TheMuseumofModernArt,2007), 104(mytranslation). [37]Wall,"Typologie,Luminesczenz,Freiheit",100(mytranslation). [38]GillesDeleuze(1968).DifferenceandRepetition.TranslatedbyP.Patton.(London:Athlone,1994),5657,seealso 144,147. [39]GillesDeleuze(1968).DifferenceandRepetition,135. [40]GillesDeleuze(1968).DifferenceandRepetition,7375. [41]GillesDeleuze(1968).DifferenceandRepetition,71. [42]GillesDeleuze(1968).DifferenceandRepetition,71. [43]GillesDeleuze(1988).TheFold,LeibnizandtheBaroque.TranslatedbyT.Conley(London:Continuum,2006),99. [44]Wall,"MonochromeandPhotojournalism",337. [45]Deleuze(1968).DifferenceandRepetition,88. [46]Deleuze(1968).DifferenceandRepetition,88. [47]PierreKlossowski,(1967).Oublietanamnsedansl'expriencevcuedel'ternelretourdumme.InNietzsche CahiersdeRoyaumont.(Paris:LesditionsdeMinuit,1967,pp.228234),234. [48]HenriBergson(1939).MatterandMemory .TranslatedbyN.M.Paul.(Mineola,NY:Dover,2004),128129. [49]VilemFlusser,V.,TowardsaPhilosophyofPhotography (1983).TranslatedbyAnthonyMatheus.(London:Reaction Books,2005),1920. [50]WalterBenjamin,"TheWorkofArtintheAgeofMechanicalReproduction"(1935).(NewYork:ClassicBooks America,2009),4. [51]Benjamin,TheWorkofArtintheAgeofMechanicalReproduction,910. [52]BorisGroys,"LifewithoutShadows".In:DeDuve,T.,Groys,B.,Pelenc,A.,JeffWall.(London:PhaidonPress,1996), 58. [53]MichaelNewman,"Introduction:thePhotographasPictureandPoem".In:M.Newman,JeffWall:Worksand CollectedWritings .grafa,2007),10. [54]MichaelNewman,"Introduction:thePhotographasPictureandPoem",10. [55]GillesDeleuze(1968).DifferenceandRepetition,2324.

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[56]GillesDeleuze(1968).DifferenceandRepetition,1. [57]GillesDeleuze(1968).DifferenceandRepetition,12.

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