Sie sind auf Seite 1von 144

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda i

Preface
Mlinda Foundation, an International NGO based in Paris, France, is focused on ecological conservation and restoration worldwide. Mlinda has its India Office based in Kolkata and one of the critical regions nominated for its interventions is the Indian Sundarbans where in the worlds largest mangrove forest is being degraded at a very rapid rate. NABARD is an apex development bank in India with a mandate for facilitating credit flow for promotion and development of rural economy and all other allied economic activities in rural areas promote integrated and sustainable rural development and secure prosperity of rural areas. This study commissioned by Mlinda and NABARD is focused on assessment of fossil fuel consumption, its impact and the scope for promoting renewable energy options for limiting ecological degradation within four blocks of the Indian Sundarbans viz. Basanti, Gosaba, Kultali and Patharpratima. The study has been undertaken by Synergyz Resource Advisory Consultants, a professional team of development specialists, to collate the levels of fossil fuel consumption in the target blocks and study the feasibility of promoting solar systems as an alternative source of clean and affordable energy option. Prepared by: Synergyz Resource Advisory Consultants Pvt Ltd 23-A, Eashwaripuri Colony, Sainikpuri Secunderabad 500 094, India Email: contact@synergyz.in Website: www.synergyz.in

Date: April 2013

www.synergyz.in

ii Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Table of Contents
Acronyms & Abbreviations ........................................................................ v Part I - General Overview.............................................................................................. 2 Section 1: Introduction ............................................................................ 5
1.1 1.2 1.3 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Impact of Climate Change on Sundarbans .......................................................................... 6 Economic Importance ........................................................................................................... 7 Need for Energy ..................................................................................................................... 7 Background .......................................................................................................................... 10 Objectives of the Study ...................................................................................................... 11 Expected Outcomes / Deliverables ................................................................................... 11 Terms of Reference............................................................................................................. 11 Survey Methodology ............................................................................................................ 13 Sampling Size and Proposed Activities .............................................................................. 14

Section 2: Scope and Methodology ........................................................... 10

2.5.1 Sampling Method ............................................................................................................... 14 2.5.2 Size ..................................................................................................................................... 15 2.5.3 Questionnaire .................................................................................................................... 15 2.6 2.7 2.8 3.0 3.1 Activity List .......................................................................................................................... 15 Field Surveys ........................................................................................................................ 17 Limitations ........................................................................................................................... 17 Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 19 Salient Socio-Economic Data of the Study Area ............................................................... 21

Section 3: Description of the Study Area .................................................... 19

3.1.1 Occupation and Livelihood: ............................................................................................. 22 3.1.2 Spatial Distribution of Population ................................................................................... 22 3.2 Status of Electricity ............................................................................................................ 24

Part II - Analysis Section 4: Analysis - (Basanti, Gosaba & Kultali Blocks) ................................. 28
4.0 4.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 28 Present Status of Accessibility to Energy Sources ........................................................... 28

4.1.1 Grid Power ......................................................................................................................... 28 4.1.2 Solar Power........................................................................................................................ 32 4.2 Households and Clusters ..................................................................................................... 37

www.synergyz.in

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda iii

4.2.1 Demography of HHs Surveyed .......................................................................................... 37 4.2.2 Consumption of Kerosene at HH Level ........................................................................... 40 4.2.3 Perception about Various Energy Sources ...................................................................... 43 4.2.4 HH Clusters in the Blocks ................................................................................................. 44 4.2.5 Demographic Profile of Clusters...................................................................................... 45 4.2.6 Consumption of Fuel in Identified Clusters .................................................................... 45 4.3 Schools and Hospitals.......................................................................................................... 49 4.3.1 Energy Usage in School Hostels ....................................................................................... 49 4.3.2 Demography of Schools Surveyed .................................................................................... 50 4.3.3 Consumption of Fuel in Schools....................................................................................... 50 4.3.4 Perceptions regarding Various Energy Sources .............................................................. 52 4.3.5 Demography of Hospitals Surveyed ................................................................................. 53 4.3.6 Level of Energy Consumption in the Hospitals .............................................................. 54 4.3.7 Perceptions regarding Energy Sources............................................................................ 54 4.4 Commercial Establishments ............................................................................................... 56 4.4.1 Demography of Markets Surveyed ................................................................................... 56 4.4.2 Consumption of Diesel in Markets ................................................................................... 57 4.4.3 Energy Usage in the Commercial Sector ........................................................................ 59 4.4.4 Demography of Commercial Sector Surveyed ................................................................ 59 4.4.5 Consumption levels of Diesel by the Agro-commercial Sector..................................... 60 4.4.6 Perceptions regarding Various Energy Sources .............................................................. 60 4.5 Water Transport .................................................................................................................. 62 4.5.1 Demography and Fuel Consumption levels of Ferry Services ....................................... 62 4.5.2 Fuel Consumption by Fishing Trawlers ........................................................................... 63 4.5.3 Perceptions regarding Various Energy Sources by Boat Owners .................................. 64

Section 5: Analysis (Patharpratima Block) .................................................. 65


5.0 5.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 65 Present Status of Accessibility to Energy Sources (as per government projects) ........ 66

5.1.1 Grid Power ......................................................................................................................... 66 5.1.2 Solar Power........................................................................................................................ 70 5.2 Household Level energy Consumption .............................................................................. 71 5.2.1 Demography of HHs Surveyed .......................................................................................... 71 5.2.2 Energy Sources at HH Level ............................................................................................. 72 3.2.3 Consumption of Various energy sources at HH level for agriculture inputs ............... 73 5.3 Commercial Establishments ............................................................................................... 74

www.synergyz.in

iv Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

5.3.1 Demography and Consumption Levels of Energy of Markets Surveyed ....................... 75 5.3.2 Demography & Consumption of Energy in Independent Shops..................................... 75 5.3.3 Energy Usage in Schools ................................................................................................... 76 5.3.4 Energy Usage by Ferries ................................................................................................... 76

Part III - Recommendations Section 6: Recommendations .................................................................. 79


6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 79 Penetration Levels of Various Energy Sources ................................................................. 79 Field Level Observations .................................................................................................... 81 Solar Micro-grids .................................................................................................................. 82 Lessons from Existing Models in Sundarbans .................................................................... 82

Appendices ......................................................................................... 90
Appendix A: Socio-economic Profile of HHs Surveyed ................................................................ 90 Appendix B: Extent of Dependence on Kerosene at HH Level ................................................... 93 Appendix C: Preference of Energy Source at HH Level .............................................................. 95 Appendix D: Socio-economic Profile of Clusters Surveyed ....................................................... 97 Appendix E: Extent of Dependence on Kerosene at Cluster Level ........................................... 99 Appendix F: Perception Levels about Various Energy Sources (in Clusters) .......................... 100 Appendix G: Perceptions in Schools ........................................................................................... 101 Appendix H: Diesel Consumption in Markets Surveyed ............................................................. 102 Appendix I : Diesel Consumption in the Commercial Sector................................................... 104 Appendix J: Perceptions of Various Energy Sources in Commercial Sector ........................... 105

Annexures .........................................................................................107
Annexure 1: Flood and Cyclone Hazard Map South 24 Parganas District (WB) .................... 107 Annexure 2: Field Visit Schedule ................................................................................................ 108 Annexure 3: Survey Questionnaires ............................................................................................ 109 Annexure 4: News Report on Grid Connectivity to Island Blocks in Sundarbans ................... 120 Annexure 5: List of Villages (Targeted under RGGVY) ............................................................. 121 Annexure 6: List of Villages (Completed under RGGVY) .......................................................... 124 Annexure 7: Block Level Summaries ........................................................................................... 126

References ........................................................................................135

www.synergyz.in

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda v

Acronyms & Abbreviations


APL BDO BPHC BPL CSE CSO CUTS DI ESMA FGD GHG GoI GoWB GP HDI HH Hr IPCC JLG Km KV KWH KMPH Ltr MC MoP NABARD NAPCC NASA NES NGO Above Poverty Line Block Development Officer Block Primary Health Centre Below Poverty Line Centre for Science and Environment (India) Community Support Organization Consumer Unity and Trust Society (NGO) Depth Interview European Securities and Markets Authority Focus Group Discussion Green House Gas Government of India Government of West Bengal Gram Panchayat (Sub Block Administrative Unit) Human Development Index Household Hour Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Joint Liability Group Kilometer Kilo Volt Kilo Watt Hour Kilometers per Hour Liter Market Committee Ministry of Power (GoI) National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (India) National Action Plan on Climate Change (India) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (USA) Non-conventional Energy Sources Non-Government Organization

www.synergyz.in

vi Mlinda No NWRC OBC PDS PPM PRA PV RE

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Number National Wetlands Research Centre (USA) Other Backward Class Public Distribution System Parts per Million Participatory Rural Appraisal Photo Voltaic Renewable Energy Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidutikaran Yojana (Rural Electrification Program - GoI) Ramakrishna Mission (NGO) Rupees Sundarbans Development Board Solar Photo-Voltaic Square Sundarban Tiger Reserve Times News Network (India) Times of India Terms of Reference United States Geological Survey Watt West Bengal (State of India) West Bengal Green Energy Development Corporation Limited West Bengal Renewable Energy Development Agency West Bengal State Electricity Distribution Company Limited World Wide Fund for Nature Year Zilla Parishad (District level local governing body) Zoological Society of London

RGGVY RKM Rs SDB SPV Sq STR TNN ToI ToR USGS W WB WBGEDCL WBREDA WBSEDCL WWF Yr ZP ZSL

www.synergyz.in

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda 1

Part I - General

www.synergyz.in

2 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Overview
Sundarbans, the largest delta in the world, consists of 10,200 sq km of Mangrove Forest, spread over India (4200 sq km of Reserved Forest) and Bangladesh (6000 sq km approx of Reserved Forest) and is also the largest Mangrove Forest in the world. The Sundarbans originally measuring (about 200 years ago) around 16,700 sq km, has dwindled into nearly a third of its original size. The total land area today is 4,143 sq km and the remaining water area of 1,874 sq km encompasses rivers, small streams and canals. Indian Sundarbans also includes around 5,400 sq km area outside the forest cover that includes inhabited lands along the north and northwestern boundary of the forest.
Fig: Satellite Image of the Sundarbans Delta

Apart from human encroachment, exploitation of its natural resources and alteration of natures courses, climate change is also playing a significant role in the degradation and destruction of this unique natural eco-system. Also, the lack of access clubbed with poor service to electricity to a major part of this region, has resulted in heavy dependence on fossil fuels for lighting and other purposes. Conservation and restoration of the ecology of Sundarbans has been the primary focus of many institutions in the recent past, both within and outside the government establishment. Mlinda Foundation of France is one such entity whose primary mission is towards ecological conservation and restoration in highly critical fragile natural systems globally. Mlinda has identified four such administrative blocks of the Indian Sundarbans viz. Basanti, Gosaba, Kultali and Patharpratima where it proposes to carry out interventions with an aim to replace/reduce fossil fuel usage with alternate source (solar) of clean energy thus resulting in the reduction of GHG emissions in this region. The study carried out by Synergyz Resource Advisory Consultants at the behest of Mlinda, was aimed towards: Understanding the socio-economic dynamics of the selected areas; Identify the fossil fuel usage pattern by the communities inhabiting these areas; The current level of penetration of solar systems; Government bodies attitude and approach towards renewable energy; Peoples experiences and perceptions regarding solar power systems; Identify and prioritize areas for the program implementation; Estimate the feasibility of scaling up and replicating the model in the future.

www.synergyz.in

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda 3

Fossil fuel consumption points identified for the survey are: Lighting at HH level; Lighting in markets; Lighting of school hostels and hospitals; Running of machineries by small commercial enterprises in the area like sawmills, flourmills and shallow pumps for cultivation; Fuel used to power motorized boats for transporting people and also trawlers used for fishing. The field data collection, its analysis and recommendations thereafter give direction for a gradual and focused implementation of the program which while being self-sustaining, would also ensure the ownership of the system resting with the user-community, thus inculcating a better sense of responsibility and accountability.

www.synergyz.in

4 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

www.synergyz.in

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda 5

Section 1: Introduction
1.0 Background

The mangrove dominated Ganges Delta the Sundarbans also a world heritage site, is a complex ecosystem comprising one of the three largest single tracts of mangrove forests of the world. The Sundarbans gets its name due to the abundant presence of the Sundari trees. The Indian part of this mangrove forest is estimated to be about 19 percent, while the Bangladeshi part is 81 percent. To the south the forest meets the Bay of Bengal; to the east it is bordered by the Baleswar River and to the north there is a sharp interface with intensively cultivated land. The natural drainage in the upstream areas, other than the main river channels, is everywhere impeded by extensive embankments and polders. The Sundarbans originally measuring (about 200 years ago) around 16,700 sq km, has dwindled into nearly a third of its original size. The total land area today is 4,143 sq km and the remaining water area of 1,874 sq km encompasses rivers, small streams and canals. Indian Sundarbans also includes around 5,400 sq km area outside the forest cover that includes inhabited lands along the north and north-western boundary of the forest. Sundarbans is home to around 300 species of trees and herbs and 425 species of wildlife including the Bengal Tiger. This mangrove forest is predominantly a salt-tolerant forest ecosystem with the exception of an estimated 856.7 million Sundari (Heritiera fomes) trees which are less salt-tolerant. The Sundarbans consists of an intricate network of tidal waterways, marshy patches, mudflats and numerous islands. Rivers in the Sundarbans are meeting places of salt-water and fresh-water. Thus, it is a region of transition between the freshwater of the rivers originating from the Ganges and the saline water of the Bay of Bengal.
Fig 1.1: Location Map of Sundarbans

The Sundarban mangroves serve as a biological shield protecting coastal communities from the worst effects of storm surge, thus providing an important defense in limiting climate change impacts. Each year about eight storms with sustained wind speeds greater than 63 KMPH form in the Bay of Bengal, with an average of two becoming tropical cyclones. The dwindling of this mangrove ecosystem only escalates the disaster risk for local populations from storm surge and flooding. Sundarbans is not just an environmental asset or an ecological treasure-trove; it is also an area of immense geo-political importance. It consists of a vast deltaic system that lies between India and Bangladesh, putting an immense pressure on the combined natural resources, leading to difficulty in management of the rehabilitation of millions of displaced people.

www.synergyz.in

6 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

1.1

Impact of Climate Change on Sundarbans

Despite the warnings against impact of climate change on this fragile ecosystem since the early century, recent human activities are still geared towards enhancing them. Recent studies indicate that the Sundarban coast has been retreating up to 200 meters in a single year due to rapidly deteriorating health of the world's largest mangrove forest. ZSL researcher Dr Nathalie Pettorelli, senior author of the Fig 1.2: Satellite Image of Sundarbans (NASA) paper states: "Our results indicate a rapidly retreating coastline that cannot be accounted for by the regular dynamics of the Sundarbans. Degradation is happening fast, weakening this natural shield for India and Bangladesh." Of the 102 low-lying islands in the delta on the Indian side, about 54 are inhabited by nearly four million people. But climate change is leading to increased salinity and higher tidal surges, with permanent submergence of land masses. Reports from 2006 suggest that in the past 20 years four islands (Bedford, Lohachara, Kabasgadi and Suparibhanga) were submerged and 6,000 families rendered homeless. Up to a dozen islands, home to 70,000 people, are immediately threatened by the rising seas inundating homes and livelihoods. Refer Annexure 1 for the Flood and Cyclone Hazard Map of South 24 Parganas district (Indian Sundarbans). Scientists from Calcutta and Jadavpur Universities have predicted that one of the largest islands (Sagar island) will lose at least 15 percent of its habitat area by 2020. A report prepared by Jadavpur University and World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) estimates that out of five million people living in the delta, one million will become climate change refugees by 2050. It is estimated by researchers of the School of Oceanographic Studies, Jadavpur University that the annual rise in sea level from 3.14 mm recorded till the year 2000 more than doubled to about 8 mm in 2010. Mangroves are also the most carbon rich forests in the tropics with high carbon sequestration potential, meaning that their degradation and loss will substantially reduce our ability to mitigate, and adapt to, predicted changes in climatic conditions. Healthy mangrove forests, as well as marshes and sea-grass meadows, are important and efficient methods for sequestering carbon dioxide as 'blue carbon'. Mangrove loss in Sundarbans contributed to half the total blue carbon stock reduction, followed in ranking by the degradation or loss of sea grass meadows, then tidal marshes. Surface water temperatures have been rising at the rate of 0.5 degree Celsius per decade over the past three decades in the Sundarbans. A 2009 study found a change of 1.5 degrees Celsius

www.synergyz.in

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans Carbon dioxide concentration has increased about 21% from 280 ppm in pre-industrial times to approximately 370 ppm today and is predicted by some models to double within the next century.

Mlinda 7

from 1980 to 2007, a rise that will pose challenges and stresses for the survival of fauna and flora in the forest. By comparison, the IPCC documented a temperature increase rate of 0.2 degree Celsius per decade in the Indian Ocean during 1970-99. The surface Effects of elevated CO2 and climate change will water pH over the past 30 years has also likely be apparent first geographic areas where major vegetation types meet. reduced in the region, thus increasing acidification. The variations in salinity and Source: USGS NWRC Fact Sheet increased temperature are thought to be the reasons for observed variation in pH and dissolved oxygen. The concentration of dissolved oxygen in some parts of the Sundarbans showed a decreasing trend.

1.2

Economic Importance

The Sundarbans plays an important role in the economy. The forest provides raw materials for wood based industries. In addition to traditional forest produce like timber, fuel-wood, pulpwood etc., large scale harvest of non wood forest products such as thatching materials, honey, bees-wax, fish, crustacean and mollusc resources of the forest takes place regularly. The forest also traps nutrient and sediment, acts as a storm barrier, shore stabilizer and energy storage unit. Last but not the least, the Sundarbans provides a wonderful aesthetic attraction for local and foreign tourists. A number of industries (e.g. newsprint mill, match factory, hardboard, boat building, furniture making) are based on the raw materials obtained from the Sundarbans ecosystem. Various non-timber forest products and plantations help generate considerable employment and income generation opportunities for at least half a million poor coastal population.

1.3

Need for Energy

The Sundarban region of West Bengal covers 9,630 sq km including around 4444.33 sq km of human habitat along the forest area. About 20 islands, inhabited by more than 100,000 households in 131 villages, have no access to electricity. The southern region, in particular, suffers from a chronic energy crisis due to non-availability of grid quality power. The rivers are tidal in nature and sometimes become even one km wide. It is extremely difficult to extend transmission lines from main land to these islands resulting in technical limitations and high cost. People depend on the expensive and often erratic supply of kerosene for their lighting needs. There are a few small diesel generator sets supplying electricity to the markets of some villages, but the diesel delivery mechanism is not reliable. The sensitive ecosystem, remoteness, inadequate infrastructure for transport sector, distributed demand for electricity and dependency on petroleum products imported from main land has resulted in absence of diesel based grid systems. There exists little or no reliable access to communication systems, television, and health facilities, all of which requires electricity.

www.synergyz.in

8 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

The NAPCC emphasizes the need for large scale investment of resources in infrastructure, technology and access to energy, towards attainment of Indias developme nt agenda which seeks eradication of poverty and improved standard of living. The NAPCC states that In view of the large uncertainties regarding the spatial and temporal magnitude of climate change impacts, the need is to identify and prioritize strategies that promote development goals while also serving specific climate change objectives. The strong positive correlation between energy use and human development is well recognized and a substantial increase in per capita energy consumption is anticipated while attaining an acceptable level of wellbeing amongst the citizens. Given the intergenerational character of energy planning decisions, the long life span of energy infrastructure (15-30 years for power plants and 30-40 years for transmission lines) and the expected rise in energy demand, the potential vulnerabilities of energy services due to climate consequences needs greater understanding. The formal knowledge base is still at an early stage of development (ESMA-2011), particularly for assets that are indirectly weather dependent (e.g. thermal power, transmission). RE plays a key role in future low carbon emission plans aimed at limiting global warming. However, its dependence on climate conditions makes it also susceptible to climate change. The Energy and Resources Institute had prepared a Master Plan for Electrification by 2008 for WBREDA. Based on the plan, SPV systems and other non-conventional energy sources are most suited for this region. The basic emphasis is on the total electrification of the command areas by utilizing hybridization of different renewable energy resources. In this context, the WBREDA and other institutions like the RKM Lokashikha Parishad are already engaged in the distribution of SPV systems in these areas.

Fig 1.3: Annual Solar Radiation Index in Sundarbans

www.synergyz.in

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda 9

10 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Section 2: Scope and Methodology


2.0 Background

Mlinda Foundation (hereafter referred to as Mlinda), an International NGO working in Sundarbans area of WB, seeks to inspire custodianship for the environment, and enable the local inhabitants to recognize the implications of our actions and to act to protect and help regenerate our world. Mlinda envisions a world in which human development is promoted through financially, socially and environmentally sustainable forms of production and consumption. Mlindas aim is to develop financially sustainable, socially responsible and environmentally friendly market based initiatives that can have a significant impact on: Reducing GHG emissions; Reducing harmful forms of consumption and production; Promoting wildlife and habitat conservation. Currently, off-grid households and schools are largely dependent on conventional fuel burning (mainly kerosene) and the commercial institutions depend on diesel for powering the markets that are highly inefficient, polluting and damaging to both health and the environment. Hence, access to clean energy within rural communities in the form of solar off-grid lighting alternatives offer a better option with health, safety and environmental benefits. Despite their potential, off-grid clean energy solutions have yet to make a significant impact in the rural market. Mlinda is presently involved in promoting access to clean energy solutions within the Island Blocks of Sundarbans. NABARD as part of its development initiatives is associated with Mlinda. In this direction, Mlinda & NABARD have assigned an energy consumption study in the four blocks of Sundarbans, viz. Basanti, Gosaba, Kultali and Patharpratima (Island Blocks) to Synergyz Resource Advisory Consultants. It is expected that this study will help to: Assess the present levels of energy consumption ( fossil fuels/ solar) and demand in the ecologically sensitive islands of Sundarbans; Assess the demand and perception/acceptability of Renewable Energy as a reliable and economical source of power (primary / supplementary). Fig 2.1: Indian Sundarbans Administrative Blocks

www.synergyz.in

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda 11

2.1

Objectives of the Study

The objectives listed out for the energy mapping study are: Understand the points of fossil fuel consumption and quantify them; (Households for lighting, markets, trawlers, jetties, agricultural machineries, flour mills, saw mills and small independent shops etc); Understand the total quantum of fossil fuel that can be saved and consequent savings on GHG emissions; Understand their expenditure patterns on fossil fuels across different sub-sectors and their source of financing; Assess the present solar penetration and the future demand (in terms of direct access and aspirations) for solar power in the targeted geography in the next five years.

2.2

Expected Outcomes / Deliverables

The study is aimed towards capturing and analyzing the following information: Present solar penetration and predicted future demand for solar lighting (five year forecast) in the targeted geographies in both off and in-grid spaces; Size the market for solar PV based lighting with recommendations for home lighting systems/devices and mini/micro grids; Mapped geographic clusters for targeted interventions e.g. identification of clusters for solar micro-grids amongst the core poor etc; Well analyzed present fossil fuel consumption points by different actors and related expenditure patterns to help assess GHG emissions savings; Detailed documentation of the research methodology.

2.3

Terms of Reference
Conduct a baseline survey spanning over a total of 36 GPs, 1,27,226 HHs ; over 130 markets (total universe) across the three blocks of Gosaba, Basanti and Kultali; Develop the overall survey design framework for the three blocks, finalize the sample size in consultation with Mlinda; Analysis of Patharpratima block data based on the survey conducted by Mlinda team; Finalize the study tools, conduct the study within the targeted geography, compile and analyze data and finally share the first cut and the final study report with Mlinda; Bring out the key findings in the final study report and suggest specific recommendations in terms of future demand for solar; Map the geographies for HH based solar micro-grids amongst the core poor,

12 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

identification of markets willing to convert from diesel to solar, identification of schools interested for their hostel electrification etc; Document the research methodology/approach in detail in the final study report as an integral part of the learning process. Detailed discussions were held with Mlinda India and Paris Offices on the ToR and expected deliverables so as to finalize a list of feasible deliverables.

Matrix 2.1: Deliverables


Expected Outcomes of Study Detailed Energy Mapping Present solar penetration and predicted future demand for solar lighting (in the next 5 years) in the targeted geographies in both off and on-grid spaces; Deliverables finalized based on Discussion Indicative Energy Mapping General trend of solar penetration in the targeted geographies in both off and on-grid spaces; (May not be possible to predict future demand for solar lighting in the next 5 years. However attempts shall be made to collect data on population growth and general trend of solar penetration in the area) Size the market for solar PV based lighting with recommendations for home lighting systems/devices and mini/micro grids 5 HH clusters / block 2 Schools / block

Size the market for solar PV based lighting with recommendations for home lighting systems/devices and mini/micro grids Mapped geographic clusters for targeted interventions e.g. identification of clusters for solar micro-grids amongst the core poor etc Map the geographies for HH based solar micro-grids amongst the core poor, identification of markets willing to convert from diesel to solar, identification of schools interested for their hostel electrification etc; Well analyzed present fossil fuel consumption points by different actors and related expenditure patterns to help assess GHG emissions savings

While mapping will be done, willingness will only be indicative since agreement will be based on the financial model offered to the respective groups. However, information will be provided based on which feasible options can be developed

Well analyzed present fossil fuel consumption points by different actors and related expenditure patterns to help assess GHG emissions savings

www.synergyz.in

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda 13

2.4

Survey Methodology
KPC surveys provide information on what people know (Knowledge), what they do (Practices), and what services they have access to (Coverage). Each question in the survey addresses one or more of these factors. Most commonly, the results of KPC surveys are used to identify and prioritize problems or needs; provide information that can be used to make program design and strategy planning; and monitor or evaluate a project. A KPC does not provide conclusive quantifiable answers on the root issue.

The study based on addressing the Knowledge, Practice and Coverage (KPC) of various sources of energy in the study area was conducted using various methodologies giving importance to participatory analysis with a focus on representation of major stakeholders and different socioeconomic groups.

As implemented here, the KPC will only provide indicative data, as Keeping in mind the overall field it is too blunt an instrument, to provide conclusive data at the work time, distances, travel, and district levels. This would have required implementing multiple other logistic constraints, GPs in surveys at each site and level, which would have exceeded the each of the three blocks were available resources. selected for conducting the survey. The proposed methodology based on the ToR included:

PRA mapping & FGD to highlight overall status of energy usage levels and habitation status in the three blocks; Survey and selection of respondents based on random purposive sampling method (access, status and penetration of electricity, economic status of population and availability of respondents during study period). With reference to the ToR, the activities chosen for the study include: Desk review of available documents; Meetings with Mlinda project staff for finalization of activities and sampling size; Interviews and discussions with relevant Government agencies, local NGOs, and other key personnel; (Refer to Annexure 2 for the field visit program and list of people interviewed). GPs and specific villages or clusters for survey were selected with the help of representatives of local NGOs, reflecting areas with no electricity, remote areas, electrified areas as per government records and poor services. (It may be noted here that the classification of these villages is based on the GoI notification of 2004, wherein it states that a village would be declared as electrified, if: - Basic infrastructure such as Distribution Transformer and Distribution lines are provided in the inhabited locality as well as the Dalit Basti hamlet where it exists; - Electricity is provided to public places like Schools, Panchayat Office, Health Centers, Dispensaries, Community centers etc; - The number of households electrified should be at least 10% of the total number of households in the village).

14 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Obtaining quantitative baseline information from primary as well as secondary sources by using specific structured questionnaires developed for specific stakeholders identified for this study. Please refer to Matrix 2.3 for list of stakeholders identified for this study. Refer Annexure 3 for Field Survey Questionnaires. Surveys were also used to locate the sites of proposed micro-grids. The estimation of demand was based on the information gathered from the survey.

2.5

Sampling Size and Proposed Activities

2.5.1 Sampling Method: Based on field situation and need certain deviations from the proposed activity and sample size had to be incorporated. The same is detailed out in Matrix 2.2. Random Purposive sampling method was used to select areas as well as respondent groups. While GPs and specific villages selected in each block were based on inputs from local key personnel, accessibility, distance and time efforts were also made to cover remote areas within individual Blocks. Matrix 2.2 indicates the names of GPs covered in each Block. Matrix 2.1: Areas selected for Study
Subdivision Block Basanti Basanti Gram Panchayats Selected for Study Barathgarh Jharkhali Jyotishpur Masjidbati Uttar Makamberiya 46% 36% Canning Gosaba Bally -1 Bally-2 Gosaba Rangabelia Satjelia Baruipur Kultali Deulbari - Debipur Gopalgunj Jalaberia - 1 Jalaberia - 2 Maipith Baikunthapur 56% Kakdwip Patharpratima Brojoballavpur

GP coverage

7%

Fig 2.2: Block Maps showing the Surveyed GPs

www.synergyz.in

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda 15

2.5.2 Size: 100 HHs per Block were surveyed of which attempts were made to cover 50 offgrid and 50 in-grid households. In Kultali all 100 HHs surveyed are within in-grid areas since as per government records Kultali block is completely electrified. A minimum of five HH clusters were identified within each block with each cluster comprising 7-10 HHs, based on the minimum HH count required for economical viability and feasibility of micro-grid models developed by Mlinda. A total of 296 HHs and 150 HHs in 16 clusters were surveyed in the study area. Please refer to Matrix 2.3 for sampling size of each stakeholder identified. 2.5.3 Questionnaire: Questionnaires developed were further approved by Mlinda prior to the field surveys. The questionnaires framed in English for various stakeholders were focused to address the specific information needs. The interviewers translated it into Bengali verbally during the training and interview and information in most areas was gathered in Bengali. In an attempt to ensure that the verbal translation was appropriate and clearly understood by all interviewers the team reviewed the more technical questions multiple times. Matrix 2.3: Issues Covered
Issues addressed HHs Clusters Hospitals Schools Commercial Trawlers/ jetties Market committees

HH demographics Market /commercial demographics School demographics Present level of fossil fuel consumption Present level of solar usage Present level of expenses Prioritization of energy sources Prioritization of benefits due to light Willingness to invest in solar systems

2.6

Activity List

The study entailed a comprehensive mix of group discussions and interviews with key personnel as well as HH level, market level surveys aimed towards determining the level of usage of fossil fuels, their perceptions and present level of dependence with regard to alternate sources of energy like solar and diesel generators.

16 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Matrix 2.4: Sampling for Qualitative & Quantitative Study


Proposed Activity Description Nos. Total Actual

A. Preparation of instruments B. Secondary review C. Depth Interview (DI) with key personnel (as available during study period) i. ii. Agencies Site Level
WBREDA 1 WBGEDCL 1 SDB 1 BDO 3 Local NGO - 2 1 per block key 4 main markets per block 2 per block 3 per block as per availability 5 per block 2 per block 1 per block 300 100 per block (3 Blocks) 300 12 6 9 12 41 9 2 6

10

D. Focus Group Discussion (FGD)/ Surveys i. Group meetings (PRA, SM, etc.)
(CSOs, Panchayat personnel) Members and 3

51

49 3

ii. iii. iv.

Market committees ( based on format) Trawler owners and Jetties (survey) Flour Mills/Saw Mills/ independent shopkeepers/agricultural equipment (survey) Cluster areas identified for micro-grids (survey)* Schools Block Primary Health Centres
HHs for baseline socio-economic

v. vi. vii.

15 6

16 52 43 300

E. Sample Baseline Survey 50 in electrified areas 50 in non electrified areas

* HHs surveyed in the clusters identified will be considered additionally as part of HH baseline survey

1 2

Trawler owners were not found in Gosaba. Kultali could not be covered, since no schools with hostels were found. Madrasas (Islamic Schools) were not willing since they felt that they would be connected to the main electric grid in the near future. 3 A privately run community hospital was covered in Kultali

www.synergyz.in

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda 17

2.7

Field Surveys
Field team orientation, data collection and discussions at field level were conducted during the weeks between 4th of January to 25th January 2013. However, information from Kultali area had to be collected over the ensuing weeks due to certain socio-political problems faced in field. Accessibility and availability of respondents were problems faced during surveys. Hence, the interviewers had to visit most locations late in the evenings when respondents would be available in the location and are have time for the activity.

Fig: Field Team Orientation Basanti Block

2.8

Limitations

While the effort and focus was to make the study comprehensive and objective, certain deviations had to be resorted to from the proposed activity list. It has been restricted to a degree due to limitations encountered as follows: Accessibility to various clusters/settlements in remote locations. However, every effort was made to try and cover some remote islands; Limited support from Mlindas CSO partners in the field areas, made it difficult to identify areas for conducting survey; Socio-political scenario in Kultali block resulted in having to change locations of study, repeatedly; Lack of maps and relevant documentation even at the government agency level related to the areas of interest, especially in Gosaba and Kultali blocks; While it was proposed that for the HH level survey, 50 off-grid and 50 in-grid HHs would be surveyed, in Basanti and Kultali the off-grid respondents are HHs who live within ingrid areas but havent yet been given connections but resort to illegal tapping of electricity. Peoples perception about solar related studies being only part of marketing mandates and inability to relate it with the larger picture. It is also evident that HHs in remote areas seeking subsidy support for procuring solar systems have deliberately stated inflated levels of kerosene consumption and expense towards fuel for lighting. Therefore, efforts had to be made to standardize these inflated data values. Limited ability to identify and locate desired number of schools with hostel facilities especially In Kultali block; The schools are electrified and they do not at this point forsee the need for solar power. Budgetary constraints resulted in very tight schedules for field assessments and sample size.

18 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

www.synergyz.in

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda 19

Section 3: Description of the Study Area


3.0 Introduction

The marine delta or the coastal parts of the district of South 24 Parganas comprising mostly of Sundarbans was the focus area for this study. South 24 Parganas spreading over an area of 8165 sq km with a population of 69.09 lakhs (2001) has five sub divisions Alipore(Sadar), Baruipur, Canning, Diamond Harbour and Kakdwip comprising 29 Blocks, 312 GPs and 7 Municipalities. Some of the blocks in these subdivisions are remote island blocks with very bad transportation facilities and connectivity to mainland. These are primarily island blocks with hardly any surfaced road network and electricity in the majority of areas. Recently, there has been some improvement in mainland connectivity in Basanti and Kultali with construction of a couple of bridges, but overall the situation still remains grim. The remoteness of the area is amply understood by the fact that in 4500 sq km of inhabited area there exists only 42 km of railway line and around 300 km of concrete road network. The only means of communication between the islands is through the waterways which are poorly organized and people have to depend on mechanized private boats. These obstacles definitely prove to be hindrance in development of these areas.

Fig 3.1: Location Map of South 24 Parganas District in WB

Four island blocks of Sundarbans namely Basanti, Gosaba, Kultali and Patharpratima within the administrative district of South 24 Parganas were chosen for this study. The description of the selected blocks is given in Matrix 3.1.

20 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Matrix 3.1: General Description of Target Blocks


Basanti Block is situated in the south eastern part of South 24-Parganas District with river Bidya on its east, river Matla on the west, Sandeshkhali-I Block on its north and Sundarban Tiger Reserve in the south. Basanti Block The geographical area of the block is 286.03 sq km. This block consists of 13 GPs and 65 mouzas (inhabited). Basanti Block is located on the border of Sundarban Tiger Reserve and Hogol River divides the block in two parts. 7 of its GPs are along the mainland of the district and the remaining 6 GPs are on the either side of river Hogol which are connected with a bridge. Gosaba is one of the main deltaic islands in the Sundarbans region, bounded by the Matala and Zilli rivers/creeks. It is the last inhabited area before the deep forests of Sundarbans start. Gosaba is part of Canning Sub division. The geographical area of the block is 285.85 sq km. This block consists of 14 GPs. Baruipur Sub-division Kultali part of Baruipur Subdivision is one of the largest islands in the Sundarbans. The islands in the area are accessible only by boat. The geographical area of the Block is 239.48 sq. km. This block consists of 9 GPs. Patharpratima Block with its headquarters in Ramganga is located along the coast line. Five of its GPs are along the mainland of the district, while the remaining 10 GPs are isolated and separated by rivers & creeks. The major rivers are Thakuran, Mridangabhanga, Gobadia, Saptamukhi, Karjon Creek, Wals Creek, Chaltadunia, Jagaddal, Bakchara, etc.

Canning Sub-division Kakdwip Subdivision

Gosaba Block

Kultali Block

Patharpratima Block

Matrix 3.2 indicates the list of GPs under each of the three blocks selected for the study. Matrix 3.2: List of GPs in Individual Blocks
Subdivision Block Basanti Amjhara Basanti GPs Barathgarh Charabaidya Bali-2 Bipradaspur Canning Gosaba Amtali Bali-1 Baruipur Kultali Deulbari - Debipur Gopalgunj Gurguria Bhubaneswari Jalaberia - 1 Kakdwip Patharpratima Achintyanagar Banashyamnagar Brajaballavpur Dakshin Gangadharpur

www.synergyz.in

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda 21

Chunakhali Phulmalancha Jharkhali Jyotishpur Kanthalberia Masjidbati Nafargunj Ramchandrakhali Uttar Makamberiya

Chotta Mollahkhali Gosaba Kochukhali Kumirmari Lahiripur Pathakhali Radhanagar Taranagar Rangabelia Sambhunagar Satjelia

Jalaberia - 2 Kundakhali Maipith Baikunthapur Merigunge - 1 Merigunge - 2

Dakshin Roypur Digambarpur Durbachati Gopalnagar G-Plot Herambagopalpur Laxmi Janardanpur Patharpratima Ramganga

3.1

Salient Socio-Economic Data of the Study Area

Table 3.1 gives the demographic profile of the four blocks based on the 2001-11 census data. Table 3.1: Demographic Profile of the Target Blocks (2001 Census)
Name of Block Area (ha) Population SC Population ST Population Population density (per sq km) Literacy Rate (%) Poverty Ratio (% of HHs)

M Basanti Gosaba Kultali Pathar 404.21 296.73 306.18 484.47 142705 113913 97356 168324

F 135887 108909 90633 160445

M 55820 73446 46368

F 51782 69775 42483

M 8973 10316 2488

F 8489 10244 2356 689 751 614 678 68.9 68.9 60.1 72.8 64.89 38.03 46.36 49.13

77874

1926

22 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

3.1.1 Occupation and Livelihood: As is expected in a predominantly rural economy, agriculture was the main source of employment; however agriculture is no longer the main source of employment or earning in the area, since it is no longer able to provide a sustainable year round income to a large part of the working population. With subdivision and fragmentation of landholding through generations, the landed households have now gradually turned marginal. Consequently, in some Fig 3.2: Harvesting of Crop in Pathar Block islands fishing has become the second most important occupation for these islanders. The heavy dependence on forest for the landless or marginal households is also perceptible in the absence of any power driven industry in these islands. 3.1.2 Spatial Distribution of Population (within the islands): Households which directly depend on forest and rivers (mostly landless and marginal), are concentrated on the banks of the rivers bordering the forest. The landed households are mostly placed in the interiors or towards the mainland. Overexploitation of forest and river (fish) resources is already showing in terms of decreasing yield. For Fig 3.3: Shrimp and Crab Farming in Basanti Block islands in the periphery of the reserve forest, there is no urban centre nearby to market their product through crop diversification. These isolated island settlements are brimming over their sustainable level of population with limited livelihood options. As a result, recent years have seen an increasing flow of outmigration of local youth from these islands into different parts of India. Table 3.2: Occupational Pattern (2011 Census)
Sub Division Blocks Workers Cultivators Non-Workers Agricultural Labourers Basanti 89,174 23,255 189,418 42,749 Canning Gosaba 86,054 22,761 136,768 40,516 Baruipur Kultali 58,841 17,650 129,148 24,485 Kakdwip Patharpratima 140045 48596 188724 43615

As per the Rural Household Survey (2005), the dominant income sources of the households have been used to classify rural households according to five different livelihood strategies. Some households derive the larger part of their incomes from wage work as daily labourer in the agricultural or non-agricultural sector which is seasonal and volatile in nature (daily/ agricultural/other physical labour). There are some landed households whose livelihood depends primarily on farming though they may use majority of their produce for home

www.synergyz.in

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda 23

consumption (cultivators). There are others who are neither cultivators nor daily labourers but are self-employed in the rural non-farm sector like artisans or hawkers. They may include family members in the work but as such do not employ others (self-employed rural artisan / hawkers who do not employ others). Table 3.3: Livelihood Patterns (2011 Census)
Islandblocks around forest boundary (%) 48 34 5 5 Study Area (Blocks) Canning Sub-division Basanti (%) 49.44 32.69 5.98 4.69 Gosaba (%) 41.54 36.19 5.05 6.26 Baruipur Sub-division Kultali (%) 47.45 36.67 5.76 4.92 Patharpratima (%) 48.84 30.56 4.05 5.43 Kakdwip Sub-division

Wage Labourers Cultivators Self Employed Labour oriented regular jobs in unorganized sector Professionals/ jobs in organized sector

7.20

10.95

5.19

11.10

Extent of economic development and employment opportunity for the common people in an area is significantly dependant on the status of basic infrastructural facilities. Availability of electricity, access to good quality roads and formal banking and financial institutions are important indicators of physical infrastructure in an area. In many islands of these three blocks the only means of communication with the mainland as well as with other islands is through river channels. Water transport is not well organized and people have to depend on the mechanized boats run by private operators. Few islands have concrete/well-maintained jetties. All three blocks have inland transport in the form of motorized van-rickshaws, and run on diesel. Inland transport within Gosaba is only cycle-vans.

Fig 3.4: Motorized Van-rickshaws Jharkhali GP

Fig 3.5: Cycle Van-rickshaws Rangbelia GP

24 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Fig 3.6: Inter-island Ferry Transport System

Fig 3.7: Concrete Jetty Satjelia GP

3.2

Status of Electricity

Till 2010 almost all the islands were devoid of any conventional electricity supply. Governmental effort to provide solar energy systems at subsidized rate also was not very successful due to lack of purchasing power of the islanders. Table 3.4: Access to Infrastructure (GoWB HDI Report 2009)
Island-blocks around forest boundary Study Area (Blocks) Canning Sub-division Basanti %age of HHs with access to electricity Length of surfaced roads (in km) per sq km area 0.70 0.36 0.44 0.46 Gosaba 0.92 0.13 Baruipur Sub-division Kultali 0.15 0.41 Kakdwip Sub-division Patharpratima 0.72 0.23

The primary fuel used in the residential sector is predominantly biomass and fossil fuels. Firewood/Biomass is reported as the predominant fuel for cooking, Kerosene is the predominant fuel source for lighting of the households. The commercial sector too follows a marginally increased usage level of the residential sector for these end-uses. However, concerted efforts in rural electrification under the RGGVY and GoWBs electrification drive in these island blocks of Sundarbans are underway. The key players working in the energy sector in these islands are listed in Matrix 3.3.

www.synergyz.in

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda 25

Matrix 3.3: Key Power Agencies in WB


Name West Bengal State Electricity Distribution Company Ltd (WBSEDCL) West Bengal Renewable Energy Development Agency (WBREDA) West Bengal Green Energy Development Corporation Ltd (WBGEDCL) Role and Type Power Transmission and Distribution

RE Generation and Use Established in 1993 for promoting RE Technologies RE Generation and Use Created by Department of Power & NES, to promote different grid connected RE based power projects through private sector and also to ensure investment of private sector in RE systems.

Refer Annexure 4 for the report on current electrification status of the island blocks and its implications.

26 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Part II Analysis

www.synergyz.in

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda 27

28 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Section 4: Analysis - (Basanti, Gosaba & Kultali Blocks)


4.0 Introduction

This section deals with study findings for Basanti, Gosaba and Kultali blocks. Information both qualitative and quantitative collected from each of the three blocks has been compiled and presented together in this section for easy and comparative comprehension of data and information. 4.1 Present Status of Accessibility to Energy Sources

4.1.1 Grid Power The Island Blocks of Sundarbans has always been an energy deficient region. Getting connected to the conventional power grid has been a problem due to the remoteness and lack of road access to most of the areas. However, Basanti and Kultali Blocks have been covered under the GoIs RGGVY programme. It may be noted here that as per notification issued by MoP, vide their letter No. 42/1/2001D(RE) dated 5th February 2004 and its corrigendum vide letter no. 42/1/2001-D(RE) dated 17th February 2004, a village is declared electrified, if: - Basic infrastructure such as Distribution Transformer and Distribution lines are provided in the inhabited locality as well as the Dalit Basti hamlet where it exists; - Electricity is provided to public places like Schools, Panchayat Office, Health Centers, Dispensaries, Community centers etc; - The number of households electrified should be at least 10% of the total number of households in the village). As per the directives of RGGVY, survey of all GPs is complete. Since, electrification of nonelectrified BPL HHs is financed with 100 percent capital subsidy as per the Kutir Jyoti Programme in all rural areas, the survey identified BPL HHs were given power connections first. Overtime applications are being sought from APL HHs for power connections. Gosaba has been recently brought under the coverage of GoWB Sundarbans Electrification Programme. Matrix 4.1 gives the details of the GPs considered to be electrified as per government records based on the above mentioned criteria.

www.synergyz.in

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda 29

Matrix 4.1: Block wise Energized GPs under RGGVY


Basanti Amjhara Basanti Bharatgarh Charavidya Jyotishpur Kanthalberia Masjidbati Nafargunj Ramchandrakhali Uttar Makamberia Chunakhali Non-energized GPs Fulmalancha Jharkhali Amtali Bali-I Bali-II Bipradaspur Chotta Mollakhali Kachukhali Kumirmari Lahiripur Pathankhali Discussions with Block Govt Officials indicate that it is expected Basanti and Kultali will be 100% electrified by mid 2013. Gosaba is expected to be covered by the grid by end 2013. RadhanagarTaranagar Satjelia Sambhunagar Kultali Deulbari Debipur Gopalgunj Gurguria Bhubaneswari Jalaberia-I Jalaberia-II Kundakhali Godabar Maipith Baikunthapur Merigunge-I Merigunge-II Gosaba Rangbelia Gosaba Sundarban Electrification Programme

Energised GPs under RGGVY

Fig 4.1: Block Maps showing the Energized GPs

30 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

A. Challenges (as per government functionaries) Some of the challenges/perceptions highlighted during the discussions with the government officials are: Quality and hours of service will decrease once all HHs (BPL and APL) are connected to the grid. Presently, Basanti has power cuts of around 3-4 hours per day and Gosaba and Kultali 5-6 hours per day. They are apprehensive that service levels will get worse during the summer months. Currently power cuts are more during the evening and night hours when the need for electricity is the most. Unauthorized tapping of power is a major problem. APL HHs are tapping into the grid, which is resulting in frequent break-down of service. This is more of a populist move. Declaring a village or GP as electrified based on the earlier mentioned MoP notification/criteria may result in actual 100 percent connectivity/coverage not being achieved. However, the BDO of Basanti Block was of the opinion that service levels will not decline since there was no major industrial/commercial activity in the area, hence no reason for an overload on the grid. As per him, the grid network set up has the capacity to connect and provide 100 percent service to all the domestic consumers.
Fig 4.2: Grid Distribution Sub-station - Basanti

B. Observations (based on field study) In most areas declared as electrified, less than 10 percent of the HHs have got connections; Illegal tapping is rampant in areas declared as electrified; Basanti Market is 100 percent connected but shop keepers and traders complained of bad supply/service. As per them, there are regular power cuts in the evenings and nights when businesses need it the most; All government schools have not yet been connected to the grid; Hospitals complained of power cuts and low voltage resulting in them relying on generator backup on a regular basis; During visits to the BDO offices in Basanti, Gosaba and Kultali it was noted that generators were being used even while there was power supply during office hours to counter low voltage problems. Fig 4.3: Diesel Generator in use at BDOs Office-Basanti

www.synergyz.in

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda 31

Table 4.1 indicates the level of access to electricity in the surveyed locations in these three blocks. 19.2 percent of the HHs surveyed within in-grid locations were connected to the grid. Kultali block as per government information is fully electrified but areas surveyed did not have connectivity at all. However, it may be noted here that around 20 percent of the HHs surveyed in Kultali tap electricity illegally. Percentage of connectivity is higher in Gosaba, though only two GPs are electrified at present. Table 4.1: Level of Connectivity to Electricity in the Locations Surveyed
Block In-grid HHs Total HHs Basanti Kultali Gosaba Total 116 146 50 312 Connected Off-grid HHs Total HHs 26 0 109 135 Connected Total surveyed HHs Total HHs 141 146 159 447 Connected Total HHs in Block Total HHs (In-grid areas) 45418 31997 1787 79202 Connected (Predictive) 10658 6399 1394 19552 (25%)

24 (21%) 0 (0% ) 39 (78%) 63(20%)

0 0 0 0

24 (21%) 0 (0%) 39(4.5%) 63(14%)

a. Basanti: The total number of HHs in Basanti is 50,751. There also exists a village/hamlet named Tridibnagar in Jharkhali GP. This settlement is not yet covered by the census process, hence HHs in this area are not part of the HH count of Basanti Block. Presently, Fulmalancha and Jharkhali are the two non-electrified GPs in this block. Therefore, based on the 2001 HH count for Basanti, it can be deduced that 45,418 HHs in Basanti fall within the electrified GPs. Given that 21 percent of the surveyed HHs within the in-grid areas is connected, it can be deduced that around 10658 HHs are presently connected.
Fig 4.4: Map Showing GPs Surveyed in Basanti

b. Gosaba: The total number of HHs in Gosaba is 44,478. Only two GPs are electrified in Gosaba which are Gosaba and Rangbelia. The number of HHs in these two GPs is 1787. Based on the survey findings, 1394 HHs are connected to the grid.

Fig 4.5: Map Showing GPs Surveyed in Gosaba

32 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

c. Kultali: The total number of HHs in Kultali is 31,997. The HH population of the locations surveyed is 7500. While it cannot be said that all the HHs are not connected, the findings from the locations surveyed indicate that substantial number of HHs remain without connection. Overall it is deduced that around 19,552 HHs are connected to the grid in these three blocks of the total 127,226 HHs which is approximately 15.37 percent.

Fig 4.6: Map Showing GPs Surveyed in Kultali

4.1.2 Solar Power Reliable and quantified data on extent of solar penetration in the three blocks is not available. Discussions with the BDO and ZP officials reveal that sporadic solar penetration exists in every GP of the three blocks (around 25 percent penetration). It is mostly used for household lighting. People of higher socio-economic groups have the capacity to buy and maintain standalone solar energy systems. In March 2011, a solar power station was set up at Rajat Jubilee village in Gosaba Block of the Sundarbans. This project is unique as it is owned and managed by a cooperative society in which all consumers are shareholders, working to provide reliable electricity (alternate current) round the clock. WWF-India took the lead in facilitating community mobilization including the Village Energy Planning process.
Fig 4.7: Solar Station Rajat Jubilee, Gosaba

A major drawback is lack of awareness and information on maintenance which often results in many households having defunct solar sets. Periodic exposure to cyclonic weather especially in Gosaba Block causing damage to solar panels, resulting in the user going back to using kerosene for lighting purpose. Solar users in Gosaba and Kultali reported theft of solar panels being a common feature. As per the BDO- Basanti, solar usage will decline by 80 percent once the effort to intensify electrification covers the entire block. However, the BDOs in Kultali and Gosaba feel solar power demand will always be on the increase since: Declaring all GPs and villages as electrified does not necessarily mean every HH and institution has access to grid power;

www.synergyz.in

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda 33

Quality and service levels of power supply are major issues. Presently, areas which are connected suffer from 4-6 hours of power cut which further worsens during the summer months; These areas are cyclone prone which tends to cause intense damage to the infrastructure. Given their remoteness, repair and recovery of the grid will always take a long time; Therefore, solar systems will always remain the main back up and act as a supplementary source for lighting in these areas. Table 4.2 indicates the level of solar usage in the surveyed HHs. Survey further indicates that Basanti has penetration of around 24.11 percent. Based on the survey it can be deduced that solar power systems penetration is averaging around 15 percent in these three blocks. Table 4.2: Solar Penetration in surveyed HHs
In-grid HHs Block Basanti Kultali Gosaba Total Total HHs 116 146 50 312 Solar (HHs) 32 (28%) 23 (16%) 4 (0.08%) 59 (19%) Off-grid HHs Total HHs 26 0 109 135 Solar (HHs) 2 (7.7%) 0 7 (6.4%) 9 (7%) Total surveyed HHs Total HHs 142 146 159 447 Solar (HHs) 34 (24.11%) 23 (16%) 11 (7%) 68 (15%) Total HHs in Block 50751 31997 44478 127226 Solar HHs (Predictive) 12238 5006 3077 20321 (15%)

Observations during the survey indicate the following: Many of the HHs in Gosaba and Kultali have defunct solar panels. As per discussions with the respondents in off-grid areas, this was due to inability of people to invest in revamping the solar systems damaged due to cyclonic storms. In some areas people stated that they were hesitant to invest in solar panels due to instances of these being stolen.
Fig 4.8: Defunct Solar Station in RKM Centre - Gosaba

In Kultali and Gosaba it was noted that micro grids had been set up by some institutions to power their needs, e.g. Kultali BPHC and RKM Centre in Gosaba. However, these are now lying defunct due to electrification of these areas. Discussions with the staff in Kultali BPHC reveal that the shortfall in power is now backed up by diesel generators. Commonly used capacity of solar panels is 37 Watt.
Fig 4.9: Defunct Solar Power System, BPHC-Kultali

34 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Given the above seen levels of dependency on Electricity and Solar, based on HHs surveyed it can be further deduced that 64 percent HHs in in-grid areas and 93.45 percent HHs in off-grid areas in these three blocks is totally dependent only on kerosene. However, it may be noted that electrified HHs and solar powered HHs also use kerosene simultaneously in order to supplement their daily requirements. Table 4.3: % HHs dependant only on Kerosene
As per Survey Block In-grid HH (%) Electr icity Basanti Kultali Gosaba 21 0 78 Solar (HHs) 28 16 0.08 K-Oil 51 84 21 Off-grid HH (%) Electr icity 0 0 0 Solar (HHs) 7.7 0 6.4 K-Oil 92.3 100 93.6 Total In-grid 45418 31997 1787 79202 Offgrid 5333 0 42691 48024 Total HHs in block Only dependant on Kerosene HHs (predictive) In-grid 23163 26877 375 50415 (64%) Off-grid 4922 0 39959 44881 (93.45%)

Please refer to the detailed block wise maps below for easier comprehension of survey locations and spread along with the clusters identified during the study.

Fig 4.10: Map showing Survey Locations and Entities Basanti Block

www.synergyz.in

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda 35

Fig 4.11: Map showing Survey Locations and Entities Gosaba Block

Fig 4.12: Map showing Survey Locations and Entities Kultali Block

36 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Only about 30 percent of families live in permanent structures with a thatched roof and mud walls with very few having access to any form of electric power.

www.synergyz.in

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda 37

4.2

Households and Clusters

Households in these islands are major users of fossil fuels for lighting. As mentioned before in spite of electrification of certain areas dependency on kerosene lamps and lanterns still remains especially during power cuts. In the off-grid areas kerosene lanterns and lamps instrumental in providing light for rooms, studies and cooking. 4.2.1 Demography of HHs Surveyed During the HH survey, a total of 446 HHs were covered. The breakdown is as follows: Table 4.4: Block wise Details of HHs Surveyed
Block Basanti Kultali Gosaba HHs 102 96 99 296 HHs part of clusters 40 50 60 150 Total No. of HHs 142 146 159 446

Please refer to Appendix A for tabulation of GP wise socio economic data of the surveyed population. Table 4.5 gives the block-wise socio economic profile. 49 percent of the HHs has a monthly income less than Rs.3000 per month. Income wise Kultali block seems to be most backward compared to the other two blocks. While the average income is found to be the least in Kultali it may be noted that these people practice agriculture and fishing which feeds into the subsistence economy which is not measured. The same applies to a large extent in Gosaba too. Basanti being closer to Kolkata has many people working in the citys periphery as wage labour therefore they are more accurate in stating monthly income levels. Table 4.5: Socio-economic Profile of HHs Surveyed
No. of Students Primary Occupation Avg HH income Income category of HH (`) (`)
< 3000 > 8000 5001 8000

Family Size

Total HHs

Total Pop

Block

30015000

HHs

BPL

WL

Basanti Gosaba Kultali Overall Total

142 159 146 447

798 690 744 2232

7 4 5 5

227 109 171 507

112 119 81 312

65 20 60 153

33 96 34 165

17 9 6 33
WL B

26 26 43 95

3868 3618.4 3262.5 3583

22 84 114 220

67 68 16 151
Pop C O

36 1 15 52
Population Cultivator Others

17 4 3 24

Codes Used: Wage Labourer Business

38 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

23 percent of the surveyed population comprises students, one of the important stakeholders requiring power source for lights.
900 800 700 600 500 400 300
227
142 276 159 360 309 Total No of HHs Total Population Student Population No of Points 798

744
690

200
100 0

109

146

171

Basanti

Gosaba

Kultali

A. Livelihood Pattern: 60 percent of the HHs in Gosaba are dependent on agriculture as their primary occupation. Wage labour is the main occupation for HHs in the other two blocks.

120

100
80 60 40 20 33 17 26 28 65

96

60 43 26 9 34 6 Kultali

Wage Labourer
Cultivator Business

Others

0
Basanti Gosaba

www.synergyz.in

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda 39

B. Income Levels: Within Basanti block, HHs in Basanti GP have highest average monthly income. This is due to the existence of more income opportunities in the block headquarters. Monthly Income Profile of HHs (in Rs)

17 22

<3000 3001-5000 5001-8000

Basanti Block
10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0

36 67
Average Income (142 HHs) Rs.3868/-

>8000

Avg HH Income (Rs)

Monthly Income Profile of HHs (in Rs)

3
15
<3000 3001-5000 5001-8000

16
114

Gosaba Block
6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0

>8000

Average Income (159 HHs) Rs.3618/-

Avg HH Income (Rs)

40 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Monthly Income Profile of HHs (in Rs) 1 4

Kultali Block
6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0

<3000

68

3001-5000

84

5001-8000 >8000

Average Income (146 HHs) Rs.3263/-

Avg HH Income (Rs)

4.2.2 Consumption of Kerosene at HH Level Please refer to Appendix B for detailed tabulation of GP wise surveyed HHs consumption of Kerosene. As expected amongst the surveyed HHs, Gosaba uses the highest amount of Kerosene considering that this block is lowest in the electrification coverage. However, levels of usage of Kerosene in the electrified HHs is also substantial, especially in Kultali where the average level of consumption/ HH is much higher than Gosaba, clearly indicating lack of access to other forms of energy or a short fall in amount they have access to. Table 4.6: Consumption Levels of Kerosene of Surveyed HHs ( in Ltrs)
Block Total HHs Total HHs using K.Oil No. of Points Avg. Hrs/day Qty got from PDS Qty got from Market Total Qty of K.Oil used Avg consumption / HH

Basanti Gosaba Kultali Total

142 159 146 447

120 133 146 399

276 309 360 945

4.15 4.45 3.45 3.15

4515 4047 5745 14307

3167 5168 3333 11668

7634 9215 9078 25927

54 58 62 55.33

www.synergyz.in

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda 41

350 300 250 202.77 200 159 150 100 50 0 Basanti Gosaba Kultali 142 120 76.34 133 92.15 146 144 285.83 236.43

Kerosene Consumption Levels

Total No of HHs

No of Households (Using K-Oil)

K-Oil Consumption (x 100 Ltr) 90.78 Expense (x1000 Rs)

180 160 140 120 100 80 Kerosene from PDS (x100 Ltr) No of HHs

159 142 146

60
40 20 0

45.15 31.67

51.68 40.47

57.45 33.33

Kerosene from Market (x100 Ltr)

Basanti

Gosaba

Kultali

Sourcing Points for Kerosene

42 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Basanti Block

No of Households (Using K-Oil) K-Oil Consumption (x 100 Ltr) Expense (x1000 Rs)

50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

Gosaba Block

No of Households (Using K-Oil) K-Oil Consumption (x 100 Ltr) Expense (x1000 Rs)

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

Kultali Block

No of Households (Using K-Oil) K-Oil Consumption (x 100 Ltr) Expense (x1000 Rs)

www.synergyz.in

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda 43

Based on the findings given in Table 4.7 where it has been estimated that around 95,296 HHs in these three blocks are dependent on Kerosene, it can be further deduced that the yearly consumption of Kerosene at the HH level is at least 55,76,264 litres in these three blocks. Table 4.7: Estimated quantum of consumption of Kerosene (in Ltrs)
Block Avg consumption (HH/ yr) Estimated no of HHs dependant only on K Oil 28085 26877 40334 Total Estimated Level of consumption in HHs dependant only on K-Oil /year 1516590 1558866 2500708

Basanti Gosaba Kultali Total

54 58 62 58

95296

5576164

4.2.3 Perception about Various Energy Sources (based on Need and Usage Patterns) Please refer to Appendix C for detailed tabulation of area wise ranking of various energy sources in the surveyed locations in all three Blocks. Discussions with respondents indicate that as per their levels of need and usage of energy sources: 44 percent felt that kerosene is very expensive. 80 percent felt that being easily accessible and available it is used the most; Diesel is not a feasible option for HH level energy source for anyone; 48 percent felt that electricity is cheapest but 20 percent were of the opinion that the service levels are irregular. 60 percent felt that getting access to electricity is a problem; 62 percent were of the opinion that solar is the best and cheapest option, 30 percent were not sure since they felt that did not have enough information about maintenance and back up services nor of the options in solar power gadgets; In Kultali 100 percent of the respondents felt kerosene is the best option given that it is easily available. This indicates that there is lack of information about the advantages of solar as also the fact that people do have the spending power else they would have found Kerosene expensive too. It is seen that people in electrified areas like Basanti feel that solar would be a good option especially with regard to service levels. However, in non electrified areas like most of Gosaba it is seen that 50 percent think that electricity is the best option.

44 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Basanti Block Preferred Source of Energy (%)


25
Solar

Gosaba Block Preferred Source of Energy (%)


10 40
Solar

12.5

62.5

Electricity Kerosene

50

Electricity Kerosene

Kultali Block Preferred Source of Energyy (%)

50

50

Solar Kerosene

4.2.4 HH Clusters in the Blocks In the three blocks, 16 clusters of around 7-10 HHs each were identified where the scope of setting up solar micro-grids can be explored. Matrix 4.2: Block wise List of Clusters Identified
Name of Block Name of GP Name of Village / Hamlet where Cluster is identified No. of HHs 10 10 10 10

Bharatgarh Basanti Jyotishpur U. Makamberia Masjidbati Bally 1 Bally 2 Gosaba Bally 2 Satjelia Satjelia Satjelia

8 no. Goranbose Ballartop Kumirmari Gwalpara - Godkhali Satyanarayanpur Ghoshpara Uttarpara Emlibari 8 no. Parashmani Luxbagan

10 10 10 10 10 10

www.synergyz.in

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda 45

Debipur Maipith Kultali Maipith Gopalgunj Debipur Debipur

Bankibabur Bheri 4 no. Khalpara Baikunthapur Madhya-gurguria Sardarpara Kantamari - Naiyyapara Kantamari

7 10 8 8 10 7

4.2.5 Demographic Profile of Clusters 16 Clusters having 150 HHs have a population of 765 of which 20.4 % are students. The average income level of the HHS is around Rs. 3777 per month. Please refer to Appendix D for detailed tabulation of socio-economic details of each cluster identified in the three blocks. Table 4.8: Socio-economic Profile of Clusters Surveyed
Total Pop No. of Students Primary Occupation HHs BPL WL C B O Family Size Avg HH income (`) Income category of HH (`) < 3000 30015000 5001 8000 > 8000

Block

Total HHs

Basanti Gosaba Kultali Total

40 60 50 150

240 256 269 765

6 4 5 5

51 39 66 156

40 60 31 131

26 8 32 66

5 42 49

5 3 3 11

4 9 14 27

3518 4100 3712 3777

22 15 31 68

11 42 11 64

6 1 6

1 2 2 5

13
Population Cultivator Others

Codes Used: WL B

Wage Labourer Business

Pop C O

4.2.6 Consumption of Fuel in Identified Clusters Please refer to Appendix E for detailed tabulation of level of consumption. Our survey reveals that 5 HHs in Basanti totally depend on Solar for power, and 3 HHs use solar power along with kerosene. Table 4.9: Consumption Levels of Kerosene of Surveyed HHs ( in Ltrs)
Block Total HHs Total HHs using K.Oil No. of Points Avg. Hrs/day Qty got from PDS Qty got from Market Total Qty of K.Oil used Avg consumption / HH

Basanti Gosaba Kultali Total

40 60 50 150

35 60 50 145

64 176 131 371

4 5.15 3.45 4.20

1162 2391 1860 5413

962 3052 2064 6078

2076 5443 3924 11443

59 91 78 79

46 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

500 450 400

454 No of HHs 327

350
300 250 200 150 100 50 0 40 35 64 60 60 50 50 173 176 131

No of HHs using Kerosene No of Points

K-Oil Consumption (Ltrs)

Basanti

Gosaba

Kultali

Cluster Level Consumption of Kerosene

5000 4500

4000
3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 2893 125

235 197 Monthly ExpenseKerosene (Rs) Avg Monthly HH Income (Rs)

4100

3712

Monthly Expense on Kerosene

Basanti

Gosaba

Kultali

The average consumption of Kerosene per HH is around 79 litres per year. Usage levels in Gosaba are found to be very high, since these areas do not have access to electricity at all. In Basanti and Kultali while the HHs surveyed are not electrified some of them resort to illegal tapping thereby reducing their level of dependence on kerosene. Only two clusters out of 16 aspire for 24 hours of electricity supply. 14 of the clusters stated that they would be very happy as long as there is lighting during the evening and night. Please refer to Appendix F for detailed tabulation of ranking area wise in the surveyed locations in all three Blocks. Discussions with respondents indicate that as per their levels of need and usage of energy sources: 76 percent felt that kerosene is very expensive. 33 percent felt that being easily accessible and available it is used the most; Diesel is not a feasible option for HH level energy source for anyone; 16 percent felt that electricity is cheapest and preferred option. 33 percent felt that getting access to electricity is a problem;

www.synergyz.in

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda 47

82 percent were of the opinion that solar is cheapest option, 55 percent were not sure since they felt that did not have enough information about maintenance and back up services nor of the options in solar power gadgets; In Kultali 100 percent of the respondents felt kerosene is the best option given that it is easily available. This indicates that there is lack of information about the advantages of solar as also the fact that people do have the spending power else they would have found Kerosene expensive too.

Basanti Block Preferred Source of Energy (%)


25
Solar Kerosene

Gosaba Block Preferred Source of Energy (%)


16 34
Solar Electricity

75

50

Kerosene

It is seen that people in electrified areas like Basanti feel that solar would be a good option especially with regard to service levels. However, in non electrified areas like most of Gosaba it is seen that 50 percent think that electricity is the best option.

48 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

More than a quarter of the population has no access to institutional health care, and schools are few and far between. Schools dropout is largely due to accessibility and general morbidity rates are higher than the state average.

www.synergyz.in

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda 49

4.3

Schools and Hospitals

4.3.1 Energy Usage in School Hostels Schools in Basanti and Gosaba blocks are dependent on kerosene for lighting. Schools in Kultali have already been provided with electricity connection. Discussions reveal that schools in Basanti have already applied for connection and are awaiting connectivity. The government schools in these blocks have now been provided with support of solar systems or diesel for running experiments in the science laboratories. Schools with hostels are supported by the Backward Classes Welfare Department (BCWD) of GoWB. These hostels are specifically for children from backward classes. Children staying in these hostels depend on kerosene sourced from their homes every week for light to study during late evenings and early mornings. Given the distance from their own houses and also their socio-economic background, very often the children are found sharing the light of one lantern between groups of 4-6 students. MATRIX 4.3: LIST OF GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS WITH HOSTELS (BCWD)
NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 BASANTI
MAHESHPUR JASADA VIDYAPITH(BOYS & GIRLS) MAHESHPUR P. BALIKA VIDYAMANDIR HEROBHANGA VIDYASAGAR VIDYAMANDIR NAFARGUNJ BAIDYANATH VIDYAPITH MASJIDBATI PARBATI H SCHOOL JANAPRIYANAGAR JANAPRIYA VIDYALAYA SRI SRI R.K. SIKSHANIKETAN BASANTI H.SCHOOL(BOYS & GIRLS) KUMRAKHALI KEDARNATH VIDYAPITH NARAYANTALA R.K VIDYAMANDIR

GOSABA
AMRITA NAGAR HIGH SCHOOL (BOYS & GIRLS) BIPRADASPUR HIGH SCHOOL (BOYS & GIRLS) TARANGAR BTC B MANDIR HS MONGAL CHANDRA BIDYAPITH UP (BOYS & GIRLS) PATHANKALIA BIDYAPITH UP BIJAYNAGAR A BIDYAMANDIR(H.S) MANMATHAPUR HOGH SCHOOL RANGABELIA HIGH SCHOOL R NAGAR J NATH S NIKETAN UP RADHANAGAR K BARI HIGH SCHOOL TARANGAR J H SCHOOL UP D R NAGAR S G HIGH SCHOOL SATYANARAYANPUR SB HS SANTIGACHI HIGH SCHOOL RAJAT JUBILY HIGH SCHOOL SAMBHUNAGAR HIGH SCHOOL MANMATHANAGAR HIGH SCHOOL MOUKHALI CHANDIBAN F VIDYAMANDIR DAYAPUR PC SEN HIGH SCHOOL KALIDASPUR BC J HIGH SCHOOL

KULTALI
DEBIPUR HM BIDYAPITH UP DEBIPUR KB BIDYATAN UP JAMTALA BC HIGH SCHOOL KACHIAMARA H HIGH SCHOOL BJ KRISHNS HIGH SCHOOL BAIKUNTHAPUR HIGH SCHOOL MP GURGURIA A BIDYAPITH UP

50 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

4.3.2 Demography of Schools Surveyed The average number of surveyed students in each school is found to be higher in Gosaba than in Basanti. Most of the schools have hostels with capacity of 40-60. Table 4.10: Profile of Surveyed Schools
Block Name of GP Masjid Bati Basanti Basanti Name of School Masjidbati High School Maheshpur Prafulla Balika Vidya Mandir Matgara abdul Kader Siddiqui Madrasa Age of School 70 No. of registered students 1900 Capacity of hostel 35 Actual boarders 35 Source of light in hostels Kerosene Kerosene. Solar lying defunct Kerosene

34

350

250

250

Basanti

47

135

50

50

Bally 2 Gosaba

Bijoynagar adarsh Vidyamandir Satyanarayanpur Sashi Bushan High School

44

1641

63

52

Kerosene and Solar

Bally 1

62

1000

45

45

Solar

4.3.3 Consumption of Fuel in Schools 20 percent run of the surveyed schools run on only solar. 20 percent uses a mix of solar and kerosene. However, based on discussions it was found that while solar lighting points help provide light in their rooms but students still need to use kerosene lamps for more light to study since the solar lamps are found to be inadequate in intensity. Table 4.11 gives the level of fossil fuel consumption in schools. As per the data available, it can be further estimated that the average annual consumption of kerosene per student (over a ten month academic period) is approximately 18 liters.

www.synergyz.in

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda 51

Table 4.11: Consumption Levels of Fuel in Schools


of Actual boarders Fuel Usage in School Hostels
Source of light No of points Hrs / day Qty /mth) (Ltrs) Qty/yr (10 mths) Qty from PDS Qty from market

Name of School

Name GP

Block

Masjid bati

Masjidbati High School Maheshpur Prafulla Balika Vidya Mandir Matgara Abdul Kader Siddiqui Madrasa Bijoynagar Adarsh Vidyamandir Satyanarayan pur Sashi bushan High School

35

Kerosene sourced from home Kerosene sourced from home Kerosene sourced from home Total

35

105

1050

525

425

Basanti

Basanti

250

250

375

3750

2500

1250

Basanti

50

40

80

800

500

300

325 52

4.15 5

560 117

5600 1170

3525 520

1975 650

Bally 2 Gosaba

52

Kerosene sourced from home

Bally 1

45

Solar

Not Applicable

400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 Masjidbati High School 105 250

375

Consumption Levels in Hostels

No of Points

117 80 40 52

No of Ltrs per Month

35

Maheshpur PBVM

Matgara AKSM

Bijoynagar AVM

52 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Based on the above findings a predictive estimation of kerosene consumption in Schools in Basanti and Gosaba Blocks (based on list of Backward Classes Welfare Department) can be determined. However, since the capacity of hostel in each of the schools is not detailed out by the Department any such calculation would not be realistically indicative. 4.3.4 Perceptions regarding Various Energy Sources Please refer to Appendix G for the detailed tabulation of perceptions about various fuel sources. A ranking exercise of fuels to map their attitude towards solar was conducted with the respondents. Matrix 4.4 below provides the findings. Matrix 4.4: Perceptions in Schools
Block Name of GP Name of School Ranking of Various Energy Sources 1 2 3 4 Attitude towards Solar Option can be considered if revenue model is feasible and subsidized. However, electricity is best Willing if subsidized with availability of information on back up services Willing if subsidized with availability of information on revenue and maintenance Willing if subsidized with availability of information on back up services Willing if subsidized with availability of information on back up services

Masjid Bati

Masjidbati High School

Electricity

Solar

Kerosene

Diesel

Basanti

Maheshpur Prafulla Balika Vidya Mandir

Basanti

Solar

Electricity

Kerosene

Diesel

Matgara

Matgara Abdul Kader Siddiqui Madrasa

Kerosene

Electricity

Solar

Diesel

Bally 2 Gosaba

Bijoynagar Adarsh Vidyamandir Satyanarayanpur Sashi Bushan High School

Solar

Electricity

Kerosene

Diesel

Bally 1

Solar

Electricity

Kerosene

Not feasible

Solar Electricity Kerosene

60% think solar is best 80% wary of level of service and time it will take to get connectivity 80% think it is very expensive

20% think it is a secondary option 20% think its the best option 20% of the opinion that its easily available even if it is expensive

www.synergyz.in

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda 53

Best Option for Schools (%)

Secondary Option for Schools (%)

20
Solar Electricity

20 80 80
Solar Electricity Kerosene

20

60

Kerosene

4.3.4 Energy Consumption in Hospitals Like most remote rural areas there is a huge deficit in health infrastructure in the Indian Sundarbans. This gets further compounded by the lack of access to basic amenities like electricity or continued access to source of power. The BPHC in each block and a privately run hospital in Kultali was surveyed. 4.3.5 Demography of Hospitals Surveyed Survey of the BPHCs indicates that there are regular power cuts especially in the evening hours. The voltage levels in Basanti are often so low that they are forced to use the diesel generators in the Operation Theatre. Kultali BPHC had a solar micro gird set up in early 2000. But today it is lying defunct due to panels having been stolen. Table 4.12: Demography of PHCs Surveyed
Block Basanti Gosaba Average footfall of patients/day 245 170 Bed capacity of Hospital 30 30 Source of Power Electricity Diesel for Operation Theatre Electricity Inverter for shortfall of power and voltage Biomass Gasifier Electricity Generator for shortfall of power and voltage Diesel - 6 hrs Solar 6 hrs

Kultali

250

30

Kultali - BPS Rural Community Hospital

13

10

54 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

4.3.6 Level of Energy Consumption in the Hospitals Table 4.13: Demography of PHCs Surveyed
Block Basanti Source of Power Electricity Diesel (15 kV) No of Points 160 OT Hrs of Usage 24 hrs 26hrs/month Qty of fuel Used Expense/ Year

Bill paid through accounts dept. Provided for by government funds 20 litres / month Paid through BMOH fund. The operator is paid only for the diesel.

Diesel generator through private operator for lighting and other purposes (during powercuts)

Gosaba

Electricity Inverter Gasifier

90

24 hrs 700 kV ` 8000-9000/month

Kultali

Electricity Diesel

140

24 hrs

Bill paid through accounts dept. Provided for by government funds 270 ` 184680 ` 5000

Emergencies during power cuts 24 13 6 hrs 6 hrs

Kultali - BPS Rural Community Hospital

Diesel Solar 37 2 No 75 3 No

4.3.7 Perceptions regarding Energy Sources The findings of the survey pertaining to peoples perceptions are indicative of the following: Electricity is most convenient and cheap; Forced to use diesel generators since it can take the load of running required machinery during operations; Solar can be a feasible option for lighting.

www.synergyz.in

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda 55

A number of industries (wood related) are based on the raw materials obtained from the Sundarbans ecosystem. Economic activities, such as transport provision, smallscale commerce and tourism play a subsidiary role in defining the local economy.

56 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

4.4

Commercial Establishments

The economy on the islands is mainly based on agriculture and supplemented by income from fishing or the collection of forest resources. Lack of access to basic amenities and remoteness of the areas are major obstacles for setting up of any industries in this area. Commercial activity in this area is therefore restricted to small shops, markets selling various products and sawmills and flourmills catering to the local needs. No estimation exists of the no. of shops or mills in these blocks, however rough estimates indicate that there are 130 markets in these three blocks. 4.4.1 Demography of Markets Surveyed Survey indicates that markets in Basanti block have shops ranging from 180-500. Markets in the other two blocks have shops 29-150. Most shops have more than one point connection. The rate per month for each point varies from Rs.150 210. Survey findings are mostly based on responses from shopkeepers in the market area and market committee members. Diesel generator operators were not available and could not be contacted since often they operate in many areas. As per responses from the people managing the diesel generators often shop keepers tap into the connection and get illegal connection points. At such times they talk to the market committee and settle the dispute. Table 4.14: Demography of Surveyed Markets
Name of GP Periodicity of market No. of generators providing power Shop details Monthly Rate per Point (`) 180 180 180 160 160 160 150 www.synergyz.in Total No Double points 15 250 400 1 80 10 20 Single point 165 50 100 79 20 40 130 Name of Village/ Hamlet Name of Market

Block

Jharkhali Basanti Bharatgarh Sonakhali Basanti Satjelia Gosaba Bally 2 Bally 1 Satjelia

Tridibnagar

Bally Bazaar Bharatgarh Sonakhali Main market Luxbagan Bally Bazaar Raja Bazaar Satjelia Bazar

Daily (Haat 2 days /week) Regular Regular Regular Regular Regular Regular Regular

5 kV -1 2.5 kV - 1 4 gen-sets (Each 140 points) 6 gen-sets Electrified (3 years)

180 (Addl 50 twice a week) 300 500 400 80 100 50

Bharatgarh Sonakhali Basanti Luxbagan Bally 2 Amlamethi Satjelia

5 kV 2

150

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda 57

Debipur Gopalgunj Kultali Kantamari Deulbari

Gostotala More Gopalgunj Madhupur Deulbari

Gostotala Market M. Adhikari Haat Madhupur Market Jiten Mandal Bazar

Regular Twice weekly Regular Regular

2.5 kV 6 kV 5 kV 3 5 kV 2

29 80 70 40

5 20 50 35

24 60 20 5

150 150 180 210

4.4.2 Consumption of Diesel in Markets The following table gives the level of consumptions of diesel in markets. Please refer to Appendix H for detailed tabulation of level of diesel consumption in the surveyed areas. Average consumption of diesel per market is highest in Basanti. Survey indicates that the operators earn substantially from providing power to these markets. Table 4.15: Level of Diesel Consumption in Surveyed Markets
Block Total contribution for light/yr (`) Basanti Total Average Total Average Total Average Overall Average Estimate for 130 markets in the 3 blocks 3553200 1184400 922320 230580 655200 163800 526260 68413800 Diesel Details Qty /year (ltrs) 12840 4280 5340 1335 5520 1380 2332 303160 Expense on fuel/ yr @ (` 57/ltr) 731880 243960 304380 76095 314640 78660 132905 17277650 Expense on maintenance/ yr (`) 570000 190000 150000 37500 34800 8700 78733 Earnings of Gen-set Operator (`) 2251320 750440 1023660 255915 305760 76440 360932

Gosaba

Kultali

Qty of Diesel / Year


5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 Qty of diesel/ yr

Basanti

Gosaba

Kultali

Overall

58 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Based on the available data, there are around 130 functional markets in these three blocks. It is further estimated that the total consumption of diesel in all these markets together would amount to around 303160 litres per annum.
600 500 No of Shops 400 Single Pt Connections

Basanti Block

300
200 100 0 Jharkhali (Tridibnagar) Bharatgarh Sonakhali Double Point Connections Diesel Consumption per Year (x100 Ltrs)

160

Gosaba Block
No of Shops

140
120 100 80 60 40 20

Single Pt Connections Double Point Connections Diesel Consumption per Year (x100 Ltrs) Satjelia (Luxbagan) Bally 2 Bally 1 (Amlamethi) Satjelia

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 Double Point Connections No of Shops

Kultali Block

Single Pt Connections

0
Debipur (Gostotala More) Gopalgunj Kantamari (Madhupur) Deulbari

Diesel Consumption per Year (x100 Ltrs)

www.synergyz.in

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda 59

Discussions on feasible alternate energy options for lighting the markets reveal the following: In Basanti Block people prefer electricity as it is cheap. Their secondary option is solar but they do not have any information of solar micro-grids that can be used for this purpose. They find diesel is very expensive and disruption due to maintenance is very high. Some markets like Tridibanagar market had been approached by a dealer for standalone panels and they found the investment very high. In Gosaba 50 percent felt that solar is a good option but they are not aware of microgrids so felt that their decision would be based on them assessing and understanding how these grids work and how feasible it would be. In Kultali 50 percent felt electricity if available is the best option and another 50 percent felt that diesel is the best option since it is easily available and the operator takes care of all the maintenance and logistical problems. 4.4.3 Energy Usage in the Commercial Sector As mentioned before households in the island blocks derive the larger part of their incomes from wage work as daily labourer in the agricultural or non-agricultural sector which is seasonal and volatile in nature (daily / agricultural / other physical labour). There are some landed households whose livelihood depends primarily on farming though they may use majority of their produce for home consumption (cultivators). There are others who are neither cultivators nor daily labourers but are self-employed in the rural non-farm sector like artisans or hawkers. Village based commercial sectors comprises of saw-mills, flour mills etc. 4.4.4 Demography of Commercial Sector Surveyed A mix of sawmills, flourmills and farmers using shallow pumps were surveyed as follows: Matrix 4.4: Commercial Establishments Surveyed
Name of GP Basanti Basanti Basanti Basanti Uttar Makamberiya Bally1 Gosaba Bally1 Bally2 Name of Village/ Hamlet Kalidanga Ballartop Ballartop Uttar Makamberiya Satyanarayan pur Bally 1 Bally 2 Block Nature of Business Sawmill Flourmill Shallow pump Shallow pump Sawmill Flourmill Sawmill Fuel Used Diesel Diesel Diesel Diesel Purpose No of Hrs / Day 3 6 8 6 Damage to machine Damage to machine Damage to machine Problem faced due to quality of fuel Damage to machine -

sawing sawing -

Diesel Diesel Diesel

7 3 6

60 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Kultali

MoipithBaikunthapur Jhalaberia

Baikunthapur Phultali

Sawmill Shallow pump

Diesel Diesel

sawing

3 20 Damage to machine

Quality of fuel is a major concern of most respondents, since adulteration is a major problem in these areas. 4.4.5 Consumption levels of Diesel by the Agro-commercial Sector The study sample size being very small just provides an indicative estimation of what is the level fo consumption of diesel by each of these operations. However, size of operation is a major factor in determining what can be the level of consumption of fuel. Please refer to Appendix I for detailed tabulation of level of consumption and expenses of each respondent. Shallow pumps are used for duration of 2-3 months/year depending upon the cultivation cycles adopted in the area. In spite of there being a vast difference in the kind of operations the average diesel usage in this sector / block as crudely estimated stands as follows: Table 4.16: Fuel Consumption in the Agro-Commercial Sector
Block Basanti Gosaba Kultali Overall Average Hrs required / day 5.45 5.20 11.30 7.15 Qty of fuel / year (Ltrs) 1282.5 2160 570 1338 Expense /year on fuel (`) 73103 92340 16245 605623 Expense on maintenance/yr (`) 9600 3800 2550 5317

4.4.6 Perceptions regarding Various Energy Sources Perception on the best source of energy was documented by conducting a ranking exercise. Please refer to Appendix J for detailed tabulation of ranking. The findings reveal that: 100 percent users feel that electricity is the best and cheapest option and will also result in low maintenance of their machines. Diesel is preferred only due to its easy availability but the quality of fuel is a major concern thereby increasing the expenditure on maintenance. 100 percent users would be willing to invest in solar since they think it would be cheap but they are not aware and are unsure of how solar will help them run their machines.

www.synergyz.in

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda 61

Transportation networks in the Sundarbans are underdeveloped and remain largely dependent on river transport. Most of the waterways are catered to by mechanized country boats, all of which are unlicensed.

62 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

4.5

Water Transport

Transportation networks in the Sunderbans are underdeveloped and remain largely dependent on river transport. The only means of communication between the islands is through the waterways which are poorly organized. Most of the waterways are catered to by mechanized country boats, all of which are unlicensed. Government run launches are almost non-existent. The unlicensed mechanized country boats are used as passenger boats as well as boats to carry goods. They are most often overcrowded and overloaded and there is no control exercised by any authority. Certain ghats or jetties which are the only points of contact with the outer world for vast areas and large islands are catered to by only a few boats during the whole day. Even the country boats are not sufficient in number. Discussions with people managing the ferry services at the jetties reveal that the operations are contracted out to a private operator based on a bid every year. As per secondary information available, the details of ferry ghats and services are as given in the following table: 4.17: Details of Ferry Services
Block Basanti Gosaba Kultali No. of Ferry Operators 8 6 2

Attempts by our team to have detailed discussions with the operators managing the ferry operations did not reveal much since they were unwilling to reveal the details. They were unwilling to provide many details. 4.5.1 Demography and Fuel Consumption levels of Ferry Services Table 4.18: Fuel Consumption by Ferry Servies
Block GP Name of Jetty Gosaba Ferry Ghat Piali River Ghat No. of boats 4 2 Total no. of trips/ day 80 Depends on traffic Qty of diesel(ltr) used /day 50 10 Qty used/ year (Ltrs) 18000 3600 Expense on maintenance/ year (Rs) 50000 10000

Gosaba Kultali

Gosaba Gopalgunj

www.synergyz.in

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda 63

The respondents were of the opinion that solar would be an acceptable option if it reduced fuel and maintenance costs. However, they were not aware of how solar can be used to run boats. 4.5.2 Fuel Consumption by Fishing Trawlers Fishing is one of the primary sources of livelihood of the local, forest-dwelling population, as few people have access to agricultural land.

Fishing is allowed free in tidal waters, provided the fishing boats are registered and pay the annual registration fees and royalty for using dry firewood (STR, 1973-74 to 1978-79: 32). Fishing is regulated by the restriction on the number of boats that can fish in the permit area, through the Boat License Certificate (BLC) issued by the Forest Department. There were 923 BLCs that were issued for fishing in the STR, based on an assessment undertaken by the Forest Department and the Fisheries Department. Another 3,700 BLCs were issued to fishers in the Reserve Forest area. Currently, out of the 914 BLCs in the STR, only 709 are actively used for fishing. The other BLCs are not valid, as they are not renewed by the owners. As per studies, the 24 Parganas South District has a marine fisherfolk population of 2,69,565, with an active fisher population of 70,750, located in 237 villages (CMFRI 2005). The 24 Parganas South District has 6,205 mechanized craft, 1,028 motorized craft and 6,046 non-motorized craft fishing in marine waters (CMFRI, 2005). The mechanized fishing vessels in the 24 Parganas South District include trawlers, large gill-netters and dol-netters, fishing outside the Sundarbans forest area, in the Bay of Bengal. Some of the motorized boats fishing in the reserve forest area have motors of 12 hp to 24 hp. At present, only 709 BLCs are active, and even though the Forest Department has recently estimated that the number of inactive BLCs is 104, no procedure has been initiated, as yet, to redistribute BLCs to active fishers. Informal arrangements exist within villages for active fishers who wish to fish, to lease BLCs from the owners, thus making the BLC a leasable property. Fishers who cannot afford to pay the lease amount have little option but to fish illegally in the permitted areas, given that there are few other livelihood choices available. Since the motorized boats of fishers living in the fringe areas of the STR are not allowed to navigate through the buffer area and the core area, they are forced to take long detours to reach their fishing grounds. These detours are time-consuming and fuel-intensive, increasing operational costs. As a Jharkhali-based fisher said, We take a deto ur consumption of 12 hours to level go to of the sea of to Trawler fish, though there surveyed. is a route straight through the STR Demography and fuel Services (core) to reach the sea which takes only six hours. We are compelled to spend on an additional six hours of fuel, for which we incur a loss with no compensation. Source: Fishing Community Issues in the Sundarban Tiger Reserve (STR) by International Collective in Support of Fishworker, Chennai (2009)

Trawler owners were found in Basanti and Kultali. Given the varied length of trips carried out by each trawler owner, and the licenses not being a good indicator of the number of actual trawlers it is difficult to even get an indicative figure of the amount of fuel consumed by them. However, the survey gives an estimate of the kind of fuel usage based on the length of the fishing trip.

64 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Table 4.19: Fuel Consumption by Trawlers

No. of 1 day trips/ yr

Qty of Fuel use / trip (ltrs)

Qty of Fuel use / trip

Qty of Fuel use / trip (ltrs)

No. of 10-15 day trips /yr

No. of 15-30 day trips / yr

Basanti

Purandor

Suman Das

20

200

4000

Kultali

Gopalgunj

Chittaranjan Das

22

30

15

300

2000

13100

4.5.3 Perceptions regarding Various Energy Sources by Boat Owners The responses from boat owners (both ferries as well as trawlers) indicate the following: Respondents in Basanti and Gosaba stated that they had no idea of how solar could be used to power their boats/trawlers. But they were of the opinion that if it saved fuel maintenance costs then there could be a willingness to adopt solar powered systems. Respondents in Kultali expressed willingness to adopt solar powered motors for their boats and trawlers.

www.synergyz.in

Expense / year ( `) 228000 746700

Qty used /year (ltrs)

No. of trawlers owned

Name of Trawler Owner

Block

GP

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda 65

Section 5: Analysis (Patharpratima Block)


5.0 Introduction

This section deals with the study findings in Patharpratima Block. Information both qualitative and quantitative collected has been compiled and presented together in this section. Brajaballavpur GP is located in the southern most part of Patharpratima Block within a distance of 7 km on water ways. This GP is completely isolated from the main land and surrounded by Saptamukhi River in the west, Walse Creek in the north, Carjon Creek in the east and Bay of Bengal in the south. The villages are protected by the earthen dykes and the sea facing embankments are strengthened by brick block pitching. However the villages are mostly vulnerable to natural disasters like cyclonic storm induced flash flood, coastal erosion, tidal surge and breach of embankments. This GP is within 10 km of Sundarban Reserve Forest and around 25 km from STR area.

Fig 3.1: Patharpratima Block Map with Brajaballavpur GP

Brajaballavpur GP comprises four mouzas viz Kshetramohanpur, Brajaballavpur, Gobindapur Abad and Rakshaskhali having a total geographical area of 33.55 sq km. Rakshaskhali village is further isolated from the GP itself and bounded by rivers and sea. The area is mainly monocropped. Total population of the GP is 23,260 (2011). Number of total workers in this GP is 11,090 (48 percent). Total number of household is 3883 who are basically cultivators and belong to marginal, sub-marginal farmers categories. Households belong to Below Poverty Line (BPL) are around 37 percent (not yet finalized) which is above the state average. Persons belong to Scheduled Castes & Scheduled Tribes are 5662 (24 percent) & 25 (less than 1 percent) respectively. Having close proximity to the sea a considerable portion of work force that is mainly belonging to farmers and agricultural labourers take up sea fishing in the lean season of cultivation in spite of high risks in this venture.

66 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

5.1

Present Status of Accessibility to Energy Sources (as per government projects)

5.1.1 Grid Power The Island Blocks of Sundarbans has always been an energy deficient region. Getting connected to the conventional power grid has been a problem due to the remoteness and lack of road access to most of the areas. This Block has been covered under the SEB under the GoIs RGGVY programme. It may be noted here that as per notification issued by MoP, vide their letter No. 42/1/2001-D(RE) dated 5th February 2004 and its corrigendum vide letter no. 42/1/2001-D(RE) dated 17th February 2004, a village is declared electrified, if: - Basic infrastructure such as Distribution Transformer and Distribution lines are provided in the inhabited locality as well as the Dalit Basti hamlet where it exists; - Electricity is provided to public places like Schools, Panchayat Office, Health Centers, Dispensaries, Community centers etc; - The number of households electrified should be at least 10 percent of the total number of households in the village). As per the directives of RGGVY, survey of all GPs is complete. Since, electrification of non-electrified BPL HHs is financed with 100 percent capital subsidy as per the Kutir Jyoti Programme in all rural areas, the survey identified BPL HHs were given power connections first. Overtime applications are being sought from APL HHs for power connections. As per the updated status available on the RGGVY website, it has been confirmed that work pertaining to 36 villages has been completed and 42 villages do not fall under the purview of this scheme. Therefore it can be assumed that 50 of the 92 villages in this block are targeted under the electrification programme. Please refer to Annexures 5 & 6 for the current status of coverage / completion under the RGGVY program.

Fig 3.2: Patharpratima Block Map showing Energized GPs.

www.synergyz.in

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda 67

Fig 3.3: Patharpratima - Energized GPs

Fig 3.4: Patharpratima Surveyed GPs

Matrix 5.1 provides names of the villages that are being covered, list of villages where work is completed and villages which do not come under any form of electrification programme.
Matrix 5.1: Power Grid Coverage (RGGVY) GP Dakshin Gangadharpur (7) Malaya Ramdebpur Nilerat Dakshin Madhusudanpur Dakshin Gangadharpur Bhajna Dakshin Roypur (3) SrinarayanpurPurnachandrapur (4) Abad Gangadharpur Dakshin Raypur Piprakhali Kaorakhali Meherpur Srinarayanpur Taranagar Purna Chandrapur Electrified GP Village / Hamlet Remarks Electrified GP (less Ramdebpur)

Electrified GP

68 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Digambarpur (8)

Dakshin Durgapur Indra Narayanpur Digambarpur Gurudaspur Paschim Sridharpur Uttar Mahendrapur Parbatipur

Electrified GP

Durbachati (7)

Ramnagar Abad Kamdebnagar Chintamanipur Radhakrishna Nagar Krishnapur Durbachati Jameson Island

Electrified GP (less Jameson Island)

Gopalnagar (5)

Paschim Surendra Nagar Harikrishnapur Mahendra Nagar Gopalnagar Dakshin Gopalnagar Uttar Durgagobindopur

Electrified GP

Ramganga (11)

Rajrajeshwaripur Biswanathpur Gayadham Indraprastha Jagindrapur Dakshin Mahendrapur Ramganga Dakshin Gobindapur Debichak Sagar Madhabpur Dakshin Sibpur

Electrified GP

Patharpratima (8)

Madhab Nagar Paschim Dwarakapur Baradapur Bhagabatpur Plot 6th Portion (Khas) Kishori Nagar Dakshin Lakshminarayanpur

Electrified GP (less Plot 6th Portion Khas)

Laxmijanardhapur (6)

Dakshin Lakshmi Shibganj Janardanpur Purba Chintamonipur Kumarpur Maheshpur Kedarpur Purba Dwarokapur

Non-electrified GP

www.synergyz.in

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda 69

Herambagopalpur (4)

Kuemuri Purba Surendranagar Heramba Gopalpur Dakshin Kashinagar

Non-electrified GP

Achintyanagar (6)

Lakshmipur Bishnupur Kamdebpur Achintya Nagar Purba Sripatinagar Paschim Sripatinagar

Non-electrified GP

Brajballavpur (4)

Rakshaskhali Kshetra Mohanpur Brojaballabpur Gobindapur Abad

Non-electrified GP

Banashyamnagar (4)

Chhoto Banashyam Nagar Sibnagar Banashyam Nagar Gangapur

Non-electrified GP

Sridharnagar (3) G-Plot (12)

Upendra Nagar Rakhalpur Sridhar Nagar Krishnadaspur Daspur Uttar Surendraganj Dakshin Surendraganj Indrapur Buraburir Tat Sitarampur Gobardhanpur Plot G 6th Portion

Non-electrified GP

Non-electrified GP

Burge Island Green Completed under RGGVY (Electrification / Intense Electrification) - 36 Satyadaspur Blue In Progress under RGGVY / Intense Electrification) - 14 Plot (Electrification L Southern portion Red Not covered under RGGVY 42

The four villages Gobindopur Abad, Brojoballavpur, Khetromohanpur and Rakhashkhali in Brojovallavpur GP of Patharpratima Block where the survey was conducted however still remain un-electrified or de-electrified.

70 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Table 5.1: Level of Connectivity to Electricity in the Locations Surveyed


Villages Total surveyed HHs Total HHs Gobindopur Brajavallabpur Rakhashkhali Kshetromohanpur Total 211 152 50 162 575 Connected 0 0 0 0 0 Total HHs in GP Total HHs 974 1056 764 889 3683 Connected (Predictive) 0 0 0 0 0

5.1.2 Solar Power Reliable and quantified data on extent of solar penetration in the block is not available. However in the surveyed locations It is mostly used for household lighting. People of higher socio-economic groups have the capacity to buy and maintain standalone solar energy systems. Periodic exposure to cyclonic weather results in damage of solar panels, resulting in the user going back to using kerosene for lighting purpose. However, the likely hood of solar demand always being there is very high since: Declaring all GPs and villages as electrified does not necessarily mean every HH and institution has access to power; Quality and service levels of power supply are major issues. These areas are cyclone prone which tends to cause intense damage to the infrastructure. Given their remoteness, repairs to and recovery of the grid will always take a long time; Therefore, solar systems will always remain the main back up and act as a supplementary source for lighting in these areas. Table 5.2 indicates the level of solar usage in the surveyed HHs. Survey indicates that solar penetration is around 49 percent. Table 5.2: Solar Penetration in surveyed HHs
Villages Gobindopur Brajavallabpur Rakhashkhali Kshetromohanpur Total Total surveyed HHs Total HHs 211 152 48 162 575 Solar (HHs) 93 (44%) 74 (49%) 43 (89%) 71 (44%) 281 (49%) 974 1056 764 889 3683 Total HHs in GP Solar HHs (Predictive) 428 517 680 391 2016

www.synergyz.in

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda 71

Based on the above data it can be further extrapolated that 2016 HHs in this GP are solar users. Given that the number of HHs in this Block is 50764 it can be further deduced that 24808 HHs are solar users in this Block. Based on the above calculated levels of dependency on Electricity and Solar, it can be further deduced that around 45.2 percent HHs in this block are totally dependent only on kerosene. However, it may be noted that electrified HHs and solar powered HHs also use kerosene simultaneously in order to supplement their daily requirements. Further due to problems in selection of HHs in Rakhashkhali the data and findings maybe be slightly skewed or biased towards more number of HHs being solar users. So the percentage of kerosene users may be much higher than indicated here. Table 5.3: HHs dependant only on Kerosene (%)
As per Survey HH (%) Villages Electricity Gobindopur Brajavallabpur Rakhashkhali Kshetromohanpur 0 0 0 0 Solar (HHs) 44 49 89 44 K-Oil 56 51 11 56 974 1056 764 889 Total HHs in Village Only dependant on Kerosene HHs (predictive) 545 539 84 497

5.2

Household Level energy Consumption

Households in these islands are major users of fossil fuels for lighting. Kerosene lanterns and lamps are instrumental in providing light for rooms, studies and cooking. 5.2.1 Demography of HHs Surveyed During the HH survey, a total of 575 HHs were covered. Table 5.4 socio-economic levels of the HHs surveyed. Table 5.4: Demography of Surveyed HHs
Total HHs Villages Gobindopur Brajavallabpur Rakhashkhali Kshetromohanpur Total 211 152 48 162 575 Total Population of HHs 1208 819 265 903 3195 Family Size Avg no. of Students/HH 1-2 1-2 1-2 1 1-2 Average Income level of HHs/month 4372 5480 2352 4364 4142

gives the village wise

6 5 6 6 6

72 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Income levels are found to be highest in Brajovallabhpur followed closely by Gobindopur and Kshetromohanpur. HHs surveyed in Rakhashkhali have an average income substantially less than the other villages. 5.2.2 Energy Sources at HH Level Kerosene and Solar are the two sources of energy available at the HH level for lighting. Please refer to Table 3.5 for detailed tabulation of village wise surveyed HHs consumption of various energy sources. Table 5.5: Energy sources at HH level of Surveyed HHs
Total HHs 211 152 48 162 HHs using solar 93 74 43 71 Kerosene Consumption ( in lts) HHs using K.Oil 211 152 48 162 Qty got from PDS 625.3 418.75 135 493.25 Qty got from Market 358.75 269 110.7 257.5 Total Qty used 984.05 687.75 245.70 750.75 Average consumption / HH 4.7 4.5 5.11 4.63

Villages

Gobindopur Brajavallabpur Rakhashkhali Kshetromohanpur

250

200

150

Total HHs Solar HHs

100

K-Oil HHs

50

0 Gobindopur Brajavallabpur Rakhaskhali Kshetromohanpur

Rakhashkhali is a remote village in this GP and island block. The consumption of kerosene/ HH is highest in Rakhashkhali. The other villages have similar range of consumption levels. But

www.synergyz.in

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda 73

what is to be noted is that in Rakhashkhali kerosene consumption is the highest while their earning levels are substantially low at the same time the they also indicate highest level of dependency on solar.
700

626
600
500

493 419
No of HHs

400 300

359
269 211 152 135 258
Kerosene from PDS (Ltrs)

200 100

162
111
Kerosene from Market (Ltrs)

48

Based on the findings given in Table 5.3 where it has been estimated that around 1665 HHs in this GP are dependent on Kerosene, it can be further deduced that the yearly consumption of Kerosene at the HH level is at least 92,608 litres in this GP. Table 5.6: Estimated quantum of consumption of Kerosene (in Ltrs)
Block Gobindopur Brajavallabpur Rakhashkhali Kshetromohanpur Avg consumption (HH/ yr) 56.4 54 61.32 55.56 Total Estimated no of HHs dependant only on K Oil 545 539 84 497 1665 Total Estimated Level of consumption in HHs dependant only on K-Oil /year 30738 29106 5151 27613 92608

3.2.3 Consumption of Various energy sources at HH level for agriculture inputs Commonly used agricultural implements that require a fuel source are Villius, Power tillers, husking machines. While the villius machines run on kerosene the husking machines, shallow pumps and power tillers run on diesel.

74 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Table 5.7: Estimated quantum of Fuel consumption for Agricultural Machinery


Villages Gobindopur Brajavallabpur Rakhashkhali Kshetromohanpur Total No. of Villius / Comet Machines 61 53 7 39 160 Qty of kerosene used/yr (ltrs) 3060 12780 2430 10006 28276 No. of power-tillers/ husking machines / alpha machines 17 8 1 8 34 Qty of diesel used/yr (ltrs) 4410 1740 150 7578 13878

140

120
100

80
60

No of Machines
Qty of K-Oil Used (x100 Ltrs) No of Power-tillers

40
20

Qty of K-Oil Used (x 100 Ltrs)

5.3

Commercial Establishments

The economy on the islands is mainly based on agriculture and supplemented by income from fishing or the collection of forest resources. Lack of access to basic amenities and remoteness of the areas are major obstacles for setting up of any industries in this area. Commercial activity in this area is therefore restricted to small shops, markets selling various products and sawmills and flourmills catering to the local needs. No estimation exists of the no. of shops or mills in these islands. As part of this survey five markets were covered in these four villages.

www.synergyz.in

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda 75

5.3.1 Demography and Consumption Levels of Energy of Markets Surveyed Survey indicates that markets in this GP have shops ranging from 22-150. Survey findings are mostly based on responses from shopkeepers in the market area and market committee members. Most of the markets in the island are powered through diesel generator sets. However, one of the markets surveyed which has only 22 shops is powered by kerosene and solar. Table 5.8: Demography of Surveyed Markets
Energy source for shops Name of Village/ Hamlet Name of Market Total No Kshetromohanpur Vivekananda Bazaar (Vikram) Yudhistir Jana Ghat Main market Netaji Bazar High School Bazar 65 (No) K.Oil 14 Solar 8 Diesel 65 150 30 42 Consumption/yr (ltrs) K.Oil 216 Diesel 2460 14400 1800 5400 Avg/shop/yr (ltrs) K.Oil Diesel 38

22 150 30 42

15 -

96 60 129

Brojovallabhpur Gobindopur Abad Rakhashkhali

5.3.2 Demography & Consumption of Energy in Independent Shops 20 independent shops were surveyed. 65 percent of the shops are powered through solar means. Fossil fulels like diesel and kerosene are used to power 17.50 percent of the shops. Table 5.9: Demography of Surveyed Markets
Name of Village/ Hamlet Kshetromohanpur Brojovallabhpur Gobindopur Abad Rakhashkhali Energy source for shops (no.) Total No 8 1 10 1 K.Oil 1 3 Solar 6 1 6 1 1 216 2400 420 72 2400 420 Diesel 2 Consumption/yr (lts) K.Oil 896 Diesel 2820 Avg/shop/yr K.Oil 896 Diesel 1410

76 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

5.3.3 Energy Usage in Schools 2 schools and 1 tuition centre were surveyed are located in Kshetromohanpur Village. Survey reveals that, one of the schools is powered through diesel gensets while the other two are powered by kerosene oil. The tuition centre runs with the help of 127 kerosene lamps. Consumption of kerosene is highest in this tuition centre. Table 5.10: Demography of Surveyed Educational Institutes
Name of School Kshetromohanpur Bhagbati School Tuition Centre Energy source for light Consumption/yr (ltrs) K.Oil Diesel Kerosene Kerosene 1680 6858 Diesel 1820 -

5.3.4 Energy Usage by Ferries One ferry owner in Gobindopur was interviewed. As per the respondent, a ferry boat on an average runs for 320 days in a year, and consumes 40 litres per day. This indicates that around 12800 litres of diesel are used by a ferryboat in a year. However, this would depend on the distance travelled per trip.

www.synergyz.in

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda 77

Part III - Recommendations

78 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

www.synergyz.in

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda 79

Section 6: Recommendations
6.0 Introduction

Most of the inhabitants living in the four island blocks of Sundarbans viz. Basanti, Gosaba, Kultali and Patharpratima lack access to grid power. For many of them, simply charging a cell phone requires a trip to a recharging kiosk. Their only source of light comes through kerosene powered lanterns or lamps. While high levels of fossil fuel consumption resulting in increased GHG emissions impacts the fragile ecological balance of the islands, it can further cause serious health issues from the fumes released while chances of accidents can also result in fire induced disasters. Impact of fossil fuel on the environment or ecology is least of the concerns to the inhabitants primarily due to their regular struggle to access basic amenities and also due to lack of awareness. Energy access is linked to several dimensions of poverty. As a result, access to clean, affordable and appropriate energy sources and services is seen as one of the crucial factors in eliminating poverty, and has made energy poverty an emerging term in several studies. The energy poor use dirty fuels, such as wood and cow dung, which are low quality energy sources. Gathering these fuels is time consuming (offering low productivity and low income), and can cause health problems and potentially contribute to deforestation.

The ongoing extension of the electric grid to the remote islands of Sundarbans will not only adversely affect the viability of existing renewable energy projects, but will also accelerate the process of climate change, experts say. "In view of the growing threat of climate change and contribution of the electricity sector to the overall green house gas emission, there is need for adopting appropriate strategies to rationalize use of coal and fossil fuel in the electricity sector," according to a latest report by research body CUTS International. Source: ToI, 16 Dec 2012

The study reveals that as per government records 89 percent of Basanti block is electrified, Kultali is 100 percent electrified, Gosaba is considered to be four percent electrified and Patharpratima. It is expected that by mid 2013 Basanti will also be declared 100 electrified. However, it is unlikely that the remote islands of Gosaba will be electrified in the near future. Solar penetration is around 25 percent on an average in all three blocks.

6.1

Penetration Levels of Various Energy Sources

Based on the survey findings, penetration of various energy sources and preferred source of energy for different kinds of activities in the domestic, institutional and commercial sectors in each block can be estimated as shown in Tables 6.1 & 6.2.

80 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Table 6.1: Penetration Level of various Energy Sources amongst various Users (%)
Block Elec HH Schools Hospitals Markets Agro-based enterprise Ferries Trawlers 21 100 Basanti Solar 24 Fossil 55 100 100 100 100 100 Elec 3 100 Gosaba Solar 7 50 100 100 100 100 Fossil 90 50 Elec 20 100 100 Kultali Solar 16 Fossil 84 100 100 100 100

Table 6.2: Preference for Various Energy Sources (based on Usage and Need)
Block 1 HH Clusters Schools Hospitals Markets Agro-based enterprise Ferries Trawlers
Solar Kerosene Elec

Basanti 2
Kerosene Solar Solar

Gosaba 3
Elec Elec Kerosene

Kultali 3
Kerosene Kerosene Kerosene Solar Diesel Solar -

1
Elec Elec Solar Elec Solar Elec Diesel -

2
Solar Solar Electricity Diesel Elec Diesel Solar -

1
Kerosene Kerosene Elec

2
Solar Solar Solar -

Kerosene

Elec Elec Elec Diesel -

Diesel Solar Diesel Solar -

Solar Diesel Solar -

Elec Elec Elec Diesel -

Diesel Diesel Diesel Solar -

Solar Solar -

Regarding Patharpratima Block, since the survey was conducted by Mlinda in one of the most backward and remote areas, the findings can be said to reflect the worst case scenario within the block. However, the findings are not indicative of the status of energy consumption in the whole block since the study was focused only in one GP.

www.synergyz.in

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda 81

However, based on the survey findings and the estimation of energy usage by different actors, discussions with various actors in the government and local level it is recommended that people need to be made aware of the following: Benefits and advantages of solar; Maintenance of solar systems and back up services; Impact of fossil fuels on the ecosystem and its impact on their lives; and Financial advantage of using solar based systems Benefits of using community owned and operated systems This would require adopting an intensive community mobilization approach. Mlinda needs to develop a presence within the community, since there is a tendency of beneficiaries identifying them as a solar marketing agency, which may result in conflict with Mlindas mission and objectives for carrying out interventions in these areas. Therefore, active role of Mlinda in capacity building, awareness promotion would enable developing community systems and processes that will enable compliance. Along with community building exercises stakeholder consultations with the various governmental bodies is also very important. Given the disaster prone nature of the area, insurance cover to solar systems needs to be incorporated into the revenue model.

6.2

Field Level Observations

Field level observations and survey responses indicate the following: BPL HHs are the focus for HH level connectivity to the power grid in Kultali and Basanti. However, APL HHs in both these areas are resorting to illegal tapping from the grid. While APL HHs in Basanti are hopeful of getting connectivity in the immediate future HHs in Kultali are not very optimistic. Focusing on APL HHs initially would be a good strategy to promote solar systems. Islands and remote areas in Gosaba would be more willing to invest in micro-grids in spite of their keen interest in getting connected to the power grid. HHs in Kultali maybe more willing to procure stand alone solar systems since they seem to have more spending power. People not aware of the various community based models of solar powered systems. Most people only know about stand alone systems which require high initial investment for an individual HH. There is a lack of awareness on impact of fossil fuels on the ecology of the area. No fixed budget for expenditure on source of fuel. It is based on need and thus people do not have a clear idea on how much they are actually spending. People apprehensive of solar panels being stolen and being damaged every time there is a natural disaster.

82 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Electrification efforts in these areas have resulted in people letting solar systems become defunct. People are not aware of how surplus power can be traded on irrespective of its source. People are still not aware of the cost of electricity through the main power grid since most users havent received bills or have been paying a minimum amount till the time reading meters are installed and billing done as per actual usage. Even though quality/service levels of electricity are not very satisfactory people tend to think of it as the cheapest option with least amount of problems. Solar energy promoting entities are seen as marketing agencies. There is no development agenda linked with the alternative energy promotion.

6.3

Solar Micro-grids

Mlinda proposes to promote solar based micro grids to power the HHs, and markets. Microgrids distribute electricity in a limited area from a relatively small generation point. While alternative solutions, such as individual solar-powered lanterns, can also provide light and charge phones, the advantage of a micro-grid is that the installation cost can be spread across a group of HHS or users. The system can also use more efficient, larger-scale generation and storage systems, lowering operational costs. In order to ensure the efficient usage and operation of the micro-grids it is important to incorporate systems that will ensure smooth functioning of the solar system. These solar mini-grids play an important role in the strategy for eradicating energy poverty in a pollution-free way. But the processes set up for its smooth operation determines its extent of impact.

6.4

Lessons from Existing Models in Sundarbans

Solar micro grids have been set up in some parts of Sundarbans by WBREDA. An assessment of these systems is presented below. This assessment is based on the analysis and excerpts presented in the document, Exploring Trust as a Function in Common Resource Management by Vilde Blix Huseby (June 2012) . This document attempts to identify what ensures the efficient functioning of community shared, operated or owned infrastructure like solar micro-grids especially in socio-economic conditions of Sundarbans. Between 1996 and 2011, 18 solar mini-grids were installed on the islands, supplying each customer with 70-200 W daily. The power plants have limited capacity, and tariffs are based on flat rates. Customers are not allowed to consume more electricity than the agreed upon limit, but in most cases, no current meters or circuit breakers have been installed. The high level of compliance throughout the past decade has surprised both scholars and practitioners, who have characterized the supply systems as a rural electrification story. This document carries out a comparison of the community used solar systems set up by WBREDA vis--vis the one implemented and managed by WWF.

www.synergyz.in

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda 83

The solar mini-grids differ in terms of how long they have been in the villages and so does the extent of developmental effects. However, on all islands, access to electrical power has led to both social and economic change. Economically, the electricity has increased and diversified income. Business has improved by improving the process of packing betel leaves and enabling the display of merchandise to attract and serve customers in the evening. Socially, people speak of lifestyle changes like the chance to watch TV, listen to radio and use other electrical appliances. Illumination from electric light enables women to do their cooking faster and more efficiently, giving them more freedom to organize their evenings, like helping children with homework or conducting income-generating activities (Vognild 2011:83-87, Chakrabarti and Chakrabarti 2002:38-41). The light improves kitchen hygiene by keeping away insects that can be poisonous if they get into the food, like geckos, fireflies and cockroaches. Access to electricity has reduced discomfort connected to lack of heat and allowed children do more homework (Vognild 2011:72, 78-99, Chakrabarti and Chakrabarti 2002:38-39). In addition, electric light from street lights and private houses function as security lights, illuminating public spaces and frightening the poisonous snakes lurking at night, increasing the mobility of residents at night (Vognild 2011:95-96). The document finally states that levels of compliance have varied with capacity of the technology, the type of institutional set-up, degree of and type of enforcement, customers knowledge and expectations of the technology, and expectations of other customers and institutions actions. In addition, the situation found in the Sund arban Islands has been shaped by global developments in recent decades, affecting the customers general h opes and dreams for their lives. Matrix 6.1 below gives the salient features of the two interventions.

84 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Matrix 6.1: Salient Features of Solar Micro-grids in Sundarbans


Solar Micro grids promoted by WBREDA Located in Western Sundarbans The power plants capacities ranges from 26-120 kW, and are operated by an employee living at the power plant. The villagers have been given responsibility for the day to-day operation, and the central actors involve operators, money collectors, linemen and Beneficiary Committees. Each of the power plants has one or two operators (in most cases one) who are responsible for turning on and off the power supply, keeping records, as well as perform general maintenance. The operators are either trained personnel brought from the outside or local individuals who have received training on-site. In addition to the operators, local people are employed to monitor consumer compliance. Money collectors handle monthly fees Beneficiary Committees (BCs) have also been created in each village with responsibility for collecting fees and enforcing proper use. Proper use involves, for instance, that the right type of appliances are used and the power load is not exceeding the amount allowed. Members of the committees are volunteers; they do not receive any form of financial compensation. Their job is to both control and represent, by monitoring customers consumption and protecting customer interests Solar Micro grids promoted by WWF ( Bush Light Project) Located in Eastern Sundarbans The model includes comprehensive planning, following some main steps: the village is selected, and a village committee is mobilized, which aids the implementing agencies in identifying a plot of land for the mini-grid, and ensures the donation of the land. The villagers are then given an education on energy services and solar PVsystems, a required level of community contribution is identified, and then the villagers receive training on household energy planning and budgeting. One of the most important parts of the organizational model is that it is owned by a cooperative society. The cooperative was registered as part of the implementing process, and all customers are shareholders in this cooperative (WWF India 2011). Those who chose to be customers received household distribution lines free of charge, as it was included in the projected cost of the Bush light project. The mini-grid supplies electricity for four different sectors: households, streetlights, the villages school, as well as the power plant building, and the daily management is handled by an operator and a customer committee. The operator lives with his family, does farming in the daytime and comes to the plant in the evening to manage a log book, logging the daily consumption from each of the four sectors. These logs and reports provide information on how the operation of the plant is doing over time. He notes whether some sectors have been turned off, or if there have been any problems with the distribution lines. The operator handles the collection of electricity fees, which customers pay by coming to the power plant. If someone is unable to pay, the case is handled by the customer committee These customers pay electricity fees which similar to those on Sagar and Moushuni are based on flat tariffs. The minimum supply of electricity that is required to be provided to a customer is 200W per day per customer, costing 150 INR a month, with 75 INR added for every 100W they choose Urja Bandhus, which resemble electricity meters and are installed by all customers in their homes. They are programmable energy managers, differing from normal current meters and instead of measuring consumption; they are programmed to supply a predetermined amount of electricity. The device limits customers consumption and provides them with an overview of how much electricity they have left to use. The

The customers can choose either a 3-point (max 70 W) or a 5-point (max 120 W) connection, and to obtain an electrical service connection, they pay a thousand or fifteen hundred rupees, respectively. Monthly fees are based on flat rates: customers with 3-point connections pay 80 rupees while 135 rupees is required for 5-point connections The supply system worked well for about a decade, and then it was apparent that something had changed. People had gradually stopped complying: they were not paying their electricity bills, they were stretching illegal connections to neighbors and bypassing electricity connections, and they were using more

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda 85

Matrix 6.1: Salient Features of Solar Micro-grids in Sundarbans


Solar Micro grids promoted by WBREDA electricity than allowed. In Khasmahal, the power plant operated on seven-year- old batteries, supplying two hours of electricity every day as of February 2010. It received new batteries in February or March 2011, but as of August 2011 only 36 customers had an electrical connection, because there were problems with the distribution lines as well as the strain of the monsoon time. In Natendrapur, the power plant supplied two to three hours every day by February 2010, with 40 out of 200 customers disconnected due to reduced capacity. The power plant was out of operation from January to July 2011, because of problems with the battery, controller and inverter. When the batteries and inverter was replaced, operation started again. However, the problem with the controller remained and during the monsoon time the plant was only supplying power for two and a half hour every day. In Moushuni, Bagdanga, the batteries had been in operation for seven years as of 2010, and only supplied power for two hours every day. The batteries had been replaced and the power plant restarted operation in August 2011, after an interruption in service for about a year. Baliara on the other hand, faced a different situation in 2010, as the mini-grid was also operating on seven- year old batteries, yet with five hours capacity (Ulsrud et al. in progress). Battery banks were replaced in May 2011, and by August 2011 the estimates on daily hours of supply spanned from two to five hours the previous two months, and likely reflected variances in daily supply during monsoon time. As per August 2011, none of the customers, neither on Sagar nor Moushuni, were paying their bills, and overuse was widespread. However, it appears that the extent of overuse differed between the two islands. While in Sagar it is estimated that 15 per cent of customers used more than allowed in his village, estimates on Moushuni were generally higher at around 50 per cent, while the Moushuni villagers Chahel and Chirayu, estimated respectively between 50-80 per cent and 90 per cent of customers to overuse electricity. Among the consumers, the poor state of the technical parts of the mini-grids was frequently cited as the main problem, and the reason for why nonFor these customers, the satisfaction appears to be strongly tied to their ownership model. The feeling of ownership is frequently highlighted by the customers. They all know they have the right to ask questions and they know that all the money they collect from the fees is for themselves as a collective. Solar Micro grids promoted by WWF ( Bush Light Project) Urja Bandhu displays the remaining amount of electricity with five lights shining in yellow or green on the boxes. The Urja Bandhus make it possible to supply electricity from the plant around the clock, and are programmed to be refilled with electricity every day at 4 PM. Customers can control when they want to use the electricity during the next twentyfour hours, before the next re-fill. Extra safety guards to have been installed to ensure stability in electricity supply. In addition to the energy manager, each household is connected to a junction box, covering three to four households. In both Urja Bandhus and the junction boxes, there is an electric switch that makes the power go off every time a customer tries to use more than 200 W. An extra safety measure is also that the distribution lines are armed, differing from other off-grid installation sites where the wire is often naked.

However, it is not only the ownership model that is seen as important in the success of the system. WWF also wishes to emphasize the importance of good technical

86 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Matrix 6.1: Salient Features of Solar Micro-grids in Sundarbans


Solar Micro grids promoted by WBREDA compliance had become widespread. A composite version of the story customers would tell sounded like this: There was a technical problem and people were not getting the service they were paying for. Then the BC stopped working, because they could not monitor customers when they were not getting any service. The customers did not want to pay when they were not getting their entitled services. They were paying the same amount as previously, but now were receiving poorer service which made them compensate by overusing. They continued the overuse as there were no punishments. The excuse of technology being the cause of overuse and non-payment can also be questioned by asking why the capacity of the power plants declined. First, capacity had also previously gradually declined over time, but without noncompliance rising. Second, it appears that the decline of capacity had accelerated faster than the anticipated natural decline over time. The current decline could not account for why the customers reacted to the decline with non-compliance in the late phase, and not the early phase. This might imply that non-compliance was not only caused by the failure of technology faults, but that non-compliance was implicated in the technological decline. We cannot stop overconsumption, but we can control more. In many cases, several co-existing control mechanisms are called for, like better checking systems, permission to cut lines, higher fines and implementing a national law. Lack of control cannot account for the change in the situation. Customers complied for a decade, but the type of control mechanisms have remained the same. Technical devices to control consumption are lacking, but compliance had earlier been ensured by people employed or volunteering to ensure compliance such as the BC-members, the line man and money collector, whose jobs had been to deal with matters of non-payment and nonconsumption. Customers are now frequently blaming non-compliance on either the money collector or the BC-members for not doing their jobs properly Many customers also point to the low penalty fee, calling for at least doubling of the fee. Solar Micro grids promoted by WWF ( Bush Light Project) performance. Tthe vicious cycle of non-compliance that arose at Sagar and Moushuni was mainly due to the low quality of service from the mini-grid. They believe that when service and supply are of good quality, 80 to 90 percent of the people will pay. The Urja Bandhus are also important. When asked whether it is possible to cheat the system, everyone replied negatively. Other factors have contributed to this being a system of trust: the customers knowledge of all the relevant parts of the sy stem, the clear division of responsibility, the control they have over making decisions because they are shareholders, and the fact that they do not have to worry about other customers compliance, because they have the Urja Bandhus. The organizational model appears to be able to handle compliance by providing knowledge, enabling customers to make decisions on rules and regulations, ensuring a certain amount of flexibility and providing insurance for unexpected events. The sharing of knowledge with the customers about both energy budgeting and financial budgeting is probably a good investment. With such knowledge, the customers perception of what they can expect from the system is more realistic. Energy budgeting played a central role in the planning phase. It has helped customers to tailor their daily needs to the supply, and plan their use of electricity. WWFs training has also helped them in understanding decisions based on purely financial considerations. Unforeseen events are accounted for through the provision of an insurance component. The insurance is calculated as part of the project cost, and includes insurance for cyclones, destruction of batteries and solar PV plants, etc. The Cooperative holds an annual maintenance contract with Tata BP, which makes approximately 10-12 visits per year. The cost of insurance is secured until the sixth year following installation

The customers have different needs for how much electricity they want to use, which can pose challenges, as supply is based on a flat rate system with a minimum amount of electricity required. However, the possibility to do whatever you want, just not

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda 87

Matrix 6.1: Salient Features of Solar Micro-grids in Sundarbans


Solar Micro grids promoted by WBREDA Apparently, the enforcement of compliance was sufficiently ensured by the Beneficiary Committee, linemen, money collectors and the sanctioning of penalty fees in the early phase, but this was not sufficient to ensure compliance in the present situation. To understand the variations in compliance, we must understand why the presence of the BC-members, linemen and money collectors were no longer sufficient, and also why they stopped doing their jobs. Processes that have affected peoples choices can be grouped into three main categories: technological change, changing needs and political change. Solar Micro grids promoted by WWF ( Bush Light Project) tamper with the system allows for flexibility in terms of adapting the system to different needs. One example is internal energy trading where, for instance, households that feel they need less than 200W daily can sell the remaining energy to shops. The villages doctor is an example of a customer who has used this option. He has an electricity connection in order to be able to offer his services to villagers at night. However, the doctor only needs three hours of electricity during the day, and therefore he sells the remaining electricity to others. Many households and shops offer this kind of service to those who come to the Sunday markets to sell various goods; e.g. household selling of electricity to put up temporary tea stalls. In this way, some households can earn even more money than they pay for the electricity connection. People can also earn money on their electricity connection by selling electricity services to others, like charging mobile phones for others at the price of three rupees. Those who have access to electricity also have the advantage of selling the subsidized kerosene that all resident are eligible for, to others.

88 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Based on the survey findings and discussions with various actors in the government and local level and with reference to the above assessment it is recommended that people need to be made aware of the following: Benefits and advantages of solar; Maintenance of solar systems and back up services; Impact of fossil fuels on the ecosystem and its impact on their lives; Financial advantage of using solar based systems; Benefits of using community owned and operated systems. This would require adopting an intensive community mobilization approach. Mlinda needs to develop a presence within the community, since there is a tendency of beneficiaries identifying them as a solar marketing agency, which may result in conflict with Ml indas mission and objectives for carrying out interventions in these areas. Therefore, active role of Mlinda in capacity building, awareness promotion would enable developing community systems and processes that will enable compliance. Also, other important aspects which need to be looked into for making the proposed model viable and feasible are: Given the disaster prone nature of the area, insurance of solar systems needs to be incorporated into the revenue model. Gosaba should be selected as the focus area first, followed by Patharpratima, Kultali and Basanti. Since the electrified areas would treat solar as a supplementary source they would be more willing to take solar connection only when they realize that the service quality levels of grid based power is not optimum. Kultali needs to be addressed in a strategic and considered manner since the sociopolitical conditions are very sensitive. There could also be pressure exerted by parties with vested interests for promoting solar systems in order to gain political mileage prior to the panchayat elections. While this may serve the purpose of increasing solar penetration it will not necessarily result in being utilized in the proposed manner.

www.synergyz.in

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda 89

90 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Appendices
Appendix A: Socio-economic Profile of HHs Surveyed
GP Name of Village / Hamlet Goranbose Total no. of HHs 25 Primary Occupation Total Pop Religion Social Cat Family Size No. of Students BPL HHs WL 14 Cultivator 4 Business 2 Others 5 Avg HH income (` ) 5880 Income category of HH (` ) < 3000 30015000 10 5001 8000 10 > 8000 5

Block

Bharatgarh

166

M H -9 C- 13 M-3 M M-5 H -12 C-8 H H H H

G G 15 OBC 9 SC - 1 G G -10 SC - 4 ST - 8 OBC-3 SC SC - 6 G -4 SC SC 23 G -3

62

21

Basanti

Makalpara 8 no. Goranbose Kumirmari Ballar Top Kumirmari Gwalpara Godkhali Tridibnagar

25

128

13

32

14

11

7840

13

Bharatgarh

10

84

16

10

5150

Basanti

Jyotishpur Jyotishpur U. Makamberi a Masjidbati Jharkhali

26 10 10 10 26

134 61 49 46 130

5 6 5 5 8

41 13 11 11 41

18 10 10 10 19

7 7 6 8 7

9 3 2 15

3 1 -

6 1 2 4

3423 4500 2700 1720 3596

4 8 9 -

22 4 1 1 11

4 1 1 10

1 5

Total

142

798
H-26 C-23 H-1 H H-24 G -18 OBC-4 SC -4 G-23 OBC-1 SC G-10

227

112

65

33

17

26

3868

22

67

36

17

Rangabelia

Uttarpara 4 no. Arampur Satyanaray anpur Uttarpara

26 24 10 25

112 107 45 105

4 4 4 4

6 28 6 25

12 12 10 21

1 14 4

15 2 8 19

1 3 1 2

9 5 1 -

1927 4442 3700 2840

14 17 14

11 4 10 11

2 -

Gosaba

Gosaba Bally1 Bally 2

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda 91

Appendix A: Socio-economic Profile of HHs Surveyed


GP Name of Village / Hamlet Total no. of HHs Primary Occupation Total Pop Religion Social Cat OBC-2 SC-13 OBC OBC SC-19 G-4 OBC-1 SC G-6 SC-4 SC 4 4 5 4 5 4 8 5 6 16 9 10 10 14 10 10 10 2 6 1 5 3 20 10 4 10 2 1 1 3 F-6 4300 3650 2375 4000 3900 5050 3 3 24 2 7 5 7 8 10 2 1 1 1 Family Size No. of Students BPL HHs WL Cultivator Business Others Avg HH income (` ) Income category of HH (` ) < 3000 30015000 5001 8000 > 8000

Block

M-1 Baly 2 Bally 2 Satjelia Satjelia Satjelia Satjelia Ghoshpara Uttarpara Emlibari Emlibari 8 no. Parashmani Luxbagan 10 10 24 10 10 10 38 39 110 43 51 40 H H H H M-6 H-4 H

Total

159

690
G -14 OBC 7 SC-4 SC OBC-5 G-6 SC-12

109

119

28

96

26

3618.4

84

68

Debipur

Bankibabur Bheri Bankibabur Bheri Uttar Baikunthap ur 4 no. Khalpara Baikunthap ur Madhyagurguria Shankijaha n Colony Sardarpara

25

100

35

19

21

F-3

1924

25

Debipur

7 23

33 114

H H

5 5

10 22

5 12

5 4

2 9

2714 3326

6 16

1 5

Kultali

Maipith

Maipith

10

51

SC

Mig-2 F-4 F-2

3050

Maipith Gopalgunj Gopalgunj

8 22 8

50 125 33

H H H

SC SC-21 OBC-1 SC

5 6 4

7 11 6

3 10 0

4 6

5 -

2 F-15 F-1

3250 3159 2563

7 18 8

7 -

1 -

92 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Appendix A: Socio-economic Profile of HHs Surveyed


GP Name of Village / Hamlet Naskarpara Kantamari Naiyyapara Kantamari Total Total no. of HHs 26 10 7 146 Primary Occupation Total Pop 136 52 50 744 Religion Social Cat SC-26 SC SC Family Size 5 5 7 5 No. of Students 37 18 18 171 BPL HHs 9 10 7 81 WL 24 9 5 60 Cultivator 34 Business 1 1 1 6 Others 1 1 43 Avg HH income (` ) 1946 5050 5643 3262.5 Income category of HH (` ) < 3000 24 2 1 114 30015000 5 3 16 5001 8000 1 3 2 15 > 8000 1 3

Block

Jalaberia Debipur Debipur

H H H

Overall Total

447

2232

507

312

153

165

33

95

220

151

52

24

Codes:
Pop Cat Avg H C M G WL F Mig Population Category Average Hindu Christian Muslim General Wage Labourer Fishing Migratory

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda 93

Appendix B: Extent of Dependence on Kerosene at HH Level


GP Block Name of Habitation/GP Total no. of HHs Total population No. of HHs using Kerosene Total Amount (Annual) No. of Points Average hrs/ day Qty of kerosene used (ltrs) 1004 1404 72 1512 720 348 936 1638 Qty from PDS 926.4 972 40 756 480 222 420 699 Qty from Market 78 432 32 756 240 174 516 939 Amount spent on PDS (`) 15742 16524 680 12852 8160 3774 7140 11883 Amount spent on Market (`) 3276 18142 1344 31752 10080 7308 21672 39438 Total amount spent (`) 19018 34666 2024 44604 18240 11082 21812 51321

Bharatgarh Basanti Bharatgarh Jyotishpur Jyotishpur U. Makamberia Masjidbati Jharkhali

Goranbose Makalpara 8 no. Goranbose Kumirmari ballartop Kumirmari Gwalpara Godkhali Tridibnagar

25 25 10 26 10 10 10 26

166 128 84 134 61 49 46 130

16 24 6 21 10 9 10 24

32 64 6 34 22 12 24 82

3 5 4 5 4.5 4 4 4.5

Basanti

Total

142
26 24 10 25 10 10 24 10 10 10

798
112 107 45 105 38 39 110 43 51 40

120
7 17 10 25 10 10 24 10 10 10

276
21 32 21 57 24 30 43 30 30 21

4.15
3 4 4.15 4 6 6 3 6 6 4.5

7634
360 1098 792 1486 1116 1080 828 900 900 655

4515.4
252 324 288 600 470 588 480 378 372 295

3167
108 774 504 886 646 492 348 522 528 360

76755
4284 5508 4896 10200 7990 9996 8160 6426 6324 5015

133012
4536 32508 21168 37195 27132 20664 14616 21924 22176 15120

202767
8820 38016 26064 47395 35112 30660 22776 28350 28500 20135

Rangabelia Gosaba Bally1 Bally 2

Uttarpara 4 no. Arampur S.Narayanpur Uttarpara Ghoshpara Uttarpara Emlibari Emlibari 8 no. Parashmani Luxbagan

Gosaba

Baly 2 Bally 2 Satjelia Satjelia Satjelia Satjelia

Total

159

690

133

309

4.45

9215

4047

5168

68799

217039

285828

94 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Appendix B: Extent of Dependence on Kerosene at HH Level


GP Block Name of Habitation/GP Total no. of HHs Total population No. of HHs using Kerosene Total Amount (Annual) No. of Points Average hrs/ day Qty of kerosene used (ltrs) Qty from PDS Qty from Market Amount spent on PDS (`) Amount spent on Market (`) Total amount spent (`)

Debipur Debipur Maipith Maipith

Maipith Gopalgunj Gopalgunj Jalaberia Debipur Debipur

Bankibabur Bheri Bankibabur Bheri Uttar Baikunthapur 4 no. Khalpara Baikunthapur Madhyagurguria Shankijahan Colony Sardarpara Naskarpara Kantamari Naiyyapara Kantamari

25 7 23 10 8 22 8 26 10 7

100 33 114 51 50 125 33 136 52 50

25 7 23 10 8 22 8 26 10 7

60 20 43 24 20 54 16 72 30 21

3.5 4 4 3.5 4 4 4 4 2 4

1512 720 1008 756 576 1212 576 1422 540 756

906 252 891 307.2 324 1008 277.2 1080 360 339.6

606 468 117 448.8 252 204 298.8 342 180 416.4

15402 4284 15147 5222.4 5508 17136 4712 17136 6120 5773

25542 19656 4914 18849 10584 8568 12549 14364 7560 17489

40854 23940 20061 24071.4 16092 25704 17261 31500 13680 23262

Kultali

Total

146

744

146

360

3.45

9078

5745

3333

96440

140075

236425

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda 95

Appendix C: Preference of Energy Source at HH Level


Blo ck Name of GP Name of Village Goranbose Makalpara 8 no. Goranbose Kumirmari Ballartop Kumirmari Gwalpara Godkhali Tridibnagar Uttarpara 4 no. Arampur Satyanarayan pur Uttarpara Ghoshpara Uttarpara Emlibari Emlibari 8 no. Parashmani Luxbagan Total No. of HHs 25 25 10 26 10 10 10 26 26 24 10 25 10 10 24 10 10 10 Ranking as per Use and Perception 1 Solar Kerosene Solar Electricity Solar Solar Kerosene Solar Electricity Electricity Solar Solar Solar Electricity Solar Electricity Electricity Kerosene 2 Kerosene Electricity Electricity Solar Electricity Electricity Solar Kerosene Solar Kerosene Kerosene Electricity Kerosene Solar Kerosene Solar Solar Solar 3 Electricity Solar Kerosene Kerosene Kerosene Kerosene Electricity Electricity Kerosene Solar Electricity Kerosene Electricity Kerosene Electricity Kerosene Kerosene Electricity 4 Diesel Diesel Diesel Diesel Diesel Diesel Diesel Diesel Diesel Diesel Diesel Diesel Diesel Diesel Diesel Diesel Diesel Diesel 50% - prefer electricity as best source 50% - solar is good secondary source 50% think Kerosene is expensive 100% - diesel not safe 62.5% - prefer solar 50% - think electricity is a secondary option 50% think Kerosene is expensive 100% - diesel is not feasible Findings

Bharatgarh Basanti Bharatgarh Basanti Gosaba Jyotishpur Jyotishpur U. Makamberia Masjidbati Jharkhali Rangabelia Gosaba Bally1 Bally 2 Baly 2 Bally 2 Satjelia Satjelia Satjelia Satjelia

96 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Debipur Debipur Maipith Maipith Maipith Gopalgunj Gopalgunj Jalaberia Kantamari Kantamari

Bankibabur Bheri Bankibabur Bheri Uttar Baikunthapur 4 no. Khalpara Baikunthapur Madhyagurguria Shankijahan Colony Sardarpara Naskarpara Naiyyapara Kantamari

25 7 23 10 8 22 8 26 10 7

Kerosene Kerosene Kerosene Kerosene Kerosene Kerosene Kerosene Kerosene Kerosene Kerosene

Solar Solar Solar Solar Solar Solar Solar Solar Solar Solar

Electricity Electricity Electricity Electricity Electricity Electricity Electricity Electricity Electricity Electricity

Diesel Diesel Diesel Diesel Diesel Diesel Diesel Diesel Diesel Diesel

100% - feel kerosene is easily available therefore the best source 100% solar is a good secondary option 100% disappointed by the level of access and service levels of electricity

Kultali

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda 97

Appendix D: Socio-economic Profile of Clusters Surveyed


Religion Family Size GP BPL HHs Average HH income Total population Name of Habitation / GP Primary Occupation Social Category No. of students WL C B O Income category of HH (`) < 3000 3001 5000
5 4 1

Total no. of HHs

Block

5001 8000
4 1 1

> 800 01
1 -

Bharatgar

8 No. Goranbose Ballartop Kumirmari Gwalpara Godkhali Total

10 10 10

84 61 49

M H H

G SC SC - 6 G-4 SC

8 6 5

16 13 11

10 10 10

5 7 6

3 2

4 1

1 1

5150 4500 2700

1 4 8

Basanti

Jyotishpur U. Makamberia Masjidbati

10 40 10 10 10 10 10 10 60 7

46 240 45 38 39 43 51 40 256 33

5 6

11 51 6 8 5 16 9 39 10

10 40 10 10 10 10 10 10 60 5

8 26 2 6 8 5

5 10 5 3 10 4 10 42 -

5 1 2 3 -

2 4 1 1 1 F- 6 9 2 Mig2 F-4 F-2 O-2

1720 3518 3700 4300 3650 4000 3900 5050 4100 2714

9 22 3 3 2 7 15 6

1 11 10 5 7 8 10 2 42 1

6 1 1 -

1 1 1 2 -

Bally1 Baly 2

Satyanarayan pur Ghoshpara Uttarpara Emlibari 8 no. Parashmani Luxbagan Total

H H H H M-6 H-4 H

SC OBC OBC SC G-6 SC-4 SC

4 4 4 4 5 4 4

Gosaba

Bally 2 Satjelia Satjelia Satjelia

Debipur

Bankibabur Bheri 4 No. Khalpara Baikunthapur Madhyagurguria

SC

Kultali

Maipith

10

51

SC

3050

Maipith

50

SC

3250

98 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Appendix D: Socio-economic Profile of Clusters Surveyed


Religion Family Size GP BPL HHs
0 10 7 31

Average HH income

Total population

Name of Habitation / GP

Primary Occupation Social Category No. of students WL


6 9 5 32

Income category of HH (`) < 3000


8 2 1 31

Total no. of HHs

Block

C
-

B
1 1 3

O
F -1 1 14

3001 5000
5 3 11

5001 8000
3 2 6

> 800 01
1 2

Gopalgunj Kantamari Kantamari

Sardarpara Naiyyapara Kantamari Total

8 10 7 50

33 52 50 269

H H H

SC SC SC

4 5 7 5

6 18 18 66

2563 5050 5643 3712

Codes:
WL C B O F Mig H M SC OBC G Wage Labourer Cultivator Business Others Fisherman Migratory Hindu Muslim Scheduled Caste Other Backward Caste General

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda 99

Appendix E: Extent of Dependence on Kerosene at Cluster Level


No. of HHs using Kerosene Name of Habitation/ GP No. of points Total no. of HHs Average Income/ HH Total Amount (yearly) (`) Qty from Market Qty from PDS Qty of kerosene used Total amount spent (`)
2024 18240 11082 28812 60158 26064 35112 30660 28350 28500 20135 168821 23940 24071.4 16092 17261 13680 23262 118306

Amount spent on PDS (`)


680 8160 3774 7140 19754 4896 7990 9996 6426 6324 5015 40647 4284 5222.4 5508 4712 6120 5773 3169

Bharatgarh

8 no. Goranbose Ballartop Kumirmari Gwalpara Godkhali Total

10 10 10 10

6 10 9 10 35

5150 4500 2700 1720 2892.5 3700 4300 3650 4000 3900 5050 4100 2714 3050 3250 2563 5050 5643 3712

6 22 12 24 64 21 24 30 30 30 21 176 20 24 20 16 30 21 131

4 4.5 4 4 4 4.15 6 6 6 6 4.5 5.15 4 3.5 4 4 2 4 3.45

72 720 348 936 2076 792 1116 1080 900 900 655 5443 720 756 576 576 540 756 3924

40 480 222 420 1162 288 470 588 378 372 295 2391 252 307.2 324 277.2 360 339.6 1860

32 240 174 516 962 504 646 492 522 528 360 3052 468 448.8 252 298.8 180 416.4 2064

Basanti

Jyotishpur U. Makamberia Masjidbati

Bally1 Baly 2

Satyanarayanpur Ghoshpara Uttarpara Emlibari 8 no. Parashmani Luxbagan Total

10 10 10 10 10 10 60 7 10 8 8 10 7

10 10 10 10 10 10 60 7 10 8 8 10 7 50

Gosaba

Bally 2 Satjelia Satjelia Satjelia

Debipur Maipith

Bankibabur Bheri 4 no. Khalpara Baikunthapur Madhya-gurguria Sardarpara Kantamari Naiyyapara Kantamari Total

Kultali

Maipith Gopalgunj Debipur Debipur

50

Amount spent on Market (`)


1344 10080 7308 21672 40404 21168 27132 20664 21924 22176 15120 15120 19656 18849 10584 12549 7560 17489 86687

Average hrs/ day

Block

GP

100 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Appendix F: Perception Levels about Various Energy Sources (in Clusters)


Block Name of GP Name of Village/Hamlet Total no. of HHS 10 10 10 10 Ranking as per Use and Perception
1 Solar Solar Solar Kerosene Solar Solar Electricity Electricity Electricity Kerosene Kerosene Kerosene Kerosene Kerosene Kerosene Kerosene 2 Electricity Electricity Electricity Solar Kerosene Kerosene Solar Solar Solar Solar Solar Solar Solar Solar Solar Solar 3 Kerosene Kerosene Kerosene Electricity Electricity Electricity Kerosene Kerosene Kerosene Electricity Electricity Electricity Electricity Electricity Electricity Electricity 4 Diesel Diesel Diesel Diesel Diesel Diesel Diesel Diesel Diesel Diesel Diesel Diesel Diesel Diesel Diesel Diesel

Findings

Bharatgarh Basanti Jyotishpur UMakamberia Masjidbati Bally1 Baly 2 Gosaba Bally 2 Satjelia Satjelia Satjelia Debipur Maipith Kultali Maipith Gopalgunj Debipur Debipur

8 No.Goranbose Ballar Top Kumirmari Gwalpara Godkhali Ghoshpara Uttarpara Emlibari 8 No. Parashmani Luxbagan Bankibabur Bheri 4 no. Khalpara Baikunthapur Madhya-gurguria Sardarpara KantamariNaiyyapara Kantamari

80% prefer solar 80% think electricity is a secondary option 80% think Kerosene is expensive 100% feel diesel is not feasible 50% prefer electricity 66% think solar is a secondary option 50% think Kerosene is expensive 50% think electricity is a tertiary option 100% feel diesel is not feasible 100% prefer kerosene since its easily available even if expensive 100% think solar is a secondary option 100%% think electricity is a tertiary option 100% feel diesel is not feasible

Satyanarayanpur 10 10 10 10 10 10 7 10 8 8 10 7

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda 101

Appendix G: Perceptions in Schools


Block Name of GP Masjid Bati Basanti Name of School Electricity Masjidbati High School Maheshpur Prafulla Balika Vidya Mandir Best option. Cheapest and most preferred Getting connectivity is a problem and one is not sure of service levels Getting connectivity is a problem and one is not sure of service levels Getting connectivity is a problem Getting connectivity is a problem Perception towards various Energy Sources Solar Dont know Kerosene Expensive but easily available Easily available but expensive Diesel Not feasible

Best option while it functions but information on back up services and maintenance is a problem Dont Know

Not feasible

Basanti Matgara

Matgara Abdul Kader Siddiqui Madrasa

Easily available but expensive

Not feasible

Bally 2 Gosaba

Bijoynagar Adarsh Vidyamandir

Low on maintenance but initial investment is high Low on maintenance but initial investment is high

Easily available but expensive

Not feasible

Bally1

Satyanarayanpur Sashi Bushan High School

Easily available but expensive

Not feasible

102 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Appendix H: Diesel Consumption in Markets Surveyed


Name of GP and Hamlet Jharkhali/ Tridibnagar Basanti Bharatgarh Sonakhali Basanti Name of Market Total No. of Points 195 550 900 Hrs/day Total contributi on for light/year 421200 1188000 1944000 Diesel details Qty /year Expense on fuel/ yr (` 57/lt) 136800 410400 184680 Expense on maintenance / yr (`) 18000 192000 360000 Earnings of Gen-set Operator (`) 266400 585600 1399320

Block

Bally Bazaar Bharatgarh Sonakhali Main market

3 4 1.5

2400 7200 3240

Total Average Satjelia/ Luxbagan Bally 2 Gosaba Bally 1/ Amla methi Satjelia Luxbagan Bally Bazaar Raja Bazaar Satjelia Bazar 81 180 60 4 4 3

3553200 1184400 155520 345600 115200

12840 4280 720 1440 1080

731880 243960 41040 82080 61560

570000 190000 Very high 72000 54000

2251320 750440 114480 191520 555360

170

3 Total Average

306000 922320 230580

2100 5340 1335

119700 304380 76095

24000 150000 37500

162300 1023660 255915

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans Debipur/ Gostotala More Gopalgunj Kultali Kantamari / Madhupur Deulbari/ Jitan Mandal bazar Gostotala Market Manmatha adhikari Hat Madhupur Kantamari Markt Jiten Mandal Bazar 15840

Mlinda 103

53

95400

1080

61560

18000

140

252000

1800

102600

6000

143400

90

194400

1440

82080

6000

106320

45

113400

1200

68400

4800

40200

Total Average

655200 163800

5520 1380

314640 78660

34800 8700

305760 76440

104 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Appendix I : Diesel Consumption in the Commercial Sector


Qty/mon th Expense on maint/yr (`) 24000 12000 900 1500 38400 2400 3000 6000 11400 3600 1500 5100 Expense /year on fuel (`) 82080 123120 41040 46170 270 15390 500 810 292410 102600 82080 184680 369360 13680 51300 64980 Expense / month (`) Expense maint/ Month (`) 2000 1000 300 3800 200 250 500 950 300 500 800
Hrs required / day Kind of business Name of GP Name of Village/ Hamlet

Basanti Basanti Basanti Basanti U Makamber iya

Kalidanga Ballartop Ballartop UMakamberiya

Sawmill Flourmill Shallow pump Shallow pump Total

3 6 8

120 180 240

6840 10260 13680

5.45 7 3 6 5.20

810 150 120 270 540

46170 8550 6840 15390 30780

Bally1 Gosaba Bally1 Bally2

Satyanarayan pur

Sawmill Flourmill Sawmill Total

Kultali

MoipithBaikuntha pur Jhalaberia

Baikunthapur

Sawmill Shallow Pump Total

20
3 20 11.30

1140 17100 18240

Phultali

300 320

Qty of fuel / year 1440 2160 720 5130 1800 1440 3240 6480 240 900 1140

Block

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda 105

Appendix J: Perceptions of Various Energy Sources in Commercial Sector


Block Name of GP Basanti Basanti Basanti Basanti Uttar Makamberiya Name of Village/ Hamlet Kalidanga Ballartop Ballartop Uttar Makamberiya Nature of Business Sawmill Flourmill Shallow pump Shallow pump Ranking based on Need and Use 1 Electricity Electricity Electricity 2 Diesel Diesel Diesel 3 Solar Solar Solar 4 Kerosene Kerosene Kerosene 100% - Electricity though not available will be the cheapest and desired option. Findings

Electricity

Diesel

Solar

Kerosene 100% - Diesel is secondary option since its available but very expensive

Bally1 Gosaba Bally1 Bally2

Satyanarayanpur

Sawmill Flourmill Sawmill

Electricity Electricity Electricity

Diesel Diesel Diesel

Solar Solar Solar

Kerosene Kerosene Kerosene

100% - Solar would be a cheap option however, they do not have information on how solar can run their machines

Kultali

MoipithBaikunthapur Jhalaberia

Baikunthapur

Sawmill Sahllow pump

Electricity

Diesel

Solar

Kerosene

Phultali

Electricity

Diesel

Solar

Kerosene

106 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda 107

Annexures
Annexure 1: Flood and Cyclone Hazard Map South 24 Parganas District (WB)

108 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Annexure 2: Field Visit Schedule Date 4 Jan 2013


th

Place Travel to Basanti JGVK.

Activity Discussion with Mr. Debabnanda Das (CSO) and orientation of field team Meeting with BDO - Mr. Sumya Chattopadyay Meeting with Electrification officer Mr. Deepto Majumdar and Sabhadipati Mr.Shaukat Biswas

Jyotishpur GP 5th Jan 2013 Travel to Tridibnagar Jharkhali GP Ballartop- Basanti Masjid Bati Godkhali Ghat Gosaba Rangabeliya 7 Jan 2013
th

Administering of HH interviews Market Area survey, HH survey

Jyotishpur rest of survey 6th Jan 2013 Cluster Identification School & Cluster identification Jetty Meeting with local people, field planning & Orientation 25 HHs 25 HHs and Cluster Identified 2 clusters identified Completion of HH survey Meeting with BDO - Mr. Suman Chakraborty BPHC interview 8th Jan 2013 Basanti Kultali Kultali Kultali 8th Jan 21st Feb BPHC BPHC Meeting with BDO Mr Parthiwan Mitra Field planning and Orientation

Satjelia Luxbagan Rangabeliya

Completion of data collection in three Blocks

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda 109

Annexure 3: Survey Questionnaires I. Energy Consumption at Household Level off grid HH / in grid HH
Name of Block Name of GP & Village Name of Hamlet or location if any Date Name of Surveyors

1. Name of respondent: 2. Demographic details Sl. No. 1. 2 3 4 5. 6. 7. 8 9 10. Income from Remittance if any Total Income 3. Religion Social group Family type General details of HH 1. Hindu 2. Muslim 3. Christian 4.Others ________ 1. Gen 2.BC 3. SC 4. ST Name Relationship to Head of HH HOH Age (month/ years) Sex M/F Education Occupation Primary Secondary Avg Monthly Income

1. Joint family 2. Nuclear family 3. Individual

How many members are included in the voters list Does your family hold a ration card Ownership of House Type of House Fuel used for cooking 1. 1. Yes Own 2. No 2. Rented 3. BPL / APL

3. Others ( pls specify)________________ 3. Kutcha (thatched)

1. Pucca (RCC)

2. Semi Pucca (tile/sheet roof) 5.

1. LPG 2. Kerosene 3. Bio gas 4. Firewood _______________

Others (specify)

Drinking water source Sanitation facilities

1. Personal Tube well 2. Public tube well 3. Others (specify)__________ 1. Yes 2. No

110 Mlinda
4.

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans


Asset holding Yes/ No

Structures 1 2 3 Cattle shed Land Shop

Household Assets ( State No.) 1 4 7 10 Fan Cooking Gas Agricultural equip Pumpset 2 5 8 11 Solar panel Mobiles Van Rickshaw Others (specify) 3 6 9 TV Motor bikes Refrigerator

Livestock ( State No.) 1 4 Cows Buffalo 2 5 Goats Poultry 3 6 Milch cows Sheep

5. 1. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

HH Expenditure Pattern ( per month) Food Clothing Education Rent Health Social/religious functions Communication Conveyance Repayment of loans Investment in business / agriculture / plantations / livestock Lighting

6. State of indebtedness: 1. Yes If yes then please give details: Sources4 Purpose

2. No

Amount

Amt. Repaid

Balance

Bank, money lenders, finance companies, co-operatives, Friends/relatives, others

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda 111

7. Coverage under Government Development schemes i. ii. Have you/your family members availed benefit from any govt. scheme? If yes, Type of benefit When received details a. Yes b. No

Name of Scheme

8. Household Lighting Type of Fuel Qty/no used /day Purpose * Hrs/ day Qty. of fuel / day Amt. spent on fuel/ month Qty got from PDS/month Qty bought from open market Avg. amt. spent on maintenance/ month

Kerosene lamps Kerosene Lanterns Diesel genset Solar lights Solar lamps * Room lighting, studying/reading, cooking, i. Price of Kerosene in PDS: ii. Price of Kerosene in open market:

9. If there is Solar please note down the following details a. Capacity of panels used i. 37 vi. ii. 75 iii. 37 + 75 iv. 37+37 v. 75+75

Other, then provide details ______________________________

b. Used since: __________________________________ c. Initial cost of setting up of solar system: Rs. _______________________________________

d. Cost of Annual Maintenance: Rs. ___________________________________________ e. Is the supply adequate: i. Yes ii. No _____________

If, no then what is the additional requirement? _______________________

112 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

II. Energy Consumption at HH within Clusters


Name of Block Name of GP & Village Name of Hamlet or location if any Date Name of Surveyors

1. Name of respondent: 2. Demographic details Sl. No. 1. 2 3 4 5. 6. 7. 8 9 10. Income from Remittance if any Total Income Name Relationship to Head of HH HOH Age (month/ years) Sex M/F Education Occupation Primary Secondary Avg Monthly Income

3. Religion

General details of HH 1. Hindu 2. Muslim 3. Christian 4.Others ________ 1. Gen 2.BC 3. SC 4. ST

Social group Family type

1. Joint family 2. Nuclear family 3. Individual

How many members are included in the voters list Does your family hold a ration card Ownership of House Type of House Fuel used for cooking 2. 2. Yes Own 2. No 2. Rented 3. BPL / APL

3. Others ( pls specify)________________ 3. Kutcha (thatched)

2. Pucca (RCC)

2. Semi Pucca (tile/sheet roof) 5.

2. LPG 2. Kerosene 3. Bio gas 4. Firewood _______________

Others (specify)

Drinking water source Sanitation facilities

2. Personal Tube well 2. Public tube well 3. Others (specify)__________ 2. Yes 2. No

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans


4. Asset holding Yes/ No

Mlinda 113

Structures 1 2 3 Cattle shed Land Shop

Household Assets ( State No.) 1 4 7 10 Fan Cooking Gas Agricultural equip Pumpset 2 5 8 11 Solar panel Mobiles Van Rickshaw Others (specify) 3 6 9 TV Motor bikes Refrigerator

Livestock ( State No.) 1 4 Cows Buffalo 2 5 Goats Poultry 3 6 Milch cows Sheep

5. 1. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

HH Expenditure Pattern (per month) Food Clothing Education Rent Health Social/religious functions Communication Conveyance Repayment of loans Investment in business / agriculture / plantations / livestock Lighting

6. State of indebtedness: 1. Yes If yes then please give details: Sources5 Purpose

2. No

Amount

Amt. Repaid

Balance

Bank, money lenders, finance companies, co-operatives, Friends/relatives, others

114 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

7. Coverage under Government Development schemes i. ii. Have you/your family members availed benefit from any govt. scheme? If yes, Type of benefit When received details a. Yes b. No

Name of Scheme

8. Household Lighting Type of Fuel Qty/no used /day Purpose * Hrs/ day Qty. of fuel / day Amt. spent on fuel/ month Qty got from PDS/month Qty bought from open market Avg. amt. spent on maintenance/ month

Kerosene lamps Kerosene Lanterns Diesel genset Solar lights Solar lamps * Room lighting, studying/reading, cooking, i. Price of Kerosene in PDS: ii. Price of Kerosene in open market:

9. If there is Solar please note down the following details a. Capacity of panels used i. 37 vi. ii. 75 iii. 37 + 75 iv. 37+37 v. 75+75

Other, then provide details ______________________________

b. Used since: __________________________________ c. Initial cost of setting up of solar system: Rs. _______________________________________

d. Cost of Annual Maintenance: Rs. ___________________________________________ e. Is the supply adequate: i. Yes ii. No _____________

If, no then what is the additional requirement? _______________________

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda 115

III. Energy Consumption by Schools


Name of Block Name of GP &Village Date Name of Surveyors

1. Name of School: 2. Name of Respondent 3. Age of School: 4. Level: Middle/ 10th Std / 12th Std 6. Girls/ Boys/ Mixed
8. Actual No. of boarders

5. No. Of registered students


7. Capacity of hostel

9. Fuel used and expense Type of Fuel 1 2 3 4 Kerosene Diesel Solar Others No. of Points Duration of requirement / day Qty./ month Amt. spent/ month Problem faced in procuring fuel

10. If Solar please note down the following details


a. Capacity of panels used (Watts) i. 37 v. 75+75 vi. ii. 75 iii. 37 + 75 iv. 37+37

Other, then provide details ______________________________

b. Used since: __________________________________ c. Initial cost of setting up of solar system: Rs. _______________________________________

d. Cost of Annual Maintenance: Rs. ___________________________________________ e. Is the supply adequate: i. Yes ii. No

If, no then what is the additional requirement? _______________________________________________

116 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

IV. Energy Consumption at Markets (Please draw a strip map of the market)
Name of Block Name of GP & Village Name of Market Date Name of Surveyors

1. Details of market
a. No. Of Shops : c. Shops with more than one point: 2. Details of Genset used b. Shops with single point: d. Contribution / month/ point:

a. Capacity of Genset: b. How old is this genset: c. Since when has this market been getting light through a genset? Type of Fuel Diesel Kerosene Adulterated
* L = Only Lighting, LC = Lighting and Charging

Purpose *

Duration of requirement / day

Qty./ month

Amt. spent on fuel/ month

Avg. amt. spent on maintenance/ month

3. Please provide the following details

a. No. of Committee members: c. Is the power supply adequate? i. Yes If No, what is the additional requirement? d. When did the genset need maintenance last? e. What was the problem? f. Did it disrupt power supply? If yes, for how long? i. Yes

b. How often does the committee change? ii. No

ii. No

h. How was money arranged for genset repairs? How much did it cost? i. Note name of respondents

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda 117

V. Energy Consumption by Commercial Enterprises

Name of Block

Name of GP &Village

Name of respondent

Date

Name of Surveyors

1. Kind of Business: iv. Shop

i. Sawmill

ii. Flour mill

iii. Shallow pumps (agri)

If shallow pump for agricultural use then please note how many days in a year the pump is used. 2. Fuel used and expense Type of Fuel 1 Kerosene 2 Diesel 3 Solar 4 Others 3. If Solar please note down the following details
a. Capacity of panels used i. 37 v. 75+75 vi. ii. 75 iii. 37 + 75 iv. 37+37

No. of Points

Duration of requirement / day

Qty./ month

Amt. spent/ month

Amt. spent on maintenance/ month

Problem faced in procuring fuel

Other, then provide details ______________________________

b. Used since: __________________________________ c. Initial cost of setting up of solar system: Rs. _______________________________________

d. Cost of Annual Maintenance: Rs. ___________________________________________ e. Is the supply adequate: i. Yes ii. No

If, no then what is the additional requirement? _________________________________________________________

118 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

VI. Energy Consumption by Trawlers


Name of Block Name of GP &Village Date Name of Surveyors

1. Name of Trawler Owner:

2. No. of Trawlers owned:

3. Qty. of fuel and amount spent Duration of each fishing trip 2-10 days Fuel used ( tick appropriate choice) Kerosene Diesel Others Kerosene Diesel Others Kerosene Diesel Others Kerosene Diesel Others Qty./ trip Amt. spent/ trip No. of trips/ year

10-15 days

15-30 days

More than a month

4. What are the maintenance issues faced? How often do u have to spend on maintenance?

5. Do you face any problems in procuring fuel?

6. Do you have requirement for more power?

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda 119

VII. Energy Consumption at Jetties


(Please note name of respondents)

Name of Block

Name of GP &Village

Name of Jetty

Date

Name of Surveyors

1. Purpose and Amount of Fuel used Type of Fuel Purpose No. of Points Duration of requirement / day Qty./ month Amt. spent/ month Amt. spent on maintenance/ month Problem faced in procuring fuel

1 Kerosene 2 Diesel 3 Solar 4 Others

2. If Solar please note down the following details


a. Capacity of panels used i. 37 ii. 75 ______________________________ iii. 37 + 75 iv. Other, then provide details

b. Used since: __________________________________ c. Initial cost of setting up of solar system: Rs. _______________________________________

d. Cost of Annual Maintenance: Rs. ___________________________________________

3. Who manages the distribution system? Please note down details


a. b. c. No. of committee members: Process of contribution: Is the supply adequate: i. Yes ii. No

If, no then what is the additional requirement? _________________________________________________________

120 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Annexure 4: News Report on Grid Connectivity to Island Blocks in Sundarbans


Sundarbans remained the hub around which the state's solar energy movement centered. Given the ecological sensitivity of the world's biggest deltaic mangrove forest, renewable energy was thought ideal for these islands, given the ecological sensitivity of the world's biggest deltaic mangrove forest. With this new move, the islands stand to lose much. However, this month, State power minister Manish Gupta inaugurated the supply of grid power to Gosaba and Sagar islands instead of solar power. This is just the beginning. The state government has decided to extend grid energy throughout Sundarbans. Cut off from the mainland, the earlier directive that grid power would not be extended to Sundarbans worked wonders. Expanding the conventional grid to these islands defies economic logic as studies show that the cost of transmission of grid power to such remote areas is three to four times the generation cost, said former chief advisor to the state's power department, S P Gon Chaudhuri. Moreover, setting up large and heavy transmission poles on the soft earth of the islands might lead to greater erosion while poles installed in rivers and creeks can change tidal patterns, Chaudhuri said. These transmission lines will also be vulnerable to cyclones that hit the region regularly. The government spent a whopping Rs 70 crore alone for extending transmission lines across the 3.5-km wide Muriganga to Sagar from the mainland. Sagar is now getting 25 MW power through a 33-kilovolt line. However, there is no matching demand. Significantly, the state's transmission and distribution company installed a 220-kilovolt line for supplying 300 MW power. Revenues for electricity distributors are also low as a large number of households fall under are in the BPL category. Moreover, settlements are dispersed due to the absence of commercial electricity users. A study by the Delhi-based Centre for Science and Education (CSE) observed that not only is the quality of electricity supplied reduced in such circumstances, but the cost of distribution becomes too high and unviable. The CSE report observed, "In this inter-tidal deltaic and cyclone-prone region, it is difficult to extend and maintain electrical transmission and distribution (T&D) lines from the mainland and islands due to the wide water channels." About 1,076 villages are supposed to be covered under grid electrification. The per capita consumption of electricity in the Sundarbans is as low as 50 kwh a year. About 96% of this is supplied through the grid. Solar power ensured that there was uninterrupted electricity supply. But in the rural sector, 85% villages face daily power cuts for four to nine hours. According to estimates by the Sundarbans Development Board in 2010, the demand of electricity in the region is expected to grow 10 to 20 fold between 2010 and 2020.

Source: TNN, 29 Apr 2012

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda 121

Annexure 5: List of Villages (Targeted under RGGVY) Summary - South 24 Parganas

122 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Un-electrified / De-electrified Villages for Electrification (Targeted)

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda 123

Electrified Villages for Intense Electrification (Targeted)

124 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Annexure 6: List of Villages (Completed under RGGVY)

Summary - South 24 Parganas

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda 125

Un-electrified / De-electrified Villages for Electrification (Completed)

Electrified Villages for Intense Electrification (Completed)

126 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Annexure 7: Block Level Summaries

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda 127

128 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda 129

130 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda 131

132 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda 133

134 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda 135

References
Reconnaissance Study of five Blocks in Sundarbans, India under CCDRER project, 2012-13 Exploring Trust as a Function in Common Resource Management - Vilde Blix Huseby, 2012 Policy on Co-generation and Generation of Electricity from Renewable Sources of Energy GoWB, 2012 Living with changing climate Impact, vulnerability and adaptation challenges in Indian Sundarbans CSE, 2012 District Disaster Management Plan South 24 Parganas, GoWB, 2012 Indian Sundarbans Delta - A Vision WWF, 2011 The Solar Transitions research on solar mini-grids in India: Learning from local cases of innovative socio-technical systems (Unpublished Version) Department of sociology and Human geography, University of Oslo, Norway, 2011 Sundarbans: Future Imperfect - Climate Adaptation Report WWF, 2010 Fishing Community Issues in the Sundarban Tiger Reserve (STR) - International Collective in Support of Fishworker, Chennai, 2009 Remote Village Electrification Plan through Renewable Energy in the Islands of Indian Sundarbans (Indradip Mitra * and S.P.Gon Chaudhuri) The Energy and Resources Institute, IHC Complex, Lodhi Road, New Delhi, India, 2005

136 Mlinda

Energy Mapping in Indian Sundarbans

Mlinda
India